Distinguishing prostatic from colorectal adenocarcinoma on biopsy samples: the role of morphology and immunohistochemistry.
Context.--Poorly differentiated carcinoma on prostate or colorectal biopsy can occasionally present a diagnostic challenge in determining tumor source especially in locally advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRCa) or prostate carcinoma (PCa). Such determination can affect prognosis and therapy.
Objective.--To evaluate the role of morphology and immunohistochemistry in the previously mentioned setting.
Design.--Surgical pathology and consultation records. Hematoxylin-eosin sections were reviewed in 16 cases (11 PCa, 5 CRCa). Immunohistochemistry for 9 markers was performed in 15 cases.
Results.--Dirty necrosis, seen in 5 (100%) of 5 CRCa and 2 (18%) of 11 PCa cases, and the presence of columnar cells with basal nuclei, seen in 5 (100%) of 5 CRCa and 1 (9%) of 11 PCa cases, appear to be the most useful morphologic parameters. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the value of prostate-specific antigen prostate-specific antigen
n. Abbr. PSA
A protease secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. Serum levels are elevated in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. (PSA (Professional Services Automation) An information system designed to organize, track and manage all opportunities, work, resources, costs, revenues and invoices to improve the productivity and efficiency of the workforce. ), CDX CDX Companion Dog Excellent (AKC Obedience Title)
CDX Cyber-Defense Exercise
CDX Central Data Exchange
CDX Community Development Exchange (UK community development organization)
CDX Commercial Data Exchange 2, cytokeratin (CK) 20, and [beta]-catenin in the differential of CRCa (0% PS[A.sup.+], 60% CDX[2.sup.+], 80% CK[20.sup.+], and 100% [beta]-[catenin.sup.+]) versus PCa (80% PS[A.sup.+], 0%CDX[2.sup.+], 10% CK[20.sup.+], and 0% [beta]-[catenin.sup.+]). P501S had a similar sensitivity as PSA in detecting PCa (80%). Two (20%) of 10 PCa cases were positive for 1 of the 2 markers but not the other. P501S was negative in all 5 cases of CRCa.
Conclusions.--P501S is a useful marker in this setting when included together with PSA, CDX2, CK20, and [beta]-catenin. P501S labels a subset of PCa cases that are negative for PSA. Dirty necrosis and/or columnar cells with basal nuclei could also be of help.
(Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:599-603)
Prostate carcinoma (PCa) and colorectal carcinoma (CRCa) constitute 2 of the 3 leading malignancies in males both in term of frequency of diagnoses and mortality. (1) Given the anatomic proximity of the 2 organs, locally advanced PCa can involve adjacent colorectal tissue. (2-4) Similarly, advanced CRCa can rarely invade into prostate. (5,6) Obtaining an accurate diagnosis in such cases could prove difficult on a small biopsy sample of either organ. Such a distinction is important given the difference in treatment and prognosis between PCa and CRCa. (4) The current study aimed at identifying potential morphologic and immunohistochemical features that can help in this differential.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The surgical pathology surgical pathology
A field in anatomical pathology concerned with examination of surgical specimens of tissues removed from living patients for the purpose of diagnosis of disease and guidance in the care of patients. and consultation files at our institution were searched for colorectal and prostate biopsy Prostate Biopsy Definition
Prostate biopsy is a surgical procedure that involves removing a small piece of prostate tissue for microscopic examination. specimens in which the differential of CRCa versus PCa was raised clinically and/or histologically. A total of 27 cases of poorly differentiated poorly differentiated Oncology adjective Referring to a malignancy in which the malignant cells bear minimal resemblance to the cell from which they arose. Cf Well-differentiated. carcinoma were identified representing either PCa extending into colorectum, CRCa extending into prostate, or colorectal biopsies with poorly differentiated carcinoma in patients who had a history of PCa. The majority of the 27 cases were from outside institutions that were sent in consultation to one of us (J.I.E.). We were able to obtain hematoxylin-eosin sections in 16 cases. In 15 of the 16 cases, paraffin blocks were also available for immunohistochemical analysis.
All cases were reviewed by two of us (C.L.O. and G.J.N.) without knowledge of the final diagnoses. A consensus was reached on discrepant dis·crep·ant
Marked by discrepancy; disagreeing.
[Middle English discrepaunt, from Latin discrep cases. The evaluated histologic parameters included the presence of dirty necrosis, columnar cell morphology with basally located nuclei, microacinar architecture, lymphovascular involvement, mucin production, and presence of prominent nucleoli nucleoli
plural form of nucleolus. (easily discernible at x20 objective magnification).
Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using standard technique with the antibodies listed in Table 1. Antigen unmasking was performed on some of the specimens using sodium citrate buffer (pH 6.0) at 100[degrees]C (Black and Decker Flavor Scenter Steamer Plus) for 20 minutes. Slides were developed with either Dako EnVision+ (K4061, DakoCytomation, Carpinteria, Calif) or I-VIEW DAB detection kit (760-091, Ventana Medical Systems, Inc, Tucson, Ariz) on Benchmark XT (Ventana), immunohistochemical staining module systems and counterstained with hematoxylin hematoxylin /he·ma·tox·y·lin/ (he?mah-tok´si-lin) an acid coloring matter from the heartwood of Haematoxylon campechianum; used as a histologic stain and also as an indicator. . CDX2 and [beta]-catenin were considered positive only when expressed in the nuclei, and cytoplasmic cytoplasmic
pertaining to or included in cytoplasm.
include secretory inclusions (enzymes, acids, proteins, mucosubstances), nutritive inclusions (glycogen, lipids), pigment granules (melanin, lipofuscin, and/or membrane staining was considered positive with all the other markers.
Mean patient age was 64 years (range, 42-88) for the CRCa group and 74 years (range, 65-85) for PCa patients. A wide overlap in patient age range was present among the 2 groups.
The results of selected histologic parameters are summarized in Table 2. Of the 6 histologic parameters, the presence of dirty necrosis, seen in 5 (100%) of 5 cases of CRCa and 2 (18%) of 11 cases of PCa, and the presence of columnar cells with basal nuclei, seen in 5 (100%) of 5 cases of CRCa and 1 (9%) of 11 cases of PCa, were the most useful parameters. Microacinar formation was seen in only 6 (55%) of 11 cases of PCa and 1 (20%) of 5 cases of CRCa.
The immunohistochemical results for all 15 cases are detailed in Table 3 and summarized in Table 4. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was expressed in 80% of PCa and none of the CRCa cases. CDX2 (nuclear) was present in 60% of CRCa and none of the PCa cases. CK20 was expressed in 80% of CRCa and 10% of PCa (Figure 1, a through f) cases. Nuclear [beta]-catenin expression was encountered in all 5 CRCa but in none of the 10 cases of PCa (Figure 2, a through g).
[FIGURES 1-2 OMITTED]
In most cases with P501S expression, the expression pattern was cytoplasmic with a dotlike appearance. P501S was expressed in 8 (80%) of 10 PCa cases. Two of the 10 PCa cases revealed a discordant P501S and PSA expression. Case 7 was positive for P501S but negative for PSA. The opposite pattern of staining was encountered in case 12 (PSA positive/P501S negative). Only 1 (14%; case 8) of the 7 PCa cases was negative for both P501S and PSA (Figure 3). P501S was negative in all 5 cases of CRCa.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Prostate-specific acid phosphatase acid phosphatase /ac·id phos·pha·tase/ (as´id fos´fah-tas) a hydrolase found in mammalian liver, spleen, bone marrow, plasma and formed blood elements, and prostate gland, catalyzing the cleavage of orthophosphate from orthophosphoric (PSAP PSAP Public Safety Answering Point
PSAP Particle Soot Absorption Photometer
PSAP Presentation Service Access Point
PSAP Public Service Access Point
PSAP Personnel Security Assurance Program ) was expressed in only 40% of PCa. The majority of both PCa and CRCa cases were positive for P504S. Although both pCEA and CK7 were expressed in the majority of CRCa cases, they also labeled 30% of PCa cases.
Locally advanced cases of PCa and CRCa can present a diagnostic challenge as to the primary site on a small colorectal or prostatic biopsy containing a poorly differentiated carcinoma. As expected by the proximity of the 2 organs, locally advanced PCa can lead to secondary involvement of the rectum or perirectal lymph nodes. (2-4) The reported rates of such occurrence in autopsy studies are in the range of 1% to 12%. (3) Similarly, advanced CRCa can rarely extend to prostate. (5,6) In this setting, accurate assignment of the primary source has significant therapeutic and prognostic implications and will help avoid inappropriate surgery because advanced PCa is potentially responsive to androgen hormone withdrawal. (4) Other therapeutic modalities may be pursued in advanced CRCa including new targeted therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor This article is about a cell suface receptor. For estimated measure of kidney function (eGFR), see Glomerular filtration rate.
The epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. (7)
In general, morphologic features have played only a limited role in helping the pathologist assign accurate origin to a carcinoma of "unknown primary origin."
An expanding list of immunohistochemical and molecular diagnostic markers are being used in such cases. (8,9) In the current study, we evaluated the potential role of morphology and immunohistochemistry in resolving a primary origin of a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma adenocarcinoma: see neoplasm. obtained in the setting of a locally advanced tumor in the colorectal-prostatic region.
Among the morphologic features evaluated, dirty necrosis and/or columnar cells with basal nuclei favored CRCa over PCa with all 5 cases of CRCa at least focally showing these features. However, dirty necrosis and columnar cell morphology with basal nuclei were also seen in rare cases of PCa (2 cases and 1 case, respectively). The latter is not totally unexpected given the fact that ductal variant of PCa can share such morphologic features with CRCa. Indeed the 1 PCa case in our group that demonstrated both of these features had an overall appearance consistent with ductal prostatic carcinoma. Therefore, one cannot totally rely on the presence of such features in accurately assigning the primary site of origin in this setting.
Our study evaluated the role of several immunohistochemical markers that have demonstrated tissue specificity to either PCa or CRCa and have been used by others in similar settings. These markers included PSA, PSAP, CK20, CK7, P501S, CDX2, and [beta]-catenin. (2,8,10-12) Among these, PSA has demonstrated great utility as a prostate tissue-specific marker in the workup work·up
n. Abbr. w/u
A thorough medical examination for diagnostic purposes. of carcinoma of uncertain primary in older men. (13,14) However, it is well recognized that PSA is neither entirely sensitive nor specific for PCa. High-grade prostatic adenocarcinomas may lose PSA expression or express it focally, such that it is absent on limited biopsy samples, and nonprostatic tumors including salivary gland salivary gland
Any of the organs that secrete saliva. Three pairs of major glands secrete saliva into the mouth through distinct ducts: the parotid glands (the largest), between the ear and the back of the lower jaw; the submaxillary glands, along the side of the lower jaw; , breast, and pancreatic neoplasms can be PSA positive. (15-18) New prostate tissue-specific immunohistochemical markers used in combination with PSA could potentially enhance the sensitivity and specificity of PSA, especially in the setting of metastatic Metastatic
The term used to describe a secondary cancer, or one that has spread from one area of the body to another.
Mentioned in: Coagulation Disorders
pertaining to or of the nature of a metastasis. tumors and poorly differentiated locally advanced tumors involving urinary bladder urinary bladder
A musculomembranous elastic receptacle in the anterior part of the pelvic cavity serving as the temporary storage place for urine. or colorectum. In this setting, we evaluated the role of prostein, a novel potentially prostate-specific marker that has been recently identified using high throughput cDNA microarray analysis. (19) P501S, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a linear intracellular epitope epitope: see immunity. on prostein, has become commercially available. Using immunohistochemical analysis on tissue microarray analysis, Kalos et al (20) have shown P501S to be expressed by most primary and metastatic PCa. The authors also report that none of 4635 tissue specimens expressed prostein, including normal and malignant tissue from a wide variety of organ systems. In our series, prostein was equally sensitive in detecting prostatic differentiation as PSA. In 2 cases of PCa in our series, case 7 (PS[A.sup.-], PSA[P.sup.-], and P501[S.sup.+]) and case 12 (PS[A.sup.+], PSA[P.sup.-], and P501[S.sup.-]), combining both P501S and PSA in a routine panel was helpful in increasing the overall sensitivity of detecting evidence of prostatic differentiation in the setting of a high-grade tumor. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first to evaluate the utility of prostein in this clinical setting. In our study, both PSA and prostein outperformed PSAP, in which its low sensitivity was at least in part due to the use of a monoclonal rather than a polyclonal antibody. (21) Our findings in regard to the utility of PSA, CK20, CDX2, and [beta]-catenin are in line with those of prior studies including our recent report on distinguishing distorted benign rectal mucosa from PCa. (2,8,22,23)
A single case of PCa in our series (case 8) was negative for all 3 markers of prostatic differentiation: PSA, PSAP, and prostein. All other markers including CDX2 and [beta]-catenin were also negative. As shown in Figure 3, the tumor demonstrated small cell morphology, which could have resulted in its lack of PSA and conceivably P501S expression. (24) Unfortunately, because of tissue exhaustion, we were unable to obtain neuroendocrine neuroendocrine /neu·ro·en·do·crine/ (-en´do-krin) pertaining to neural and endocrine influence, and particularly to the interaction between the nervous and endocrine systems.
adj. markers. This patient had a prior history of a biopsy proven low-grade prostate cancer prostate cancer, cancer originating in the prostate gland. Prostate cancer is the leading malignancy in men in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death in men. . His tumor was left unresected and he later presented with a locally advanced tumor contiguous to his original PCa, the biopsy of which is included in our series.
None of the 5 cases of CRCa expressed P501S. This finding is not surprising considering the aforementioned large tissue-microarray study that found no evidence of P501S expression in any of the extraprostatic tissues examined including 364 colon specimens (355 colonic adenocarcinomas and adenomas and 9 normal colonic tissue). (20)
CDX2 and CK20 were expressed in 60% and 80% of CRCa cases, respectively, and in 0% and 10% of PCa cases, respectively, attesting to their utility in differentiating CRCa from PCa. However, we have recently encountered CDX2 positivity in rare cases of PCa (J.I.E., unpublished data, October 2006). Nuclear [beta]-catenin was observed in all 5 CRCa and none of the 10 PCa cases. Several of our cases of PCa had membranous membranous /mem·bra·nous/ (mem´brah-nus) pertaining to or of the nature of a membrane.
1. Relating to, made of, or similar to a membrane.
2. and cytoplasmic staining with [beta]-catenin. Membranous [beta]-catenin expression has been shown by Bismar et al (10) in up to 88% of PCa, but nuclear staining was not identified in any of the cases.
In conclusion, a panel of PSA, P501S, CDX2, CK20, and [beta]-catenin may help in differentiating PCa from CRCa in biopsies of poorly differentiated carcinoma involving the colorectal-prostatic region. P501S stain a subset of PCa cases that are negative for PSA. Using these 2 markers in combination can increase the overall sensitivity of detecting evidence of prostatic differentiation in the setting of high-grade locally advanced or metastatic tumors.
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Small, rounded mass of lymphoid tissue contained in connective tissue. They occur all along lymphatic vessels, with clusters in certain areas (e.g., neck, groin, armpits). basin: analysis of 112 rectal resections over a 10-year span for primary rectal adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1154-1162.
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1. transfer of disease from one organ or part of the body to another not directly connected with it, due either to transfer of pathogenic microorganisms or to from primary sigmoid colon sigmoid colon
See sigmoid flexure.
The final portion of the large intestine that empties into the rectum.
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A malignant tumor arising from the duct cells within a gland.
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Malignant tumour of the large intestine (colon) or rectum. Risk factors include age (after age 50), family history of colorectal cancer, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, benign polyps, physical inactivity, and a diet high in fat. through molecular biology molecular biology, scientific study of the molecular basis of life processes, including cellular respiration, excretion, and reproduction. The term molecular biology was coined in 1938 by Warren Weaver, then director of the natural sciences program at the Rockefeller . Semin Oncol. 2005;32:S37-S39.
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A tumor marker associated with prostate cancer.
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Accepted for publication September 14, 2006.
Christopher L. Owens, MD; Jonathan I. Epstein, MD; George J. Netto, MD
From the Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital
The authors have no relevant financial interest in the products or companies described in this article.
Presented in part at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Atlanta, Ga, February 2006.
Reprints: George Netto, MD, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 401 N Broadway, Room 2242, Baltimore, MD 21231 (e-mail: email@example.com).
Table 1. Summary of Antibodies and Manufacturers * Antigen Antibody/Clone Source Dilution Retrieval [beta]-Catenin BD Biosciences, 1:1000 CB (14) San Jose, Calif CDX2 (CDX2-88) BioGenex, San 1:100 CB Ramon, Calif CEA-p (polyclonal) Dako, Carpinteria, Predilute CB Calif PSA (polyclonal) Ventana, Tucson, Predilute CB Ariz PSAP (PASE 14LJ) Dako Predilute CB Racemace (AMACR Zeta, Sierra 1:100 CB P504S) Madre, Calif P501 S (10E3) Dako 1:100 CB Cytokeratin 7 Dako Predilute None (OV-TL 12/30) Cytokeratin 20 Ventana Predilute None (Ks20.8) * CB indicates citrate buffer method described in "Materials and Methods"; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; and PSAP, prostate-specific acid phosphatase. Table 2. Summary of Histologic Features on Hematoxylin-Eosin Sections From 16 Cases of Prostate Carcinoma (PCa) and Colorectal Carcinoma (CRCa) Columnar Dirty Microacinar Cells With Necrosis, Architecture, Basal Nuclei, Diagnosis No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) PCa (n = 11) 2 (18) 6 (55) 1 (9) CRCa (n = 5) 5 (100) 1 (20) 5 (100) Prominent Lymphovascular Nucleoli, Mucin, Invasion, Diagnosis No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) PCa (n = 11) 10 (91) 1 (9) 3 (27) CRCa (n = 5) 1 (20) 1 (20) 2 (40) Table 3. Immunohistochemical Findings in 10 Cases of Prostate Carcinoma (PCa) and 5 Cases of Colorectal Carcinoma (CRCa) * Case Prostein No. Specimen Diagnosis (P501 S) PSA PSAP 1 Colon Bx([dagger]) CRCa - - - 2 TURP CRCa - - - 3 Prostate Bx CRCa - - - 4 Prostate Bx CRCa - - - 5 Colon Bx([dagger]) CRCa - - - 6 Colon Bx PCa + + - 7 Colon Bx PCa + - - 8 Colon Bx PCa - - - 9 Colon Bx PCa + + - 10 Colon Bx PCa + + + 11 Colon Bx PCa + + - 12 Colon Bx PCa - + - 13 Colon Bx PCa + + + 14 Colon Bx PCa + + + 15 Colon Bx PCa + + + Case R-Catenin No. P504S CK7/CK20 pCEA CDX2 (Nuclear) 1 + +/- - - + 2 + -/+ + + + 3 + +/+ + + + 4 + +/+ + - + 5 - -/+ + + + 6 + +/+ + - - 7 - -/- - - - 8 - -/- - - - 9 + -/- - - - 10 + -/- + - - 11 - -/- - - - 12 - +/- - - - 13 + +/- + - - 14 + -/- - - - 15 + -/- - - - * PSA indicates prostate-specific antigen; PSAP, prostate-specific acid phosphatase; CK, cytokeratin; CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen; Bx, biopsy; -, negative; +, positive; and TURP, transurethral resection of prostate. ([dagger]) Both patients had a history of PCa. Table 4. Summary of Immunohistochemical Findings in 15 Cases of Prostate Carcinoma (PCa) and Colorectal Carcinoma (CRCa) * Prostein, PSA, PSAP, P504s, Diagnosis No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) PCa (n = 10) 8 (80) 8 (80) 4 (40) 6 (60) CRCa (n = 5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (80) CK7:CK20, pCEA, CDX2, beta]-Catenin, Diagnosis No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) PCa (n = 10) 3 (30):1 (10) 3 (30) 0 (0) 0 (0) CRCa (n = 5) 3 (60):4 (80) 4 (80) 3 (60) 5 (100) * PSA indicates prostate-specific antigen; PSAP, prostate-specific acid phosphatase; CK, cytokeratin; and CEA, carcinoembryonic antigen.