Dissertations on Borneo.<http:/www2.library.unr.edu.dataworks/Borneo.edu>
For the past several years we have been developing an online bibliography bibliography. The listing of books is of ancient origin. Lists of clay tablets have been found at Nineveh and elsewhere; the library at Alexandria had subject lists of its books. of doctoral dissertations on Borneo. The project was initiated on behalf of the Borneo Research Council following discussions about how to make information contained in doctoral dissertations more widely available. While there was some initial interest in distributing digital versions of dissertations, this was abandoned in favor of upon the side of; favorable to; for the advantage of.
See also: favor developing an online bibliography. The intent was to collect and include basic bibliographic bib·li·og·ra·phy
n. pl. bib·li·og·ra·phies
1. A list of the works of a specific author or publisher.
a. information, including author, title, year of acceptance, topic or field of study, and an abstract of contents and availability for as many dissertations involving Borneo as possible. The intent was also to provide information on an ongoing basis on dissertations in all fields of research and study accepted for doctoral degrees throughout the world that appeared to make substantial reference to Borneo as well as those that concerned the island exclusively. The bibliography currently contains more than 460 entries, most of which seem to be largely or wholly about Borneo in one way or another. The dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
1. records can be listed in their entirety in alphabetical order by author or in order of their assigned numbers (standard) assigned numbers - The RFC STD 2 documenting the currently assigned values from several series of numbers used in network protocol implementations. This RFC is updated periodically and, in any case, current information can be obtained from the Internet Assigned Numbers , or searched by using key words of an author's name Noun 1. author's name - the name that appears on the by-line to identify the author of a work
name - a language unit by which a person or thing is known; "his name really is George Washington"; "those are two names for the same thing" , a dissertation title or an abstract. However, the databases from which most of our entries are drawn usually do not include an abstract for older dissertations--those completed before around 1980.
This article has two purposes. One is to publicize pub·li·cize
tr.v. pub·li·cized, pub·li·ciz·ing, pub·li·ciz·es
To give publicity to.
publicize or -cise
[-cizing, -cized] the website and database as a bibliographic resource for research and scholarship in all fields of knowledge concerning Borneo and to help to improve it by encouraging authors of dissertations (or anyone with knowledge about them) to submit bibliographic information concerning dissertations not yet listed, as well as corrections to existing records. The other purpose is to note patterns and trends in doctoral research in Borneo, including the numbers of completed dissertations submitted by decade through 2004, the universities at which dissertations have been completed, the topics or disciplines involved and the Western or Asian status of the authors of the dissertations. This information is presented in a series of tables and discussed in some detail. Since, as will be noted more fully below, the database of dissertations is hardly complete, the patterns and trends discussed are somewhat provisional. Nonetheless, they seem worth reporting at this point.
Dissertations on Borneo Over Time
It is clear from the overall number of dissertations that Borneo is a major geographical region for doctoral research and scholarship. However, this is a fairly recent development. While information about Borneo began to be reported to be spoken of; to be mentioned, whether favorably or unfavorably.
See also: Report in a substantial way toward the end of the first half of the 19th century, the early accounts were written by colonial scholars, travelers or early scientists who generally lacked graduate (or sometimes any) degrees. Many of these early scholars were either Dutch men with colonial or mission ties to the southern part of the island that formed part of the Netherlands Indies Indies: see East Indies; West Indies. or British men with similar ties to Sarawak, Brunei or Sabah in the north. While the shift from the older forms of research to the newer may reflect the general increase in graduate (also referred to as postgraduate postgraduate
after first degree graduation, the registerable degree in veterinary science.
may be a research degree, e.g. PhD, or a course-work masterate with a vocational bias, or any combination of these. ) research and education in Western countries (and then elsewhere) it also reflects the end of colonial rule in Borneo, though this did not bring an abrupt end to colonial research and scholarship, let alone to that linked to Christian mission activities.
The earliest dissertation record in the database dates to the first decade of the 20th century (although it cannot always be determined for certain that the early records are in fact of doctoral dissertations rather than master's theses), followed by a few entries each for the next several decades. Dissertations on Borneo do not begin to be common until the 1950s.
Since this time they have increased rapidly. The number of dissertation records in the bibliography for the 1960s is nearly three times the number for the 1950s, and this number more than doubles in the 1970s to a total of 59. In the 1980s the number increases at a more modest rate to 89 but the latter more than doubles in the 1990s to 194 records. The total of dissertation records currently available from 2000 to 2004 is 75, a number that will certainly increase as all dissertations for 2004 become available.
Dissertations on Borneo by Country
The dissertations now listed in the bibliography were submitted to schools, colleges and universities in seventeen countries. Here the record of information is probably very incomplete, not only in absolute terms (Alg.) such as are known, or which do not contain the unknown quantity.
See also: Absolute but in proportional ones as well. The record of dissertations completed in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , the United Kingdom (and perhaps Canada) is probably complete, or nearly so, until 2004, but those for other countries are certainly not. While some dissertations records are listed for continental European countries, especially the Netherlands and Germany, many records are undoubtably missing. Outside of the US and the UK, the largest number of doctoral dissertations are listed for Australia, where research interest in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, region of Asia (1990 est. pop. 442,500,000), c.1,740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east. has been very strong (and more concentrated than elsewhere) for several or more decades, but even the relatively large number listed here is probably well below the actual number. We could speculate at greater length about the many countries for which there are no records of dissertations on Borneo but will refer only to Japan as a major omission omission n. 1) failure to perform an act agreed to, where there is a duty to an individual or the public to act (including omitting to take care) or is required by law. Such an omission may give rise to a lawsuit in the same way as a negligent or improper act. . While some dissertations on Borneo do have Japanese authors all of these involve dissertations completed at universities in countries other than Japan. Time and resources allowing, we hope to develop strategies for adding dissertations from Japan and other countries not yet examined.
As shown in Table 2, the largest number of doctoral dissertations on Borneo in the bibliography have been completed at US institutions, followed by ones in the UK. While the large numbers of dissertations listed for these two countries are in part a reflection of the fuller bibliographic information noted above, it also reflects the overall number of doctoral programs in these two countries. In the case of the UK, the number of doctoral dissertations concerning Borneo may also to some extent reflect the former status of the northern Borneo countries of Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei as British colonies and their continuing educational ties that derive from this status. In the case of the US (which would probably continue to account for the largest number of doctoral dissertations involving Borneo even if fuller information on dissertations completed in other countries were included), there have been no such colonial or post-colonial ties with the island.
In some fields the number of dissertations on Borneo might reflect the economic value of various natural resources on or around the island, but such resources have probably not attracted greater research interest in the US than in other developed industrial countries. Although a tabulation tab·u·late
tr.v. tab·u·lat·ed, tab·u·lat·ing, tab·u·lates
1. To arrange in tabular form; condense and list.
2. To cut or form with a plane surface.
Having a plane surface. of dissertation topics (presented and discussed below) by country has not been done (and would not be reliable beyond the US and UK at this point) it would probably not show a greater concentration of US dissertation research in topics of economic interest than in ones of little or no economic significance. Perhaps, as might be expected for research and scholarship in a very rich country, it might show the opposite.
Doctoral Dissertations at US and UK Universities, Colleges, and Schools
The information available concerning doctoral dissertations on Borneo completed in the US and UK is complete enough to warrant attention. This information is given in numerical terms in Tables 3 and 4 for each country respectively.
In the US, the 214 doctoral dissertations involving Borneo have been completed at 78 different degree-granting institutions including theological schools and seminaries as well as research universities. Five universities--led by Cornell which has given eighteen doctorates concerning Borneo--each account for eleven or more of the dissertations totaling sixty-five or thirty percent of all of the American dissertations. Most of these are schools that might have been expected to be leaders, either because they are universities that have long had doctoral programs in most fields or because they are universities that have had particular programs in Southeast Asia. Most Borneanist scholars, however, will be surprised to learn that twelve dissertations on Borneo have been completed at Southern Illinois University Southern Illinois University, main campus at Carbondale; state supported; coeducational; est. 1869, opened 1874 as a normal school, renamed 1947. It has a center for archaeological investigation and a fisheries research laboratory. There is also a campus at Edwardsville. , although it probably won't surprise Borneanist researchers of education, for ten of these are in education. At the other extreme are the forty-four institutions at which only a single dissertation involving Borneo has been completed. These solo-dissertation places represent the broadest range of institutions, including five theology schools and seminaries.
The 147 UK dissertations involving Borneo were completed at thirty-three institutions, a proportionally smaller number (and range) than in the US. Most notably, there are not as many universities that have awarded only a single doctorate involving Borneo as in the US.
Eighty dissertations on Borneo were completed at 5 universities, with the various colleges and schools of the University of London For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 19 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Within the university federation they are known as Recognised Bodies accounting for the largest number, followed by Hull, Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Cambridge.
Dissertations on Borneo by Topic
Information on what has been studied in the dissertations on Borneo included in the bibliography is listed according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. thirty topics or fields of study in Table 5. The general intent here has been to follow the topics or disciplines given in the various dissertation entries. However, it is not always easy to do this since some dissertation entries refer to specific topics while others to academic disciplines or general fields of study. Further, there is no standard organization of academic departments or topics or fields of study for all of the countries that have produced dissertations involving Borneo. This is true especially, for example, for the field of anthropology anthropology, classification and analysis of humans and their society, descriptively, culturally, historically, and physically. Its unique contribution to studying the bonds of human social relations has been the distinctive concept of culture. which accounts for the largest number of dissertations in the bibliography. In the US, the larger anthropology departments and graduate degree programs generally include cultural anthropology cultural anthropology
Branch of anthropology that deals with the study of culture. The discipline uses the methods, concepts, and data of archaeology, ethnography, folklore, linguistics, and related fields in its descriptions and analyses of the diverse peoples of the world. , archaeology archaeology (ärkēŏl`əjē) [Gr.,=study of beginnings], a branch of anthropology that seeks to document and explain continuity and change and similarities and differences among human cultures. , linguistics linguistics, scientific study of language, covering the structure (morphology and syntax; see grammar), sounds (phonology), and meaning (semantics), as well as the history of the relations of languages to each other and the cultural place of language in human and physical anthropology physical anthropology
Branch of anthropology concerned with the study of human evolution and human biological variation. Research on human evolution involves the discovery, analysis, and description of fossilized human remains. but in other countries these fields are often separated in one way or another. Even if included in a single department and degree program, the lines of research followed by cultural anthropologists Noun 1. cultural anthropologist - an anthropologist who studies such cultural phenomena as kinship systems
anthropologist - a social scientist who specializes in anthropology , linguists A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies linguistics. Ambiguously, the word is sometimes also used to refer to a polyglot (one who knows more than 2 languages), or a grammarian, but these two uses of the word are distinct. , archaeologists Archaeology is a discipline that was virtually unknown until the 19th century. Archaeology, originally an amateur pastime, is becoming increasingly popular, and it is now possible for archaeologists to become minor celebrities as a result of media exposure. and physical or biological anthropology Biological anthropology, or physical anthropology is a branch of anthropology that studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. are generally quite different although they all involve, as it used to be put, "the study of man." For this reason anthropology as such, especially at the level of doctoral research, is not really a single topic or a set of closely related ones. We have therefore listed dissertations in terms of cultural anthropology (or ethnology ethnology (ĕthnŏl`əjē), scientific study of the origin and functioning of human cultures. It is usually considered one of the major branches of cultural anthropology, the other two being anthropological archaeology and ), archaeology, linguistics, even though all may involve (at least in the US) a single degree in anthropology.
A similar procedure might have been followed in the case of biology but was not. However, in this case we have placed all of the dissertations involving research on trees, tree products, or forest ecology Forest ecology is the scientific study of patterns and processes in forests. The management of forests is known as forestry. Forest Ecosystem
Scope of Forest Ecology that might have been identified as studies in botany botany, science devoted to the study of plants. Botany, microbiology, and zoology together compose the science of biology. Humanity's earliest concern with plants was with their practical uses, i.e., for fuel, clothing, shelter, and, particularly, food and drugs. or biology in the various entries, along with those listed as forestry, in the category of forestry and forest studies. This tends to show how important the general topic of forests has been in terms of dissertation research in Borneo although it also tends to diminish the apparent importance of biology or botany. So identified, forests and forestry form the second most numerous topic in doctoral dissertation research on Borneo.
Although far less numerous than those involving forests, dissertations involving research on various non-human primates Primates
The mammalian order to which humans belong. Primates are generally arboreal mammals with a geographic distribution largely restricted to the Tropics. have also been lumped together as primate primate, member of the mammalian order Primates, which includes humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians, or lower primates. The group can be traced to the late Cretaceous period, where members were forest dwellers. studies. Such dissertations are sometimes listed in relation to programs or departments in zoology zoology, branch of biology concerned with the study of animal life. From earliest times animals have been vitally important to man; cave art demonstrates the practical and mystical significance animals held for prehistoric man. (including several completed at Cambridge University Cambridge University, at Cambridge, England, one of the oldest English-language universities in the world. Originating in the early 12th cent. (legend places its origin even earlier than that of Oxford Univ. ), sometimes in physical anthropology (including several completed at US universities) and sometimes in relation to yet other or unidentified disciplines.
The motives or interests involved in the choices of the various topics studied by researchers who have been attracted to do doctoral research concerning Borneo are not indicated in the entries, except perhaps sometimes in the abstracts, although in some instances general lines of interest can be inferred. In the case of the five most commonly studied topics, the interest in education and geology seem most distinctly practical, that involved in anthropology the least so while the concerns reflected in forestry and forest studies and biology seem mixed.
The large number of dissertations in (cultural or social) anthropology (most of which concern the Dayaks and other interior peoples) must reflect to some extent at least the general reputation of Borneo as an ethnological eth·nol·o·gy
1. The science that analyzes and compares human cultures, as in social structure, language, religion, and technology; cultural anthropology.
2. paradise of interesting peoples and exotic customs--a land of headhunting headhunting
Practice of removing, displaying, and in some cases preserving human heads. Headhunting arises in some cultures from a belief in the existence of a more or less material soul that resides in the head. , secondary burial burial, disposal of a corpse in a grave or tomb. The first evidence of deliberate burial was found in European caves of the Paleolithic period. Prehistoric discoveries include both individual and communal burials, the latter indicating that pits or ossuaries were , penis pins and great longhouses built along swiftly flowing rivers. The ethnological reputation of Borneo was established in the middle of the 19th century through the accounts of colonial adventurers, travelers, and missionaries and has continued--helped perhaps by the studies and reputation achieved by some of the scholars (Edmund Leach Sir Edmund Ronald Leach (November 7, 1910 – January 6, 1989) was a British social anthropologist.
He was provost of King's College, Cambridge from 1966-1979, was made a Fellow of the British Academy in 1972 and knighted in 1975. , Derek Freeman John Derek Freeman (b. August 15, 1916, Wellington, New Zealand; d. July 6, 2001, Canberra, Australia) was a New Zealand anthropologist best known , Rodney Needham and others) who were involved in the early phase of professional anthropological studies of Borneo that began in the late 1940s and early 1950s in the British-controlled northern countries. And while some of the early professional anthropological work done in Borneo (the studies initiated by Leach  on behalf of the Colonial Research Council and carried out by Freeman, William Geddes, Stephen Morris
Stephen Morris (born Stephen Paul David Morris, 28 October 1957 in Macclesfield, Cheshire, England) is a musician in the Manchester based and T'ien Ju-K'ang) was intended to contribute to the practical development of the country, it seems safe to assume that most of the dissertation studies in cultural or social anthropology social anthropology
n. Chiefly British
the branch of anthropology that studies human societies, emphasizing interpersonal and intergroup relations. that were subsequently done have been based upon more purely scholarly or scientific concerns combined, perhaps, with the sort of exotic and romantic interests noted above.
The also-numerous studies of forestry and forest-related biology probably reflect practical or applied concerns to a greater extent than do those in anthropology. Following the Amazon basin “Amazonian” redirects here. For other uses, see Amazonian (disambiguation).
The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. and central Africa, Borneo contains one of largest expanses of equatorial equatorial /equa·to·ri·al/ (e?kwah-tor´e-al)
1. pertaining to an equator.
2. occurring at the same distance from each extremity of an axis. rainforest in the world. In addition to its vast--if rapidly diminishing--timber resources, the tropical hardwood hardwood: see wood.
Timber obtained from broad-leaved, flower-bearing trees. Hardwood trees are deciduous trees, except in the warmest regions. forests of Borneo are well-known for other commercially valuable botanical bo·tan·i·cal also bo·tan·ic
1. Of or relating to plants or plant life.
2. Of or relating to the science of botany.
n. products, including rattan rattan (rătăn`), name for a number of plants of the genera Calamus, Daemonorops, and Korthalsia climbing palms of tropical Asia, belonging to the family Palmae (palm family). , nuts and various precious woods. The practical ecological ecological
emanating from or pertaining to ecology.
the state of balance in an ecosystem when its inhabitants have established their permanent relationships with each or environmental problems stemming from logging and other exploitation of Bornean forests--deforestation, erosion and forest fires This is a list of notorious forest fires: North America
Year Size Name Area Notes
1825 3,000,000 acres (12,000 km²) Miramichi Fire New Brunswick Killed 160 people. have also become well-known in recent decades.
Yet it would be wrong to underestimate the more purely scholarly or scientific, even romantic, appeal of Bornean forests that can also be traced to earlier writers and naturalists. While the interior of Borneo was sometimes presented by travelers as an endless, dark, monotonously mo·not·o·nous
1. Sounded or spoken in an unvarying tone.
2. Tediously repetitious or lacking in variety. See Synonyms at boring. green, trackless land of forests, swamps, mountains and rivers, it was described by naturalists including Alfred Wallace (The Malay Archipelago Malay Archipelago, great island group of SE Asia, formerly called the East Indies. Lying between the Asian mainland and Australia, and separating the Pacific Ocean from the Indian Ocean, it includes Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the Land of the Orang-Utan and the Bird of Paradise bird of paradise, common name for any of 43 species of medium- to crow-sized passerine birds of New Guinea and the adjacent islands, known for the bright plumage, elongated tail feathers called wires, and brilliant ruffs of the males. ), Odorado Becarri (Wanderings in the Great Forests of Borneo: Travels and Researches of a Naturalist in Sarawak), F. W. Burbidge (The Gardens of the Sun: A Naturalist's Journal of Borneo and the Sulu Archipelago Sulu Archipelago (s`l), island group, 1,086 sq mi (2,813 sq km), the Philippines, SW of Mindanao. ) and others as a naturalist's paradise, filled with huge trees and a vast array of exotic plants, insects Insects
See also ants; bees; biology; butterflies; zoology.
a fear of itching or of the mites or ticks that cause it.
perception by means of the air, said to be a function of the antennae of insects. , birds and primates. Wallace's The Malay Archipelago, which contains a long section on Sarawak where he spent more than a year exploring and collecting, has continued to be republished since its original appearance in 1871 and remains in print in several editions today.
Dissertations on Borneo by Western or Asian Authors
The last matter to be noted involves the extent to which doctoral research has remained a Western enterprise. We were inspired here by the issue of Orientalism O·ri·en·tal·ism also o·ri·en·tal·ism
1. A quality, mannerism, or custom specific to or characteristic of the Orient.
2. Scholarly knowledge of Asian cultures, languages, and peoples. that was raised and made famous by the publication of Orientalism by Edward Said Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: إدوارد وديع سعيد, . Aside from the issue of the extent to which the study of Middle Eastern and Asian history and culture has been defined by Western prejudices and stereotypes, the matter of Orientalism raises the question of who is carrying out dissertation research. In the case of Borneo there are several issues here, one is where dissertations on Borneo are completed and another is the proportion of dissertations written by Asians rather than Westerners. In regard to the first, as already noted, the overwhelming majority of dissertations now in the bibliography were completed at US, UK or other Western universities, including those written by Asians. To this extent it can be said that doctoral research on Borneo remains a largely Western scholarly or scientific enterprise. As for the second issue of whether authors of dissertations are themselves Western or Asian, the results are much more mixed.
Table 6 presents information on the presumed ethnic status of authors of dissertations on Borneo. Since records in the bibliography do not include the nationality nationality, in political theory, the quality of belonging to a nation, in the sense of a group united by various strong ties. Among the usual ties are membership in the same general community, common customs, culture, tradition, history, and language. or other explicit information on ethnic status, this can only be inferred from names. This procedure makes several assumptions, one of which is that it is possible to distinguish between Western and Asian names in the first place. This seemed easy to do. Of the 460-odd dissertation authors in the bibliography only a few names appeared difficult to identify as either Western or Asian. (Many Asians now have Western first names but seldom Western family names.) Of course, in addition to the small number of uncertain names some mistakes have probably been made but the number of these is assumed to be low. Next there is the assumption that Asian and Western names are a reasonably good proxy for Asian or Western origins and identity. This cannot be known for certain in that it can not be known how many authors with Asian names were actually born and raised in Asian countries Noun 1. Asian country - any one of the nations occupying the Asian continent
country, land, state - the territory occupied by a nation; "he returned to the land of his birth"; "he visited several European countries" as opposed to Western ones, but it seems reasonable to assume that most were. There is a further assumption that the authors with names many might take to be Muslim or Arabic indicate Asian rather than Middle Eastern origins or ethnic status. Again, it is seems reasonable to suppose that while a few of those authors with Arabic-Muslim names may be of Middle Eastern origin, the vast majority are Asian Muslims, specifically mainly Malaysian or Indonesian Muslims.
Whatever the names may exactly indicate, it is clear that many authors of dissertations on Borneo are Asians. While Bornean research and scholarship at the level of dissertations is still dominated by Westerners in terms of the number of dissertations written, the difference is not overwhelming. Specifically, about fifty-eight percent of the dissertations have authors with Western names while about forty-two percent have Asian ones. As noted above, this may not mean a great deal in some respects. The vast majority of Asian authors of dissertations on Borneo have studied and submitted their dissertations at American, Canadian, British, Australian or other Western universities using theories and methods that are of Western origin--but that are now global in scope and use. At the same time it would be difficult to deny that Bornean research has to some considerable extent been Asianized. This seems to be especially so in terms of the difference between the situation under colonial rule and that of the later decades of the twentieth century and of the opening years of the twenty-first. Over time, the portion of dissertations in the bibliography with apparent Asian authors has risen steadily from none before 1950 to about a quarter in the next several decades to nearly half from 1980 to the present. Although the number of authors who are not simply Asian but actually from Borneo cannot be known for certain except for a few individuals, the number is probably substantial and increasing. Most of the individuals who are from Borneo are probably Chinese or Muslim Malays from down-river and coastal areas but they also include Dayaks or other interior peoples as well. Everyone in Bornean studies should feel good about this.
Table 1 NUMBERS OF DISSERTATIONS ON BORNEO BY DECADE N=464 2000-2004 75 1190-1999 194 1980-1989 89 1970-1979 59 1960-1969 23 1950-1959 8 1940-1949 3 1930-1939 5 1920-1929 3 1910-1919 3 1900-1910 1 Unknown 1 Table 2 DISSERTATIONS ON BORNEO CURRENTLY IN THE DATABASE BY COUNTRY OF COMPLETION N=464 United States 214 United Kingdom 147 Australia 26 Netherlands 21 Germany 16 Canada 11 China (Hong Kong) 6 France 6 Sweden 5 Indonesia 4 Switzerland 2 Austria 1 Denmark 1 Finland 1 Malaysia 1 Thailand 1 Vatican 1 Table 3 DISSERTATIONS ON BORNEO COMPLETED AT AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES N=214 Cornell 18 Columbia 13 Southern Illinois 12 Hawaii 11 Yale 11 Harvard 9 Michigan State 7 Washington 7 Pennsylvania 6 California, Davis 5 Duke 5 Louisiana State 5 Rutgers 5 South Carolina 5 California, Los Angeles 4 Michigan 4 Pittsburgh 4 St. Johns 4 Stanford 4 Wisconsin 4 Illinois, Chicago 3 Kentucky 3 New York U. 3 Northern Illinois 3 Arizona State 2 California, Berkeley 2 California, Santa Barbara 2 City University New York 2 Dartmouth 2 Florida 2 Ohio State 2 Oregon 2 Princeton 2 Tufts 2 Andrews 1 Argosy 1 Arizona 1 Biola 1 Boston 1 Brandeis 1 California, Riverside 1 Chicago 1 Colorado 1 Colorado State 1 Columbia Pacific 1 Concordia Theological Seminary 1 East Texas State 1 Florida 1 Fordham 1 Fuller Theological Seminary 1 George Peabody College 1 Georgetown 1 Georgia State 1 Houston 1 Idaho 1 Iowa State 1 Kansas State 1 Minnesota 1 Montana 1 Nevada, Reno 1 New School 1 New York, Buffalo 1 North Carolina 1 North Carolina State 1 Northern Colorado 1 Northwestern 1 Oklahoma 1 Oklahoma State 1 Pennsylvania State 1 St. Louis 1 Southern Methodist 1 Temple 1 Texas, Austin 1 Texas A & M 1 Trinity Evangelical Divinity School 1 Utah 1 W. Conservative Baptist Seminary 1 Westminster Theological Seminary 1 Table 4 DISSERTATIONS ON BORNEO AT UNITED KINGDOM UNIVERSITIES N = 147 London 31 Hull 15 Aberdeen 12 Edinburgh 12 Cambridge 10 Oxford 8 Birmingham 6 Manchester 5 Durham 4 Newcastle upon Tyne 4 Reading 4 Wales, Bangor 4 Kent 3 Leeds 3 Strathclyde 3 Bristol 2 CNAA Polytech 2 Exeter 2 Lancaster 2 Wales, Aberystwyth 2 Anglia 1 Bradford 1 Brunel 1 Coventry 1 Herfordshire 1 London Wye College 1 Louborough 1 Nottingham 1 Sheffield 1 Southhampton 1 Wales, Swansea 1 Warwick 1 Woverhampton 1 Table 5 DISSERTATIONS ON BORNEO BY TOPIC OR DISCIPLINE N=464 Anthropology (1) 93 Forestry and Forest Studies (2) 58 Biology (3) 53 Education 46 Geology (4) 37 Political Science, Government and Law 29 Economics 22 Geography 21 Primate Studies 18 History of Missions and Christian Religious Studies 11 Linguistics and Language Studies 12 History 9 Demography 7 Management 6 Agricultural Studies 5 Art and Material Culture 5 Archaeology and Prehistory 4 Public Health 4 Communications, Journalism and Information Systems 3 Sociology 3 Tourism 3 Library Science 2 Adat Law Studies 1 Architecture 1 Development 1 English Literature 1 Ethnomusicology 1 Genetics 1 Islamic Studies 1 Social Services 1 Uncertain or unknown 5 Table 6 NUMBERS OF DISSERTATIONS ON BORNEO BY DECADE AND WESTERN OR ASIAN NAME OF AUTHOR Western Asian Uncertain Total 2000-2004 39 (52) 34 (45) 2 (3) 75 1990-1999 98 (50.5) 93 (48) 3 (1.5) 194 1980-1989 46 (52) 43 (48) 89 1970-1979 45 (76) 14 (24) 59 1960-1969 18 (78) 5 (22) 23 1950-1959 6 (75) 2 (25) 8 1940-1949 3 (100) 3 1930-1939 5 (100) 5 1920-1929 3 (100) 3 1910-1919 3 (100) 3 1900-1910 1 (100) 1 Unknown 1 (100) 1 Total 274 (58) 196 (42) 5 (1) 464 All numbers in parenthesis are percentages. (1) Assumes authors with Arabic names are of Asian (mainly Southeast Asian) origin.
(1) Cultural and social anthropology, including ethnology and ethnography ethnography: see anthropology; ethnology.
Descriptive study of a particular human society. Contemporary ethnography is based almost entirely on fieldwork. .
(2) Includes forestry, forest ecology, and botany of forest plants.
(3) Includes botany, ethnobotany ethnobotany /eth·no·bot·a·ny/ (-bot´ah-ne) the systematic study of the interactions between a culture and the plants in its environment, particularly the knowledge about and use of such plants. and zoology and excludes forest studies and primate studies.
(4) Includes hydrology hydrology, study of water and its properties, including its distribution and movement in and through the land areas of the earth. The hydrologic cycle consists of the passage of water from the oceans into the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration (or .
Leach, Edmund 1950 Social Science Research in Sarawak: A Report on the Possibilities of a Social Economic Survey of Sarawak presented to the Colonial Social Science Research Council. London: His Majesty's Stationary Stationary can mean:
Robert L. Winzeler and Duncan Aldrich
University of Nevada, Reno The University of Nevada, Reno (Nevada or UNR) is a university located in Reno, Nevada, USA, and is known for its programs in agricultural research, animal biotechnology, and mining-related engineering and natural sciences.