Discriminating between right coronary artery and circumflex artery occlusion by using a noninvasive 18-lead electrocardiogram.* BACKGROUND Differentiating occlusion occlusion /oc·clu·sion/ (o-kloo´zhun)
2. the trapping of a liquid or gas within cavities in a solid or on its surface.
3. of the circumflex circumflex /cir·cum·flex/ (serk´um-fleks) curved like a bow.
1. Curving or bending around.
curved like a bow. branch of the left coronary artery coronary artery
1. An artery with origin in the right aortic sinus; with distribution to the right side of the heart in the coronary sulcus, and with branches to the right atrium and ventricle, including the atrioventricular branches and (also called the circumflex artery) from occlusion of the right coronary artery is often difficult because either may be associated with a pattern of acute inferior myocardial infarction myocardial infarction: see under infarction. on the electrocardiogram electrocardiogram /elec·tro·car·dio·gram/ (-kahr´de-o-gram?) a graphic tracing of the variations in electrical potential caused by the excitation of the heart muscle and detected at the body surface. .
* OBJECTIVES To determine if an inexpensive 18-lead electrocardiogram can provide useful information in differentiating sites of coronary occlusion coronary occlusion
Blockage of a coronary vessel, usually by thrombosis or atheroma and often leading to myocardial infarction.
n obstruction in the heart's blood-supplying arteries. .
* METHODS Continuous 18-lead electrocardiograms, including standard 12-lead, right ventricular, and posterior leads, were recorded in 38 and 50 subjects' undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), commonly known as coronary angioplasty or simply angioplasty, is a therapeutic procedure to treat the stenotic (narrowed) coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary heart disease. in the right coronary artery and the circumflex artery, respectively.
* RESULTS ST-segment elevation in the posterior leads was twice as frequent during occlusion of the circumflex artery as during right coronary occlusion (P < .001). ST-segment elevation in the right ventricular leads and inferior leads occurred more often during occlusion of the right coronary artery than during occlusion of the circumflex artery. ST-segment depression in lead aVL is highly suggestive of suggestive of Decision making adjective Referring to a pattern by LM or imaging, that the interpreter associates with a particular–usually malignant lesion. See Aunt Millie approach, Defensive medicine. right coronary occlusion, whereas ST-segment elevation in posterior leads without depression of the ST segment in lead aVL is highly sensitive Adj. 1. highly sensitive - readily affected by various agents; "a highly sensitive explosive is easily exploded by a shock"; "a sensitive colloid is readily coagulated" and specific for occlusion of the circumflex artery.
* CONCLUSIONS ST-segment changes in the 18-lead electrocardiogram can be used to differentiate between occlusions of the circumflex artery and occlusions of the right coronary artery. Knowing which vessel is occluded before percutaneous coronary intervention can help in planning the procedure and recognizing when patients are at high risk for disturbances in conduction conduction, transfer of heat or electricity through a substance, resulting from a difference in temperature between different parts of the substance, in the case of heat, or from a difference in electric potential, in the case of electricity. at the atrioventricular node atrioventricular node
A small mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers, located near the ostium of the coronary sinus and giving rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart. Also called A-V node. .
Prompt and accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction acute myocardial infarction (·kyōōtˑ mī·ō·karˑ·dē· (AMI) is clinically essential because various reperfusion re·per·fu·sion
The restoration of blood flow to an organ or tissue that has had its blood supply cut off, as after a heart attack. procedures show promise for reducing the size of infarction. Despite major advances in diagnostic tools, electrocardiography electrocardiography (ĭlĕk'trōkärdēŏg`rəfē), science of recording and interpreting the electrical activity that precedes and is a measure of the action of heart muscles. (ECG ECG electrocardiogram.
Also called an electrocardiogram, it records the electrical activity of the heart. ) remains the cornerstone in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Occlusion of the left anterior descending artery can be identified accurately on a standard 12-lead ECG, but acute occlusion of the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery (also called the circumflex artery) does not always produce the ECG changes typical of AMI. (1) Furthermore, differentiation of occlusion of the circumflex artery from occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA See RCA connector and video/TV history. ) is often difficult because either may be associated with an ECG pattern of inferior AMI. (1-4) Patients with right ventricular infarction due to RCA occlusion have a poor prognosis and are at high risk of disturbances in conduction at the atrioventricular node, (5,6) whereas patients with occlusion of the circumflex artery are thought to have a good prognosis. (7) With the advent of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (1) (Payment Card Industry) See PCI DSS.
(2) (Peripheral Component Interconnect) The most widely used I/O bus (peripheral bus). ) for AMI, identification of the occluded vessel is key. Knowing which vessel is occluded before PCI can help in stratifying risk and planning the procedure.
Several investigators (8-10) have used ST-segment elevation and depression criteria on the standard 12-lead ECG to assist in distinguishing occlusion of the circumflex artery from RCA occlusion in patients with inferior myocardial infarction. For example, ST-segment elevation that is greater in lead III than in lead II suggests RCA involvement, (8,9) and isolated ST-segment depression in leads [V.sub.2] through [V.sub.4] suggests involvement of the circumflex artery. (10)
Some criteria are rather complicated and impractical for clinical use. For instance, a ratio of ST-segment depression in lead [V.sub.3] to ST-segment elevation in lead III that is less than 0.5 indicates occlusion of the proximal part of the RCA, a ratio greater than 0.5 but less than or equal to 1.2 indicates occlusion of the distal part of the RCA, and a ratio greater than 1.2 indicates occlusion of the circumflex artery. (11) Fuchs et al (1) suggest that no criteria on the 12-lead ECG allow distinction of RCA occlusion from disease of the circumflex artery. As the use of posterior and right ventricular leads to detect involvement of the posterior wall and right ventricle right ventricle
The chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and forces it into the pulmonary artery. increases, these additional leads may be helpful in determining which artery has the infarct infarct /in·farct/ (in´fahrkt) a localized area of ischemic necrosis produced by occlusion of the arterial supply or the venous drainage of the part. .
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the noninvasive 18-lead ECG, including the standard 12 leads, posterior leads [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9], and right ventricular leads [V.sub.3R] through [V.sub.5R] (Figure 1) can be useful for distinguishing between acute occlusions of the circumflex artery and RCA occlusions.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Sample and Setting
This study was a secondary analysis of a larger study that included 320 subjects with suspected coronary artery disease coronary artery disease, condition that results when the coronary arteries are narrowed or occluded, most commonly by atherosclerotic deposits of fibrous and fatty tissue. who underwent a nonemergent cardiac catheterization Cardiac Catheterization Definition
Cardiac catheterization (also called heart catheterization) is a diagnostic procedure which does a comprehensive examination of how the heart and its blood vessels function. at either a community hospital or 1 of 3 academic medical centers. Nineteen subjects having an AMI at the time of PCI were excluded from this analysis because of the difficulty in distinguishing ST-segment changes induced by balloon inflation from ST-segment changes due to an evolving AMI. Also excluded were 117 subjects who didn't undergo PCI, 71 subjects with occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, 16 subjects with prior inferior or posterior wall myocardial infarction, 6 subjects with visible collateral flow or in whom perfusion-type balloon catheters were used, and 3 subjects who had very brief inflation of the balloon (<30 seconds).
Patients who were taking digitalis digitalis (dĭj'ĭtăl`ĭs), any of several chemically similar drugs used primarily to increase the force and rate of heart contractions, especially in damaged heart muscle. The effects of the drug were known as early as 1500 B.C. (n=10) or patients with a right (n=6) or left (n=3) bundle branch block Bundle Branch Block Definition
Bundle branch block (BBB) is a disruption in the normal flow of electrical pulses that drive the heart beat.
Description were not excluded from this analysis because the baseline ST-segment abnormalities could be distinguished from acute ischemic Ischemic
An inadequate supply of blood to a part of the body, caused by partial or total blockage of an artery.
Mentioned in: Antiangiogenic Therapy, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Ventricular Fibrillation
ischemic changes in the ST segment when continuous trends in the ST segment were analyzed. Thus, there remained 38 subjects who underwent PCI in the RCA and 50 subjects who underwent PCI in the circumflex artery. Of the 38 subjects with RCA occlusion, 10 had coronary occlusion in the proximal part of the RCA, proximal to the right ventricular branch. Informed consent was obtained in a manner approved by each institution's committee on human research.
Instruments and Procedure
A continuous 18-lead ECG was recorded beginning when the subjects entered the catheterization catheterization
Threading of a flexible tube (catheter) through a channel in the body to inject drugs or a contrast medium, measure and record flow and pressures, inspect structures, take samples, diagnose disorders, or clear blockages. laboratory and continuing throughout the entire procedure (Figure 1). The 18-lead ECGs were recorded by using 2 Mortara ELI Eli (ē`lī), in the Bible, high priest and judge of Israel, teacher of the boy Samuel.
1. (language) ELI - An early system on the IBM 705 and IBM 650.
[Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959)].
2. 100 ST monitors (Milwaukee, Wis). The Mortara monitor is a portable, programmable microprocessor-based device that acquires, analyzes, and stores 12-lead ECGs at a programmed interval. This Mortara monitor was designated to record the standard 12-lead ECG; a second Mortara monitor was used to record posterior leads [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9] and right ventricular leads [V.sub.3R] through [V.sub.5R]. For the purpose of this study, the monitors were programmed to analyze and store the ECGs every 20 seconds during the PCI. The monitors were time synchronized syn·chro·nize
v. syn·chro·nized, syn·chro·niz·ing, syn·chro·niz·es
1. To occur at the same time; be simultaneous.
2. To operate in unison.
1. and programmed identically with filter settings of 0.05 to 100 Hz, as recommended by the American Heart Association American Heart Association (AHA),
n.pr a national voluntary health agency that has the goal of increasing public and medical awareness of cardiovascular diseases and stroke, and thereby reducing the number of associated deaths and disabilities. for ST-segment analysis. (13) In accordance with standards used for clinical practice, a calibration of 10 mm/mV and a paper speed of 25 mm/s were used. Radiolucent radiolucent /ra·dio·lu·cent/ (ra?de-o-loo´sent) permitting the passage of radiant energy, such as x-rays, with little attenuation, the representative areas appearing dark on the exposed film. ECG wires and electrodes were used to minimize disruption of coronary artery visualization.
At the end of the monitoring session, all stored ECGs were downloaded to a personal computer with additional software for ST-segment analysis (Mortara ST Review Station). The ST Review Station provided quantitative measurements of the ST segment in microvolts for each of the 18 leads. ST-segment values measured with this computer-assisted technique are more accurate, reliable, and less biased than manual measurements made by experts. (14,15) One reason for this difference was that computer-assisted measurements offer better resolution. When ischemia Ischemia Definition
Ischemia is an insufficient supply of blood to an organ, usually due to a blocked artery.
Myocardial ischemia is an intermediate condition in coronary artery disease during which the heart tissue is was defined as a ST-segment deviation of 1 mm (or 100 [micro]V) or less in the posterior leads, the detection of minimal ST-segment change was important. Computerized monitoring systems were capable of measuring ST-segment deviation to a resolution of 0.01 mm, whereas humans were capable of measuring to a resolution of 0.5 mm. "Noisy" ECGs were eliminated according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. published procedures. (16)
The ST segment was measured at J plus 60 ms, with the PR interval used as the isoelectric isoelectric /iso·elec·tric/ (i?so-e-lek´trik) showing no variation in electric potential.
showing no variation in electric potential. reference point. Baseline ECGs were obtained before the controlled balloon inflations for comparison. ST-segment amplitudes at the preinflation baseline were subtracted from maximal ST amplitudes during balloon inflation to create a positive or negative change score ([DELTA]ST) for each of the 18 leads. The term "[DELTA]ST elevation" was used to describe a change in the ST-segment level in the positive direction from the baseline, whether or not actual ST-segment elevation from the isoelectric line isoelectric line
Base line on an electrocardiogram. was present. This [DELTA]ST value ensured that only "new-onset" ST-segment deviation was considered. Ischemic changes were defined as a [DELTA]ST of 1 mm or greater in any of the standard 12 leads or right ventricular leads, (17) or a [DELTA]ST of 0.5 mm (50 [micro]V) or greater in any of the posterior leads. (18) Subjects were considered to have ischemia when the ischemic changes in the ST segment occurred with balloon inflation and disappeared after a brief period of balloon deflation deflation: see inflation.
Contraction in the volume of available money or credit that results in a general decline in prices. A less extreme condition is known as disinflation. .
Means and SDs were calculated for continuous variables, whereas other measures of central tendency and frequency were calculated for categorical variables. Data were tabulated to compare the prevalence of ST-segment deviation (elevation or depression) in each of the 18 ECG leads between the patients with circumflex artery occlusion and the patients with RCA occlusion.
In patients with multiple balloon inflations, the ECG that showed the maximal ST-segment elevation during balloon occlusion was selected for analysis. Sensitivity was calculated as the percentage of patients with RCA or circumflex artery occlusion who were correctly identified by each ECG criterion. Specificity was the percentage of patients without coronary artery occlusion at the specific site (RCA or circumflex artery) who were correctly eliminated by each ECG criterion. To avoid type I error when multiple ECG criteria were being examined, a level of significance (P value) of less than .01 was considered statistically significant.
The mean age of the subjects was 68 years (SD 12 years), and 67% were male. The ethnic breakdown of the sample was 58% white, 18% Asian, 18% Hispanic, and 6% African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. . The mean duration of balloon inflations selected for analysis was 62 seconds. None of the subjects in any of the vessel groups had ventricular pacing rhythm, right ventricular hypertrophy right ventricular hypertrophy Cardiology An ↑ in myocardial mass which may be due to interventricular septal defects or ↑ blood flow–eg, hyperthyroidism , or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Definition
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is an abnormality in the electrical functioning of the heart which may cause rapid heart rates. The abnormality affects the electrical signal between the atria and ventricles. .
ST-Segment Changes on the 18-Lead ECG
The sensitivities and specificities of various ECG criteria in the posterior, right ventricular, and standard 12 leads for differentiating occlusions of the circumflex artery from RCA occlusions are summarized in the Table. Examples of the ECGs are presented in Figures 2 and 3.
[FIGURES 2-3 OMITTED]
Posterior Leads. ST-segment elevation in leads [V.sub.7], [V.sub.8], and [V.sub.9] occurred in 88%, 88%, and 80%, respectively, of subjects with circumflex artery occlusion and in 32%, 40%, and 37%, respectively, of subjects with RCA occlusion. During RCA occlusion, only 1 subject (3%) had ST-segment depression in lead [V.sub.7], 4 subjects (11%) in lead [V.sub.8], and none in lead [V.sub.9].
Right Ventricular Leads. ST-segment elevation in leads [V.sub.3R], [V.sub.4R], and [V.sub.5R] occurred in 29%, 34%, and 50%, respectively, of subjects with RCA occlusion. Of the 10 subjects with RCA occlusion at the proximal site, approximately 80% exhibited ST-segment elevation in leads [V.sub.3R] through [V.sub.5R]. During RCA occlusion, one subject (3%) had ST-segment depression in leads [V.sub.3R] and [V.sub.4R] and none had ST-segment depression in lead [V.sub.5R]. During circumflex artery occlusion, 6 subjects (12%) had ST-segment depression in lead [V.sub.3R], 8 subjects (16%) had ST-segment depression in lead [V.sub.4R], and none had ST-segment depression in lead [V.sub.5R].
Standard 12 Leads. ST-segment elevation in inferior leads II, III, and aVF occurred in 76%, 92%, and 84%, respectively, of subjects with RCA occlusions and in 26%, 30%, and 30%, respectively, of subjects with circumflex artery occlusion. ST-segment depression in leads [V.sub.1], [V.sub.2], and [V.sub.3] occurred in 38%, 60%, and 40%, respectively, of subjects with circumflex artery occlusion and in 24%, 63%, and 34%, respectively, of subjects with RCA occlusion. ST-segment elevation in leads [V.sub.1], [V.sub.2], and [V.sub.3] was infrequent, occurring in only 13%, 8%, and 5%, respectively, of subjects with RCA occlusion.
Data from this analysis showed that the 18-lead ECG is useful for discriminating between occlusions of the circumflex artery and RCA occlusions. Specifically, ST-segment depression in lead aVL is highly suggestive of RCA occlusion. Comparatively, ST-segment elevation in posterior leads without ST-segment depression in lead aVL is highly sensitive and specific for occlusion of the circumflex artery. Results from this study are similar to those of Herz et al, (9) who studied patients with inferior myocardial infarction (RCA, n = 66; circumflex artery, n= 17) and found that ST-segment depression in lead aVL was significantly more common in the RCA group, with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 71%. These ECG changes may help clinicians identify the occluded vessel before PCI, which can help in stratifying risk and planning the procedure, and in identifying reocclusion after coronary interventions.
In addition, ST-segment depression that is greater in lead aVL than in lead I is highly specific (92%) for RCA occlusions. That ECG pattern is almost 6 times as common in RCA occlusion (47%) as in circumflex artery occlusion (8%). Lead aVL faces the superolateral wall of the left ventricle left ventricle
The chamber on the left side of the heart that receives the arterial blood from the left atrium and contracts to force it into the aorta. and is therefore the most sensitive lead reciprocal to the inferior wall. Similar to data in this study, Birnbaum et al (19) reported that ST-segment depression in lead aVL is found in most patients with evolving myocardial infarction in the inferior wall.
In addition, ST-segment depression in lead aVL is not influenced by extension of the infarction to the right ventricle or to the posterior wall, thus ST-segment depression in lead aVL can be useful in the identification of RCA occlusion.
Subjects with occlusions of the RCA and the circumflex artery manifest inferoposterior ischemic patterns with ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, aVF, and [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9,] and reciprocal ST-segment depression in precordial leads [V.sub.1] through [V.sub.3]. Frequencies of ST-segment elevation and depression, however, differ significantly between RCA occlusions and occlusions of the circumflex artery.
ST-segment elevation in the posterior leads and ST-segment depression in the right ventricular leads are more likely to be associated with a lesion of the circumflex artery, whereas ST-segment elevation in the right ventricular leads is related to RCA occlusions exclusively. ST-segment elevation in posterior leads [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9] is twice as common in subjects with circumflex artery occlusion (98%) than in subjects with RCA occlusion (45%). ST-segment elevation in [V.sub.3R] through [V.sub.5R] is observed more frequently in subjects with RCA occlusion than in subjects with circumflex artery occlusion. ST-segment depression in posterior leads is seen infrequently during RCA or circumflex artery occlusions. ST-segment depression in the right ventricular leads, particularly in lead [V.sub.4R], is observed in approximately one fifth of subjects with circumflex artery occlusion but is observed infrequently in subjects with RCA occlusion.
A few studies have investigated the use of right ventricular or posterior leads to differentiate between RCA and circumflex artery lesions.(8,20) Gupta et al (8) reported that an upright T-wave polarity (1) The direction of charged particles, which may determine the binary status of a bit.
(2) In micrographics, the change in the light to dark relationship of an image when copies are made. in lead [V.sub.4R] is common (89%) when the RCA is occluded and is not seen with occlusion of the circumflex artery (P < .001); in contrast, an inverted inverted
reverse in position, direction or order.
inverted L block
a pattern of local filtration anesthesia commonly used in laparotomy in the ox. T wave in lead [V.sub.4R] is common (79%) when the circumflex artery is occluded and is not seen with RCA occlusion (P < .001). However, applying these T-wave changes to clinical practice can be difficult because the T wave in lead [V.sub.4R] is usually inverted in healthy persons.
Prieto-Solis et al (20) studied 66 patients with an inferior myocardial infarction who subsequently underwent coronary arteriography arteriography /ar·te·ri·og·ra·phy/ (ahr-ter?e-og´rah-fe) angiography of an artery or arterial system.
catheter arteriography (RCA, n=46; circumflex artery, n = 20) and found that an ST-segment elevation of 1 mm or greater in leads [V.sub.3R] and [V.sub.4R] is specific for obstructive obstructive
having the characteristic of obstruction.
see equine colic.
constipation of sufficient severity as to obstruct the rectum. lesions in the proximal part of the RCA (sensitivity, 74%) and ST-segment depression in leads [V.sub.3R] and [V.sub.4R] is specific for lesions of the circumflex artery. They further report that an ST-segment elevation of 1 mm or greater in leads [V.sub.3R] and [V.sub.4R] is observed in 85% of patients with a lesion in the proximal part of the RCA, in 21% of patients with lesions in the distal part of the RCA, and in 15% of patients with a lesion of the circumflex artery.
Data from the present study show a similar frequency of ST-segment elevation in fight ventricular leads in patients with occlusion of the proximal part of the RCA (80%); however, ST-segment elevation in the right ventricular leads is more common with occlusion of the distal part of the RCA (40%). In addition, none of the subjects with occlusion of the circumflex artery showed ST-segment elevation in any of the right ventricular leads, suggesting that ST-segment elevation in the right ventricular leads is highly specific to occlusion of the RCA.
In this study, ST-segment elevation in inferior leads II, III, and aVF occurred almost 3 times more often in subjects with RCA occlusion (92%) than in subjects with occlusion of the circumflex artery (32%). This criterion, however, is not highly specific (68%) for identifying RCA occlusion. In contrast to results reported by Gupta et al (8) and Herz et al, (9) in this study the fact that the ST-segment elevation is greater in lead III than in lead II, though not a sensitive criterion, is nonetheless a specific criterion for identifying occlusion of the RCA. Although ST-segment elevation is greater in lead III than in lead II in twice as many subjects with RCA occlusion (18%) as subjects with occlusion of the circumflex artery (8%), the difference is not statistically significant (P = .32).
The presence or absence of ST-segment elevation in precordial leads [V.sub.5] and [V.sub.6] or of ST-segment depression in leads [V.sub.1] through [V.sub.3] does not provide discriminatory value. Approximately one third of our subjects with occlusion of the circumflex artery showed ST-segment elevation in lead [V.sub.6], which is similar to the finding reported by Blanke et al. (21) ST-segment elevation in leads [V.sub.5] and [V.sub.6] is slightly more common in occlusions of the circumflex artery (35%) than in occlusion of the RCA (24%); however, that difference is not statistically significant. ST-segment depression in the anterior leads [V.sub.1] through [V.sub.3] is thought to be due to the reciprocal changes of the true posterior wall of the left ventricle. However, data from this study show that ST-segment depression in [V.sub.l] through [V.sub.3] is frequently associated with occlusion in both the RCA and the circumflex artery. ST-segment depression in lead [V.sub.2] plus ST-segment elevation in lead [V.sub.6] cannot be used to differentiate occlusions of the RCA from occlusions of the circumflex artery because of the low sensitivity of that ECG pattern.
The composite ECG pattern of ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads without ST-segment elevation in leads [V.sub.5] and [V.sub.6] has a high specificity (80%) and is 4 times more common in RCA occlusion (68%) than in occlusion of the circumflex artery (16%). This finding is supported by results of an earlier thallium thallium (thăl`ēəm), metallic chemical element; symbol Tl; at. no. 81; at. wt. 204.383; m.p. 303.5°C;; b.p. about 1,457°C;; sp. gr. 11.85 at 20°C;; valence +1 or +3. scanning study (22) in which inferior defects without lateral defects are most common in RCA-related disease, whereas lateral defects without inferior defects are most common in disease related to the circumflex artery.
Limitations of the Study
ST-segment changes in the 18-lead ECG were useful for differentiation of transient total occlusions of the RCA and the circumflex artery during PCI. ECG changes during spontaneous AMI may differ from ECG changes during PCI because controlled coronary occlusion was usually brief. However, to discern whether the ST-segment changes of AMI had a pattern similar to the changes induced by controlled occlusion during PCI, Wagner et al (23) conducted a study in patients undergoing elective angioplasty angioplasty (ăn`jēōplăs'tē), any surgical repair of a blood vessel, especially
balloon angioplasty or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, a treatment of coronary artery disease. in whom an AMI developed subsequently. They found that the sequential ECG manifestations of AMI mimicked the changes that occurred during balloon occlusion during angioplasty. In half of the study sample, both the magnitude and the time course of ST-segment elevation during angioplasty were the same as occurred during the initial seconds of a spontaneous AMI. Similar findings were reported by Quyyumi et al, (24) who found that the ST-segment changes at the onset of balloon occlusion were indistinguishable from--though of greater magnitude than--the ST-segment changes seen with AMI.
Another limitation was that 12 subjects (RCA, n=7; circumflex artery, n = 5) without a prior myocardial infarction did not show ECG changes during balloon inflation. This lack of ECG changes may be caused by the brief duration of balloon occlusions or by collateral circulation collateral circulation
Circulation maintained in small anastomosing vessels when the main artery is obstructed.
collateral circulation that was invisible on the angiogram an·gi·o·gram
An angiographic x-ray of blood vessels used in diagnosing pathological conditions of the cardiovascular system.//An x-ray of one or more blood vessels produced by angiography and used in diagnosing pathology in the cardiovascular .
Differentiation of occlusion of the circumflex artery from occlusion of the RCA is often difficult because either may be associated with an ECG pattern of inferior AMI. Patients with right ventricular infarction due to RCA occlusion have a poor prognosis and a high risk of disturbances in conduction at the atrioventricular node. Identification of the occluded vessel by using ECG signs and their validation can help in planning the PCI procedure and stratifying risk.
Data from this study showed that ST-segment depression in lead aVL is highly suggestive of RCA occlusion. The ECG pattern of ST-segment elevation in posterior leads without ST-segment depression in lead aVL is highly sensitive and specific for occlusion of the circumflex artery. Additionally, ST-segment elevation in posterior leads ([V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9]) is significantly more common during occlusion of the circumflex artery than during RCA occlusion. Conversely, ST-segment elevation in fight ventricular leads ([V.sub.3R] through [V.sub.5R]), inferior leads (II, III, aVF), and precordial leads ([V.sub.1] through [V.sub.3]) and ST-segment depression in lateral leads (I, aVL) are significantly more frequent during RCA occlusion. Data from this study can be used to augment the value of noninvasive ECG in distinguishing occlusion of the circumflex artery from occlusion of the RCA.
In summary, in this study we were able to overcome the limitations encountered by Hasdai et al, (25) who could not differentiate RCA occlusion from occlusion of the distal part of the circumflex artery by means of ECG. Data from this study can be used to augment the value of noninvasive ECG in discriminating occlusion of the circumflex artery from occlusion of the RCA. ST-segment depression in lead aVL is highly suggestive of RCA occlusion, whereas ST-segment elevation in posterior leads without ST-segment depression in lead aVL is highly sensitive and specific for occlusion of the circumflex artery.
The author sincerely appreciates the contribution of the women and men who graciously participated in this study. The author also thanks Barbara Drew, RN, PhD, at the University of California, San Francisco , for her support and mentoring. This work was performed at the Seton Medical Center, University of California The University of California has a combined student body of more than 191,000 students, over 1,340,000 living alumni, and a combined systemwide and campus endowment of just over $7.3 billion (8th largest in the United States). San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden Medical Center, Southern Arizona Southern Arizona is a region of the United States. It is the southernmost portion of the 48th state, Arizona. Southern Arizona's boundaries are not well defined, but certainly include all of present-day Cochise County, Pima County, Graham County, and Santa Cruz County. Veterans Health Care System, and University Medical Center, Tucson, Ariz.
This work was supported by grants from the National Institute of Nursing Research/National Institutes of Health (RO1 NR008092), Betbesda, Md, and the American Association American Association refers to one of the following professional baseball leagues:
An organization to which students are admitted in recognition of academic achievement. for Nursing, and Emergency Nurses Association Foundation.
By Shu-Fen Wung, RN, PhD, ACNP ACNP American College of Nurse Practitioners
ACNP American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
ACNP Acute Care Nurse Practitioner
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Corresponding author: Shu-Fen Wung, RN, PhD, ACNP, College of Nursing, University of Arizona, 1305 N Martin Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721-0203 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
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(1.) Fuchs RM, Achuff SC, Grunwald L, Yin FC, Griffith LS. Electrocardiographic electrocardiographic
emanating from or pertaining to electrocardiography.
maintenance of a more or less continuous surveillance of a patient's cardiac status by means of electrocardiography. localization Customizing software and documentation for a particular country. It includes the translation of menus and messages into the native spoken language as well as changes in the user interface to accommodate different alphabets and culture. See internationalization and l10n. of coronary artery narrowings: studies during myocardial ischemia myocardial ischemia,
n a loss of oxygen to the heart muscle caused by blockage of the coronary arteries or their branches.
myocardial ischemia and infarction in patients with one-vessel disease. Circulation. 1982;66:1168-1176.
(2.) Bairey CN, Shah PK, Lew AS, Hulse S. Electrocardiographic differentiation of occlusion of the left circumflex versus the right coronary artery as a cause of inferior acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1987;60:456-459.
(3.) Huey BL, Belier Belier is the designation of a single-step French elevator research rocket, which in three versions between 1961 and 1970 by Hammaguir, Salto di Quirra, Ile you Levant and Kourou was started. The Belier was used also as upper stage of other French elevator research rockets. GA, Kaiser DL, Gibson RS. A comprehensive analysis of myocardial infarction due to left circumflex artery occlusion: comparison with infarction due to right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery occlusion. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988; 12:1156-1166.
(4.) Wagner NB, Sevilla DC, Krucoff MW, et al. Transient alterations of the QRS complex QRS complex
The principal deflection in the electrocardiogram, representing ventricular depolarization.
QRS complex, QRS wave and ST segment during percutaneous percutaneous /per·cu·ta·ne·ous/ (per?ku-ta´ne-us) performed through the skin.
Passed, done, or effected through the unbroken skin. transluminal transluminal /trans·lu·mi·nal/ (trans-loo´mi-n'l) through or across a lumen, particularly of a blood vessel.
Passing or occurring across a lumen. balloon angioplasty balloon angioplasty: see under angioplasty. of the right and left circumflex coronary arteries Coronary arteries
The two main arteries that provide blood to the heart. The coronary arteries surround the heart like a crown, coming out of the aorta, arching down over the top of the heart, and dividing into two branches. . Am J Cardiol. 1989;63:1208-1213.
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adj. Abbr. nodal Having to do with nodes. See node.
NODAL - Interpreted language implemented on Norsk Data's NORD-10 computers. Used by CERN and DESY high energy physics labs to control their accelerator hardware, PADAC and SEDAC. Included trackball input, graphics. conduction disturbances. Am Heart J. 1984;107:1183-1187.
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Thrombolytic therapy is the use of drugs that dissolve blood clots.
When a blood clot forms in a blood vessel, it may cut off or severely reduce blood flow to parts of the body that are served by in inferior myocardial infarction: focus on the prognostic prog·nos·tic
1. Of, relating to, or useful in prognosis.
2. Of or relating to prediction; predictive.
1. A sign or symptom indicating the future course of a disease.
2. importance of right ventricular infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1994;24:362-369.
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n. Abbr. PTCA
A procedure for enlarging a narrowed arterial lumen by peripheral introduction of a balloon-tip catheter followed by dilation of the lumen as the inflated catheter tip is . Clin Cardiol. 1990;13:783-788.
(11.) Kosuge M, Kimura K, Ishikawa T, et al. New electrocardiographic criteria for predicting the site of coronary artery occlusion in inferior wall acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1998;82:1318-1322.
(12.) Drew B J, Ide B. Right ventricular infarction. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1995; 10:45-46.
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(14.) Krucoff MW, Pope JE, Bottner RK, et al. Computer-assisted ST-segment monitoring: experience during and after brief coronary occlusion. J Electrocardiol. 1987;20(suppl): 15-21.
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pertaining to the muscular tissue of the heart (the myocardium). ischermia validated by a pereutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty model of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2001 ;87:970-974; A4.
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(20.) Prieto-Solis JA, Domenech J, San Jose San Jose, city, United States
San Jose (sănəzā`, săn hōzā`), city (1990 pop. 782,248), seat of Santa Clara co., W central Calif.; founded 1777, inc. 1850. JM, Villalobos MA, Jimeno F. Electrocardiographic diagnosis of the responsible coronary artery in acute inferior myocardial infarction through right chest leads V3R-V8R: a prospective study. Angiologv. 1995;46:989-998.
(21.) Blanke H, Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. M, Schlueter GU, Karsch KR, Rentrop KP. Electrocardiographic and coronary arteriographic correlations during acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1984;54:249-255.
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(24.) Quyyumi AA, Crake crake: see rail. T, Rubens MB, Levy RD, Rickards AF, Fox KM. Importance of "reciprocal" electrocardiographic changes during occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery Left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD)
One of the heart's coronary artery branches from the left main coronary artery which supplies blood to the left ventricle.
Mentioned in: Cardiac Catheterization : studies during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Lancet. 1986;1:347-350.
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Sensitivity and specificity of ST-segment changes during occlusion of the circumflex artery and the right coronary artery Circumflex artery (n = 50) Sensitivity, Specificity, Electrocardiographic criteria % % ST-segment [up arrow], leads 98 55 [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9] ST-segment [down arrow], leads 0 89 [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9] ST-segment [up arrow], leads 0 47 [V.sub.3R] through [V.sub.5R] ST-segment [down arrow], leads 18 97 [V.sub.3R] through [V.sub.5R] ST-segment [up arrow], 32 8 leads II, III, aVF ST-segment [up arrow], 8 84 lead III > lead II ST-segment [down arrow], lead I 2 71 ST-segment [down arrow], 10 26 lead aVL ST-segment [down arrow], 8 53 lead aVL > lead I ST-segment [down arrow], leads 64 34 [V.sub.1] through [V.sub.3] ST-segment [up arrow], leads 0 84 [V.sub.1] through [V.sub.3] ST-segment [up arrow], lead 24 87 [V.sub.5] ST-segment [up arrow], lead 32 82 [V.sub.6] ST-segment [down arrow], lead 22 82 [V.sub.2] + ST-segment [up arrow], lead [V.sub.6] ST-segment [up arrow], leads 10 26 II, III, aVF + ST-segment [down arrow], lead aVL ST-segment [up arrow] 16 32 II, III, aVF + no ST-segment [up arrow], leads [V.sub.5] through [V.sub.6] ST-segment [up arrow], leads 32 55 II, III, aVF + ST-segment [up arrow], leads [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9] ST-segment [up arrow], leads 88 95 [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9] + no ST-segment [down arrow], lead aVL Right coronary artery (n = 38) Sensitivity, Specificity, Electrocardiographic criteria % % P ST-segment [up arrow], leads 45 2 <.001 * [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9] ST-segment [down arrow], leads 11 100 .43 [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9] ST-segment [up arrow], leads 53 100 <.001 * [V.sub.3R] through [V.sub.5R] ST-segment [down arrow], leads 3 82 .04 [V.sub.3R] through [V.sub.5R] ST-segment [up arrow], 92 68 <.001 * leads II, III, aVF ST-segment [up arrow], 16 92 .32 lead III > lead II ST-segment [down arrow], lead I 29 98 <.001 * ST-segment [down arrow], 74 90 <.001 * lead aVL ST-segment [down arrow], 47 92 <.001 * lead aVL > lead I ST-segment [down arrow], leads 66 36 >.99 [V.sub.1] through [V.sub.3] ST-segment [up arrow], leads 16 100 .005 * [V.sub.1] through [V.sub.3] ST-segment [up arrow], lead 13 76 .28 [V.sub.5] ST-segment [up arrow], lead 18 68 .22 [V.sub.6] ST-segment [down arrow], lead 18 78 .79 [V.sub.2] + ST-segment [up arrow], lead [V.sub.6] ST-segment [up arrow], leads 74 90 <.001 * II, III, aVF + ST-segment [down arrow], lead aVL ST-segment [up arrow] 68 84 <.001 * II, III, aVF + no ST-segment [up arrow], leads [V.sub.5] through [V.sub.6] ST-segment [up arrow], leads 45 68 .27 II, III, aVF + ST-segment [up arrow], leads [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9] ST-segment [up arrow], leads 5 12 <.001 * [V.sub.7] through [V.sub.9] + no ST-segment [down arrow], lead aVL [up arrow], elevation; [down arrow], depression. * P < .01.