Discovering inexpensive on-campus IT support.Abstract
Over the past few years, U.S. higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. institutions have endured severe budget cuts which have resulted in decreased spending in the area of information technology (IT). However, the demand for IT support has continued to grow and institutions and their academic departments are faced with the challenge of locating inexpensive or even free IT expertise and support for their IT projects. This paper highlights many of the existing opportunities that exist at most institutions, which can be leveraged to support IT projects.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the 2003 Campus Computing computing - computer Project a National Survey of Information Technology in U.S. Higher Education (Green, 2004), budget cuts in U.S. higher education institutions continued to grow impacting campus Information Technology (IT) activities and investments. Green reported two-fifths (41.3 percent) of the survey participants indicated budget cuts affecting academic computing this past year, up from 32.6 percent in 2002 and just 18 percent in 2001. Similarly, just over two-fifths of the institutions reported reduced funding for administrative computing, compared to almost one-third (31.0 percent) in 2002, and one-fifth (18.3 percent) in 2001. In addition, one-third (32.4 percent) of the 2003 survey participants reported mid-year budgets cuts up from 24.9 percent in 2002 and 8.0 percent in 2001. Despite reduced budgets, the Campus Computing Project (Green, 2004) and other studies report that interest and demand for technology-based initiatives such as wireless connectivity, web-based portals, course management systems, e-commerce and service solutions on university campuses, continue to expand. A necessary component in supporting this growth is an increase in IT personnel to implement, manage and support these technology initiatives.
In budget friendly years, many universities had sufficient funding to conduct regional or even national searches for IT candidates and budgets to offer competitive salaries and benefit packages. With decreasing budgets, university-wide hiring freezes Noun 1. hiring freeze - a freeze on hiring
freeze - fixing (of prices or wages etc) at a particular level; "a freeze on hiring" for fulltime positions and no reprieve reprieve (rĭprēv`): in law, see pardon. in the foreseeable fore·see
tr.v. fore·saw , fore·seen , fore·see·ing, fore·sees
To see or know beforehand: foresaw the rapid increase in unemployment. future, universities are struggling with the challenge of acquiring IT support, expertise and personnel inexpensively especially for the many short-term IT projects originating from academic departments. Internal personnel, individuals already at the university in some capacity, represent an often overlooked and untapped IT resource to fulfill ful·fill also ful·fil
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.
2. these needs. In my own institution's search to find IT support on campus for my academic department's IT projects, we discovered a plethora plethora /pleth·o·ra/ (pleth´ah-rah)
1. an excess of blood.
2. by extension, a red florid complexion.pletho´ric
1. of existing programs which we could and did leverage to meet our IT needs for a fraction of the cost of full time personnel or in many cases, for no cost at all. This article will present and describe the problem of diminishing di·min·ish
v. di·min·ished, di·min·ish·ing, di·min·ish·es
a. To make smaller or less or to cause to appear so.
b. budgets in the context of IT initiatives, the resulting declining job market for IT professionals, and the dire need for IT majors to find work-related experiences on-campus and the many on-campus opportunities which exist for them or others with IT skills to gain this experience and meet the needs of many departments' IT projects.
Budget Cuts in Higher Education
For the 2003-2004 fiscal year, aggregate appropriations for higher education in the U.S. fell 2.1 percent to $60.3-billion, the first actual spending cut Noun 1. spending cut - the act of reducing spending
cut - the act of reducing the amount or number; "the mayor proposed extensive cuts in the city budget" since 1992-93 when appropriations dropped to 0.9 percent (Arnone, 2004). The decline may be the single biggest ever (Palmer as cited in Arnone, 2004). In a study found in a recent issue of The Chronicle of Higher Education (Young, 2004), it was reported that 76% of Chief Information Officer's (CIO's) budgets in higher education were cut in Fall 2003 canceling or delaying most campus technology projects. Furthermore, 51% of CIO's who experienced budget cuts froze froze
Past tense of freeze.
the past tense of freeze
froze, frozen freeze or eliminated IT positions. Despite the diminished di·min·ish
v. di·min·ished, di·min·ish·ing, di·min·ish·es
a. To make smaller or less or to cause to appear so.
b. budgets, there is evidence to suggest that the demand for campus technology initiatives has grown (Green, 2003).
IT Expertise on Campus
Employment in the U.S. high-tech industry dropped 8 percent in 2002 from 6.5 million to 6 million. (Cyberstates, 2003). The unemployment rate for computer programmers This is a list of programmers notable for their contributions to software, either as original author or architect, or for later additions.
See also: Game programmer, List of computer scientists
reached 6.7% in 2003 up from 2.5% in 2001 compared to an overall U.S. unemployment rate of 6% in 2003 (Young, 2004). Understandably, this depressed U.S. market for IT professionals has led to a flood of IT students on campus desperately seeking real-world experiences.
Higher tuition costs is another factor driving IT students in higher education to look for work on campus. Historically, college tuition The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page.
College tuition costs have risen an average of about 5% a year. For 2003-2004, public colleges and universities in the U.S. raised their tuition and fees by an average of 14.1% over 2002-2003 year's costs, which was three times the rate of inflation (Learning Quest, n.d.). In 2003, 49 out of 50 states raised their tuition fees at public colleges and universities (Bofelli, 2004). As a direct consequence, many IT students are forced to seek part-time employment to offset these rising costs of tuition. With limited options off-campus, on-campus opportunities with the many extra perks perk 1
v. perked, perk·ing, perks
1. To stick up or jut out: dogs' ears that perk.
2. To carry oneself in a lively and jaunty manner. offered (hourly wages, tuition waivers, course credit, etc.) present attractive and viable alternatives. Thus, providing opportunities for IT students to support IT projects on campus tends to be a mutually beneficial Adj. 1. mutually beneficial - mutually dependent
dependent - relying on or requiring a person or thing for support, supply, or what is needed; "dependent children"; "dependent on moisture" arrangement for students and departments. The university as a whole may still incur the costs for some of these opportunities, but the total cost is far less than would be realized hiring fulltime IT staff:
On-campus opportunities include assistantships, work-study programs Noun 1. work-study program - an educational plan in which students alternate between paid employment and formal study
didactics, education, educational activity, instruction, pedagogy, teaching - the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart , coop/internships, individual studies, academic service learning, and senior capstone projects. These opportunities are funded through various sources and the positions can be utilized to support various IT projects. The scope of department IT projects vary in levels of expertise required and length of time needed to support and/or complete them. On campus opportunities will also vary in length of time and expertise; for example, students in IT programs working on senior capstone projects bring in a higher level of expertise and skills, although the length of time committed to the project is typically a maximum of 20 weeks. In contrast, students who are on work-study programs may bring in a lower level of IT skills but may be available for 4 years to support IT projects and in this time may have the opportunity to develop more advanced skills. Thus, departments need to align align (līn),
v to move the teeth into their proper positions to conform to the line of occlusion. the right students and on-campus opportunities with the appropriate IT projects.
A graduate assistantship as·sis·tant·ship
An academic position that carries a stipend and usually involves part-time teaching or research, given to a qualified graduate student. is a type of financial award provided to a graduate student for part-time work in teaching, administration/staff or research while pursuing course work toward an advanced degree. At most universities, the graduate assistantship generally takes on three forms--a teaching assistantship, a research assistantship and an administration/staff assistantship. Some institutions have set guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. for assistantship duties requiring their awarded students to adhere to adhere to
verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful
2. these parameters. For example, at some institutions teaching assistants must be directly involved in teaching and direct instruction and often are required to be the instructor on record for teaching an undergraduate class. They are not permitted to work on other "projects" outside of their teaching responsibilities. Research assistants can be grant-funded and, if so, their duties are typically limited to the nature and specifics of the grant. At other times, they may be funded by the institution to promote and support research and assigned to particular faculty members or departments to assist with their research needs. Administration/staff assistants have the most flexibility as their duties are not strictly instructional or research-oriented. Depending on your institution's definition and expectations for the various types of assistantships, students with the appropriate IT expertise who have been awarded graduate assistantships may be eligible to support academic departments' IT projects.
Typically, 100% of funding is provided by the university's graduate office, and the total number of graduate assistantships per department is based on available funding and a factor of department size often measured by number of fulltime department faculty and/or students and/or credits generated/courses taught. To be eligible to receive a graduate assistantship, students must be admitted as masters or doctoral degree students prior to the employment period. Students must also be enrolled with a fulltime course load, which in my institution's case requires a minimum of 10 course credits. No other employment, scholarship, financial aid or other remuneration REMUNERATION. Reward; recompense; salary. Dig. 17, 1, 7. is permitted by my institution without written graduate office approval in advance. Although the graduate office generally provides the funding for graduate assistantships, the actual appointments and the responsibility of meeting the requirements of the assistantships are left to the academic departments. Appointments to a graduate assistantship are normally made on a one-fourth to one-half time basis. Full year appointments (on a half-time basis) require twenty hours per week, two hundred hours per academic term, and six hundred hours per year with a maximum of 14 credits of coursework coursework
work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's any term. Appointments are usually limited to the academic year, but with additional end-of-year funds, summer appointments are possible.
A graduate assistantship is considered a paid position, as there is a stipend sti·pend
A fixed and regular payment, such as a salary for services rendered or an allowance.
[Middle English stipendie, from Old French, from Latin st involved as well as other benefits. For example, at my institution for the academic year 2004-2005, a graduate assistantship package included a stipend includes a stipend of $7,120, a tuition waiver The voluntary surrender of a known right; conduct supporting an inference that a particular right has been relinquished.
The term waiver is used in many legal contexts. worth $5520, coverage of medical insurance costing $621 and $180 for health center fees. In some cases, non-resident/international graduate student assistants are assessed state resident tuition. At some institutions which charge international students as much as 200% of in state tuition fees, the student's savings can be enormous. In addition, students may have access to departmental resources including office space, computer/printer access, telephone/fax access, photocopier photocopier
Device for producing copies of text or graphic material by the use of light, heat, chemicals, or electrostatic charge. Most modern copiers use a method called xerography. access and use of departmental supplies and materials. Assistantships provide a unique opportunity for students with IT skills to support IT projects while being provided a stipend, tuition support and coverage of health and medical insurance. It is not unusual for students to move into fulltime IT opportunities on-campus after successfully demonstrating their IT abilities and knowledge through an assistantship.
This option is also known as independent study or arranged study. Students can receive undergraduate or graduate course credit that can be applied to most programs. Students are not paid in this option because they are receiving course credit. For each credit offered, student must engage in 30 hours of course work. A student completes coursework as outlined by an instructor. The "class schedule" and responsibilities can be flexible and negotiable NEGOTIABLE. That which is capable of being transferred by assignment; a thing, the title to which may be transferred by a sale and indorsement or delivery.
2. with the sponsoring faculty member. These types of courses require a faculty member to develop, sponsor and supervise the courses usually without additional compensation. One of the requirements for these types of courses is that they must be unique--i.e, not offered elsewhere at the university. Typically, the faculty and student decide what the course will look like, and then the faculty member submits a course request form for approval from the dept. chair and dean. The form addresses a number of areas including: a course description and outline, a rationale for offering individual study, a justification for number of credits granted, an explanation of faculty's role and responsibilities and how the student's work will be evaluated. Individual study courses can often be an ideal opportunity for a department to receive assistance on IT related projects while students gain experience and skills and get credit for non-traditional coursework.
There are two types of work-study programs: state work-study awards and federal work-study awards which are partially funded by the state and federal governments, respectively. State work-study awards subsidize sub·si·dize
tr.v. sub·si·dized, sub·si·diz·ing, sub·si·diz·es
1. To assist or support with a subsidy.
2. To secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy. 80% of the student's hourly wage, while federal work-study awards subsidize 75% of the student's hourly wage. Students apply through their financial aid office and must qualify for need-based financial aid. However, not all those who qualify for financial aid receive work-study awards. Work-Study may be in place of other financial aid or in addition to other loans or students may choose to reduce loan funds to accommodate a work-study award. Work-study awards are a needs-based financial aid award. They are not grants or loans, but paid jobs. Any academic department can list a job for these types of awards, but the jobs must be approved by the Student Employment Office.
Work-study jobs are like other jobs; work a number of hours in a pay period at some wage rate and receive a paycheck. Work-Study awards typically range from $2,000-$5,000 for an academic year. Student can work a maximum of 19 hrs/week although the weekly hours can be limited to just a few hours per week depending on the student's needs. Priority is given to students who are offered jobs related to majors and/or high skill. Jobs involving IT projects represent a good fit for IT majors or those with IT expertise. Work-study opportunities provide real work experience in a course or field of study such as IT and often offer higher compensation these positions are subsidized sub·si·dize
tr.v. sub·si·dized, sub·si·diz·ing, sub·si·diz·es
1. To assist or support with a subsidy.
2. To secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy. . Therefore, employers can afford to pay near the high end of wage scales. And because these positions are heavily subsidized, work-study students are in high demand by employers and eligible students can often work the job of their choice.
A number of academic programs require students to attain co-op or internship internship /in·tern·ship/ (in´tern-ship) the position or term of service of an intern in a hospital.
n the course work or practicum conducted in a professional dental clinic. experience sometime before the completion of their programs; other programs provide this as an elective elective
non-urgent; at an elected time, e.g. of surgery.
elective adjective Referring to that which is planned or undertaken by choice and without urgency, as in elective surgery, see there noun Graduate education noun option. My institution offers both undergraduate and graduate cooperative education
The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view courses and internships. For many institutions, the differences and policies governing co-operative education and internships are quite different. At my institution, the terms "co-operation education" and "'internships" are interchangeable in·ter·change·a·ble
That can be interchanged: interchangeable items of clothing; interchangeable automotive parts.
in since both programs are identical in their components. These types of opportunities are typically unpaid, but if there is payment involved, the employer pays 100% of wages. To be eligible to enroll in a co-op or internship course, students must be in good academic standing. Prior to enrolling, undergrads This article is about the television show. For the educational term, see undergraduate education.
This article or section does not cite its .
You can Wikipedia by introducing appropriate citations. must have a minimum of 45 credits, and graduates, 90 credits. In addition, students must complete a learning agreement between the university, employer and student describing the learning objectives, learning activities and evaluation. The employer can be an academic department or individual faculty member on campus. Together the employer, university and student negotiate the specifics of the learning contract. Students must also identify a faculty member to serve as their advisor and to be responsible for ensuring the academic portion of the co-operative/internship is viable.
Students can receive university credit (usually not letter grades but a designation of Satisfactory or Unsatisfactory) for successfully completing their internships or cooperative courses. Individual academic department determine the number of credits for each program but the range for undergraduate credits is 1-5 and for graduate credits, 1-12 credits. At my institution, students require 40 hours of co-op/internship to earn one university credit. Most institutions have Student Career Centers which provide a list of available co-operative education courses and internships. Students have the option of locating an appropriate internship on their own or creating their own internships. Academic departments needing IT support for a project can submit a co-operative education course or internship request reflecting this need. Co-ops and internships represent opportunities for IT students to get hands-on experience and learn professional skills while supporting IT projects on campus.
Academic service-learning is a course-based, credit-bearing educational experience in which students participate in an organized service activity that meets identified community needs and reflect on the service activity in such a way to gain further understanding of the course content, a broader appreciation of the discipline, and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility (Bringle & Hatcher hatch 1
a. An opening, as in the deck of a ship, in the roof or floor of a building, or in an aircraft.
b. The cover for such an opening.
c. A hatchway.
d. , 1995). Academic service-learning enhances and expands student learning by promoting opportunities for faculty and students to make connections between course content, theoretical knowledge and real-life situations with community partners (Academic, n.d.) or clients on campus (which may include individual academic departments).
In any given academic term at my institution, pre-designed academic service-learning courses exist in a number of different fields including some interdisciplinary in·ter·dis·ci·pli·nar·y
Of, relating to, or involving two or more academic disciplines that are usually considered distinct.
Adjective options. Undergraduate courses span across disciplines--e.g, marketing, communication, public relations public relations, activities and policies used to create public interest in a person, idea, product, institution, or business establishment. By its nature, public relations is devoted to serving particular interests by presenting them to the public in the most , reading, graphic art, astronomy astronomy, branch of science that studies the motions and natures of celestial bodies, such as planets, stars, and galaxies; more generally, the study of matter and energy in the universe at large. , tourism, photography, etc. Students can find their own academic service learning projects and/or academic departments may submit their IT projects to be considered for this option. A faculty member is responsible for "teaching" this course and providing a grade of satisfactory or unsatisfactory based on student performance assessed against the course objectives. At my institution, any student in any program is eligible to participate in academic service learning for credit. Academic service learning opportunities are usually unpaid. Courses typically range from 3-5 credits; undergraduate students can take a maximum of 6 credits and graduate students a maximum of 9 credits. Each credit requires 40 hours of academic service learning activity.
Senior Capstone Project
At many institutions, students are required to complete senior capstone projects involving a significant amount of work in their content area. At my institution, all computer science majors are required to take two 4-credit courses (20 weeks total) offered in consecutive academic terms in the last year of their computer science degree program. The ideal capstone project is "one that is well defined, not easily satisfied with commercial off-the-shelf software commercial off-the-shelf software - commercial software , and requires some custom programming effort." (J.S., personal communication, September 27, 2004).
Students work in teams of four or five to develop a software application or IT solution to meet the needs of a real-world client which may include an academic department. Project proposals are solicited by the instructors and students from the university and surrounding community. Student roles include a team leader, a quality assurance manager, a lead programmer A lead programmer is a software engineer in charge of one or more software projects. Alternative titles include Development Lead, Technical Lead, Senior Software Engineer, Software Design Engineer Lead (SDE Lead), Software Manager , and a lead tester. Each team has a faculty mentor from the computer science department who is responsible for grading each team member, assisting in troubleshooting Troubleshooting is a form of problem solving. It is the systematic search for the source of a problem so that it can be solved. Troubleshooting is often a process of elimination - eliminating potential causes of a problem. problems with uncooperative team members, and working out any unresolved Not completed; not finished; not linked together. See resolve. problem with clients. Project teams meet weekly with clients to gather necessary data and to test projects. The client gives the final word if the finished project meets requirements. The end result is that computer science students complete their capstone project (and receive a grade) in addition to working in a team with a real-world client. The client receives a completed project hopefully meeting their needs. The only drawback DRAWBACK, com. law. An allowance made by the government to merchants on the reexportation of certain imported goods liable to duties, which, in some cases, consists of the whole; in others, of a part of the duties which had been paid upon the importation. for the client is the lack of ongoing maintenance and support once the project has been submitted for grading. This fact does not appear to deter many clients who may not otherwise to be able to afford IT staff to complete necessary projects. In 2004, the computer science department at my institution received 25 client proposals for senior capstone projects.
For the reasons cited in this paper, IT expertise is readily available and is accessible on campus and may be leveraged through free or low-cost funding options to support academic department IT projects. As described in this paper, each opportunity carries its own restrictions and parameters. The specific options presented in this paper are based on opportunities available at my institution, a regional comprehensive university in the Northwest United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . Most likely other institutions have similar options, although the specifics and policies will vary from institution to institution. Readers are encouraged to survey their own institutions' resources and options to reap the benefits of tapping into their available but often hidden talent on-campus IT pool to support their IT projects. While these options tend to be beneficial for various academic departments at the institution and the student (money, experience, skill development, job, credit, etc.), they also have the added advantage of often being available during all fiscal periods--budget-constrained and budget-friendly years.
Academic Service Learning. (n.d.). ASL ASL - Algebraic Specification Language : About Us. Retrieved November 20, 2004 from: http://www.cwu.edu/~asl/about.html
Arnone, M. (2004). State Spending on Colleges Drops for the First Time in 11 Years, The Years, The
the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]
See : Time Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from: http://chronicle.com/ prm/weekly/v50/il9/19a02401.htm
Bofelli, S. (2004). DPW DPW n abbr (US) (= Department of Public Works) → ministerio de obras públicas : Bush Graduation Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the associated ceremony. The date of event is often called degree day. The event itself is also called commencement, convocation or invocation. Present to College Students: Financial Aid Cuts, Higher Tuition, Poor Job Prospects. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from: http://wispolitics.com/index.iml?Article=16645
Bringle, R.G., & Hatcher, J.A. (1995). A service-learning curriculum for faculty. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 2, 112-122.
Cyberstates. (2003). A State-By-State Overview of the High-Technology Industry. Retrieved June 22, 2004: http://www.aeanet.org/publications/IDMK_cyberstatcs2003_brochure.asp
Green, K. (2003). 2003 Campus Computing Survey, Campus Computing Project Website. Retrieved August 13, 2004 from: http://www.campuscomputing.net
Learning Quest (n.d.). Investing for College. Retrieved September 29, 2004 from: https://www.learningquestsavings.com/learningquest/know/save4college.html
Young, J. (2004). Will Colleges Miss the Next Big Thing? The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved September 29, 2004 from: http://chronicle.com/prm/weekly/ v50/i33/33a03501.htm
Marwin Britto, Central Washington University Central Washington University, or CWU, is an accredited four-year educational institution located in Ellensburg, Washington in the United States. The university originally opened in the late 19th century as a teacher's college, which is still one of the primary majors taken there. , WA
Marwin Britto is an assistant professor and Director of the Educational Technology Center.