Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil.Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi.
Diphyllobothriasis is an intestinal parasitosis par·a·si·to·sis
n. pl. par·a·si·to·ses
Infestation with parasites.
a disease caused by a parasitic infestation. See also helminthiasis. acquired by eating raw or partially cooked fish containing Diphyllobothrium spp. plerocercoids. Most persons are asymptomatic, but diarrhea, abdominal pain Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. Making a definitive diagnosis of the cause of abdominal pain can be difficult, because many diseases can result in this symptom. Abdominal pain is a common problem. , or discomfort occurs in [less than or equal to] 22% of infections. Prolonged or heavy Diphyllobothrium latum infection may cause megaloblastic anemia megaloblastic anemia
Anemia in which there is a predominant number of megaloblasts and relatively few normoblasts among the hyperplastic erythroid cells in the bone marrow. due to parasite-mediated dissociation of the vitamin [B.sub.12]-intrinsic factor complex within the gut lumen, making [B.sub.12] unavailable to the host (1).
Human diphyllobothriasis has been reported in Europe, Asia, North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. , and South America South America, fourth largest continent (1991 est. pop. 299,150,000), c.6,880,000 sq mi (17,819,000 sq km), the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. . South American has reported cases from Peru, Chile, and Argentina, but not Brazil (2-7). South American diphyllobothriasis is an ancient disease; D. pacificum eggs were found in coprolites, 4,000- to 5,000-year-old Chinchorro Chilean mummies (8).
Four recognized species, D. latum, D. pacificum, D. klebanovskii, and D. nihonkaiense, infect humans; many species infect fish-eating birds, dogs, foxes, and bears (2,5). Species identification is relevant because D. pacificum infects only saltwater fish. D. latum infects only freshwater fish or species that spend part of their life in fresh water. Only D. latum and D. pacificum have been found in humans in South America; other species of Diphyllobothrium have been found in freshwater fish from Chile and Argentina (9,10).
Since diphyllobothriasis was a rare disease in Brazil, 5 cases diagnosed from March to August 2004 were of interest. At our Sao Paulo institution, [approximately equal to] 36,000 stool specimens are examined for ova ova (o´vah) plural of ovum.
Mentioned in: Stool O & P Test
plural of ovum. and parasites annually. Since 1998, no changes in personnel or protocols used for stool examination have occurred.
A database was searched for the period from January 1998 to December 2003 to determine the number of our patients diagnosed with Diphyllobothrium infection. From September 2004 to January 2005, stool specimens of patients who ate raw fish were examined to determine the prevalence of diphyllobothriasis. Patients > 15 years of age were asked if they had eaten raw fish in the past 2 months. All patients, except those with Diphyllobothrium eggs in their stools, were asked if they had been sick, if they had eaten raw fish, the species of fish eaten, and if they had traveled outside Brazil in the last 5 years. When available, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume mean corpuscular volume
n. Abbr. MCV
The average volume of red blood cells in erythrocyte indices, calculated from the hematocrit and the red blood cell count. samples were evaluated to exclude megaloblastic anemia.
Ten eggs were randomly sampled from Diphyllobothrium spp.-positive stool specimens from 4 randomly chosen patients; the length and width of the eggs were recorded. Strobilas obtained from 2 specimens were evaluated by scanning electronic microscopic studies (11). Fragments of strobila strobila /stro·bi·la/ (stro-bi´lah) pl. strobi´lae [L.] the chain of proglottids constituting the bulk of the body of adult tapeworms.
n. pl. were fixed in 10% formalin formalin /for·ma·lin/ (for´mah-lin) formaldehyde solution.
An aqueous solution of formaldehyde that is 37 percent by weight. , embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained with hematoxylineosin. Uterine uterine /uter·ine/ (u´ter-in) pertaining to the uterus.
Of, relating to, or in the region of the uterus. morphology was evaluated in fresh preparations of proglottids.
The database search found 1 case of diphyllobothriasis. Comparatively, 5 cases were diagnosed from March to August 2004. To determine the prevalence of diphyllobothriasis, we added a standard question about eating raw fish to our admission protocol from September 2004 to January 2005. During this period, we examined fecal specimens of 8,463 patients [greater than or equal to] 15 years of age. Among those patients, 623 refused to admit eating raw fish, 5,335 denied eating raw fish, and 2,505 stated they did eat raw fish. Thirteen cases, 5.19/1,000, of diphyllobothriasis were found in the patients who ate raw fish. The infected patients were from 16 to 59 years of age with a mean age of 33 years. None of the patients who denied eating raw fish had Diphyllobothrium eggs in their specimens. The most frequently reported symptoms were abdominal discomfort and intermittent diarrhea (83.3%). Twenty-two percent of the patients eliminated the parasite; 16.7% were asymptomatic. Mean corpuscular volume was 81.1-93.9 fL and hemoglobin was 12.2-16.8g/dL in 8 patients. All values were within the normal range. Seven of the 18 patients had not traveled outside Brazil in the last 5 years; 2 of them had never traveled outside Brazil. Eggs observed in stool samples had the characteristic shape observed in Diphyllobothrium spp. (Figure, A). The average length was 64-71 [micro]m, and the average width was 48-51 [micro]m.
Of the 4 adult worm specimens (strobila fragments) available for analysis, the largest fragment was 900 mm long by 7 mm wide with an average proglottid proglottid /pro·glot·tid/ (-glot´id) one of the segments making up the body of a tapeworm; see strobila.
pro·glot·tid or pro·glot·tis
n. pl. length of 2.5 mm. Scanning electronic microscopic studies showed circular and conspicuous genital papillae at the upper third of proglottids (Figure, B). Uteri from gravid gravid /grav·id/ (grav´id) pregnant.
Carrying eggs or developing young.
gra·vid proglottids formed a rosette Rosette
D’Albert’s pliable, versatile, talented, acknowledged bedmate. [Fr. Lit.: Mademoiselle de Maupin. Magill I, 542–543]
See : Courtesanship
(language) Rosette - A concurrent object-oriented language from MCC. with 4-5 loops (Figure, C). Sagittal sagittal /sag·it·tal/ (saj´i-t'l)
1. shaped like an arrow.
2. situated in the direction of the sagittal suture; said of an anteroposterior plane or section parallel to the median plane of the body. sections of adult worms showed the cirrus sac lying horizontally with the seminal vesicle seminal vesicle
Either of a pair of pouchlike glands situated on each side of the male urinary bladder that secrete seminal fluid and nourish and promote the movement of spermatozoa through the urethra. lying dorsocaudal to it. A marked constriction constriction /con·stric·tion/ (kon-strik´shun)
1. a narrowing or compression of a part; a stricture.constric´tive
2. a diminution in range of thinking or feeling, associated with diminished spontaneity. between segments was noted (Figure, D).
The presence of genital papillae showed that the specimens from Brazilian patients were similar to those in published reports for D. latum (11). Sagittal sections of the genital pore region of worms in Brazilian patients showed the cirrus sac lying horizontally with the seminal vesicle lying dorsocaudal to it, as described by Dick et el. (12). Our findings exclude D. pacificum since uteri from gravid progiottid of worms in Brazilian patients formed a rosette, which was not observed in D. pacificum. The largest reported D. pacificum eggs (40 [micro]m wide and 60 [micro]m long) (13) were smaller than the smallest eggs (48 [micro]m wide and 64 [micro]m long) in our study. Although egg dimension can not be used as a single criterion for species identification, the values for D. latum recorded in our study agree with Andersen et el. (14).
Based on the genital papillae, position of the cirrus sac, shape of the uterus, and egg dimensions, we tentatively identify the specimens as D. latum and implicate im·pli·cate
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.
2. this species as the source of human infection in Sao Paulo. All infected patients ate raw fresh Atlantic salmon Atlantic salmon
Oceanic trout species (Salmo salar), a highly prized game fish. It averages about 12 lbs (5.5 kg) and is marked with round or cross-shaped spots. Found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, it enters streams in the fall to spawn. and some ate a local fish, Centropomus undecimalis, in sushi or sashimi. C. undecimalis has not been reported as a D. latum host, but it is a saltwater fish that spends part of its life in fresh water.
Since the Brazilian climate prevents Atlantic salmon farming, it is imported from Chile, where diphyllobothriasis is endemic in some regions (15). The 18 infections we describe were acquired in Brazil because 2 patients had never traveled outside the country. Imported salmon may be the source of D. latum plerocercoids infections; another possibility is that the life cycle of D. latum is established in Sao Paulo coastal waters and rivers. If so, C. undecimalis, used in sushi and sashimi, could be a source of infection.
Epidemiologic investigations are being conducted in Sao Paulo that will identify the source of D. latum plerocercoids and help implement educational and sanitary measures and prevent diphyllobothriasis from becoming endemic in Brazil.
The authors thank Mauro Figueiredo and Celso Granato for critically reviewing this article; Rite Hiromi Abematsu and Filipe de Carvalho Costa Guazelli for editing the images; Gilma Ferreira O. Silva for the histologic preparations; and Flavio P. Faria for the scanning electron microscopy electron microscopy
Technique that allows examination of samples too small to be seen with a light microscope. Electron beams have much smaller wavelengths than visible light and hence higher resolving power. preparations.
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Victor Piana de Andrade, * Jorge Luiz Mello Sampaio, * Maria da Conceicao Lucas, * Liang Fung, * Sandra Maria B. Gagliardi, * Sandra Rosalem P. Santos, * Caio Marcio Figueiredo Mendes, * Maria Bernadete de Paula Eduardo, ([dagger]) and Terry Dick ([double dagger])
* Fleury Research Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil; ([dagger]) Sao Paulo State Department of Health, Sao Paulo, Brazil; and ([double dagger]) University of Manitoba Location
The main Fort Garry campus is a complex on the Red River in south Winnipeg. It has an area of 2.74 square kilometres. More than 60 major buildings support the teaching and research programs of the university. , Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Dr Sampaio is a medical microbiologist at Fleury Centers for Diagnostic Medicine and Fleury Research Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. His research interests are diagnostic medical microbiology, nosocomial infections Nosocomial infections
Infections that were not present before the patient came to a hospital, but were acquired by a patient while in the hospital.
Mentioned in: Enterobacterial Infections, Staphylococcal Infections , and antimicrobial drug resistance.
Address for correspondence: Jorge Luiz Mello Sampaio, Avenida General Waldomiro de Lima, 508-Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil 04344-070; fax: 55-11-50147601; email: email@example.com