Differences between sexual orientation behavior groups and social background, quality of life, and health behaviors.There has been a tremendous explosion of research on sexual orientation sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces. and homosexual homosexual /ho·mo·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the same sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the same sex. lifestyles in recent decades (Allgeier & Allgeier, 2000; Hawkins & Stackhouse, 1998). This has included examination of the development of a homosexual or bisexual bisexual /bi·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to or characterized by bisexuality.
2. an individual exhibiting bisexuality.
3. pertaining to or characterized by hermaphroditism.
4. identity, dimensions of sexual orientation, relationship dynamics, the historical emergence of a gay culture, possible etiologic e·ti·ol·o·gy also ae·ti·ol·o·gy
n. pl. e·ti·ol·o·gies
a. The study of causes or origins.
b. The branch of medicine that deals with the causes or origins of disease.
a. factors, and a variety of related social issues, as well as basic descriptive research Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. on the incidence or prevalence of sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. . It has been difficult to form strong generalizations from this research literature for a number of reasons. There has been no widely shared agreement about how sexual orientation should be conceptualized or operationalized. Research methods and designs have varied widely, such as surveys, telephone contact, and face-to-face interviews. There has been little effort to examine the demographic characteristics of samples, and possible distinctions between clinical and nonclinical samples have not always been examined.
One area receiving increased attention by professionals in recent years has been the quality of life (QOL QOL,
n quality of life, a subjective assessment of one's emotional and physical well-being. ) associated with different sexual orientations (Gonsiorek, 1991; Ross Ross , Sir Ronald 1857-1932.
British physician. He won a 1902 Nobel Prize for proving that malaria is transmitted to humans by the bite of the mosquito. , 1990). The concept of QOL may be seen as including direct measures that ask respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. to rate the quality of some aspect of their life, such as job satisfaction, perceived health, or general life happiness, as well as a variety of lifestyle and health patterns (i.e., smoking, drinking and/or other drug behavior, physical activity, mental health, and health background) (Horowitz, Blackburn, Edington, & Klos, 1988). Several perspectives about the association between sexual orientation and QOL have appeared in the literature. One view has been that bisexuality bisexuality /bi·sex·u·al·i·ty/ (-sek?shoo-al´i-te)
1. sexual attraction to persons of both sexes; exhibition of both homosexual and heterosexual behavior.
2. true hermaphroditism.
3. androgyny (1). and homosexuality homosexuality, a term created by 19th cent. theorists to describe a sexual and emotional interest in members of one's own sex. Today a person is often said to have a homosexual or a heterosexual orientation, a description intended to defuse some of the long-standing are pathological 1. pathological - [scientific computation] Used of a data set that is grossly atypical of normal expected input, especially one that exposes a weakness or bug in whatever algorithm one is using. conditions, leading to reduced and disrupted dis·rupt
tr.v. dis·rupt·ed, dis·rupt·ing, dis·rupts
1. To throw into confusion or disorder: Protesters disrupted the candidate's speech.
2. QOL This may be regarded as the traditional Western position (summarized by Allgeier & Allgeier, 2000). Another view has been that homosexuals and bisexuals tend to face discrimination in a homophobic ho·mo·pho·bi·a
1. Fear of or contempt for lesbians and gay men.
2. Behavior based on such a feeling.
[homo(sexual) + -phobia. society, and, thus, face unique challenges to their QOL (Allgeier & Allgeier, 2000; Hawkins & Stackhouse, 1998). Another has been that there is no general or systematic difference between sexual orientation groups except their sexual object choice (Symons, 1979). Yet another view has been that there are differences among homosexuals or bisexuals, such as being closeted clos·et·ed
Being In a state of secrecy or cautious privacy. , that may make them more or less susceptible to disruptions in QOL (Harry, 1986).
The present study tested the association between sexual orientation groups and a set of demographic and QOL variables in a series of nonclinical, national probability samples. In addition, we examined the conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: of both sexual orientation and quality of life.
THE CONSTRUCT OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION
A major problem in sexual orientation research has been that findings from a particular study depend heavily on the conceptualization and operationalization of the orientation groups studied and on the way the sample has been assembled as·sem·ble
v. as·sem·bled, as·sem·bling, as·sem·bles
1. To bring or call together into a group or whole: assembled the jury.
2. (Sandfort, 1997). Homosexuality and bisexuality are complex concepts, which have been defined in terms of feelings of physical or emotional attraction, fantasies (Bell, Weinberg, & Hammersmith, 1981; Storms, 1981), actual behavior, and self-definition encompassing a variety of labels (Klein Klein , Melanie 1882-1960.
Austrian-born British psychoanalyst who first introduced play therapy and was the first to use psychoanalysis to treat young children. , Sepekoff, & Wolf, 1985; Shiveley & DeCecco, 1977). Such dimensions do not necessarily overlap and may change throughout one's personal identity development (Coleman, 1987; Klein et al., 1985). Moreover, these dimensions may not exclude the concurrent or subsequent existence of heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex. feelings and behaviors.
There appears to be little consistency in the literature regarding how sexual orientation is assessed. Some researchers use a 7-point Kinsey scale Kinsey scale
A classification system for gauging sexual orientation, designed by Alfred Kinsey, and ranging from 0 (exclusively heterosexual) to 6 (exclusively homosexual).
[After Alfred Charles Kinsey.] (Davis & Smith, 1996; Fay, Turner, Klassen, & Gagnon, 1989), whereas others use a modified 5-point scale (Michael, Laumann, Gagnon, & Smith, 1988: van Zessen & Sandfort, 1991). Bisexuals are often included within the homosexual sample, primarily due to the limited sample size. A number of studies measure sexual behavior (e.g., "Have you had any same-sex experiences in the last 12 months" or "since your 18th birthday." "How many male partners have you had sex with?"), and define this as sexual orientation (Harris Poll, 1988; Michael et al., 1988; Sandfort, 1997; Smith, 1991).
Evidently, conceptual and operational definitions of sexual orientation have varied widely. In fact, many researchers have failed to provide definitions, and sometimes the conceptual and operational definitions have hot matched (Sell, 1997). Instead, definitions of the construct have been implied by the construction of the sample or measurement tools. A common approach has been to categorize cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat persons as heterosexual (HET), homosexual (HOM HOM Homomorphism (mathematics)
HOM head of mission (US DoD)
HOM Hit or Miss
HOM Hall of Mirrors
HOM High Order Mode (Fiber Optics) ), or bisexual (BI). Sell (1997) has argued that the dominant research perspective, and one that reflects the mainstream meanings of Western culture, classifies people as either 100% heterosexual or 100% homosexual. This basic approach of defining types or categories of sexual orientation can be traced at least as far back as Ulrich's (1994) work in the 1860s. Ulrich outlined three sexual orientation groups, which can roughly be translated as HET, HOM, and BI. Here, it is worth noting that little attention has been devoted to the possibility that some persons are asexual asexual /asex·u·al/ (a-sek´shoo-al) having no sex; not sexual; not pertaining to sex.
1. Having no evident sex or sex organs; sexless.
Sell (1997) has further suggested that most conceptualizations since Ulrich have accepted his view that orientation is defined as having a behavioral behavioral
pertaining to behavior.
see psychomotor seizure. dimension and/or a psychological dimension. Some authors have insisted that orientation is primarily a matter of one or the other of these dimensions; others have insisted that an assessment of both dimensions is necessary. For example, Paul (1983) and Herek (1986) argued that sexual orientation is defined by what a person does sexually. Others (Coleman, 1987; Klein et al., 1985) have criticized this view as too simplistic sim·plism
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.
[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple . Although the behavioral dimension seems to be rather straightforward, there has been wide disparity dis·par·i·ty
n. pl. dis·par·i·ties
1. The condition or fact of being unequal, as in age, rank, or degree; difference: "narrow the economic disparities among regions and industries" in defining the psychological factor. It has been conceived as a(n) urge, passion, instinct instinct, term used generally to indicate an innate tendency to action, or pattern of behavior, elicited by specific stimuli and fulfilling vital needs of an organism. , sexual feeling, appetite, interest, desire, attraction, form of erotic erotic /erot·ic/ (e-rot´ik)
1. charged with sexual feeling.
2. pertaining to sexual desire.
1. Of or concerning sexual love and desire. arousal arousal /arous·al/ (ah-rou´z'l)
1. a state of responsiveness to sensory stimulation or excitability.
2. the act or state of waking from or as if from sleep.
3. , fantasy, affectional preference, and sexual preference (Marmor, 1980). In recent decades, it has become popular to regard this psychological factor as a form of self-identity self-identity
1. The oneness of a thing with itself.
2. An awareness of and identification with oneself as a separate individual. and to study the process of identity formation (D'Augelli & Patterson, 1995; Harry & DeVall, 1978).
Cass (1979), among others (Coleman, 1987; Schwartz & Blumstein, 1976; Shively & De Cecco, 1977), maintains that people use a variety of psychological constructions that prevent them from self-labeling as HOM. Homosexuality is uniquely perceived and given meaning by each individual (Cass, 1984). Several researchers (Bell & Weinberg, 1978; Minton & McDonald, 1984) have observed that people's sexual self-identification may differ from their erotic fantasies This article is about written fantasy. For psychological fantasies, see Sexual fantasy.
Erotic fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction and utilizes erotica in a fantasy setting. and behaviors. It is not uncommon for some individuals to engage in same-sex sexual activity, but not to label themselves as HOM or even BI (Doll doll, small figure of a human being, usually used as a child's toy. The many types of dolls found among the relics of primitive peoples were cult objects. Egypt, Greece, and Rome have left well-preserved dolls of wood, clay, bone, ivory, and bronze that were used et al., 1992; Schwartz & Blumstein, 1976; Troiden, 1984). Some may experience same-sex physical attraction Noun 1. physical attraction - a desire for sexual intimacy
concupiscence, sexual desire, eros
desire - the feeling that accompanies an unsatisfied state , but never have sexual contact with someone of the same sex (Sandfort, 1997). In their study, Laumann et al. (1994) reported that all men who self-identified as predominantly pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. or exclusively HOM had experienced same-sex attraction, love, and contact with another man. This was also true of men who identified as BI.
Similarly, Blumstein and Schwartz (1977) reported that they encountered women whose behavior evokes the label of BI, but who adamantly ad·a·mant
Impervious to pleas, appeals, or reason; stubbornly unyielding. See Synonyms at inflexible.
1. A stone once believed to be impenetrable in its hardness.
2. An extremely hard substance. claim to be either HOM or HET. There are also women who claim to be BI, but whose behavior does not seem to support such self-definition. There has been little research on the meanings or implications of such apparently contradictory reports. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Bell and Weinberg (1978), self-ratings of BI orientation are, for the most part, valid, and not merely indicative of homosexual denial.
At first glance, the well-known Kinsey Scale (Kinsey Kin·sey , Alfred Charles 1894-1956.
American sexologist and zoologist noted for his 1948 study, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, popularly known as "The Kinsey Report. , Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948; Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953) appears to be a departure from the two-dimensional classification of groups. The Kinsey team assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. a single score on a unidimensional u·ni·di·men·sion·al
Adj. 1. unidimensional - relating to a single dimension or aspect; having no depth or scope; "a prose statement of fact is unidimensional, its value being measured wholly in terms , 7-point scale ranging from exclusive HOM to exclusive HET. The underlying assumption of this bipolar (1) See bipolar transmission.
(2) One of two major categories of transistor; the other is "field effect transistor" (FET). Although the first transistors and first silicon chips were bipolar, most chips today are field effect transistors wired as CMOS logic, which model was that HOM and HET are opposites; the more a person is characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. by one, the less he/she is characterized by the other. In effect, the Kinsey scale substituted seven groups for the more typical three. It is also interesting to note that Kinsey et al. (1948) and Pomeroy et al. (1953) recommended that both the behavioral and psychological dimensions be assessed in assigning as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. the single score, although they were vague as to how this should be done. They maintained that assessments of the two dimensions rarely differed. In contrast, Bell and Weinberg (1978) scored the two dimensions independently. They also reported little variation between the two scores.
Perhaps the most complex conceptualization of sexual orientation is a model first proposed in a popular book by Klein (1978). The model was later expanded in a professional journal article (Klein, Sepekoff, & Wolf, 1985). Klein and his associates argued that sexual orientation should be assessed on seven conceptually independent dimensions--attraction, behavior, fantasy, emotional preference, social preference, self-identification, and lifestyle. Each of these dimensions was also assessed for the past, the present, and ideal, resulting in a total of 21 separate ratings. As with the Kinsey scale, each of these ratings was scored on a scale ranging from exclusive HOM atone pole to exclusive HET at the other, and no mechanism was provided for categorizing someone as asexual. In the only empirical report exploring the possible correlations among these 21 items, Weinrich and his associates (1993) reported that all 21 items loaded together on a single factor in two separate samples of men. It should be acknowledged, however, that there were differences between the second and third factors in this analysis between the two samples, and that both samples had unusually high proportions of men who self-identified as BI or HOM. It appears that no similar studies have been conducted on women.
An additional layer of complexity is suggested by authors who maintain that sexual orientation should be viewed as a dynamic process that changes over rime, rather than as a static or permanent characteristic (Coleman, 1987; Klein et al., 1985). People's self-identification and/or behavior could, therefore, vary over time. At the very least, we can suggest that no simple conceptualization of sexual orientation has yet to emerge.
With the issues raised here about the conceptualization of sexual orientation, it seems to make sense for researchers to specify and measure particular dimensions of sexual orientation. Accordingly, we used a set of questions about behavior to assign respondents to one of four groups: HET, BI, HOM, and No Sexual Partners (NOSEX). We wanted to test the association between this measure of sexual orientation behavior (SORB) group and a series of variables concerned with QOL.
THE CONCEPT OF QUALITY OF LIFE
Historically, QOL has been used in health and social research, in such fields as medicine, public health, social work, and social policy (Farquhar, 1995). QOL shares many of the same characteristics we just reviewed regarding sexual orientation. There have been a variety of definitions and no standard conceptualization or recognized measure has emerged. There is no consensus theoretically or methodologically (Bowling, 1997). As with sexual orientation, it seems appropriate to specify and measure particular dimensions of the construct.
For example, there has been no consensus on a definition of QOL (Farquhar, 1995). One common approach has been to define the concept in terms of functionality. A number of theoretical models have been proposed (McIntyre, 1966; Parsons Parsons, city (1990 pop. 11,924), Labette co., SE Kans.; inc. 1871. It is a shipping point for dairy products, grain, and livestock. Manufactures include ammunition, wire and paper products, plastics, and appliances. , 1951; Perper, 1985). Perper (1985) stressed the notion of survival and reproduction in defining biosocial bi·o·so·cial
Of or having to do with the interaction of biological and social forces: the biosocial aspects of disease.
bi functionality. However, the very idea of QOL seems to imply more than mere survival. Attempting to avoid the problems with values in the Parsonian definition (Parsons, 1951), McIntyre (1966) defined function as a consequence of activities within a system. From this perspective, QOL can be seen as deriving from functional characterictics as opposed to social values. Another approach has been to define QOL as a sense of subjective well-being (Bowling, 1997). Some authors have used the theory of Phenomenology phenomenology, modern school of philosophy founded by Edmund Husserl. Its influence extended throughout Europe and was particularly important to the early development of existentialism. (Benner, 1985; Bowling, 1997; Ziller, 1974), while others have used Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism is a major sociological perspective that is influential in many areas of the discipline. It is particularly important in microsociology and sociological social psychology. (Bowling, 1997).
Typically, researchers have used either a global measure of life satisfaction or happiness, or component measures (job satisfaction, marital Pertaining to the relationship of Husband and Wife; having to do with marriage.
Marital agreements are contracts that are entered into by individuals who are about to be married, are already married, or are in the process of ending a marriage. happiness, health status) (Andrews & Withey, 1976; Beck, 1967; Bowling, 1997; Campbell, Converse (logic) converse - The truth of a proposition of the form A => B and its converse B => A are shown in the following truth table:
A B | A => B B => A ------+---------------- f f | t t f t | t f t f | f t t t | t t , & Rodgers, 1976; DuBos Du·bos , René Jules 1901-1982.
French-born American bacteriologist noted for his research on natural antibiotics, tuberculosis, and environmental factors in disease. , 1976; Farquhar, 1995; Parsons, 1951; Patrick & Erickson, 1993). Farquhar (1995) has noted that researchers have also included cognitions,' affect, behavior, participation in activities, self-assessments, and even socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. in measures of QOL. One novel approach has included a measure of depression (Beck 1967). In the present study, we are assessing various components of QOL, rather than trying to develop or present an aggregate measure.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND QUALITY OF LIFE
It is exceedingly ex·ceed·ing·ly
To an advanced or unusual degree; extremely.
Adv. 1. difficult to draw generalizations from the literature examining possible differences between sexual orientation groups and QOL variables. One reason for this concerns the lack of consensus about the conceptualizations and operationalizations of both sexual orientation and QOL. Researchers have not always measured these concepts in the same way, or even in comparable ways. There has been relatively little research on how various dimensions of these two concepts correlate with each other. Another reason is that researchers have taken widely varying approaches to sampling, often with direct implications for the assignment of research participants to HOM, HET, and BI groups. Despite these limitations, there has been some suggestion that, generally, studies comparing HET, BI, and HOM have failed to find direct associations between QOL variables and sexual orientation groups per se (Peterson, Folkman, & Bakeman, 1996).
This has led to little consistency in the literature regarding sexual orientation and lifestyle. For example in some studies HOM and HET men were found to significantly differ in specific ways, but HOM and HET women did not, or vice versa VICE VERSA. On the contrary; on opposite sides. . Sometimes BI were found to be similar to HOM respondents, but not always. A plethora plethora /pleth·o·ra/ (pleth´ah-rah)
1. an excess of blood.
2. by extension, a red florid complexion.pletho´ric
1. of studies have examined the use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco by sexual orientation. Based on a national sample of HET and HOM men and women, Skinner Skin·ner , B(urrhus) F(rederick) 1904-1990.
American psychologist. A leading behaviorist, Skinner influenced the fields of psychology and education with his theories of stimulus-response behavior. (1994) reported that HOM use greater amounts of marijuana marijuana or marihuana, drug obtained from the flowering tops, stems, and leaves of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa (see hemp) or C. indica; the latter species can withstand colder climates. or other drugs, tobacco, and alcohol (or abstain less). A number of other studies also found greater alcohol, tobacco, and drug use for HOM compared to HET (Bloomfield, 1993; Bradford, Ryan, & Rothblum, 1994; Hughes & Wilsnack, 1994; McKirnan & Peterson, 1989; Myers et al., 1992; Nardi, 1982; Saghir, Robins, Walban, & Gentry, 1970; Tori, 1989). Although their sample was relatively small (n = 50), Oberstone and Sukoneck (1976) round no differences between HOM and HET women for frequency of drinking, drug usage, or bar socializing. To the contrary, Bloomfield (1993) found that lesbians and BI women frequented bars three times more often than HET women.
Perhaps because of the stigma stigma: see pistil.
mark of Cain
God’s mark on Cain, a sign of his shame for fratricide. [O. T.: Genesis 4:15]
scarlet letter and discrimination associated with HOM and BI, a myriad Myriad is a classical Greek name for the number 104 = 10 000. In modern English the word refers to an unspecified large quantity.
The term myriad is a progression in the commonly used system of describing numbers using tens and hundreds. of researchers have examined possible differences in psychological health state between HOM, BI, and HET groups. Compared to HET adults, HOM report higher stress levels (Bosanko, 1995; Bradford et al., 1994), depression (Bradford et al., 1994; Ross, 1990), fears (Granero, 1984), and suicide attempts suicide attempt, suicide bid n → intento de suicidio
suicide attempt, suicide bid n → tentative f de suicide
(Bradford et al., 1994). Gonsiorek (1991) and Zinik (1985) report contradictory findings in that the subjects in their studies demonstrated no differences for anxiety, depression, hostility, or other psychological symptoms. However, Zinik did report significantly greater depression in the BI group compared to the HOM and HET groups. Gonsiorek (1982) suggested that homosexuality and bisexuality, per se, are hot indicators of psychological disturbance DISTURBANCE, torts. A wrong done to an incorporeal hereditament, by hindering or disquieting the owner in the enjoyment of it. Finch. L. 187; 3 Bl. Com. 235; 1 Swift's Dig. 522; Com. Dig. Action upon the case for a disturbance, Pleader, 3 I 6; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 298. , but rather that the observed psychological differences are due to the greater amounts of environmental/social stresses (i.e., traumatic life events) experienced by HOM and BI groups. In one study of 1,925 lesbians, respondents cited a high prevalence of traumatic life events, such as rape and physical abuse (Bradford et al., 1994). Ross (1990) studied HOM and BI men and found that depression was significantly related to traumatic life events, particularly HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. disease. The impact of traumatic lire events could be manifested in the form of greater rates of psychological maladjustment maladjustment /mal·ad·just·ment/ (mal?ah-just´ment) in psychiatry, defective adaptation to the environment.
1. Faulty or inadequate adjustment.
2. , anxiety, fear, and depression.
The literature on depression and mental health suggests that differences between SORB groups do exist, although the evidence is equivocal EQUIVOCAL. What has a double sense.
2. In the construction of contracts, it is a general rule that when an expression may be taken in two senses, that shall be preferred which gives it effect. Vide Ambiguity; Construction; Interpretation; and Dig. . It would appear that there are higher rates of substance abuse and depression in homosexual youth, although this may vary by gender (Cyranowski, Frank, Young, & Shear shear: see strength of materials.
A straining action wherein applied forces produce a sliding or skewing type of deformation. , 2000). Some studies have reported greater levels of depression in homosexual men and women (Bradford et al., 1994; Dempsey, 1994). In contrast, Carlson and Baster baste 1
tr.v. bast·ed, bast·ing, bastes
To sew loosely with large running stitches so as to hold together temporarily. (1984) and D'Augelli and Hershberger (1993) found no differences for depression scores as a function of sexual orientation. D'Augelli and Hershberger (1993) did find that gay men reported greater frequency of depression than lesbians. While suicide risk has been found to be associated with depression (Vincke & Bolton, 1994), Bradford et al. (1994) found no significant differences in rates of depression or suicide attempts between lesbians and heterosexual women.
With the advent of AIDS, some BI and HOM men appear to be more concerned about their health than HET men, although this is not necessarily true for women (Hiatt & Hargrave, 1994). Lesbian health is also a major concern today, hot only because of the recent findings suggesting that lesbians are at greater risk for breast cancer than HET women, but also because of the ignorance and prejudice of medical practitioners when dealing with this group.
Few studies have evaluated differences in recreation and exercise patterns between HOM, BI, and HET groups. HOM men and women appear to engage in camping, hiking hiking
Walking, often among hills or mountains, as recreational sport. It represents an activity in its own right and also figures in backpacking, camping, hunting, mountaineering, and orienteering. , skiing, and touring more often than HET men and women (Bosanko, 1995). When comparing groups of women, however, no differences were found for exercise or social activities (Buenting, 1992). The National Opinion Research Center (Davis & Smith, 1996) obtained descriptive data on sports participation and hours of television watching, but did not report differences by sexual orientation groups.
Satisfaction with one's job has been found to be highly correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. to job stress, life satisfaction, and health, at least for university faculty and administrators (Horowitz et al., 1988). HOM may experience sizeable stress at work, which has been round to be associated with lower job satisfaction (Croteau & Lark, 1995; Ellis ELLIS - EuLisp LInda System. An object-oriented Linda system written for EuLisp. "Using Object-Oriented Mechanisms to Describe Linda", P. Broadbery <email@example.com> et al, in Linda-Like Systems and Their Implementation, G. Wilson ed, U Edinburgh TR 91-13, 1991. & Riggle, 1995). There have been no national probability studies of HET, BI, and HOM respondents that compare overall job satisfaction by sexual orientation group.
Most studies of HOM and BI are not representative of the general population, usually over-sampling higher educated, white, middle-class males and females. Convenience samples present a biased image of current BI and HOM behaviors and limit one's ability to generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.
2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively. results. Samples are often obtained from clinical populations (O'Brien, 1992; Ross, 1990), gay organizations (Buenting, 1992: Skinner, 1994), gay bars (McKirnan & Peterson, 1989; Myers et al., 1992), special gay events/festivities (Brand, Rothblum, & Solomon, 1992; Trippet trip·pet
A cam or projection in a mechanism designed to strike another part at regular intervals.
[Middle English tripet, piece of wood used in a game, from trippen, & Bain, 1990), public meeting places (Buenting, 1992; McKiman & Peterson, 1989), and magazine and newspaper ads (Bosanko, 1995; McKirnan & Peterson, 1989; Myers et al, 1992: Snyder, Weinrich, & Pillard, 1994). These samples predominantly result in respondents who are more or less part of an established gay culture and who will quite likely self-identify as gay. There is very little information available about HOM, particularly male, that is not linked, either superficially su·per·fi·cial
1. Of, affecting, or being on or near the surface: a superficial wound.
2. Concerned with or comprehending only what is apparent or obvious; shallow.
3. or strongly, to the gay community. Studies exclusively focusing on self-identification of one's sexual orientation may overlook a significant number of individuals who engage in HOM or BI behavior, but who label themselves as HET
Several studies among general populations have shown that nonresponse and self-selection Self-selection
Consequence of a contract that induces only one group to participate. do affect the outcomes of sexological studies (Catania, Gibson, Chitwood, & Coates, 1990; Wiederman, 1993; Wiederman, Weis, & Allgeier, 1994). It seems quite likely that, in studies of BI and HOM, self-selection may have a serious influence on the outcomes (Sandfort, 1997). HOM men, lesbians, and BI who are unsure of their sexual identity or who feel less positive about their sexual orientation might be less willing to participate in studies. Studies of HOM have been further complicated in that the source of the sample influenced the findings. De Wit (1994) compared responses of male subjects from three different sources (e.g., completed questionnaires from a magazine, members of a gay organization, and persons in a cohort study A cohort study is a form of longitudinal study used in medicine and social science. It is one type of study design.
In medicine, it is usually undertaken to obtain evidence to try to refute the existence of a suspected association between cause and disease; failure to refute ) and round significant differences between the groups. This suggests that different types of samples may have yielded different results to the same questions, and that combining samples from different subgroups might have further clouded interpretation of the data.
The present article reports the results of a secondary analysis of data obtained by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC NORC National Opinion Research Center
NORC Naturally Occurring Retirement Community
NORC National Organization for Research at the University of Chicago
NORC Naval Ordnance Research Calculator
NORC North Oakland Republican Club (Waterford, MI) ) between 1988 and 1996 (Davis & Smith, 1996). We tested possible differences between sexual orientation groups (HET, BI, HOM, and NOSEX), as defined by sexual behavior, for a series of social background, QOL, and health related variables. We recognize that this approach ignores the possible influence of other dimensions Other Dimensions is a collection of stories by author Clark Ashton Smith. It was released in 1970 and was the author's sixth collection of stories published by Arkham House. It was released in an edition of 3,144 copies. of sexual orientation, but it was our intention to test whether QOL and health differences could be attributed directly to sexual orientation behavior itself.
The data for this report were taken from the NORC General Social Surveys for 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, and 1996 (Davis & Smith, 1996). The sample for each year contains the responses of approximately 1,500 individuals selected to represent the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the 48 contiguous Adjacent or touching. Contrast with fragmentation. See contiguous file. United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , age 18 and older. Because the data collection methods and differences between these samples have been discussed by several researchers (Glenn & Weaver
The Weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches.
These are seed-eating birds with rounded conical bills, most of which breed in sub-Saharan Africa, with fewer species in tropical , 1979; Reiss, Anderson Anderson, river, Canada
Anderson, river, c.465 mi (750 km) long, rising in several lakes in N central Northwest Territories, Canada. It meanders north and west before receiving the Carnwath River and flowing north to Liverpool Bay, an arm of the Arctic , & Sponaugle, 1980; Weis & Jurich, 1985; Wiederman, 1993, 1997), we omit o·mit
tr.v. o·mit·ted, o·mit·ting, o·mits
1. To fail to include or mention; leave out: omit a word.
a. To pass over; neglect.
b. that here to save space. A total of 11,543 individuals participated in the NORC surveys from 1988 to 1996.
Sexual orientation behavior (SORB). The NORC surveys did not directly ask respondents to identify their sexual orientation or calculate a composite score for orientation. Instead, individuals were asked to name the sex of their sexual partners in two time periods: (a) since age 18, and (b) in the last 12 months. Separate codings were performed for each time period. Persons who indicated that all of their partners in the time period were of the same sex were classified as HOM. Persons who indicated that all of their partners during the time period were of the opposite sex were classified as HET. Persons who indicated that they had had partners of both sexes during the time period were classified as BI. Finally, persons who indicated that they had no sexual partners during the time period were classified as NOSEX. Thus, each respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. was given two independent classifications, one for each time period. These classifications may not be consistent (see Table 1 for exact wordings and codings of these items).
Other measures. This study was designed to test the association between SORB and a series of variables. These included (a) demographic and social background variables, (b) quality of life (QOL) variables, (c) lifestyle and health variables, and (d) mental health or health background variables (see Table 1 for complete list of variables included in this study, exact wordings of items, and codings for each variable). The reader should be cautioned that many of these variables were assessed with a single item measure, and that no research has investigated the effects of the temporal Having to do with time. Contrast with "spatial," which deals with space. nature of the NORC items. The scoring of the last two variables in Table 1 requires some additional explanation. Respondents were initially asked to indicate the number of days within the past week they had felt a series of particular emotions, such as feeling calm, blue, outraged, and the like. A total of 22 items were included. Responses to these items were subjected to a principal components factor analysis with oblique o·blique
Situated in a slanting position; not transverse or longitudinal.
slanting; inclined. rotation. Factors with eigenvalues eigenvalues
statistical term meaning latent root. greater than 2.0 were retained. A 2 factor solution emerged. The Negative Affect factor formed a scale (n = 1,364; Alpha = .82), which included items for feeling mad, angry, anxious, tense, outraged, blue, sad, and worried. The Positive Affect factor formed a scale (n = 1,364; Alpha = .73), which included items for feeling overjoyed o·ver·joy
tr.v. o·ver·joyed, o·ver·joy·ing, o·ver·joys
To fill with joy; delight.
o , excited, interested, happy, at ease, and contented.
Each respondent was classified as HET, BI, HOM, or NOSEX by the criteria described in Table 1. Separate classifications were made for the two time periods: since age 18 and in the last 12 months. The association between these SORB groups for each time frame and the continuous variables in the study were tested with a series of ANOVAs. The alpha level for these ANOVAs was initially set at .05. With Bonferroni Adjustment for multiple tests, p < .0023 was required to reach significance. This procedure was employed to reduce the probability of Type-I errors. Post hoc post hoc
adv. & adj.
In or of the form of an argument in which one event is asserted to be the cause of a later event simply by virtue of having happened earlier: Tukey tests were performed on all significant associations to identify specific differences between SORB groups. Effect sizes for these associations were calculated using [[eta].sup.2] (eta squared). Finally, [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ] tests were conducted on race and marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state. to examine possible differences among SORB groups.
A summary of the classification of respondents into the 4 SORB groups is presented in Table 2. This coding scheme categorizes people as exclusively HET or exclusively HOM or BI for the two time periods. Thus, it is not surprising that the rate of exclusive HOM behavior is higher for the 12-month period than since age 18. The disparity in the number of respondents classified in the two time frames is a result of differences in the number of years in which the relevant items were included in the NORC interview. There were significant gender differences. Women were more likely to be classified as NOSEX and less likely to be classified as HOM or BI than men since age 18 ([chi square] = 17.88; p = .001). In the last 12 months, women were less likely to be classified as HET, BI, or HOM and were more likely to be classified as NOSEX ([chi square] = 249.09; p < .0001). The relatively large number of persons classified as NOSEX in the last 12 months is also noteworthy. Fully 70% of these were women.
Because of the small number of persons classified as BI or HOM, and because the intent of this study was to examine the extent to which differences in QOL and lifestyle variables could be directly attributed to SORB, gender distinctions were not considered in subsequent analyses. We tested the association between SORB for persons of both genders on the remaining variables in the study. The first group of these was the demographic and social background variables. Most of these were tested with a series of ANOVAs, and summaries of the results are presented in Tables 3 and 4.
A number of significant findings emerged. For persons classified since age 18, the NOSEX group tended to be older than other groups, and both the HET and NOSEX groups were more likely to live in suburban or rural settings than the BI and HOM groups. Conversely con·verse 1
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.
2. , the BI and HOM groups were more likely to live in urban settings. However, it should be noted that the [[eta].sup.2] for both of these associations was small. Neither association explained as much as 1% of the variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality . For persons classified in the last 12 months, the NOSEX group tended to be older and less educated than all other groups, and they were more religious than HET or HOM. The HET group tended to be older than the BI group and was more religious than the HOM group. The HOM group was more likely to live in urban settings than other groups and tended to have more education than the BI or NOSEX groups. Again, however, most of these associations had small effect sizes. The only variable with an [[eta].sup.2] exceeding 5% was age, where the effect size was a substantial 20%.
ANOVAs could not be calculated for two categorical That which is unqualified or unconditional.
A categorical imperative is a rule, command, or moral obligation that is absolutely and universally binding.
Categorical is also used to describe programs limited to or designed for certain classes of people. demographic variables. These were race and marital status. Instead, [chi square] were performed on these variables. Blacks were less likely to be coded as NOSEX since age 18 than other racial groups ([chi square]= 4703.00; p < .0001), although there were no racial differences in the codings for the last 12 months ([chi square]= 14.83; p = .0216). Since age 18, the NOSEX group was less likely to be married or divorced and more likely to be widowed or never married. The BI and HOM groups were less likely to be married and more likely to be never married ([chi square]= 784.98; p < .0001). In the last 12 months, the NOSEX group was less likely to be married and more likely to be widowed. The HET group was more likely to be married and less likely to be widowed. The BI group was more likely to be separated, and both the BI and HOM groups were more likely to be never married ([chi square]= 3426.72; p < .0001).
All of the tests involving QOL, health, and lifestyle variables were conducted with ANOVAs. A summary of those results is presented in Tables 3 and 4. It should be noted that the number of people included in each of these independent tests varied as a function of the number of years each variable was included in the NORC interviews. For the time since age 18 period (Table 3), only 6 variables of the 24 tested reached statistical significance, and none of these explained more than 2% of the variance ([[eta].sup.2]). The NOSEX group was significantly less likely to drink alcohol or socialize so·cial·ize
v. so·cial·ized, so·cial·iz·ing, so·cial·iz·es
1. To place under government or group ownership or control.
2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable. in a bar than the other three groups; they were also less likely to have ever smoked, to smoke currently, or to have been punched or beaten than the HET and BI groups, and they were less likely to have received mental health counseling than the BI group. The HET group was less likely to socialize in a bar or to have received mental health counseling than the BI group, and the HOM group was less likely to report being punched or beaten than the BI group. Although it may be tempting to see potential trends (and corresponding explanations) in these findings, it should be stressed that all of these variables had weak relationships with SORB. Moreover, there were no statistically significant findings for 18 of the 24 QOL, health, and lifestyle variables.
A similar, though not quite so severe, pattern was apparent in the time period for the last 12 months (Table 4). Here, 10 of the 24 variables tested yielded significant results. The NOSEX group was significantly less likely to perceive they were healthy, to smoke currently, to socialize in a bar, to play sports, or to report being punched or beaten than the other three groups. They were also less likely to report drinking alcohol than the HET and HOM groups. Compared to the HET group, they reported lower general happiness and were more likely to deny that they drink too much. Interestingly, they were more likely to report a serious trauma in the previous 5 years than the HET group. The HET group was less likely to socialize in a bar and to watch television than the BI and HOM groups, and they were less likely to smoke currently and to report they had been punched or beaten than the BI group. Finally, the HOM group was less likely to socialize in a bar and to smoke currently than the BI group. As with the associations tested in the time since age 18 period, most of these significant relationships explained little variance. Of the 10 significant associations in the last 12-month period, only 2 variables had an [[eta].sup.2] exceeding 5%. These were the findings pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to socializing in a bar and playing sports. Two other associations had [[eta].sup.2] that explained 3% to 5% of the variance. These were the finding that the NOSEX group believed they have poorer health than the other groups and were less likely than the BI and HOM groups to drink alcohol.
Earlier, we suggested that the general lack of consensus about the conceptualization and measurement of sexual orientation created circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or where researchers should specify the actual dimensions of sexual orientation they are assessing. Accordingly, we focused our analyses on a precise behavioral definition, the gender of one's sexual partners since age 18 and during the last 12 months. This led to the classification of four SORB groups: HOM, BI, HET, and NOSEX. Our analyses of data drawn from a series of national probability samples indicate that these behavioral categories have little direct association with a wide range of QOL, health, and lifestyle variables, although we caution the reader to recognize the limitations of the NORC self-report measure. In fact, there were only two variables with even a moderate effect size. Both of these occurred in the time period for the last 12 months. All four SORB groups differed from each other in the frequency with which they socialize in bars. The BI group had the highest frequency, followed by the HOM, HET, and NOSEX groups respectively. In addition, the NOSEX group was less likely to play sports than the other three groups.
These findings suggest the need for further research, particularly with the NOSEX group. In this study, NOSEX respondents tended to be older and were more likely to be widowed than the other groups. They also reported significantly lower levels of perceived health than the other groups. Moreover, there was a sizable siz·a·ble also size·a·ble
Of considerable size; fairly large.
siza·ble·ness n. number of respondents who were classified as HET, BI, or HOM in the since age 18 time frame, but who fit into the NOSEX category for the last 12 months. It is certainly possible that a shift from a lifetime in any of the other SORB groups into the NOSEX group during the last year would be more strongly related to QOL, health, and lifestyle. It should be emphasized that persons placed themselves into the NOSEX group by specifically stating that they had had 0 partners during the relevant time period. No one who failed to answer the questions about sex of partners was placed into the NOSEX group. As a rule, sex researchers know little about members of this group or the factors that might impact their QOL. Important questions about the NOSEX group remain.
Of course, it is also possible that associations between these SORB groups and QOL or lifestyle variables would differ for males and females. We did not examine this possibility for two reasons. First, if we had split all of the SORB groups into separate male and female groups, the number of male and female BI would have been too small for statistical analyses. Second, we wanted to test the direct association between membership in SORB groups per se and QOL measures. If, for example, the association is different for gay males and lesbians, it is not yet clear that this is attributable to SORB, to gender, or to some interaction effect involving both factors. This possibility still needs to be tested. However, our results strongly suggest that variations in QOL, health, and lifestyle variables are not strongly associated with SORB itself.
We also did not test whether shifts in SORB category from the since age 18 (lifetime) period to the last 12-month period were associated with QOL. It seems prudent for future researchers to examine whether such shifts in sexual orientation over time would be associated with disruptions in QOL. Finally, because out analyses focused on the behavioral dimension of sexual orientation, questions remain about the association between QOL, health, and lifestyle variables and other possible dimensions of sexual orientation.
Table 1. Description of Variables Variable Description Codes Sexual orientation (1) Male whose sex partner behavior was exclusively female or female whose sex partner was exclusively male (1) Heterosexual (2) Male or female whose sex partners were both male and female (2) Bisexual (3) Male whose sex partner was exclusively male or female whose sex partner was exclusively female (3) Homosexual (4) Male or female who had no sex partners (4) No sex Sex of partner in Have your sex partners in last 12 months the last 12 months been ... (1) Exclusively male (2) Both male and female (3) Exclusively female (9) No answer Sex of partners since Since age 18 (including the age 18 past 12 months) have your sex partners been ... (1) Exclusively male (2) Both male and female (3) Exclusively female (9) No answer Demographic and social background variables Sex Respondent's sex (1) Male (2) Female Age Calculated from date of birth (1) 18-29 (2) 30-39 (3) 40-49 (4) 50-59 (5) 60+ Income Respondent's income in 1991 (1) < 10,000 (2) 10,000-17,499 (3) 17,500-29,999 (4) 30,000-39,999 (5) 40,000-49,999 (6) 50,000-59,999 (7) 60,000-74,999 (8) >74,999 Marital status Are you currently ... (1) Married (2) Widowed (3) Divorced (4) Separated (5) Never Married Race What race do you consider yourself? (1) White (2) Black (3) Other State-regional- Size of city, town, etc. in community size which Respondent lives (1) 12 largest cities in U.S. (2) Next 13-100 largest cities (3) 100 largest suburbs (4) Next 13-100 largest suburbs (5) Other urban (Counties having towns of 10,000 or more) (6) Other rural (Counties of having no towns of 10,000 or more) Religiosity Would you describe yourself as ...? (1) Extremely non-religious (2) Very non- religious (3) Somewhat non- religious (4) Neither religious nor non-religious (5) Somewhat religious (6) Very religious (7) Extremely religious Education level What is the highest degree you have received? (1) Less than high school (2) High school (3) Associate/ Junior college (4) Bachelor's Degree (5) Graduate degree Quality of life variables General happiness Taken all together, how would you say things are these days -- would you say that you are very happy, pretty happy, or not too happy? (1) Not too happy (2) Pretty happy (3) Very happy Perceived health Would you say your own health, in general, is excellent, good, fair, or poor? (1) Poor (2) Fair (3) Good (4) Excellent Job satisfaction On the whole, how satisfied are you with the work you do -- would you say you are very satisfied, moderately satisfied, a little satisfied, or very dissatisfied? (1) Very dissatisfied (2) A little dissatisfied (3) Moderately satisfied (4) Very satisfied Lifestyle and health variables Drinking/drug behaviors Bar socializing How often do you go to a bar or tavern? (1) Never (2) About once a year (3) Several times a year (4) About once a month (5) Several times a month (6) Once or twice a week (7) Almost every day Drink alcohol Do you ever have occasion to use any alcoholic beverages such as liquor, wine, or beer, or are you a total abstainer? (1) Total Abstainer (2) Use Alcohol Drink too much Do you sometimes drink more than you think you should? (1) No (2) Yes Drinking problem Since February/March 1990, have you had a drinking problem (e.g. frequently drunk, suffered from alcoholism)? (1) No (2) Yes Used illegal drugs Since February/March 1990 have you used illegal drugs (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, pills)? (1) No (2) Yes Smoking Behavior Smokes Do you smoke? (1) No (2) Yes Tried to Quit Have you ever tried to give up smoking? (1) No (2) Yes Ever Smoked Have you ever smoked regularly? (1) No (2) Yes Physical activities Played sports Do you participate in any sports activity such as softball, basketball, swimming, golf, bowling, skiing, or tennis? (1) No (2) Yes Television viewing TV watched hours On the average day, about how many hours do you personally watch television? (1) 0 (2) 1 (3) 2 (4) 3 (5) 4 (6) 5 (7) 6 (8) 7 (9) 8 (10) 9 (11) 10 (12) 11 (13) 12 (14) 13 Mental health/health background Nervous breakdown Have you ever felt that you were going to have a nervous breakdown? (1) No (2) Yes Mental health Ever felt you had a mental problem health problem? (1) No (2) Yes Mental health Since February/March 1990 counseling have you underwent counseling for mental or emotional problems? (1) No (2) Yes Serious illness Since February/March 1990 have you been ill enough to go to a doctor? (1) No (2) Yes Punched/beaten Have you ever been punched/ beaten by another person? (1) No (2) Yes Trauma past 12 Number of traumatic events Months (deaths, divorces, unemployments, and hospitalizations/ disabilities that happened to you last year. (0) None (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 Trauma past 5 years Number of traumatic events (deaths, divorces, unemployments, and hospitalizations/ disabilities) that happened to you during past five years. (0) None (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 Knew suicide Within the past 12 months, how many people have you known personally that have committed suicide? (0) 0 (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) 4 Death of close Since February/March, 1990 friend did you experience the death of a close friend? (1) No (2) Yes Positive affect On how many days in the past 7 days have you ... (Specify number of days) Felt overjoyed about something?; Felt excited about or interested in something?; Felt happy?; Felt at ease?; Felt contented? (0) 0 days (1) 1 day (2) 2 days (3) 3 days (4) 4 days (5) 5 days (6) 6 days (7) 7 days Negative affect On how many days in the past 7 days have you ... (Specify number of days) Felt mad at something or someone?; Felt angry at someone?; Felt anxious and tense?; Felt rest- less?; Felt outraged at something somebody had done?; Felt that you couldn't shake the blues?; Felt sad?; Felt ashamed?; Felt lonely?; Felt fearful; Felt embarrassed?; Worried a lot about little things (0) 0 days (1) 1 day (2) 2 days (3) 3 days (4) 4 days (5) 5 days (6) 6 days (7) 7 days Table 2. Classification of Respondents Into Sexual Orientation Behavior Groups by Gender for Each Time Period No Sex Heterosexual Bisexual Homosexual Partner Sex n Row % n Row % n Row % n Row % Since Age 18 (a) Males 3638 91.2 146 3.7 61 1.5 142 3.6 Females 4723 91.3 162 3.1 44 0.9 243 4.7 In Last 12 Months (b) Males 4134 83.1 23 0.5 106 2.1 712 6.2 Females 4769 72.6 22 0.2 68 0.6 1702 14.8 (a) Total number of respondents = 9,149. (b) Total number of respondents = 11,543. Table 3. ANOVA Since Age 18 HET BI Variable (N) Mean (N) Mean Age (8340) 44.1 (308) 39.9 Income (4521) 3.84 (162) 3.81 State-regional-community size (8351) 4.01 (308) 3.49 Education (8334) 1.46 (308) 1.61 Religiosity (987) 3.12 (29) 3.83 General happiness (8307) 2.20 (307) 2.11 Perceived health (5937) 3.08 (211) 3.11 Job satisfaction (6731) 3.27 (257) 3.13 Bar socializing (5554) 2.43 (201) 2.98 Drink alcohol (3154) 1.72 (126) 1.71 Drink too much (8351) 2.55 (308) 2.56 Drinking problem (673) 1.02 (22) 1.05 Used illegal drugs (673) 1.03 (22) 1.05 Smokes (3152) 1.30 (126) 1.33 Tried to quit (942) 1.76 (42) 1.69 Ever smoked (2146) 1.36 (76) 1.41 Played sports (1234) 1.59 (37) 1.65 TV watched (hours) (5922) 2.88 (214) 3.02 Nervous breakdown (1008) 1.28 (40) 1.43 Mental health problem (731) 1.08 (23) 1.13 Mental health counseling (674) 1.06 (22) 1.23 Serious illness (674) 1.57 (22) 1.59 Punched/beaten (3150) 1.38 (126) 1.52 Trauma past 12 months (2982) 0.44 (116) 0.50 Trauma past 5 years (2982) 1.02 (116) 1.06 Knew suicide (1912) 0.14 (66) 0.14 Death of close friend (674) 1.22 (22) 1.14 Positive feelings (1037) 3.97 (37) 3.77 Negative feelings (1037) 1.83 (37) 2.19 HOM NOSEX Variable (N) Mean (N) Mean Age (105) 43.8 (384) 47.0 Income (69) 3.01 (151) 2.83 State-regional-community size (105) 3.27 (385) 4.09 Education (104) 1.64 (384) 1.33 Religiosity (11) 3.45 (49) 2.90 General happiness (104) 2.13 (383) 2.15 Perceived health (64) 3.03 (282) 3.03 Job satisfaction (85) 3.24 (230) 3.26 Bar socializing (78) 2.81 (259) 1.59 Drink alcohol (37) 1.76 (143) 1.48 Drink too much (105) 2.55 (385) 2.67 Drinking problem (10) 1.00 (28) 1.02 Used illegal drugs (10) 1.10 (28) 1.00 Smokes (37) 1.27 (143) 1.11 Tried to quit (10) 1.80 (16) 1.75 Ever smoked (27) 1.26 (118) 1.19 Played sports (16) 1.56 (49) 1.591 TV watched (hours) (82) 3.00 (279) 3.05 Nervous breakdown (20) 1.10 (35) 1.11 Mental health problem (18) 1.00 (32) 1.09 Mental health counseling (10) 1.20 (28) 1.00 Serious illness (10) 1.60 (28) 1.39 Punched/beaten (37) 1.38 (143) 1.24 Trauma past 12 months (35) 0.51 (140) 0.48 Trauma past 5 years (35) 1.06 (140) 0.91 Knew suicide (18) 0.00 (107) 0.18 Death of close friend (10) 1.20 (28) 1.36 Positive feelings (13) 4.23 (32) 4.08 Negative feelings (13) 1.76 (32) 1.64 F Variable value P value [[eta].sup.2] Age 10.138 .0000 (a, b) .0033 Income 4.091 .0066 State-regional-community size 21.370 .0000 (c) .0070 Education 4.259 .0052 Religiosity 4.417 .0043 General happiness 3.656 .0120 Perceived health 0.587 .6236 Job satisfaction 2.471 .0601 Bar socializing 28.894 .0000 (d, e) .0140 Drink alcohol 13.380 .0000 (d) .0115 Drink too much 2.970 .0308 Drinking problem 0.594 .6189 Used illegal drugs 0.828 .4788 Smokes 8.175 .0000 (f) .0071 Tried to quit 0.409 .7465 Ever smoked 5.468 .0010 (f) .0069 Played sports 0.176 .9130 TV watched (hours) 0.899 .4407 Nervous breakdown 4.090 .0067 Mental health problem 0.773 .5094 Mental health counseling 5.417 .0011 (e, g) .0218 Serious illness 1.180 .3163 Punched/beaten 7.436 .0001 (f, h) .0064 Trauma past 12 months 0.542 .6538 Trauma past 5 years 0.840 .4719 Knew suicide 0.843 .4702 Death of close friend 1.285 .2783 Positive feelings 0.366 .7778 Negative feelings 0.972 .4051 Note. p [less than or equal to] 0.0023 required for significance (based on Bonferroni Adjustment) HET = heterosexual, BI = bisexual, HOM = homosexual, NOSEX = no sex partner. (a) HET significantly younger than NOSEX; (b) BI significantly younger than HET, NOSEX; (c) HET, NOSEX more Suburban/Rural than BI, HOM; (d) NOSEX significantly less than HET, BI, HOM; (e) HET significantly less than BI; (f) NOSEX significantly less than HET, BI; (g) NOSEX significantly less than BI; (h) HOM significantly less than BI Table 4. ANOVA in Last 12 Months. HET BI HOM Variable (N) Mean (N) Mean (N) Mean Age (8897) 41.0 (45) 33.3 (174) 38.8 Income (4543) 3.91 (33) 3.70 (110) 3.31 State-regional- community size (8903) 3.99 (45) 3.84 (174) 3.17 Education (8887) 1.47 (45) 1.27 (173) 1.73 Religiosity (887) 3.16 (3) 2.67 (11) 4.27 General happiness (8856) 2.24 (45) 2.16 (173) 2.19 Perceived health (6246) 3.14 (34) 3.26 (120) 3.13 Job satisfaction (7638) 1.74 (43) 1.77 (149) 1.76 Bar socializing (5912) 2.56 (31) 4.32 (128) 3.00 Drink alcohol (3643) 1.75 (10) 1.80 (53) 1.75 Drink too much (8903) 2.51 (45) 2.76 (174) 2.66 Drinking problem (623) 1.02 (3) 1.00 (8) 1.00 Used illegal drugs (623) 1.03 (3) 1.33 (8) 1.13 Smokes (3642) 1.33 (10) 1.80 (53) 1.30 Tried to quit (1181) 1.76 (8) 1.75 (16) 1.88 Ever smoked (2361) 1.35 (2) 1.50 (35) 1.34 Played sports (1068) 1.66 (6) 1.83 (23) 1.61 TV watched (hours) (6235) 2.80 (32) 3.22 (136) 2.93 Nervous breakdown (691) 1.08 (3) 1.00 (27) 1.04 Mental health problem (961) 0.29 (8) 1.63 (35) 1.23 Mental health counseling (624) 1.06 (3) 1.00 (8) 1.25 Serious illness (624) 1.55 (3) 1.33 (8) 1.75 Punched/beaten (3642) 1.41 (10) 1.80 (53) 1.51 Trauma past 12 (3463) 0.44 (10) 0.40 (49) 0.51 months Trauma past 5 (3463) 1.01 (10) 1.20 (49) 1.06 years Knew suicide (1812) 0.13 (8) 0.25 (21) 0.00 Death of close (623) 1.79 (3) 2.00 (8) 1.75 friend Positive feelings (988) 3.96 (10) 4.30 (22) 4.64 Negative feelings (988) 1.87 (10) 1.76 (22) 1.99 NOSEX [[eta]. Variable (N) Mean F value P value sup.2] Age (2410) 59.7 967.521 .0000 (a, .2012 b) Income (686) 4.15 1.492 .2148 State-regional- community size (2421) 3.98 17.223 .0000 (c) .0045 Education (2414) 1.12 66.058 .0000 (d, .0169 e) Religiosity (138) 2.81 7.724 .0000 (f, .0252 i) General happiness (32) 2.07 45.332 .0000 (f) .0117 Perceived health (1715) 2.76 101.037 .0000 (g) .0360 Job satisfaction (9124) 1.74 0.563 .6390 Bar socializing (1613) 1.64 149.148 .0000 (g, .0550 h, i) Drink alcohol (960) 1.52 63.999 .0000 (j) .0395 Drink too much (2421) 2.63 17.247 .0000 (f) .0205 Drinking problem (91) 1.00 0.720 .5399 Used illegal drugs (91) 1.04 3.5519 .0142 Smokes (958) 1.23 15.366 .0000 (g, .0097 h, i) Tried to quit (218) 1.71 1.419 .2355 Ever smoked (702) 1.35 0.073 .9745 Played sports (312) 1.30 47.088 .0000 (g) .0914 TV watched (hours) (1714) 3.47 39.853 .0000 (j) .0145 Nervous breakdown (178) 1.07 0.343 .7936 Mental health problem (234) 1.25 2.716 .0892 Mental health counseling (91) 1.05 1.632 .1805 Serious illness (91) 1.58 0.697 .5542 Punched/beaten (959) 1.23 37.626 .0000 (g, .0237 h) Trauma past 12 months (895) 0.52 3.574 .0135 Trauma past 5 years (895) 1.14 5.238 .0013 (f) .0035 Knew suicide (376) 0.16 1.259 .2868 Death of close friend (91) 1.66 3.122 .0254 Positive feelings (259) 3.92 1.558 .1978 Negative feelings (259) 1.60 2.555 .0539 Note. p [less than or equal to] 0.0023 required for significance (based on Bonferroni Adjustment); HET = heterosexual, BI = bisexual, HOM = homosexual, NOSEX = no sex partner. (a) HET significantly older than BI; (b) NOSEX significantly older than HET, BI, HOM; (c) HOM from larger city than HET, BI, NOSEX; (d) HOM has significantly more education than BI, NOSEX; (e) HET has significantly more education than NOSEX; (f) NOSEX significantly less than HET; (g) NOSEX significantly less than HET, BI, HOM; (h) HET significantly less than BI, HOM; (i) HOM significantly less than BI; (j) NOSEX significantly less than HET, HOM; (f) HET significantly less than NOSEX; (g) NOSEX significantly less than HET, BI; (h) HET significantly less than BI; (i) HET significantly less than HOM.
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half-man, half-woman; offspring of Hermes and Aphrodite. [Gk. Myth.: Hall, 153]
Cretan maiden reared as boy because father ordered all daughters killed. [Gk. Myth. , depression, and self-esteem self-esteem
Sense of personal worth and ability that is fundamental to an individual's identity. Family relationships during childhood are believed to play a crucial role in its development. in Irish homosexual and heterosexual males and females. Sex Roles, 10, 457-467.
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NASPA Network and Systems Professionals Association
NASPA National Alliance of State Pharmacy Associations (Richmond, VA)
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Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
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Doll, L. S., Petersen, L. R., White, C. R., Johnson, E. S., Ward, J. W., & the Blood Donor The party conferring a power. One who makes a gift. One who creates a trust.
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Being in violation of marriage vows; adulterous: an extramarital affair.
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Use of tests to measure skill, knowledge, intelligence, capacities, or aptitudes and to make predictions about performance. Best known is the IQ test; other tests include achievement tests—designed to evaluate a student's grade or performance on homosexual populations. American Behavioral Scientist, 25, 385-396.
Gonsiorek, J. C. (1991). The empirical basis for the demise Death. A conveyance of property, usually of an interest in land. Originally meant a posthumous grant but has come to be applied commonly to a conveyance that is made for a definitive term, such as an estate for a term of years. of the illness model of homosexuality. In. J. C. Gonsiorek & J. D. Swinrich (Eds.), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 115-136). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. .
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1. Of or concerning homosexual love and desire.
2. Tending to arouse such desire.
Adj. 1. , homosexual and ambisexual ambisexual /am·bi·sex·u·al/ (am?bi-sek´shoo-al)
2. pertaining to or characterized by hermaphroditism.
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1. The quality or condition of being masculine.
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1. A person apparently responsive to psychic forces.
2. See medium.
adj. also psy·chi·cal
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This article has been tagged since September 2007. . New York: Arbor arbor
Garden shelter providing privacy and partial protection from the weather, most commonly a lightweight, latticed framework (trellis) of wood or metal with interlaced branches of vines or climbing shrubs trained over it. House.
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Ziller, R. C. (1974). Self-other orientations and quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 1, 301-327.
Zinik, G. (1985). Identity conflict or adaptive flexibility? Bisexuality reconsidered. Journal of Homosexuality, 11, 7-1.
Manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. accepted May 17, 2001
Stephen M. Horowitz, David L. Weis, and Molly molly
see mare hinny. T. Laflin Bowling Green State University Bowling Green State University, at Bowling Green, Ohio; coeducational; chartered 1910 as a normal school, opened 1914. It became a college in 1929, a university in 1935.
Address correspondence to Stephen M. Horowitz, Ph.D., 212 Eppler North, Bowling Green Bowling Green.
1 City (1990 pop. 40,641), seat of Warren co., S Ky., on the Barren River; inc. 1812. It is a shipping and marketing center for an area producing tobacco, corn, livestock, and dairy items. , OH 43403; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.