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Differences between international and domestic trade show exhibitors.

TRADE SHOWS/FAIRS--A REVIEW

Trade shows, trade fairs, expositions, scientific/technical conferences, conventions. The name may vary but the basic function of the activity represents a major industry marketing event. They are "events that bring together, in a single location, a group of suppliers, distributors and related services who set up physical exhibits of their products and services from a given industry or discipline" (Black 1986). In 1988 in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area.  alone, over 100,000 firms exhibited at some 11,000 business trade shows and spent over $9 billion. This must be compared to 1982's 91,000 firms which exhibited at some 8000 trade shows at cost of $7 billion. In ten year period 1980-1990, the number of trade shows went from 4500 to 10000. Show/fair attendance has reached at least 50 million and utilize the available 53 million square feet of space several times over every year. More than half of all industrial shows sold all available exhibit space--2 million square feet could not be accommodated. Demand for space is forecast to more than double over the next decade. Comdex 1990 with 118,000 attendees from over 100 countries and 1850 companies, 2.2 Million square feet of exhibit space with over 1900 accredited accredited

recognition by an appropriate authority that the performance of a particular institution has satisfied a prestated set of criteria.


accredited herds
cattle herds which have achieved a low level of reactors to, e.g.
 press from throughout the world in attendance versus Hanover Fair The Hannover Messe (English: Hanover Fair) is the world's biggest industrial fair. It is held on the Hanover fairground in Hanover, Germany. Typically, there are about 6,000 exhibitors and 200,000 visitors.  with over 400,000 attendees and nearly 5000 companies. The trade show medium plays much larger role in Europe and other foreign countries than in the United States. For example, average attendance at the top 100 events in Europe 77,000 visitors vs. about 22,000 in the U.S. (Trade Show Bureau Newsletter, June 1992).

Trade shows accounted for over 22-25% of the typical U.S. Business Market Promotional budget, second only to personal selling activity and ahead of print advertising and direct mail. American firms spend annually approximately $9 billion for exhibition travel and labor costs and $12 billion for exhibit costs (1984 U.S. only). Trade Show Bureau estimates that the trade show industry itself generates $50 billion a year. Industry estimates indicate that this figure is growing by almost $1 billion a year during late eighties. Growth of exhibit space has averaged nearly fifteen percent annually during the seventies, slowing down to a smaller but sustainable 7-8 percent during the eighties. However, the 1991 recession cut growth to 3 to 4%. According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 Trade Show Week, the industry newsletter, number firms exhibiting at the 200 largest trade shows grew 7.7% between 1986 and 1987. During the seventies the number of new exhibitors increased at an average annual increase of 3-4% while in the eighties it has exceeded 7% annually (Mee, 1988). Show attendance at the major events increased at an average of 3% per year during the seventies, rising to more than 6% during the eighties. At the same time, the annual company budget allocation for trade show participation increased from $73,000 in 1978 to $212,000 by 1987.

ADVANTAGES OF TRADE EVENTS

Trade shows rank second behind only personal selling in influencing buying decisions of industrial purchases (Parasuraman 1981; O'Hara 1991). Nearly 44% of trade show visitors travel more than 400 miles to shows and spend more than $300 per person in transportation costs alone to attend the event. The average delegate spends nearly $1000 per visit. While 85% of all attendees have a key impact on the buying decision. The cost per contact at a show is one third that of a personal sales call (Trade Show Bureau 1986a). In 1988, average total costs per visitor (including space rental, construction costs, freight, booth personal travel, living expenses, and salaries) was $133, almost one third the cost of a personal sales call. It takes approximately 0.8 sales calls on average to close a sale initiated by a trade show lead while most estimates place the number required in the field to be five. Overall, the cost differential is about 3.5 to 1 in favor of trade shows.

Additional advantages of using a trade show include: promotional message is delivered to a large number of qualified interested people (86% of all show attendees represent a buying influence, are interested in a specific exhibited product or service and have not been called on by a sales rep recently); introduction of new products possible to large number of prospects; potential customers may be discovered; enhanced goodwill; free company publicity is possible; and gathering competitive information. Trade show activities can play a major part in vendor evaluation and recognition (Bello and Barczak 1990; Moriarty and Spekman 1984) due to their personal selling process elements: 1) identifying prospects, (2) servicing current accounts, (3) introducing products, (4) improving corporate image, (5) gathering competitor information and , (6) selling (Bonoma 1983; Kerin and Cron 1987).

In sum, trade shows can provide the opportunity to affect multiple phases of the industrial buying process in one location; they can create awareness in new prospects, reinforce existing customer relationships, provide product demonstrations for evaluation, establish relationships between vendors and prospects, and allow sales of products on the spot. Also, trade shows significantly influence industrial buying during the need recognition and vendor evaluation stages of the purchase process (Moriarty and Spekman 1984).

DISADVANTAGES OF TRADE EVENTS

Trade shows do have their downside Downside

The dollar amount by which the market or a stock has the potential to fall.

Notes:
You might hear someone say that the downside on stock XYZ is $10. What that means is that the stock could fall by this amount if things got bad.
; costs can range up to $39 or more per square foot, $7,800 for 200 square foot booth (note: outside the U.S. prices are quoted by the square meter Noun 1. square meter - a centare is 1/100th of an are
centare, square metre

area unit, square measure - a system of units used to measure areas
); space costs represent only 15% of a company's total cost. And, space rental costs have more than doubled over the past ten years. Tactical rather than strategic orientation might account for a finding that only 23% of executives think trade shows are very effective. All too often, a substantial number of corporate marketing and management executives still perceive trade shows as a non-selling activity or at best R and R or a social activity for those employees that attend (Skolnik 1987). This is exacerbated by the fact that only 56% of firms participating in trade shows have set specific objectives before participating in a given show. Only 46% of companies set goals before they exhibit, half are very general, and one of three exhibitors do not set specific quantifiable Quantifiable
Can be expressed as a number. The results of quantifiable psychological tests can be translated into numerical values, or scores.

Mentioned in: Psychological Tests
 objectives. A Southern Methodist University Methodist University [1], known until 2006 as Methodist College, is a private college that is historically related to the North Carolina Annual Conference [2] of the United Methodist Church [3] and is located in Fayetteville, North Carolina.  study found that (1) more than forty percent of all first-time exhibitors fail to return the next year; (2) the typical exhibit reaches less than sixty percent of its prospects; (3) few exhibitors do any preshow promotion to ensure that their key prospects or customers reach their booth (referred to as a stand at international events; (4) booth personnel training has improved but leaves much to be desired; and (5) lead qualification , tracking, and return on investment evaluation are functions unexplored by most exhibitors (only fourteen percent claim they track lead conversions to sales). Barely seventeen percent of all exhibitors provide their management with ROI (Return On Investment) The monetary benefits derived from having spent money on developing or revising a system. In the IT world, there are more ways to compute ROI than Carter has liver pills (and for those of you who never heard of that expression, it means a lot).  data. No wonder that many executives question the value of trade shows (Mee, 1988).

The problem centers around the inability of many firms to measure quantifiably the return on their trade show investment. In the midst Adv. 1. in the midst - the middle or central part or point; "in the midst of the forest"; "could he walk out in the midst of his piece?"
midmost
 of tens of thousands of visitors among the thousand or so booths, the feeling exists that a company gets lost in the crowd. This problem is greatest at nonselling events featuring complex products for which the buying decision usually involves several people. The buying process takes many months if not years, during which the impact of the trade show/fair is minimized, forgotten, or even totally overlooked (Sashi and Perretty, 1992).

Disadvantages with trade shows, particularly poorly organized or managed events include: takes salespeople sales·peo·ple  
pl.n.
Persons who are employed to sell merchandise in a store or in a designated territory.
 away from their territories; large shows are often cluttered clut·ter  
n.
1. A confused or disordered state or collection; a jumble: sorted through the clutter in the attic.

2. A confused noise; a clatter.

v.
, crowded, confusing environments; labor problems and unions frustrate exhibiting companies and run up costs; proliferation proliferation /pro·lif·er·a·tion/ (pro-lif?er-a´shun) the reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells.prolif´erativeprolif´erous

pro·lif·er·a·tion
n.
 and excessive frequency of shows; high proportion of unqualified attendees. Bonoma (1983) adds unknown effectiveness on return per dollar spent, difficulty of measuring efficiency vs. advertising, for example, high and rising costs of participation, and a growing feeling shows are boondoggles or perks perk 1  
v. perked, perk·ing, perks

v.intr.
1. To stick up or jut out: dogs' ears that perk.

2. To carry oneself in a lively and jaunty manner.
. With the large sums companies spend on trade events, surprisingly little is spent on researching their effectiveness.

Proliferation of trade shows not only in booth size and number, but in terms of specialization A career option pursued by some attorneys that entails the acquisition of detailed knowledge of, and proficiency in, a particular area of law.

As the law in the United States becomes increasingly complex and covers a greater number of subjects, more and more attorneys are
 and regionalization regionalization Managed care The subdivision of a broadly available service–eg, a blood bank, into quasi-autonomous regional centers, capable of making decisions and providing more cost-effective and/or faster service to hospitals and health care facilities,  (referred to as a vertical trade event) seems to be occurring (Murphy 1990). This is primarily due to the ever increasing diversification Diversification

A risk management technique that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio. It is designed to minimize the impact of any one security on overall portfolio performance.

Notes:
Diversification is possibly the greatest way to reduce the risk.
 of technology coupled with the medium's apparent cost effectiveness. Two factors are behind the trend towards regional trade shows in the United States: escalating travel costs and the discovery that most attendees to either national or regional shows are basically regional in nature and come from about a radius of 400 miles.

Additionally, firms must decide whether to exhibit at vertical or horizontal trade (i.e., wide array of products and services on display) events. Vertical shows/fairs can be too narrowly focused by the organizer on specific products/services which can have an adverse effect on the quality/quantity ration ration

a fixed allowance of total feed for an animal for one day. Usually specifies the individual ingredients and their amounts and the amounts of the specific nutriments such as carbohydrate, fiber, individual minerals and vitamins.
 of the event's attendees. Industrial buyers generally have broad purchasing authority and often shy away from Verb 1. shy away from - avoid having to deal with some unpleasant task; "I shy away from this task"
avoid - stay clear from; keep away from; keep out of the way of someone or something; "Her former friends now avoid her"
 attending very specialized exhibitions. Horizontal expositions sometimes suffer from the hyper-market environment and can take on a carnival carnival, communal celebration, especially the religious celebration in Catholic countries that takes place just before Lent. Since early times carnivals have been accompanied by parades, masquerades, pageants, and other forms of revelry that had their origins in  atmosphere. Visitors can become crowded, confused, and overwhelmed o·ver·whelm  
tr.v. o·ver·whelmed, o·ver·whelm·ing, o·ver·whelms
1. To surge over and submerge; engulf: waves overwhelming the rocky shoreline.

2.
a.
 by fairs/shows that are too broad in their exhibitor company and product mix. Their sheer size precludes buyers from having sufficient time to visit and shop all the alternatives for their company's needs. There are trade-offs to each type of exhibition and the challenge for exhibitors and attendees alike is to determine which event(s) will meet their corporate objectives. Both vertical and horizontal events can be effective marketing mediums, but many are not! The organizer, whether a private promoter or government agency, must be experienced in managing and producing a successful domestic or international exhibition.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE FAIRS

That trade fairs and exhibitions are considered important in the international marketing activity of many organizations seems not to be in question. Internationally, trade fairs assume greater significance with over 600 events taking place annually in over 70 countries. Why firms choose to exhibit and to what extent their attendance is monitored as part of any marketing planning exercise is less certain. Approximately 3300 US companies participated in overseas trade fairs and related events in 1989, a 25% increase over the number of participants in 1988 (U.S. Department of Commerce). West German trade fairs attracted 312 US exhibitors (companies) in 1989 with American attendees estimated at 50,000. United States companies This is a list of companies from the United States:
  • #Current companies
  • #Former companies, including acquired and merged ones
  • #By industry
  • #By location
  • #See also
Current companies
:
 and their exhibits are favored at overseas trade fairs because they are known to be on the cutting edge of technology. And, having an American firm with that technology at a trade show/fair can attract the crowds and upgrade the profile of visitors.

International trade fairs provide companies with the opportunity to create sales and establish relationships with agents and distributors that can lead to more permanent distribution in foreign markets. Trade shows can also be a fertile ground for cultivating new customers for small and mid-sized businesses; the entry time for exporting can be cut from six years to six months through wide usage of foreign trade fairs. While nearly 60% of American visitors to trade fairs expect to purchase an exhibited product within two months of attending the fair, nearly 100 percent of business persons at foreign fairs are buyers with order books in hand. Many are distributors looking for products that can be sold abroad. European Trade Fairs tend to be much larger than those found in the U.S.: the Cologne Cologne (kəlōn`), Ger. Köln, city (1994 pop. 962,500), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany, on the Rhine River. It is a commercial, financial, and industrial center, a rail and road junction, and a river port.  trade fairs bring together 28,000 exhibitors from 100 countries with 1.8 million buyers from 150 countries. The Hanover Fair grounds in Germany hosts events year round and is a major venue for trade fairs in Europe.

The U.S. government sponsors permanent trade centers/sites in a variety of cities around the world where products from various American industries are exhibited for specific time periods. Seventeen permanent U.S. trade centers exist in industrial centers such as London, Frankfurt, Bangkok Bangkok (băng`kŏk'), Thai Krung Thep, city (1990 pop. 8,538,610), capital of Thailand and of Bangkok prov., SW Thailand, on the east bank of the Chao Phraya River, near the Gulf of Thailand. , Stockholm, Tokyo, and Rome. In conjunction with trade centers, the Commerce Department offers manufacturers seeking business overseas the opportunity to have their products presented to potential buyers on videotape videotape

Magnetic tape used to record visual images and sound, or the recording itself. There are two types of videotape recorders, the transverse (or quad) and the helical.
 and thus gain greater exposure.

Authors agree that exhibiting at a trade fair can meet a variety of objectives. Carman Car´man

n. 1. A man whose employment is to drive, or to convey goods in, a car or car.
 (1968) pointed out that these will vary between firms and between events, but provided a list of ten for consideration. These included making direct sales, maintaining an image with existing and new customers, introducing new products, and finding new ideas and applications. The last point is particularly important since the two-way communication--possible at a trade fair/trade show but not in the traditional promotion media---permits the exhibitor to receive, as well as transmit, new ideas and intelligence on the market and its own competition. In a survey of 58 exhibit managers, Carman found only 12 able to provide data on their evaluation of the benefits of trade show participation. The remaining companies simply failed to do so.

Most companies appear to exhibit on an automatic or repeat basis. Having exhibited on a regular basis for many years, they usually do not question their exhibition effectiveness or results (Banting and Blenkhorn 1974). These researchers found that the average firm considers trade shows fairly low in effectiveness, yet continue to exhibit because this medium is viewed as a good opportunity to introduce new products, to establish personal contacts with new prospects and to maintain corporate visibility. The benefits of analyzing competitors ranked ten (evaluating competitor's products) and fourteenth (evaluate competitor's marketing tactics) on the final list of reasons for exhibiting. Small firms (sales less than $10 million) had a higher expectation of immediate direct sales and indicated higher interest in using trade shows for competitive information gathering than did larger firms.

The literature reports remarkably little about trade exhibitions internationally. Rizzo (1982) suggests that the advantages of foreign trade shows are that they allow exporters to meet buyers directly, investigate at first hand the markets for their products, observe the competition, and gather marketing research data. Weinrauch (1984) while accepting that trade shows/fairs are a promotional tool, includes the following in his list of the advantages which they have over other promotional methods, "an exporter can gather critical marketing related data, such as competitive reactions, product development and research, pricing structure and distribution structures." Bello and Barksdale (1986) considered the difficulties potential exporters experienced at trade shows. They suggested that reassigning domestic employees to main the international exhibit stand will not work since two types of export knowledge are required of a competent exporter, objective (or general) knowledge and experiential knowledge Experiential knowledge is knowledge gained through experience as opposed to a priori (before experience) knowledge. In the philosophy of mind, the phrase often refers to knowledge that can only . While the former can be taught, the latter can only be learned. Thus, the researchers argue, that international exhibits should be manned only by committed personnel who have such experiential knowledge.

U.S. exporters have time and again been advised and urged to make use of trade fairs to improve their marketing performance. None of aforementioned a·fore·men·tioned  
adj.
Mentioned previously.

n.
The one or ones mentioned previously.


aforementioned
Adjective

mentioned before

Adj. 1.
 papers cited offered any empirical evidence of the role of trade fairs and exhibitions in export marketing. It would be valuable to discover exporters' reasons for exhibiting internationally and in particular to evaluate the perceived role of trade fairs in the gathering of competitive information. Thus, the authors of this manuscript conducted a pilot study in 1993 to begin to examine the dynamics of international trade fair participation.

While 60% of business visitors at U.S. trade shows expect to purchase an exhibited product within 2 months, nearly 100% of business persons at foreign fairs are buyers with order books in hands, or distributors looking for products that can be sold in the U.S. European firms on average commit 33% of their marketing budget for trade fairs versus only 25% in the U.S. CEOs/Managing Directors in European companies consider it part of their job to work the trade fair floors. Unlike their U.S. counterparts who typically stay away from the exhibit area.

METHODOLOGY

Data for this study was collected by mail survey of American businesses. A cover letter with university letterhead was utilized to provide legitimacy. Cooperation of a large media corporation with high level of trade show participation was obtained; the media company provided the authors with 2500 labels containing names selected at random from their data base of domestic trade show users/interested parties. These were drawn from a random national sample of names from 2 SICs. After expunging ex·punge  
tr.v. ex·punged, ex·pung·ing, ex·pung·es
1. To erase or strike out: "I have corrected some factual slips, expunged some repetitions" Kenneth Tynan.
 duplicates and multiple listings from the same company, 2000 surveys were sent. As the company desired to be anonymous, no sponsorship was mentioned. Surveys were individually addressed but the cover letter was not personalized per·son·al·ize  
tr.v. per·son·al·ized, per·son·al·iz·ing, per·son·al·iz·es
1. To take (a general remark or characterization) in a personal manner.

2. To attribute human or personal qualities to; personify.
.

The survey was a 7 page comprehensive survey comprising of 4 parts: general trade show items, questions aimed at international usage, questions for non-exhibitors and a set of questions concerning organizational demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. . The whole questionnaire comprised 85 questions and was quite extensive. The four parts of the survey consisted of domestic trade show questions , international trade show items, users with no trade show activity within the last two years was asked to fill out part 3 on non-usage, and organizational characteristics.

Final tally was 204 useable responses (out of 240 received) for a response rate slightly over 10%. As the survey was an eight page vehicle with the cover letter being the first page and organizational characteristics being the last, considerable time was involved. This, no doubt, was responsible for the low response rate. However, the actual number of responses received made for usable analysis. Since this number was deemed adequate, no follow up mailing was made. Organizational respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests.  profiles can be viewed in Table 1.

From the responses of the respondents, the responses were marked either "Not-exhibiting" for those who had not exhibited during 1991-92 and had no plans to do so in 1993--these filled out the non-exhibitor section and the organizational demographics--, a second group termed " Domestic Exhibitors" who exhibited at a domestic trade shows (but not any international show) during the same time frame, and a third group termed "International Exhibitors," who indicated they had exhibited overseas during the time frame in question. As we were only interested in differences between domestic and international exhibitors, those indicating 'non-exhibitors' were eliminated for comparative purposes. Using ANOVA anova

see analysis of variance.

ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there
, t-test, chi-squares, and discriminant dis·crim·i·nant  
n.
An expression used to distinguish or separate other expressions in a quantity or equation.
 analysis, we examined the two remaining groups. Differences between the two groups were assessed from the organizational demographics and exhibiting philosophies, these being the common ground among the two groups responses. In addition, a profile of international exhibitors was created using results from part 2--which queried international trade show activities and philosophies.

RESULTS

Results of the comparison between domestic and international exhibitors can be seen in Table 2. Considerable number of similarities were observed between the two groups. Both domestic and international exhibitors believe the two most important objectives of trade shows as gaining leads/new contacts and finding prime prospects.

Both domestic and international exhibitors believe the most important targets set for a show are: number of new leads and introduction of new products. Both domestic and international exhibitors believe the most important criteria of measuring trade show effectiveness is number of leads generated while domestic exhibitors also believe the conversion rate from these leads to sales is important. Both domestic and international exhibitors believe the most important reason their firm exhibits is identifying prospects.

Both domestic and international exhibitors believe the top pre-show promotion to be personal initiation by mail. Domestic also like personally delivered invitations while international exhibitors prefer free show tickets and special trade show journal editions ads. Both domestic and international exhibitors prefer dinner with special customers as a conference activity with a co-located seminar or conference program as a second choice. And most interestingly so, both domestic exhibitors and international exhibitors indicated similar results as to complexity of product produced, technical aspect, relative price of product sold, customization of product, frequency of its purchase, and complementary of product. This must be compared to non-exhibitors which indicated considerable differences between these items and exhibiting firms. Thus, little difference exists between domestic exhibitors and international exhibitors as to the product produced and marketed.

Many significant and substantial differences were seen between the two groups. Principal differences between the two groups can be seen in their view of the effectiveness of trade shows and their satisfaction with its results. International exhibitors indicate a higher perceived effectiveness and say their upper management believes in its high effectiveness and tend to be more satisfied with its results. International exhibitors tend to exhibit at more national shows and at more vertical (industry specific) shows than do domestic exhibitors. International exhibitors also tend to use more follow up (post-show) tactics than did domestic exhibitors. As to have been expected, international exhibitors indicate theirs is more of a worldwide orientation than did domestic exhibitors, many more of which are content to be considered disproportionally dis·pro·por·tion·al  
adj.
Disproportionate.



dispro·portion·al·ly adv.
 only North-American in geographical coverage. Although international in scope, two-thirds of the international exhibitors indicate their predominate activities to lie only in North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere.  and Western Europe Western Europe

The countries of western Europe, especially those that are allied with the United States and Canada in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (established 1949 and usually known as NATO).
.

International exhibitors indicated that over half attended 5-9 international trade shows in 91-92 with more planned for 93-94. The predominate criteria international exhibitors used to evaluate/select international trade fairs include size, number of visitors, with quality of audience most important. Principal reasons given by international exhibitors for participating in intl trade fairs were establishing contacts (most important) and worldwide image. Of the exhibitors who self-classified themselves as international, almost half are new international exhibitors (1-4 yrs) who tend to rate domestic and international audiences about same, not having reached the experience necessary to differentiate the audiences. Most of those who indicated they were international exhibitors said what prompted their start in export activities were unsolicited un·so·lic·it·ed  
adj.
Not looked for or requested; unsought: an unsolicited manuscript; unsolicited opinions.


unsolicited
Adjective
 orders. The major difficulties the international exhibitors indicate they face in the international arena are business customs and logistics. Their mix of trade show booth personnel is (mean values): Technical 12%, Mktg & Sales 60%, Executive 16%, which differ from domestic exhibitors by having more marketing and sales personnel present and fewer technical advisors

A Discriminant analysis between domestic and international exhibitors was also run. Results can be seen in Table 3. As Table 4 shows in the predict versus actual table, a very high significance level was obtained. These two techniques confirm and verify each other. The Multivariate result was marginally significant, thus indicating not spectacular differences between the two groups (this despite the highly significant group versus predict matrix shown in Table 4). In essence, while some differences were seen between the two groups, their behavior as a whole (especially as concerns versus non-exhibitors) were very similar. One interesting observation was that while North American North American

named after North America.


North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.

North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus.
 oriented o·ri·ent  
n.
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.

2.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.

b. A pearl having exceptional luster.

3.
 firms were, not unexpectedly, domestic exhibitors, the internationally exhibiting firms, although quite new, gave worldwide orientation and indicated that one of the first facets of their marketing mix changed in the upgrading from North American emphasis to Worldwide-orientation, was to become an international exhibitor at trade shows. This quite clearly indicates the value and importance of exhibiting overseas.

MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS

What kinds of firms can benefit in what kind of ways from international trade events? Some answers may be suggested by an internationalization The support for monetary values, time and date for countries around the world. It also embraces the use of native characters and symbols in the different alphabets. See localization, i18n, Unicode and IDN.

internationalization - internationalisation
 theory which assumes that exporting is a sequential learning process as a firm passes through stages of increasing commitment to foreign markets (Cavusgil 1984). These are (1) experimental involvement in exporting (2) active involvement, and (3) committed involvement. These can be related to different forms of participation in international trade fairs. In the experimental phase, a domestic trade show focus with sales made from unsolicited overseas inquiries is typical. Actively involved firms utilize U. S. Government (Department of Commerce sponsorship) to build bridges internationally via trade fairs. Committed companies extensively engage in overseas trading events to support their local partners, to build representation in foreign markets, and to learn about foreign buyer needs and the competition.

Market knowledge and export planning are two powerful discriminators between successful exporters and non-exporters (Aaby and Slater slat·er  
n.
1. One employed to lay slate surfaces, as on roofs.

2. See pill bug.

3. See sow bug.

Noun 1.
 1989). Not having sufficient market knowledge represents a barrier to exporting. For example, for American firms, the most important barrier to exporting is most probably the "lack of exposure to other cultures" (Rabino 1980). Increasing country-specific experience leads to better understanding of market mechanisms and a network of personal contacts (Madsen 1989). Consequently, product decisions, agent/distributor choice and communication with market participants are improved. In turn, this leads to better performance.

Participating in international trade fairs can provide American firms with valuable information through overseas experience and personal contacts. Thus, exporting barriers can be overcome to some degree through international trade show attendance. Information available concerning international fairs suggests that selling plays an important role for exhibitors at these events. International fairs attract serious buyers and while sales are always the ultimate objective, important intermediary Intermediary

See: Financial intermediary


intermediary

See financial intermediary.
 goals also are set by the globally focused company.

REFERENCES

Banting, P. M. & D. L. Blankhorn (1974), "The Role of Industrial Trade Shows," Industrial Marketing Management, 3 (October), 285-295.

Barczyk, C. C., G. B. Glisan, & W. C. Lesch (1989), "Trade Show Participation: Inter-Industry and Organizational Motives," Journal of Professional Services (job) professional services - A department of a supplier providing consultancy and programming manpower for the supplier's products.  Marketing, 4(1), 131-146.

Bellizzi, J. A. & D. J. Lipps (1984), "Managerial Guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
 for Trade Show Effectiveness," Industrial Marketing Management, 13, (February), 49-52

Bello, D. C. & H. C. Barksdale, Jr. (1986), "Exporting at Industrial Trade Shows," Industrial Marketing Management, 15, 197-206.

Bello, D. C. & G. J. Barczak (1990), "Using Industrial Trade Shows to Improve New Product Development," The Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 5(2), 43-56.

Bertrand, K. (1987), "Talking Turkey on Trade Shows," Business Marketing, 72 (March), 94-103.

Black, R. (1986), The Trade Show Industry: Management and Marketing Career Opportunities, East Orleans, Massachusetts Orleans is a town in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, Barnstable County coextensive with Cape Cod. The population was 6,341 at the 2000 census.

For geographic and demographic information on the census-designated place Orleans, please see the article Orleans (CDP),
: Trade Show Bureau Bonoma, T. V. (1983), "Get More Out of Your Trade Shows," Harvard Business Review Harvard Business Review is a general management magazine published since 1922 by Harvard Business School Publishing, owned by the Harvard Business School. A monthly research-based magazine written for business practitioners, it claims a high ranking business readership and , 61, (Jan-Feb), 75-83.

Browning, J. M. & R. J. Adams (1988), "Trade Shows: An Effective Promotional Tool for the Small Industrial Business," Journal of Small Business Management, 26/4 (October), 31-36.

Carman, J. M. (1968), "Evaluation of Trade Show Exhibitions," XI(2), (Winter), 35-44.

Cavanaugh, S. (1976), "Setting Objectives and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Trade Show Exhibits," Journal of Marketing, 40, (October), 100-103.

Couretas, J. (1984), "Trade Shows and the Strategic Mainstream," Business Marketing, 69, 64-70.

Cox, J. M., I. K. Sequeira & L. L. Bock Noun 1. bock - a very strong lager traditionally brewed in the fall and aged through the winter for consumption in the spring
bock beer

lager beer, lager - a general term for beer made with bottom fermenting yeast (usually by decoction mashing); originally
 (1988), "1987 Trade Show Trends: Show Size Grows, Audience Quality .Stays High," Business Marketing, May, 84-88.

Donath, B. (1980), "Show and Sell by the Numbers," Industrial Marketing, (March) 70-75.

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Gopalakrishna, S. & J. D. Williams
:''See J. D. Williams (film)


J.D. Williams (born May 22, 1978 in Newark, New Jersey) is an African-American actor notable for his starring roles in the HBO television programs Oz and The Wire.
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"Trade Shows are Usually a Form of Mass Hysteria mass hysteria
n.
1. Spontaneous, en masse development of identical physical or emotional symptoms among a group of individuals, as in a classroom of schoolchildren.

2.
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Fred Palumbo, Yeshiva University Yeshiva University, in New York City; mainly coeducational; begun 1886 as Yeshiva Eitz Chaim, a Jewish theological seminary, chartered 1928 as Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary and Yeshiva College; renamed 1945.  

Brad O'Hara, Southeastern Louisiana State University Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System.  

Paul Herbig, Managing Director, Herbig & Sons Marketing Consultants
TABLE 1
Organizational Demographics of Respondents

a.     Trade Show Usage                  #      %
         Not exhibiting                 42      20
         Domestic only                  85      42
         International Exhibitions      77      37
b.     Type of Business
         Manufacturing                  157
         Services                       46
c.     Customer Type
         Industrial                     115
         Consumer                       71
d.     Area of Operation
         Domestic US                    125
         Worldwide                      68
e.     Size of Entity
         Small (under $10 M)            72
         Medium ($10-250 M)             56
         Large (over $250 M)            55
f.     Years in Business
         New (1-10)                     38
         Young (11-20)                  49
         Mid (21-50)                    72
         Mature (>50)                   44
g.     Affiliation
         US-Public                      63
         US-Private                     109
         Foreign                        31
h.     # Product Lines
         Few (1-5)                      74
         Some (5-10)                    62
         Many (>10)                     67
i.     # Customers
         Few (1-99)                     41
         Lots (100-500)                 60
         Many (>500)                    112

Table 2
Significant Differences Between Domestic and International Exhibitors

a.     International exhibitors rate overall effectiveness
       of trade shows higher (Chi-Square = 14.4, p<.006)

b.     International exhibitors believe upper management
       rates overall effectiveness of trade shows higher (F
       = 4.8, p<.02)

c.     International exhibitors perceive upper management
       support of trade shows to be higher (F = 4.67,
       p<.032)

d.     International exhibitors tend to exhibit at more
       industry specific events.

e.     Domestic exhibitors disproportionally at 'fulfilling
       company mission' (Chi-Square = 5.2, p<.023)

f.     Domestic exhibitors cite too many state/local shows
       while international exhibitors believe not enough
       state/local trade shows (Chi-Square = 6.8, p<.033)

g.     International exhibitors claim to have exhibited at
       more national shows than domestic shows (F = 7.58,
       p<.007)

h.     International exhibitors indicate higher
       satisfaction with trade show results than do
       domestic exhibitors (F = 4.2, p<.042)

i.     International exhibitors place a greater percentage
       of their meeting expenditures with catalogs (16% vs.
       10%)

j      International exhibitors tend to use follow-up
       direct mail more often than do domestic exhibitors
       (T = 2.3, p<.021)

k      No significant differences were rated between
       domestic exhibitors and international exhibitors
       with regard to customization, complementary,
       frequency of purchase, and pricing.

Table 3
Significant Univariate F Tests for International Versus Domestic
Exhibitors

VARIABLE              SS          DF    MS          F          p

MGMT SUPPORT          12.46672    1     2.46672     4.98780    0.02763
  Satisfaction        8.35863     1     8.35863     3.97180    0.04884
  Effectiveness       3.94810     1     3.94810     5.01440    0.02723
  Geographic Area     17.84322    1     17.84322    8.60409    0.00411

  Decision Makers     2.88155     1     2.88155     4.71540    0.03212

MULTIVARIATE TEST STATISTICS
  WILKS' LAMBDA = 0.67602
  F-STATISTIC = 1.49306              DF = 26, 81    PROB = 0.08910

TEST OF RESIDUAL ROOTS
  CHI-SQUARE STATISTIC = 36.41300    DF = 26        PROB = 0.08433

Table 4
International versus Domestic Exhibitors

TABLE OF PREDICT (ROWS) BY GROUP (COLUMNS)

               FREQUENCIES

          DOM     INTL     TOTAL

DOM       39      11       50
INTL      11      47       58

TOTAL     50      58       108

             86 out of 108 correctly chosen = 80%

TEST STATISTIC                  VALUE        DF     PROB

PEARSON CHI-SQUARE              37.63876     1      0.00000
LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI-SQUARE     40.09204     1      0.00000
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Author:Palumbo, Fred; O'Hara, Brad; Herbig, Paul
Publication:Academy of Marketing Studies Journal
Date:Jul 1, 1998
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