Differences and similarities in men's and women's sexual self-schemas.Does gender influence how we think about our sexual selves? From Freud's early connections between anatomy anatomy (ənăt`əmē), branch of biology concerned with the study of body structure of various organisms, including humans. Comparative anatomy is concerned with the structural differences of plant and animal forms. and sexuality to Daryl Bem's (2000) "exotic becomes erotic erotic /erot·ic/ (e-rot´ik)
1. charged with sexual feeling.
2. pertaining to sexual desire.
1. Of or concerning sexual love and desire. " theory, gender has been consistently implicated im·pli·cate
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.
2. in theories of sexuality. Gender role scripts no doubt influence sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. , yet one's own sense of gendered self-concept only weakly weak·ly
adj. weak·li·er, weak·li·est
Delicate in constitution; frail or sickly.
1. With little physical strength or force.
2. With little strength of character. predicts sexual behavior (e.g., Garcia, 1999; Garcia & Carrigan, 1998; Whitley, 1988). It seems gender roles predict sexual behavior, but individuals may not always internalize internalize
To send a customer order from a brokerage firm to the firm's own specialist or market maker. Internalizing an order allows a broker to share in the profit (spread between the bid and ask) of executing the order. social roles into their self-concepts. To what extent do men and women internalize social roles into their sexual sense of self?
One answer to this question comes from work in the last decade on sexual self-schemas. Building on Markus's (1977) early work that established the self-schema--a cognitive representation of who we think we are--Andersen and her colleagues defined sexual self-schema as "cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself" (p. 1079). Consistent with the typical approach to schemas Schemas
Fundamental core beliefs or assumptions that are part of the perceptual filter people use to view the world. Cognitive-behavioral therapy seeks to change maladaptive schemas. , the sexual self-schema shapes, and is shaped by, experience. Thus, a person who has little sexual experience may come to see their self as asexual asexual /asex·u·al/ (a-sek´shoo-al) having no sex; not sexual; not pertaining to sex.
1. Having no evident sex or sex organs; sexless.
2. , and this self view will influence their future sexual choices.
To assess sexual self-schemas, Andersen and Cyranowski (1994) designed a scale to covertly cov·ert
1. Not openly practiced, avowed, engaged in, accumulated, or shown: covert military operations; covert funding for the rebels. See Synonyms at secret.
2. measure a woman's sense of her sexual self. They had university students and community members rate trait trait (trat)
1. any genetically determined characteristic; also, the condition prevailing in the heterozygous state of a recessive disorder, as the sickle cell trait.
2. a distinctive behavior pattern. adjectives (e.g., passionate) on how well the words could be used to describe a "sexual woman." After identifying the 26 best adjectives using standard scale construction methods, they asked university students to rate themselves on a 7 point scale (0 to 6, from "not at all descriptive of me" to "very much descriptive of me") for each adjective adjective, English part of speech, one of the two that refer typically to attributes and together are called modifiers. The other kind of modifier is the adverb. . A factor analysis of the ratings revealed three potential dimensions to women's sexual self: passionate/ romantic, open/direct, and embarrassed/conservative.
Andersen and Cyranowski (1994) combined the passion/romantic and open/direct factors to create a "positive" score; scores on the embarrassed/conservative factor represented a "negative" score. Overall, women who scored high on the positive dimension, as measured by other established instruments, tended to be emotionally romantic and passionate, liberal in sexual attitudes, and free of inhibitions. They also reported higher levels of arousability and willingness to engage in casual sex, and they tended to be motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo towards sexually intimate relationships An intimate relationship is a particularly close interpersonal relationship. It is a relationship in which the participants know or trust one another very well or are confidants of one another, or a relationship in which there is physical or emotional intimacy. . In contrast, women who scored high on the negative scale tended to be emotionally reserved and inhibited in·hib·it
tr.v. in·hib·it·ed, in·hib·it·ing, in·hib·its
1. To hold back; restrain. See Synonyms at restrain.
2. To prohibit; forbid.
3. in their sexuality and generally conservative about sexual matters. Andersen and Cyranowski proposed that there were four categories of women: those who had positive, negative, co-schematic (i.e., having both negative and positive dimensions), and aschematic self-concepts (i.e., having neither positive nor negative dimensions) (see Figure 1).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
In a second paper Andersen, Cyranowski, and Espindle (1999) sought to circumscribe cir·cum·scribe
tr.v. cir·cum·scribed, cir·cum·scrib·ing, cir·cum·scribes
1. To draw a line around; encircle.
2. To limit narrowly; restrict.
3. To determine the limits of; define. men's sexual self-schema. As with the women's scale, they used standard scale construction methods to identify 27 words that represented "a sexual man." In a factor analysis, university student participants' self-ratings on these terms suggested three factors in men's sexual selves: passionate/loving, powerful/aggressive, and open-minded/liberal. As with the women, Andersen and colleagues found that men who scored high on the three factors (i.e., schematics) compared to those who scored low (i.e., aschematics), considered themselves more sexual, more sexually arousable arousable Capable of being aroused–from a stuporous state , and more willing to engage in casual sex. Schematic A graphical representation of a system. It often refers to electronic circuits on a printed circuit board or in an integrated circuit (chip). See logic gate and HDL. men, compared to aschematic men, reported a wider range of sexual activities, more lifetime sexual partners, and more brief sexual encounters. Schematic men were more likely to be involved in a relationship, and they estimated more sexual partners in the future than aschematic men.
Early studies with these scales demonstrated both concurrent and predictive validity In psychometrics, predictive validity is the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure.
For example, the validity of a cognitive test for job performance is the correlation between test scores and, for example, supervisor performance ratings. for the adjective lists. For example, women with vaginismus vaginismus /vag·i·nis·mus/ (vaj?i-niz´mus) painful spasm of the vagina due to involuntary muscular contraction, usually severe enough to prevent intercourse; the cause may be organic or psychogenic. expressed less positive sexual self-schemas than women with no pain (Reissing, Binik, Khalife, Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. , & Amsel, 2003). Studies on predictive validity claimed that sexual self-schema scores predicted sexual changes after breast cancer surgery (Yurek, Farrar, & Andersen, 2000) and predicted sexual behavior and responsiveness among women with gynecologic cancer gynecologic cancer Gynecology Any malignancy of the ♀ reproductive tract, including cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, vagina and, for some the breast (Andersen, Woods, & Copeland, 1997; Andersen, Woods, & Cyranowski, 1994). However, there have been mixed results relating sexual self-schema scores to women's satisfaction with their body, even though sexual self-schema scores do predict physical attractiveness Physical attractiveness is the perception of the physical traits of an individual human person as pleasing or beautiful. It can include various implications, such as sexual attractiveness, cuteness, and physique. in women (Wiederman & Hurst, 1997). These findings have been largely confirmed for college-aged women, but correspondence between self-schema and sexual behavior may not be as strong for women over 30 years of age, where self-schemas appeared to be less correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. with actual sexual behavior (Volsky Rushton, 2003).
Research conducted with the men's self-schema scale is much more preliminary and overall less solid. Aarestad (2000) reported that men's sexual self-schema could not predict sexual behavior, but was related to the man's experience of romantic relationships. Barner (2003) raised questions about the men's scale since positive sexual self-schemas in men were unrelated to self-reported history of sexual aggression and coercion coercion, in law, the unlawful act of compelling a person to do, or to abstain from doing, something by depriving him of the exercise of his free will, particularly by use or threat of physical or moral force. , despite the fact that powerful/aggressive was a key dimension of a positive self-concept in the men's scale.
It may be that a range of problems were confounding confounding
when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.
confounding factor results, especially with the men's scale. Both scales were initially developed as unobtrusive measures of sexual selves, so the instructions for completing the scales were very general. The hope was that raters would be more honest if they didn't know they were rating their sexual self. Participants were simply asked to "describe yourself' and to "consider whether or not the term describes you." The intent was to have a covert COVERT, BARON. A wife; so called, from her being under the cover or protection of her husband, baron or lord. measure of sexuality, and Andersen and colleagues were successful in this regard. But there are dangers when using such vague instructions to assess a dimension of self-concept. What dimensions of self-concept are participants considering when rating themselves on this task? It seems reasonable to assume that one would rate oneself differently if thinking about oneself as a student, employee, or lover. This is especially troubling given that self theorists have suggested that we probably do not have one self, but rather many possible selves that emerge at different times in different contexts (e.g., Markus & Nurius, 1986). If the scale is measuring some generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.
2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.
3. concept of self, how valid is that when specifically attempting to measure how one thinks of themselves as a sexual person? In line with this reasoning, participants need to know which dimensions of self they are rating. Even though a more explicit rating of one's sexual self risks a self-presentation bias, ratings must assess how people think of themselves in a primarily sexual manner and not in a general sense.
There are further problems. The traits in the scales are strongly related to gender stereotypes. Thus, it could be that raters are considering their sense of themselves as a gendered person, which may or may not correspond with their sexual behavior. For instance, a man may see himself as aggressive in general, or even in specific contexts like work settings, but submissive sub·mis·sive
Inclined or willing to submit.
sub·mis in his sexual relationships. Indeed, many of the trait adjectives used in the women's and men's scales (e.g., aggressive, compassionate com·pas·sion·ate
1. Feeling or showing compassion; sympathetic. See Synonyms at humane.
2. Granted to an individual because of an emergency or other unusual circumstances: , domineering dom·i·neer·ing
Tending to domineer; overbearing.
domi·neer , independent, individualistic in·di·vid·u·al·ist
1. One that asserts individuality by independence of thought and action.
2. An advocate of individualism.
in , sensitive, sympathetic, timid timid,
adj in Chinese medicine, pertaining to inadequate energy needed to face and overcome obstacles. , warm) are identical or synonymous with synonymous with
adjective equivalent to, the same as, identical to, similar to, identified with, equal to, tantamount to, interchangeable with, one and the same as adjectives used in common gender role questionnaires such as the Bem Sex Role Inventory (S. Bern, 1974) or the Personality Attributes Questionnaire (Spence n. 1. A place where provisions are kept; a buttery; a larder; a pantry.
In . . . his spence, or "pantry" were hung the carcasses of a sheep or ewe, and two cows lately slaughtered.
- Sir W. Scott. , Helmreich, & Stapp, 1975). It may be that the Andersen scales conflate con·flate
tr.v. con·flat·ed, con·flat·ing, con·flates
1. To bring together; meld or fuse: "The problems [with the biopic] include . . sexual and gendered selves making their scale an assessment of how much men and women rate their sexual self consistent with gender stereotypes.
Furthermore, self-ratings of this sort need to be anchored. When rating oneself as "sympathetic," without guidance, how should one arrive at a quantified judgment on a seven point scale? Sympathetic compared to whom? These ratings cannot be made in isolation without context, since everyone could anchor their ratings differently. As noted by others who conducted research on personality self-rating tasks (e.g., McCrae, Stone, Fagan, & Costa, 1998), it is imperative that researchers provide some anchors for comparison; otherwise, the participants are left to imagine the basis of comparison. At the very least, in tasks like this, participants should compare themselves to others of the same gender and age, so there is some stated and consistent basis for which they can make ratings.
Comparing the actual content of Andersen's men's and women's sexual self-schema scales suggests further concerns. Table 1 lists the items from each scale in alphabetical order. Thirteen of the adjectives in the two scales are identical; 14 are very similar if you count "warm" and "warm-hearted" as synonymous. Thus, over half of the items of both scales overlap, suggesting that sexual self-concepts for men and women are somewhat related, obviating ob·vi·ate
tr.v. ob·vi·at·ed, ob·vi·at·ing, ob·vi·ates
To anticipate and dispose of effectively; render unnecessary. See Synonyms at prevent. the need for two different measures of sexual self. Andersen and her colleagues appeared to have begun with the premise that men and women understand their sexual selves differently; yet it seems their data suggest this is not entirely the case. Andersen and colleagues (1999) pointed out these similarities, noting that in both scales the passionate/romantic dimension is primary, and they shared about half of the same items. Additionally, the men's open-minded factor corresponded to women's open/ direct factor. Andersen and her colleagues noted, however, that these scales seemed to function differently. For men, open-mindedness appeared related to behavioral activation activation /ac·ti·va·tion/ (ak?ti-va´shun)
1. the act or process of rendering active.
2. the transformation of a proenzyme into an active enzyme by the action of a kinase or another enzyme.
3. and emotional involvement, whereas for women "open/direct" related to behavioral activation only. That may be, but such similarities in content challenge the rationale underlying separate scales to assess sexual self-schema for each gender. Indeed, Andersen and colleagues (1999) suggested that researchers might have both men and women fill out both the women's and men's versions of the scale, which is basically the inspiration for this article.
Having men and women complete a composite scale with all items would address two other problems. Andersen and Cyranowski (1994) found that women saw their sexual self more negatively than men, and they included more negatively valued items (e.g., embarrassed) in the women's scale. Indeed, there were only three negative adjectives for the men (i.e., conservative, reserved, and inexperienced in·ex·pe·ri·ence
1. Lack of experience.
2. Lack of the knowledge gained from experience.
in ). Thus, the factor analysis on the men's scale confirmed there was no negative factor in their sexuality ratings. Is this really the case, or is this a consequence of reluctance among college-aged men to characterize their sexuality in negative terms? Perhaps they have no negative conception of their sexual self. It could also be that men understand their negative sexual self in similar terms to women, so completing a common scale with negative items would answer this question. Additionally, administering all items to both sexes would permit a comparison of men's and women's responses to identical items. This would help test the premise that men and women think about their sexual selves differently.
This study tested a composite version of the sexual self-schema scales (items from both scales). The scale was modified to instruct in·struct
v. in·struct·ed, in·struct·ing, in·structs
1. To provide with knowledge, especially in a methodical way. See Synonyms at teach.
2. To give orders to; direct.
v. participants to explicitly consider their "sexual self" when completing the scale. Moreover, the instructions were modified to include comparison anchors for gender and age. It was expected that men and women would rate themselves differently overall on the scale. It was also hypothesized that a factor analysis would confirm a three factor solution for both men and women, similar to what Andersen and her colleagues found for women only, suggesting that in fact, men do consider negative dimensions of their sexuality.
This study drew participants from two populations: a Canadian university and an undergraduate college in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . In Canada, undergraduate students enrolled in social science courses at a large English-speaking university in Montreal were given the opportunity to complete the sexual self-schema questionnaire. In all, 439 students (251 women and 188 men) completed questionnaires. Participation was voluntary; however, a modest incentive was offered: participants were entered into a draw for two prizes of $100 each. In this sample, the race or ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic of participants was unknown, but the school is widely recognized as providing instruction to a largely cosmopolitan cos·mo·pol·i·tan
Growing or occurring in many parts of the world; widely distributed.
A cosmopolitan organism. and ethnically diverse student body. Most students identified as heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex. (94.1%), with 3.4% identifying as either gay or lesbian, and 2.5% claiming a bisexual bisexual /bi·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to or characterized by bisexuality.
2. an individual exhibiting bisexuality.
3. pertaining to or characterized by hermaphroditism.
In the U.S. sample, 394 undergraduate students (224 women and 170 men) enrolled in a wide range of disciplines in a college in New York City New York City: see New York, city.
New York City
City (pop., 2000: 8,008,278), southeastern New York, at the mouth of the Hudson River. The largest city in the U.S. completed the questionnaire. As in the Canadian sample, participants volunteered for the study, but were placed in a draw for one prize of $100. Most participants were White (62%), but many were Hispanic (12%), African-American (9.6%), Asian (7.3%), or other/multi-racial (9.1%). The majority of students identified as heterosexual (97%), 1.5% identified as either lesbian or gay, and 2% identified as bisexual.
A modified version of the sexual self-schema scale was used. To emphasize the measurement of sexual self-concept, the questionnaire was given the title "Sexual Self-Schema Scale." Items from both the men's and women's scales were combined, and the neutral items included in the original scales were omitted. In addition, the instructions were changed to make explicit the measurement of one's sexual self-schema and to encourage comparisons to others of similar sex and age. The instructions for the scale were as follows:
Below is a listing of adjectives people often use to describe themselves as a sexual person. For each word, consider whether or not the term describes how you feel about yourself as a sexual person compared to others of your same gender and age. Rate each term on a 7-point scale ranging from 0 = not at all descriptive of me to 6 = very much descriptive of me to indicate how accurately the adjectives describe you. There are no right or wrong answers. Please be thoughtful and honest. If you have any difficulties, please use this question as a guideline: To what extent does the term describe me? [emphasis added]
Modification of the scale did not seem to affect its internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. : coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. alpha for the combined scale was .82, which was consistent with previous studies on the two independent scales (Andersen & Cyranowski, 1994; Andersen et al., 1999).
In both samples, research assistants approached instructors of courses for permission to enter their classes and administer the questionnaire. Once permission was obtained, researchers read instructions for the questionnaire and distributed a consent form that included the instruction that participants would be asked questions regarding "how I feel about my self as a sexual person" so as to cue cue,
n a stimulus that determines or may prompt the nature of a person's response.
cue Psychology Any sensory stimulus that evokes a learned patterned response. See Conditioning. participants to rate their sexual self. Participants were then instructed to return the consent forms separate from the questionnaires; thus, all participants responded in a completely anonymous fashion. All participants were offered feedback on the results, which was sent to those who requested it upon completion of the study.
The results of this study focus on a factor analysis of the combined scale among the men and women participants and a test of gender differences in responses to the scales. Since the samples were drawn from U.S. and Canadian students, a comparison of American and Canadian students was also conducted.
Andersen and Cyranowski (1994) found three factors in the ratings of women's sexual self-schema, yet Andersen and colleagues (1999) found two factors in the ratings of men's sexual self-schema. Did combining the items from the two scales alter the factor structure of the trait set? Since previous research reported three factors in the women's responses, and it was believed that men's responses would also cluster similarly, a three-factor solution was forced in a principal components analysis (using oblimin rotation with Kaiser normalization In relational database management, a process that breaks down data into record groups for efficient processing. There are six stages. By the third stage (third normal form), data are identified only by the key field in their record. ). The factor analysis converged on factors equivalent to Andersen's romantic, embarrassed, and power factors for both men and women (see Table 2). In this solution, the three factors could be more accurately labeled: loving/ warm, reserved/conservative, and direct/outspoken. These three factors explained 37.9% of the variance. Five adjectives did not load strongly on any factor (factor loadings < .40) and are listed at the bottom of this table. These items were dropped from the scale for subsequent analyses. Thus, the version of the scale that should be used for future analyses is shown in Appendix A.
Proponents of Andersen's work might further argue that a two factor solution is more appropriate for men, but a three factor solution more suitable for women. Further factor analyses Verb 1. factor analyse - to perform a factor analysis of correlational data
analyse, analyze - break down into components or essential features; "analyze today's financial market" were conducted on the men alone, women alone, and men and women combined, using both two and three factor solutions. In this case, the maximum likelihood factor extraction was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit for each of the models. In each case, the three factor solution accounted for 38% of variance, but the two factor models accounted for 31% variance. The goodness-of-it statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.
a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them. was significant (p < .0001) and very large ([chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ] ranging from 1,959 to 5,152) for all 6 models, likely due to the large sample size, yielding inconclusive INCONCLUSIVE. What does not put an end to a thing. Inconclusive presumptions are those which may be overcome by opposing proof; for example, the law presumes that he who possesses personal property is the owner of it, but evidence is allowed to contradict this presumption, and show who is comparisons.
Although a three factor solution was superior to a two factor for this sample, the three factor solution was unsatisfactory on several accounts. For one thing, a solution that explains less than 40% of the variance in sexual self ratings is poor. Andersen's previous reports failed to mention the variance accounted by either their two and three factor solutions for men and women respectively. Andersen claimed using eigenvalues eigenvalues
statistical term meaning latent root. as the basis for selecting the number of factors. Using this widely accepted strategy with the current data indicated a nine factor solution for this heterogeneous
sample (Canadian and U.S., men and women combined). Table 3 lists the factor loadings of an exploratory principal components analysis with a nine factor solution (using oblimin rotation with Kaiser normalization). This solution was stronger than either of the two or three factor models: the nine factor solution accounted for 58.8% of the variance in participant ratings. This model also highlighted the breadth of people's conceptualizations of their sexual selves along nine dimensions, a range of positive and negative traits referencing behaviors, emotionality, and power, arguably ar·gu·a·ble
1. Open to argument: an arguable question, still unresolved.
2. That can be argued plausibly; defensible in argument: three arguable points of law. a more sophisticated approach.
Norms, Subscale Correlations, and Internal Consistency
Average total scores for each of the subscales for all subjects, along with correlations between each of the scales are presented in Table 4. The subscales were correlated but independent structures, the correlations between them were significant but small. The coefficient alpha estimates of reliability for each subscale were all reasonable.
A main premise underlying the separate assessment of sexual self-schemas among the genders was that men and women characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. their sexual selves differently. A comparison of men and women on all adjectives in a MANOVA MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of the Variance between-subjects design tested this assumption. The main effect test of gender differences across all adjectives was significant, F(40, 792) = 4.88, p = .0001, [[eta].sup.2] = .198, a small effect ([[eta].sup.2] < .2; Cohen, 1988). Univariate tests of gender differences across each adjective revealed small significant gender differences for about half of the adjectives. Table 5 lists the means and univariate tests of difference for the items that led to significantly different responding among men and women; non-significant results were not reported. All the effect sizes were small.
Using the item associations identified in the preceding factor analysis, a further test of gender differences was conducted. Subscale scores were calculated for each of the three factors (loving/warm, reserved/conservative, and direct/outspoken) simply by adding values for the items that loaded on each factor (reversing the scores for "unromantic" since it loaded negatively on the loving/warm dimension). A MANOVA test of gender difference was significant for all three sub-scales combined, F(3, 829) = 17.42, p = .0001, [[eta].sup.2] = .059, a very small effect. Means for each subscale and gender are reported in Table 6. Univariate tests of differences found that most of the gender differences were due to the fact that women scored higher than men on the loving/warm warm factor, F(1, 831) = 41.38, p = .0001, [[eta].sup.2] = .047, and the reserved/conservative factor, F(1, 831) = 15.55, p = .0001, [[eta].sup.2] = .018, but men and women scored almost equal on the direct/outspoken factor.
One further method of comparing genders involved classifying participants into one of four groups--aschematic, positive, negative, and co-schematic--and comparing the proportion of men and women in each group. To determine membership in each group, participants were classified as either high or low on the negative subscale (reserved/conservative) and the positive subscales (loving/warm + direct/outspoken) using a median split. The median for the negative scores was 25 and the median for the positive scores was 119. Those who rated themselves below the median on both positive and negative dimensions were classified as aschematic; above the median on both were classified as co-schematic; above the median on positive dimensions but below the median on negative dimensions were classified as positive; and those who rated themselves as above the median on negative the dimension but below the median on positive dimensions were classified as negative.
The proportion of men and women categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat into each of the four schematic groups is presented in Table 7. Overall, about a fourth of all participants fell into each category. A chi-square analysis found that the proportions of men and women in each category were unexpected, [chi square] (3, N = 833) = 17.6, p < .0001. Men were more likely to rate themselves as aschematic and less likely to rate themselves as co-schematic than expected. Contrary to Andersen and colleagues' earlier work, 25% of the men in this study rated their self as negative suggesting that many men view their sexual self negatively. Also unexpectedly, almost a third (31%) of the men rated themselves as aschematic, having no outstanding negative or positive characteristics. This contrasts with women's reporting: fewer women rated themselves as aschematic and more as co-schematic than expected. Thus, women were more likely to see their sexual selves as having both positive and negative dimensions than men, but men were more likely (than chance) to see their sexual self as either negative overall or low on both positive and negative dimensions.
A MANOVA comparison of the three subscales across country of origin yielded a significant main effect, F(3, 829)= 6.43, p = .0001, [[eta].sup.2] = .023. This difference was a medium effect size, suggesting that overall Americans rated themselves differently than Canadians. The means for each of the subscales across countries can be found in Table 8. A test of univariate differences on these scales found a significant difference only for the direct/outspoken subscale, F(1, 831) = 11.32, p = .001, [[eta].sup.2] = .013, suggesting that American students rated themselves slightly higher on direct/outspoken variables, but this was a very small effect.
Combining the adjectives from the men's and women's sexual self-schema scales into one scale illustrated that both men and women relied on the same basic dimensions when judging their sexual selves: loving and warm, reserved and conservative, and direct and outspoken. This finding countered Andersen's earlier work that was premised on the idea that men and women evaluated themselves using different dimensions. Andersen and colleagues proposed an empirically derived factor model, but in this study, their three factor solution was basically confirmed for both men and women. Specifically, this study supported the notion that men and women have both negative and positive dimensions to their sexual self. So the results of this study were consistent with the existing theory about sexual self-schemas: a three factor model is the most preferable factor model for this set of traits in a mixed sample. However, a nine factor solution suggested an even stronger model of sexual selves. There must be more than three dimensions to a person's sexual self-schema, and a scale using a wider range of items would lead to a different pattern of results.
Administering the same items to both genders also permitted a test of whether men and women rated their sexual selves similarly. This study found that women and men considered the same broad dimensions, yet when comparing differences in how men and women rated themselves on specific adjectives and across the three main dimensions, a pattern emerged. Men rated themselves slightly, but significantly, lower on the loving/warmth dimension and reserved/conservative factors. Thus, men see themselves as marginally less loving and warm and less reserved/conservative. It is difficult to know why these results were obtained. It may be that men may in fact be less loving/warm, perhaps because they conform to Verb 1. conform to - satisfy a condition or restriction; "Does this paper meet the requirements for the degree?"
coordinate - be co-ordinated; "These activities coordinate well" gender role expectations. Another explanation is that men may be less willing than women to express these emotions, yet have the same basic emotional experiences as women (Jansz, 2000), especially warmth and love (Alexander & Wood, 2000). A social psychological approach to gender and emotion suggests that these differences were not, presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. , because of any innate difference between the sexes (consistent with a sociobiological so·ci·o·bi·ol·o·gy
The study of the biological determinants of social behavior, based on the theory that such behavior is often genetically transmitted and subject to evolutionary processes. approach), but rather due to the internalization Internalization
A decision by a brokerage to fill an order with the firm's own inventory of stock.
When a brokerage receives an order they have numerous choices as to how it should be filled. of gender role and expectations in this particular context. Participants could have used the masculine MASCULINE. That which belongs to the male sex.
2. The masculine sometimes includes the feminine, vide an example under the article Man, and see also the articles Gender, Worthiest of blood; Poth. Intr. au titre 16, des Testamens et Donations Testamentaires, n. stereotype stereotype (stĕr`ĕətīp'), plate from which printing is done, made by casting metal in a mold, usually of paper pulp. The process was patented in 1725 by the Scottish inventor William Ged. as "unemotional" and "sexually outgoing" as a heuristic A method of problem solving using exploration and trial and error methods. Heuristic program design provides a framework for solving the problem in contrast with a fixed set of rules (algorithmic) that cannot vary.
1. to guide their ratings on the scale, and even, perhaps, their behavior.
There are limitations to the findings in this study. The sample of participants was an English-speaking, mostly urban cosmopolitan sample of university students in Montreal and New York City. Montrealers, in particular, are renowned for their egalitarian e·gal·i·tar·i·an
Affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people. and liberal attitudes towards sexuality; the same may be said of residents of New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of even though this sample was drawn from a college in New York's only Republican borough. Of course, older respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. or respondents who are less educated or live in rural areas might also respond differently.
Another limitation is more conceptual. It may not be that men considered themselves less loving/warm, for example, rather it could be that men connote con·note
tr.v. con·not·ed, con·not·ing, con·notes
1. To suggest or imply in addition to literal meaning: "The term 'liberal arts' connotes a certain elevation above utilitarian concerns" different meanings to the words "loving" and "warm" in comparison to women. However, this is unlikely since Plaud, Gaither, and Weller (1998) had men and women rate 400 adjectives for their sexual connotations and found very few gender differences in the sexual meanings of words. Furthermore, the current study is based on items very similar to items used to assess gender conformity, thus this measure may be simply measuring a person's sense of congruence con·gru·ence
a. Agreement, harmony, conformity, or correspondence.
b. An instance of this: "What an extraordinary congruence of genius and era" with the stereotype of man or woman as a sexual person.
There are also a few problems that are more fundamental. In an attempt to keep the assessments of sexual selves covert, Andersen and her colleagues used personality trait adjectives in their scales that were not obviously related to sexual functioning. The traits that they identified as tapping into the sexual self schema were mostly psychological trait-related adjectives. However, there are other dimensions Other Dimensions is a collection of stories by author Clark Ashton Smith. It was released in 1970 and was the author's sixth collection of stories published by Arkham House. It was released in an edition of 3,144 copies. that might be relevant when thinking about one's sexual self (e.g., heterosexual, monogamous, etc.), and this method does not permit these considerations. A solution to both these limitations would be to develop a more comprehensive measure, combining the psychological dimensions in this scale with other qualities related to a person's sexual self-conceptions such importance, strength, and range or direction of sexual desire, as well as feelings of self-efficacy in the sexual context.
This study has cleared the way for some interesting and important research. The first step should be to establish basic reliability and validity for the composite sexual self-schema scale in other populations, perhaps using a more comprehensive assessment of sexual self-schemas. It may also be profitable to use the scale in a cross-sectional or longitudinal study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. exploring whether sexual self-schema change over the course of one's life and how. It is clear that self-schemas influence experiences, and vice versa VICE VERSA. On the contrary; on opposite sides. , so changing circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or may mean changes in self-schema. Further research can also now move towards addressing the relationship between sexual self-schema and other qualities associated with sexual relations sexual relations
1. Sexual intercourse.
2. Sexual activity between individuals. . For example, it might be useful to explore the relationship between gender roles and sexual self-schema. Since many gender and sexuality theorists are moving away from simply considering cognitive representations of self towards a more dynamic and socially based approach (i.e., sexual scripts), it would be interesting to explore the relationship between one's sexual self-schema and gender role scripts. Is there a disjunction disjunction /dis·junc·tion/ (-junk´shun)
1. the act or state of being disjoined.
2. in genetics, the moving apart of bivalent chromosomes at the first anaphase of meiosis. between how we think of our selves and how we behave? Under what circumstances do these differences occur? Are they more prominent for women, who because of social restrictions in our society, find that they may not feel free to act in accordance Accordance is Bible Study Software for Macintosh developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
As well as a standalone program, it is the base software packaged by Zondervan in their Bible Study suites for Macintosh. with how they see themselves? More generally, are there changes in sexual self-concept in response to changes in context?
It is also tempting to speculate on the degree to which our sexual self-schema is relationally based. That is, how much of our sexual self-schema is derived by the sexual relationships we have? Moreover, are there particular combinations of sexual self-schemas related to especially healthy or troublesome sexual relationships? For instance, what happens when aschematics pair-up with those who have positive schemas? The sexual self-schema scale developed here could help to answer these questions.
Appendix A: The Sexual Self-Schema Scale
Sexual Self-Schema Scale
Instructions: Below is a listing of adjectives people often use to describe themselves as a sexual person.
* For each word, consider whether or not the term describes how you feel about yourself as a sexual person compared to others of your same gender and age.
* Rate each term on a 7-point scale ranging from 0 = not at all descriptive of me to 6 = very much descriptive of me to indicate how accurately the adjectives describe you.
* There are no right or wrong answers.
* Please be thoughtful and honest.
* If you have any difficulties, please use this question as a guideline guideline Medtalk A series of recommendations by a body of experts in a particular discipline. See Cancer screening guidelines, Cardiac profile guidelines, Gatekeeper guidelines, Harvard guidelines, Transfusion guidelines. : To what extent does the term -- describe me?
Not at all Very much descriptive descriptive of Me of Me Romantic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Soft-hearted 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Passionate 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Powerful 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Warm 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Outspoken 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Loving 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Spontaneous 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Timid 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Independent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Feeling 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sympathetic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Domineering 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Arousable 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stimulating 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Revealing 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Aggressive 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Direct 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Warm-hearted 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frank 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Exciting 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Experienced 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sensitive 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Uninhibited 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reserved 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Embarrassed 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Conservative 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Unromantic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Compassionate 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cautious 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Self-conscious 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Straightforward 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Inexperienced 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Prudent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Individualistic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sensual 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
This research was supported by a grant from the Foundation for the Scientific Study of Sexuality. The author would also like to thank the following for their research assistance: Sarah Bloomfield, Veronica Asgary, Minji Kang, Karen Pastore, and Yadira Del Rio Del Rio (rē`ō), city (1990 pop. 30,705), seat of Val Verde co., W Tex., on the Rio Grande opposite Ciudad Acuña, Mexico; founded 1868, inc. 1911. .
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A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
1. , Ohio State University Ohio State University, main campus at Columbus; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1870, opened 1873 as Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, renamed 1878. There are also campuses at Lima, Mansfield, Marion, and Newark. , OH.
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Darryl B. Hill
College of Staten Island History
It was established in 1976 from the merger of Richmond College (opened in 1965) and Staten Island Community College (opened 1956). Richmond College had been threatened with closure because of New York City's financial crisis, while the older school, because of its , City University of New York The City University of New York (CUNY; acronym: IPA pronunciation: [kjuni]), is the public university system of New York City.
Correspondence should be addressed to Darryl Hill, Department of Psychology, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Blvd., Staten Island Staten Island (1990 pop. 378,977), 59 sq mi (160 sq km), SE N.Y., in New York Bay, SW of Manhattan, forming Richmond co. of New York state and the borough of Staten Island of New York City. , NY 10314. E-mail: darrylhill@ verizon.net
Table 1. Trait Adjectives Used in the Men's and Women's Sexual Self-Schema Scales Women's SSS Men's SSS aggressive arousable arousable broad-minded broad-minded casual cautious compassionate conservative conservative direct direct domineering embarrassed exciting experienced experienced feeling feeling frank independent individualistic inexperienced inexperienced liberal loving loving open-minded open-minded outspoken outspoken passionate passionate powerful prudent reserved revealing revealing romantic romantic self-conscious sensitive sensual soft-hearted stimulating straightforward spontaneous sympathetic timid uninhibited unromantic warm warm-hearted Table 2. Factor Loadings for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (Rotation Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization) Factor Loving/ Reserved/ Direct/ Item Warm Conservative Outspoken loving .761 warm-hearted .761 feeling .749 warm .723 romantic .714 passionate .698 soft-hearted .671 sympathetic .668 sensitive .664 compassionate .644 unromantic -.535 sensual .548 reserved .710 conservative .702 embarrassed .685 cautious .628 self-conscious .539 inexperienced .528 timid .525 prudent .490 direct .671 outspoken .662 powerful .624 Aggressive .620 straightforward .616 exciting .594 domineering .583 experienced .568 stimulating .564 frank .520 arousable .493 spontaneous .487 independent .450 uninhibited .423 revealing .416 broad-minded casual open-minded liberal individualistic Factor loadings > .40 only. Table 3. Factor Loadings for Principal Components Analysis (Rotation Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization) Factors Warm- Item Stimulating hearted Inexperienced stimulating .854 arousable .824 sensual .539 revealing .402 warm-hearted .806 feeling .737 sympathetic .721 loving .719 warm .718 soft-hearted .677 sensitive .661 compassionate .605 experienced -.900 inexperienced .760 reserved conservative embarrassed cautious timid self-conscious prudent direct straightforward frank broad-minded open-minded liberal romantic unromantic passionate powerful domineering outspoken aggressive exciting spontaneous independent casual uninhibited individualistic Factors Broad- Item Reserved Direct minded stimulating arousable sensual revealing warm-hearted feeling sympathetic loving warm soft-hearted sensitive compassionate experienced inexperienced reserved .679 conservative .668 embarrassed .641 cautious .565 timid .517 self-conscious .479 prudent .400 direct -.861 straightforward -.759 frank -.599 broad-minded .628 open-minded .615 liberal .512 romantic unromantic passionate powerful domineering outspoken aggressive exciting spontaneous independent casual uninhibited individualistic Factors Item Romantic Powerful Independent stimulating arousable sensual revealing warm-hearted feeling sympathetic loving warm soft-hearted sensitive compassionate experienced inexperienced reserved conservative embarrassed cautious timid self-conscious prudent direct straightforward frank broad-minded open-minded liberal romantic .807 unromantic -.711 passionate .607 powerful .706 domineering .597 outspoken .593 aggressive .562 exciting .491 spontaneous .440 independent .498 casual uninhibited individualistic Factor loadings > .40 only Table 4. Means, Standard Deviations, and Subscale Correlations Factors M SD 1 2 [alpha] l. Loving/Warm 57.0 9.7 -- .89 2. Reserved/ 24.4 7.7 .14* -- .77 Conservative 3. Direct/Outspoken 60.7 11.4 .24* -0.25 * .85 * p < .01 Table 5. Univariate Gender Differences on Individual Trait Adjectives Gender Men Women Item M (SD) M (SD) P [[eta].sub.2] sensitive 4.5 (1.3) 5.0 (1.1) .000 .056 loving 4.9 (1.0) 5.3 (0.9) .000 .044 feeling 4.5 (1.2) 5.0 (1.1) .000 .042 compassionate 4.4 (l.2) 4.8 (1.2) .000 .039 sympathetic 4.6 (1.2) 5.0 (1.1) .000 .035 soft-hearted 4.3 (1.3) 4.7 (1.3) .000 .029 cautious 3.7 (l.4) 4.2 (1.4) .000 .028 embarrassed 2.5 (1.6) 2.9 (1.5) .000 .020 warm-hearted 4.8 (1.1) 5.1 (1.0) .000 .019 conservative 2.6 (1.7) 3.0 (1.6) .000 .017 warm 4.7 (1.1) 4.9 (1.1) .000 .015 passionate 4.6 (l.1) 4.9 (1.1) .003 .011 stimulating 4.7 (1.1) 4.5 (1.1) .007 .009 romantic 4.3 (1.2) 4.6 (1.3) .006 .009 reserved 3.0 (1.5) 3.3 (1.5) .029 .006 experienced 4.2 (l.3) 4.0 (1.4) .024 .006 inexperienced 1.8 (1.5) 2.0 (1.6) .032 .006 unromantic 1.3 (1.4) 1.1 (1.3) .022 .006 Response scale: 0 = not at all descriptive of me, 5 = very much descriptive of me Table 6. Gender Differences on Sexaul Self-Schema Factor Gender Men Women Factor M (SD) M (SD) Loving/Warm 54.6 (9.8) 58.9 (9.2) Reserved/ Conservative 23.2 (7.7) 25.4 (7.6) Direct/Outspoken 60.7 (11.0) 60.7 (11.8) Table 7. Gender By Schema Category Schema Category Aschematic Positive Negative Co-Schematic Gender N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) Men 113 (31.6) 97 (27.1) 92 (27.7) 56 (15.6) Women 99 (20.8) 134 (28.2) 124 (26.1) 118 (24.8) Total 212 (25.5) 231 (27.7) 216 (25.9) 174 (20.9) Table 8. US/ Canadian Differences on Sexual Self-Schema Factors Country Factor Canada M (SD) US M (SD) Loving/Warm 57.6 (9.5) 56.4 (9.8) Reserved/ Conservative 24.7 (7.7) 24.1 (7.7) Direct/Outspoken 59.5 (11.1) 62.1 (11.6)