Dietary intake of older Victorians.Abstract
Objectives: To describe the nutrient nutrient /nu·tri·ent/ (noo´tre-int)
1. nourishing; providing nutrition.
2. a food or other substance that provides energy or building material for the survival and growth of a living organism. intake of Victorians aged 44 years and older and to compare this intake with recommended levels.
Design: Cluster stratified sampling Noun 1. stratified sampling - the population is divided into subpopulations (strata) and random samples are taken of each stratum
proportional sampling, representative sampling
sampling - (statistics) the selection of a suitable sample for study was employed to enable recruitment of subjects by household census. Subjects were recruited and attended baseline examinations baseline examination Clinical practice A physical exam which is part of an initial Pt-physician contact, and designed to assess a Pt's eligibility for enrollment in a clinical trial and produce requisite baseline data. from 1992 to 1994 and were followed-up five years later. Dietary data were collected at follow-up using a four-page self-administered food frequency questionnaire.
Subjects: 3271 adults aged 40 years and older who were permanent Australian residents and lived in Victoria between 1992 and 1994. 3040 were alive for the five-year follow-up.
Setting: Data were collected from participants of the Melbourne Visual Impairment Visual Impairment Definition
Total blindness is the inability to tell light from dark, or the total inability to see. Visual impairment or low vision is a severe reduction in vision that cannot be corrected with standard glasses or contact lenses and Project.
Main outcome measures: Dietary intake of vitamins A, B complex, C and E, and iron, calcium and zinc.
Statistical analysis: [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ] analysis for categorical data categorical data
data relating to category such as qualitative data, e.g. dog, cat, female. It may be nominal when a name is used, e.g. location, breed, or ordinal when a range of categories is used, e.g. calf, yearling, cow. and student's t-test A t test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic has a Student's t distribution if the null hypothesis is true. History
The t for continuous data.
Results: Of the 3040 participants eligible to return for follow-up examinations, 2594 (85%) participated, 51 (2%) had moved interstate or overseas, 83 (3%) could not be located, and 312 (10%) refused to participate. The mean age of the participants examined at follow-up was 62.5 years (SD [+ or -] 10.9; range, 44-101) and 1421 (55%) were female. Nutrients for which more than half the population consumed less than the daily RDI RDI - Receiver Data Interface included: vitamin A vitamin A
also called retinol
Fat-soluble alcohol, most abundant in fatty fish and especially in fish-liver oils. It is not found in plants, but many vegetables and fruits contain beta-carotene (see , vitamin B vitamin B
1. Vitamin B complex.
2. A member of the vitamin B complex, especially thiamine.
vitamin B, vitamin B complex
a group of water-soluble substances described separately. , calcium, magnesium, iron (women of child-bearing age only) and zinc. Intake of anti-oxidant supplements had very little influence on the percentage of participants who consumed less than the RDI. Ten per cent or fewer of the population had average daily intakes less than the RDI for the following nutrients: vitamin C vitamin C
or ascorbic acid
Water-soluble organic compound important in animal metabolism. Most animals produce it in their bodies, but humans, other primates, and guinea pigs need it in the diet to prevent scurvy. , niacin niacin: see coenzyme; vitamin.
or nicotinic acid or vitamin B3
Water-soluble vitamin of the vitamin B complex, essential to growth and health in animals, including humans. , iron (all except younger females), and sodium. Sixty-nine per cent of the population had average daily fat intakes greater than the recommended limit of 30% of energy intake, while the mean saturated fat saturated fat, any solid fat that is an ester of glycerol and a saturated fatty acid. The molecules of a saturated fat have only single bonds between carbon atoms; if double bonds are present in the fatty acid portion of the molecule, the fat is said to be intake was greater than 12% for all ages.
Discussion: In conclusion, these population-based data have identified a number of nutrients for which the usual intake does not meet RDIs or national guidelines. Public health campaigns are warranted to increase the consumption of low fat foods high in calcium, iron, and anti-oxidants, and to decrease the daily intake of saturated fat.
(Nutr Diet 2092;59:12-17)
Key words: nutrient intake, adults, anti-oxidants
Age- and gender-specific recommended dietary intakes (RDIs) have been produced and published by the National Health and Medical Research Council The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) is Australia's peak funding body for medical research, with a budget of nearly A$500M a year . The Council was established to develop and maintain health standards and is responsible for implementing the (1). They are set at levels that exceed the nutrient requirements for almost all healthy persons because they incorporate factors to accommodate variations in absorption and metabolism. The RDIs are updated periodically to reflect current scientific knowledge about nutrient intake and health and disease relationships. To assist people in food selection to meet the RDIs, and to promote health and prevent disease, the National Health and Medical Research Council has released dietary guidelines dietary guidelines Cardiology A series of dietary recommendations from the Nutrition Committee of the Am Heart Assn, that promote cardiovascular health. See Caloric restriction, food pyramid, French paradox. (2,3). Periocic surveys of dietary intake have been undertaken in Australia (4-8). Large differences in dietary intake by gender and ethnicity have been observed (9-12).
The purpose of this study was to quantify the dietary intake of Victorians aged 44 years and older and to compare their nutrient intake with RDIs.
The Melbourne Visual Impairment Project was a population-based epidemiologic study epidemiologic study A study that compares 2 groups of people who are alike except for one factor, such as exposure to a chemical or the presence of a health effect; the investigators try to determine if any factor is associated with the health effect of eye disease (13). Random cluster sampling Cluster sampling is a sampling technique used when "natural" groupings are evident in a statistical population. It is often used in marketing research. In this technique, the total population is divided into these groups (or clusters) and a sample of the groups is selected. was employed to identify nine pairs of census collector districts within the Melbourne statistical division from which to recruit all permanent residents aged 40 years and older. A household census was employed to identify and recruit eligible residents. Eighty-three per cent of eligible residents (n = 3271) attended the baseline examinations, which were conducted from 1992 to 1994 (14). This cohort was shown to be representative of the Melbourne and Australian population aged 40 years and older (14). Five-year follow-up examinations of the surviving members of the cohort were conducted from 1997 to 1999. The protocol was approved by the Human Research and Ethics Committee ethics committee A multidisciplinary hospital body composed of a broad spectrum of personnel–eg, physicians, nurses, social workers, priests, and others, which addresses the moral and ethical issues within the hospital. See DNR, Institutional review board. of the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
At the initial household census, basic demographic information was collected from each participant including age, gender, country of birth, language spoken at home, education, and use of eye care services. At locally established test sites, participants underwent a standardised Adj. 1. standardised - brought into conformity with a standard; "standardized education"
standard - conforming to or constituting a standard of measurement or value; or of the usual or regularized or accepted kind; "windows of standard width"; clinical eye examination and health interview that included questions on the use of medications and dietary anti-oxidant supplements. In relation to dietary antioxidant antioxidant, substance that prevents or slows the breakdown of another substance by oxygen. Synthetic and natural antioxidants are used to slow the deterioration of gasoline and rubber, and such antioxidants as vitamin C (ascorbic acid), butylated hydroxytoluene supplement use, people were asked to provide the name, frequency and duration of use for every supplement that they had ever taken on a regular basis (i.e. at least once per week for at least one month). Nutrient constituents of all products were obtained from supplement labels or from the manufacturers. The amount of the following anti-oxidants in each product was recorded: vitamin A, [beta]-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E vitamin E
Fat-soluble organic compound found principally in certain plant oils and leaves of green vegetables. Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant in body tissues and may prolong life by slowing oxidative destruction of membranes. and zinc. Details about the use of dietary supplements Noun 1. dietary supplement - something added to complete a diet or to make up for a dietary deficiency
diet - a prescribed selection of foods
vitamin pill - a pill containing one or more vitamins; taken as a dietary supplement other than these anti-oxidants was neither collected nor coded. Questions concerning the use of anti-oxidant supplements were repeated at the follow-up.
Modified home examinations were offered for homebound home·bound
Restricted or confined to home, as of an invalid. residents. Interpreters were offered for anyone who did not speak English as their first language. One field team member spoke Greek and one field team member spoke Italian.
At follow-up the participants were asked to complete a four-page, self-administered food frequency questionnaire that was developed by researchers at the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria (15). These questionnaires were available in Greek and Italian as well as English. The completed questionnaires were checked to ensure that all questions were answered, and were then sent to the Anti-Cancer Council of Victoria for nutrient analysis. Daily intake of the following nutrients was quantified: total energy, protein, total carbohydrate, complex carbohydrate complex carbohydrate
A polysaccharide consisting of a chain of glucose molecules; starch. , simple carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat Noun 1. polyunsaturated fat - a class of fats having long carbon chains with many double bonds unsaturated with hydrogen atoms; used in some margarines; supposedly associated with low blood cholesterol , mono-unsaturated fat, cholesterol, alcohol, fibre, vitamin A, thiamin thiamin
or vitamin B1
Organic compound, part of the vitamin B complex, necessary in carbohydrate metabolism. It carries out these functions in its active form, as a component of the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate. , riboflavin riboflavin: see coenzyme; vitamin.
or vitamin B2
Yellow, water-soluble organic compound, abundant in whey and egg white. It has a complex structure incorporating three rings. , vitamin C, vitamin F vitamin F
thiamin. , niacin, folate folate /fo·late/ (fo´lat)
1. the anionic form of folic acid.
2. more generally, any of a group of substances containing a form of pteroic acid conjugated with l-glutamic acid and having a variety of substitutions. , calcium, iron, potassium potassium (pətăs`ēəm), a metallic chemical element; symbol K [Lat. kalium=alkali]; at. no. 19; at. wt. 39.0983; m.p. 63.25°C;; b.p. 760°C;; sp. gr. .862 at 20°C;; valence +1. , magnesium, phosphorous phos·pho·rous
Of, relating to, or containing phosphorus, especially with a valence of 3 or a valence lower than that of a comparable phosphoric compound. , zinc and sodium. The percentage of energy from protein, fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and carbohydrate was calculated. Participants were also asked about their intake of supplemental anti-oxidants including vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc because antioxidants Antioxidants
Substances that reduce the damage of the highly reactive free radicals that are the byproducts of the cells.
Mentioned in: Aging, Nutritional Supplements
n. have been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of cataract cataract, in medicine, opacity of the lens of the eye, which impairs vision. In the young, cataracts are generally congenital or hereditary; later they are usually the result of degenerative changes brought on by aging or systemic disease (diabetes). (16) and age-related maculopathy (17). The percentage of participants with dietary intakes less than the RDI (1) were calculated. This percentage was recalculated with the addition of the supplementary intake.
Interview data were entered directly into a Paradox data entry program (Borland International, Scotts Valley, California Scotts Valley is a small city located in eastern Santa Cruz County, California, United States, about ten miles (16 km) south of San Jose and six miles (10 km) north of the beach in the upland slope of the Santa Cruz Mountains. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 11,385. ) with in-built consistency checks. Demographic data were entered twice and verified. Data were analysed with the SAS (1) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, www.sas.com) A software company that specializes in data warehousing and decision support software based on the SAS System. Founded in 1976, SAS is one of the world's largest privately held software companies. See SAS System. statistical package (SAS Institute SAS Institute Inc., headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, USA, has been a major producer of software since it was founded in 1976 by Anthony Barr, James Goodnight, John Sall and Jane Helwig. , Cary, North Carolina Cary is the second largest municipality in Wake County, North Carolina and the third largest municipality in The Triangle (North Carolina) behind Raleigh and Durham. It is the seventh largest municipality in North Carolina. , SAS, version 6.10, 1999) Data were stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. by age and gender (44 to 64 years old and > 64 years old for males, and 44 to 54 years old and > 54 years old for females) to allow comparison with the RDIs. Analyses were also stratified by the major non-Australian-born ethnic groups represented in the cohort--Greek-born and Italian-born. Chi-squared analyses were used for categorical data and independent student's t-tests were used for continuous data. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Two hundred and thirty-one (7.1%) of the original 3271 participants died before the five-year follow-up examination. Of the remaining 3040 participants eligible to return for follow-up examinations, 2594 (85%) did participate, 51(2%) had moved interstate or overseas, 83 (3%) could not be located, and 312 (10%) refused to participate. Reasons for refusal were provided by 222 of the 312 refusals and included the following: not interested (33.8%), other or multiple answers (17.1%), too busy (12.2%), unhappy with drops from the previous examination (9.0%), illness (8.1%), personal (6.3%), apprehension (6.3%), disagree with Verb 1. disagree with - not be very easily digestible; "Spicy food disagrees with some people"
hurt - give trouble or pain to; "This exercise will hurt your back" the study (4.5%), and language (2.7%). The mean age of the participants examined at follow-up was 62.5 years (SD [+ or -] 10.9; range, 44-101) and 1421 (55%) were female.
The percentage of participants who reported taking any vitamin or mineral supplement was 20.3 (433/2133). Females were significantly more likely to report use of supplements (23.9% versus 16.2%, [chi square], ldf= 19.4, P <0.001). The percentage of participants who took various anti-oxidant supplements varied by age and gender (Figure 1). For all age groups, females were more likely to use supplements than males. Younger males and females were more likely to use anti-oxidant supplements, with the exception of vitamin A supplementation in females. Vitamin C was the most commonly used anti-oxidant, with 15.6% of the entire cohort reporting its use. The mean daily dietary intake of these four anti-oxidants was not significantly different between the users and non-users of the various anti-oxidants (data not shown).
The dietary intake of vitamins and minerals and percentage of participants with intakes less than the RDI are presented in Tables la and ib, stratified by age and gender. Nutrients for which more than half the population consumed less than the daily RDI included: vitamin A, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, iron (women of childbearing child·bear·ing
Pregnancy and parturition.
childbearing adj. age only) and zinc. Intake of anti-oxidant supplements did not change siguificantly the percentage of participants who consumed less than the RDI. Ten per cent or fewer of the population had average daily intakes less than the RDI for vitamin C, niacin, iron (all except younger females) and sodium.
The percentage of participants who consumed less then the RDI daily for various nutrients was evaluated separately for the two ethnic groups with sufficient numbers to allow relatively precise stratified analyses, i.e. Greek-born and Italian-born (Table 2). The nutrients that were consumed at an average level less than the RDI by 50% or more of the population were: vitamin A, riboflavin (younger Greek males), vitamin E, folate (older Italians), calcium, iron (Italian women of child-bearing age), potassium (older Italian men), magnesium, phosphorous (all Italian women and older Italian men), and zinc. Again, anti-oxidant supplement intake did not improve significantly the percentage of people consuming less than the RDI for those anti-oxidants.
The mean and range of daily intake of macronutrients This is a list of macronutrients. Minerals
These data provide population-based information about the nutrient intake profile of a random sample of Melbourne residents aged 44 years and older. They indicate a number of nutrients for which a public health campaign is warranted to encourage increased intake to promote health and prevent disease. The only sub-group of the population that should be specifically targeted separately is women, due to their low iron intake relative to the RDI. These dietary data could provide baseline information to assess the impact of any public health campaigns implemented.
The strengths of this study include the cluster sampling and relatively high response rate that resulted in a study sample that has been shown to be representative of the Melbourne statistical division and Australia in general (14). The relatively large number of Italian-born and Greek-born participants allowed us to provide precise estimates of dietary intakes in these two subgroups of the population. The weakness of this study is that detailed information about nutrient supplement intake was only available for selected anti-oxidants, and not for all possible nutrients. Also, differential mortality by nutritional status nutritional status,
n the assessment of the state of nourishment of a patient or subject. could have affected the estimates of population dietary intakes in this follow-up study.
The National Health and Medical Research Council has specific guidelines related to calcium intake, 'Eat foods containing calcium' (2) for all Australians and specifically for older Australians, 'Include foods high in calcium' (3). As estimated from food consumption data from 1985 to 1991, calcium was consistently the least available nutrient in Australia (7). Data collected in elderly South Australians (5) in the 1980s and in a Victorian survey (4) in 1985 and 1990 revealed that more than half of the population had intakes of calcium less than the RDI. Data from the national food consumption survey (18) and the national nutrition survey (19) reveal that calcium has consistently been shown to be consumed at a level less than the RDI and that this figure has not changed significantly over time. Our data, collected from 1997 to 1999, confirmed that calcium continues to be a problem nutrient, with the majority of adults failing to meet the daily RDI. Similar to the previous Victorian survey (4), we found that more women than men have diets deficient de·fi·cient
1. Lacking an essential quality or element.
2. Inadequate in amount or degree; insufficient.
a state of being in deficit. in calcium and that the older age groups are more deficient in calcium intakes than the younger age groups. The percentage of women aged 54 years or older in our study who had daily calcium intakes less than the RDI (82%) was considerably higher than the percentage of women aged 60 years or older reported in the 1985 (75%) and 1990 (50%) Victorian nutrition surveys with deficient calcium intakes. The subgroup sub·group
1. A distinct group within a group; a subdivision of a group.
2. A subordinate group.
3. Mathematics A group that is a subset of a group.
tr.v. of our study population with the lowest intake of calcium in relation to the RDI was Italian women. These findings highlight the need to educate the public to increase their intake of low-fat foods high in calcium to decrease their risk of osteoporosis osteoporosis (ŏs'tēō'pərō`sĭs), disorder in which the normal replenishment of old bone tissue is severely disrupted, resulting in weakened bones and increased risk of fracture; osteopenia (2). This is especially important as the number of elderly persons is increasing (20) and bone density decreases with age (2), thus predisposing people to osteoporosis. In addition to dairy foods as a generally well known source of calcium, tinned salmon, sardines and shellfish shellfish, popular name for certain edible mollusks (see Mollusca), e.g., oysters, clams, and scallops, and for certain edible crustaceans, e.g., crabs, lobsters, and shrimps. All are aquatic invertebrates with shells; they are not fish. are also good sources (21).
A nutrient of particular concern to women of childbearing age is iron. The National Health and Medical Research Council has a specific guideline for Australians that reads, 'Eat foods containing iron' (2). In our study, the majority of women aged 44 to 64 years did not consume the RDI for iron. Again, this was higher than was reported in the 1985 and 1990 Victorian Nutrition Surveys (4) and could indicate that dietary iron intake has decreased in the past decade, perhaps as people eat less meat in an attempt to decrease their total fat intake. Foods high in iron include red meats, silver beet beet, biennial or annual root vegetable of the family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family). The beet (Beta vulgaris) has been cultivated since pre-Christian times. and spinach spinach, annual plant (Spinacia oleracea) of the family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family), probably of Persian origin and known to have been introduced into Europe in the 15th cent. (20).
The dietary intakes of anti-oxidant vitamin A, vitamin B and zinc were all identified in the current study to be deficient in the majority of adults. Similar to a study of Victorians conducted in 1985, we found no consistent relationship between the intake of these anti-oxidants and age (9). It has been suggested that low anti-oxidant intake may be related to cancer (9), cataract (16) and age-related macular degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)
Degeneration of the macula (the central part of the retina where the rods and cones are most dense) that leads to loss of central vision in people over 60. (17). Low fat food sources of many of these anti-oxidants include apricots, mangoes, rock melon rock melon
US, Austral, & NZ same as cantaloupe , cabbage cabbage, leafy garden vegetable of many widely dissimilar varieties, all probably descended from the wild, or sea, cabbage (Brassica oleracea) of the family Cruciferae (mustard family), found on the coasts of Europe. , carrot, capsicum capsicum /cap·si·cum/ (kap´si-kum) a plant of the genus Capsicum, the hot peppers, or the dried fruit derived from certain of its species (cayenne or red pepper), containing the active principle capsaicin; used as a , pumpkin pumpkin, common name for the genus Cucurbita of the family Cucurbitaceae (gourd family), a group that includes the pumpkins and squashes—the names may be used interchangeably and without botanical distinction. C. , spinach, sweet potato sweet potato, trailing perennial plant (Ipomoea batatas) of the family Convolvulaceae (morning glory family), native to the New World tropics. Cultivated from ancient times by the Aztecs for its edible tubers, it was introduced into Europe in the 16th cent. and silver beet (21). Nuts arid ar·id
1. Lacking moisture, especially having insufficient rainfall to support trees or woody plants: an arid climate.
2. seeds are good sources of vitamin E in addition to oils.
For all of these deficient nutrients, the difference between the mean intake in the population and the RDI for that nutrient is the equivalent of one serving of food high in that particular vitamin or mineral. For example, a 100 g edible portion of raw spinach contains 53 mg of calcium, 390 [micro]g of retinol retinol: see Vitamin A under vitamin. (vitamin A) equivalents, 68 mg of magnesium, and 3.2 mg of iron (21). This one food could supply sufficient amounts of nearly all of the nutrients that are deficient in the diets of Victorians. The addition of oil and vinegar vinegar, sour liquid consisting mainly of acetic acid and water, produced by the action of bacteria on dilute solutions of ethyl alcohol derived from previous yeast fermentation. dressing would supply the necessary vitamin E to meet all of the deficient needs.
The National Health and Medical Research Council advises that Australians should 'Eat a diet low in fat and, in particular, low in saturated fat' (2) and that older Australians should 'Eat a diet low in saturated fat' (3) because of epidemiologic evidence linking high fat intake with cancer and heart disease. The National Heart Foundation recommends that trans fatty acids trans fatty acid An unsaturated fatty acid–present in minimal amounts in animal fat–prepared by hydrogenation, which ↑ serum cholesterol Cardiovascular disease ↑ TFAs have a relative risk of 1. and saturated fatty acids
Most commonly occurring saturated fatty acids are:
The National Health and Medical Research Council recommends to Australians that, 'If you drink alcohol, limit your intake' because excess alcohol intake is associated with increased morbidity and mortality Morbidity and Mortality can refer to:
In conclusion, these population-based data for older Australians have identified a number of nutrients for which the usual intake does not meet RDIs or national guidelines. Public health campaigns are warranted to increase the consumption of low fat foods that are high in calcium, iron, and anti-oxidants, and to decrease the daily intake of saturated fat. Public health messages to encourage increased intake of fresh green leafy leaf·y
adj. leaf·i·er, leaf·i·est
1. Covered with or having leaves.
2. Consisting of leaves: Spinach is a leafy green vegetable.
3. Similar to or resembling a leaf. vegetables, low fat meat and low fat dairy products dairy products dairy npl → produits laitier
dairy products dairy npl → Milchprodukte pl, Molkereiprodukte pl would assist the community in meeting the RDIs and guidelines that are currently not met. Improved nutritional intake could decrease nutrition-related morbidity and mortality.
Figure 1. Percentage of participants who took anti-oxidant supplements by age and gender Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin E Zinc Males 44-64 7.9 5.7 9.7 10.6 Males >64 15.6 9.5 20.9 16.4 Females 44-54 12.5 6.5 19.1 15.6 Females >54 7.6 4.2 11.5 9.2 Note: Table made from bar graph Table 1a. Mean, median and range of average daily intake of vitamins by age and gender Males Age 5th-95th <RDI Vitamin (years) Mean Median percentile RDI (1) (%) Vitamin A ([micro]g) 44-64 728 689 312-223 750 58 (diet alone) >64 729 721 279-268 750 54 Vitamin A ([micro]g) 44-64 728 689 312-223 750 58 (incl supplement) >64 729 721 279-268 750 54 Vitamin E (mg) 44-64 6.45 6.1 3.1-0.7 10 92 (diet alone) >64 6 5.7 2.6-0.5 10 93 Vitamin E (mg) 44-64 29 6.6 3.2-105 10 82 (incl supplement) >64 15 5.8 2.6-16.1 10 88 Vitamin C (mg) 44-64 120 109 48-227 40 1.8 (diet alone) >64 124 111 41-274 40 4.3 Vitamin C (mg) 44-64 192 117 49-678 40 1.6 (incl supplement) >64 163 116 41-554 40 4.1 Thiamin (mg) 44-64 1.6 1.5 0.7-2.8 1.1 22 >64 1.54 1.4 0.6-2.8 0.9 13 Riboflavin (mg) 44-64 2.18 2 0.9-4.1 1.7 36 >64 2.06 1.9 0.8-3.9 1.3 20 Niacin (mg 44-64 38.6 36 18-71 19 5 equivalent) >64 35.1 33 17-65 16 3 Folate ([micro]g) 44-64 275 254 136-470 200 24 >64 274 260 120-485 200 26 Females Age 5th-95th <RDI Vitamin (years) Mean Median percentile RDI (1) (%) Vitamin A ([micro]g) 44-54 638 613 259-1092 750 70 (diet alone) >54 663 632 287-111 750 66 Vitamin A ([micro]g) 44-54 638 613 259-1092 750 70 (incl supplement) >54 664 632 287-1111 750 66 Vitamin E (mg) 44-54 5.46 5.2 2.8-9.0 7 80 (diet alone) >54 5.45 5.2 2.5-9.0 7 81 Vitamin E (mg) 44-54 28.1 5.6 2.8-102 7 67 (incl supplement) >54 29.4 5.6 2.6-126 7 70 Vitamin C (mg) 44-54 116 103 44-227 30 0.54 (diet alone) >54 116 104 44-234 30 1.22 Vitamin C (mg) 44-54 208 119 48-751 30 0.54 (incl supplement) >54 192 116 44-650 30 1 Thiamin (mg) 44-54 1.37 1.3 0.6-2.5 0.8 9.8 >54 1.38 1.3 0.6-2.4 0.7 5.2 Riboflavin (mg) 44-54 1.98 1.9 0.8-3.7 1.2 17 >54 2 1.9 0.8-3.5 1 17 Niacin (mg 44-54 32.6 29 16-59 13 1.9 equivalent) >54 31.1 29 15-53 11 0.89 Folate ([micro]g) 44-54 242 225 116-428 200 37 >54 245 228 119-416 200 37 Table 1b. Mean, median and range of average daily intake of minerals by age and gender Males Age 5th-95th <RDI Mineral (years) Mean Median percentile RDI (1) (%) Calcium (mg) 44-64 767 718 334-1355 800 60 >64 729 694 353-1266 800 65 Phosphorus (mg) 44-64 1432 1350 758-2419 1000 19 >64 1307 1234 703-2202 1000 27 Magnesium (mg) 44-64 302 285 158-505 320 64 >64 290 277 150-494 320 68 Iron (mg) 44-64 13.3 12.2 6.4-24.2 7 7.3 >64 12.6 11.6 5.5-23.7 7 10.7 Zinc (mg) 44-64 11.4 10.6 5.7-19.5 12 64 (diet alone) >64 10.2 9.3 4.7-18.1 12 74 Zinc (mg) 44-64 12 10.8 5.8-23.2 12 62 (incl supplement) >64 10.4 9.4 4.7-18.7 12 72 Potassium (mg) 44-64 2840 2705 1566-4378 1950-5460 14.2 >64 2768 2689 1544-4367 1950-5460 18.5 Sodium (mg) 44-64 2556 2396 1255-4404 920-2300 0.98 >64 2295 2187 1125-3882 920-2300 2.51 Females Age 5th-95th <RDI Mineral (years) Mean Median percentile RDI (1) (%) Calcium (mg) 44-54 731 689 311-1234 800 62 >54 748 732 317-1272 1000 82 Phosphorus (mg) 44-54 1268 1186 669-2270 1000 31 >54 1235 1168 622-1991 1000 33 Magnesium (mg) 44-54 264 253 146-440 270 58 >54 264 249 136-426 270 60 Iron (mg) 44-54 11.3 10.4 5.6-20.0 12-16 65 >54 11 10.1 5.3-19.7 5-7 3.5 Zinc (mg) 44-54 9.47 8.5 4.7-16.6 12 81 (diet alone) >54 9.09 8.5 4.5-15.7 12 85 Zinc (mg) 44-54 10.1 8.9 4.7-19.0 12 76 (incl supplement) >54 9.8 8.7 4.5-18.0 12 81 Potassium (mg) 44-54 2566 2436 1550-4075 1950-5460 23 >54 2595 2500 1435-3936 1950-5460 21 Sodium (mg) 44-54 2024 1924 1051-3368 920-2300 3.8 >54 1967 1818 979-3334 920-2300 3.5 Table 2. Percentage of Greek-born and Italian-born participants who had dietary intakes less than the recommended dietary intake (1), by age and gender Males (a) Age group Vitamins and minerals (years) Greek-born Italian-born Vitamin A (diet alone) 44-64 63 73 >64 54 69 Vitamin A (including supplement) 44-64 63 73 >64 54 69 Thiamin 44-64 18 24 >64 8 27 Riboflavin 44-64 57 49 >64 13 49 Vitamin C (diet alone) 44-64 4 7 >64 4 12 Vitamin C (including supplement) 44-64 4 7 >64 4 12 Vitamin E (diet alone) 44-64 90 93 >64 96 94 Vitamin E (including supplement) 44-64 86 89 >64 96 94 Niacin (mg equivalents) 44-64 6 13 >64 4 6 Folate 44-64 27 38 >64 21 57 Calcium 44-64 69 73 >64 71 78 Iron 44-64 8 15 >64 4 25 Potassium 44-64 16 22 >64 4 53 Magnesium 44-64 71 76 >64 75 84 Phosphorus 44-64 20 27 >64 17 59 Zinc (diet alone) 44-64 57 66 >64 58 82 Zinc (including supplement) 44-64 57 66 >64 58 80 Sodium 44-64 0 2 >64 0 2 Females (b) Age group Vitamins and minerals (years) Greek-born Italian-born Vitamin A (diet alone) 44-54 71 68 >54 72 72 Vitamin A (including supplement) 44-54 71 68 >54 72 72 Thiamin 44-54 5 12 >54 11 11 Riboflavin 44-54 14 40 >54 20 44 Vitamin C (diet alone) 44-54 0 4 >54 0 0 Vitamin C (including supplement) 44-54 0 4 >54 0 0 Vitamin E (diet alone) 44-54 76 88 >54 75 85 Vitamin E (including supplement) 44-54 71 88 >54 72 80 Niacin (mg equivalents) 44-54 0 4 >54 0 1 Folate 44-54 24 48 >54 43 59 Calcium 44-54 76 84 >54 88 88 Iron 44-54 48 68 >54 9 12 Potassium 44-54 24 44 >54 25 45 Magnesium 44-54 52 64 >54 65 76 Phosphorus 44-54 29 52 >54 39 53 Zinc (diet alone) 44-54 67 80 >54 82 87 Zinc (including supplement) 44-54 67 80 >54 82 85 Sodium 44-54 5 12 >54 9 5 (a) Number of men in each group: 49 Greek men aged 44 to 64 years old, 24 Greek men aged>64 years old, 55 Italian men aged 44 to 64 years old, 49 Italian men aged >64 years old. (b) Number of women in each group: 21 Greek women aged 44 to 54 years old, 65 Greek women aged >54 years old, 25 Italian women aged 44 to 54 years old, 75 Italian women aged >54 years old. Table 3. Mean average daily intake of macronutrients by age and gender Males 44-64 years, n = 615 >64 years, n = 439 5th-95th 5th-95th Macronutrient Mean percentile Mean percentile Energy (keal) 1912 1017-3180 1747 882-2820 Protein (g) 87 45-149 77 40-135 Carbohydrate (g) 203 106-339 194 103-226 Complex carbohydrate(g) 126 60-218 115 51-194 Simple carbohydrate (g) 76 32-134 77 32-139 Total fat (g) 72 30-126 65 24-118 Saturated fatty acids (g) 28 11-53 25 9-48 Polyunsaturated fatty 13 4-24 12 3-23 acids (g) Mono-unsaturated fatty 25 10-46 22 8-42 acids (g) Cholesterol (g) 199 79-385 174 63-337 Alcohol (g) 16 0-52 12 0-47 Fibre (g) 24 12-39 23 11-40 Percentage of energy as Protein 18.2 13.6-24.2 17.7 13.3-23.6 Fat 33.3 21.6-43.1 32.8 21.4-42.5 Saturated fatty acids 12.7 7.4-18.7 12.8 7.3-19.8 Polyunsaturated fatty acids 5.9 2.8-9.9 5.9 2.6-10.6 Total carbohydrate 43.1 32.3-54.2 44.8 33.6-56.9 Sugars 16.4 8.1-26.4 18 8.8-29.2 Starches 26.4 18.5-34.5 26.5 18.7-35.8 Females 44-54 years, n = 367 >54 years, n = 903 5th-95th 5th-95th Macronutrient Mean percentile Mean percentile Energy (keal) 1522 859-2519 1485 804-2346 Protein (g) 74 37-135 70 36-123 Carbohydrate (g) 172 96-264 171 90-267 Complex carbohydrate(g) 100 49-168 95 45-160 Simple carbohydrate (g) 70 33-114 74 33-119 Total fat (g) 55 22-102 54 22-94 Saturated fatty acids (g) 21 8-45 21 7-41 Polyunsaturated fatty 10 3-19 10 3-20 acids (g) Mono-unsaturated fatty 19 7-35 18 7-33 acids (g) Cholesterol (g) 161 62-330 151 56-298 Alcohol (g) 7 0-29 6 0-24 Fibre (g) 21 12-37 22 11-35 Percentage of energy as Protein 19.2 13.6-25.6 18.8 13.8-25.2 Fat 31.7 19.7-42.0 32.3 19.7-42.2 Saturated fatty acids 11.9 6.8-18.2 12.3 6.8-19.0 Polyunsaturated fatty acids 5.6 2.6-10.0 5.9 2.5-10.4 Total carbohydrate 45.9 34.7-58.4 46.5 34.8-58.7 Sugars 19.1 10.5-30.9 20.5 11.1-31.3 Starches 26.4 17.8-36.8 25.7 17.4-35.2
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(7.) Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia and its people. Population and Housing
The agency undertakes the Australian Census of Population and Housing. . Apparent consumption of foodstuffs foodstuffs npl → comestibles mpl
foodstuffs npl → denrées fpl alimentaires
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tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.
2. in cancer aetiology aetiology
see etiology. . Med J Aust 1990;153:444-52.
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(11.) Hsu-Hage BHH BHH Boo Hoo Hoo
BHH Bang Head Here
BHH Bless His/Her Heart , Ibiebele T, Wahlqvist ML. Food intakes of adult Melbourne Chinese. Aust J Public Health 1995;19:623-8.
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(13.) Livingston PM, Carson CA, Stanislavsky YL, Lee SE, Guest CS, Taylor HR. Methods for a population-based study of eye disease: the Melbourne visual impairment project. Ophthalmic ophthalmic /oph·thal·mic/ (of-thal´mik) ocular (1).
Of or relating to the eye; ocular.
Pertaining to the eye. Epidemiol 1994;l:139-48.
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(15.) Hodge A, Patterson AJ, Brown WJ, Ireland P, Giles G. The Anti Cancer Council of Victoria FFQ FFQ Food Frequency Questionnaire
FFQ Fondation de la Faune du Québec (Canada)
FFQ Fluid Fair Queueing
FFQ Frame-Based Fair Queueing
FFQ Filiis Filiabusque : relative validity The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter.
Please help [ improve the introduction] to meet Wikipedia's layout standards. You can discuss the issue on the talk page. of nutrient intakes compared with weighed food records in young to middle-aged women in a study of iron supplementation. Aust N Z J Public Health 2000;24:576-83.
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(17.) Snodderly DM. Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids Carotenoids
Carotenoids are yellow to deep-red pigments.
Mentioned in: Vitamin A Deficiency
carotenoids (k and antioxidant vitamins antioxidant vitamin Nutrition Any vitamin–eg, beta carotene–provitamin A, ascorbic acid–vitamin C, and alpha-tocopherol–vitamin E with antioxidant activity. See Antioxidant, Antixoxidant therapy. . Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62 Suppl:14485-1461S.
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(22.) National Heart Foundation of Australia The National Heart Foundation of Australia (NHF) or Heart Foundation  is a non-profit organization with the stated mission "to improve the cardiac health of Australians". It was formed in 1959 by a group of cardiac physicians. . A review of the relationship between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease
Disease that affects the heart and blood vessels.
Mentioned in: Lipoproteins Test
cardiovascular disease . Aust J Nutr Diet 1999;56(4 Suppl):S5-522.
The Melbourne Visual Impairment Project was funded in parts by grants from the National Health and Medical Research Council, the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, the Ansell Ophthalmology ophthalmology (ŏf'thălmŏl`əjē), branch of medicine specializing in the anatomy, function and diseases of the eye. Ophthalmologists specialize in the medical and surgical treatment of eye disorders, vision measurements for Foundation, the estate of the late Dorothy Edols, the Jack Brookhoff Foundation, the Eye Ear Nose and Throat Research Institute, the Appel Family Bequest bequest: see legacy. and the Hugh Williamson Hugh Williamson (December 5, 1735–May 22, 1819) was an American politician. He is best known for representing North Carolina at the Constitutional Convention.
Williamson was a scholar of international renown. Foundation. Dr McCarty was the recipient of the Wagstaff Fellowship in Ophthalmology from the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne
In 2006, Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne 22nd in the world. Because of the drop in ranking, University of Melbourne is currently behind four Asian universities - Beijing University,
C.A. McCarty, PhD, MPH, RD, formerly, Associate Professor (currently Senior Research Scientist, Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield, WI, USA)
M.B. Nanjan, PhD, Research Fellow
H.R. Taylor, MD, FRACO, Ringland Anderson Professor
Correspondence: C. McCarty, Marshfield Medical Research and Education Foundation, Marshfield Clinic Marshfield Clinic is a medical system with 41 centers located in northern, central and western Wisconsin as of 2006. It was founded in 1916 by six local physicians: K.W. Doege, M.D.; William Hipke, M.D.; Victor Mason, M.D.; Walter G. Sexton, M.D.; H.H. Milbee, M.D. and Roy P. , 1000 N. Oak Avenue (ML2), Marshfield, WI 54449, USA. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org