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Development of sugar plantations toward sugar self sufficiency.


Indonesia's sugar industry and sugar plantations PLANTATIONS. Colonies, (q.v.) dependencies. (q.v.) 1 Bl. Com. 107. In England, this word, as it is used in St. 12, II. c. 18, is never applied to, any of the British dominions in Europe, but only to the colonies in the West Indies and America. 1 Marsh. Ins, B. 1, c. 3, Sec. 2, page 64.  have supported each other in development. Sugar plantations in Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago.  have continued to expand from year to year marked with expanding areas for cultivation cultivation, tilling or manipulation of the soil, done primarily to eliminate weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. Cultivation may be used in crusted soils to increase soil aeration and infiltration of water; it may also be used to move soil to or . Until 2009, Indonesia's sugar plantations totaled 473,000 hectares or an increase of 2.9% from 460,000 hectares in 2008. Sugar plantations have been expanded not only in Java, but also in other islands.

In the past sugar plantations were concentrated in Java, but now plantations have been opened in other regions such as North Sumatra North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is a province of Indonesia. Its capital is Medan. Geography and population
The province of North Sumatra stretches across the island of Sumatra between the Indian Ocean and the Strait Malacca.
, South Sumatra South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of Lampung to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi to the north. , Lampung Lampung is a province of Indonesia, located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra. It borders the provinces of Bengkulu and South Sumatra. The original inhabitant of Lampung is the "Lampung" tribe, who speak a distinct language from other people in Sumatra and have their own , South Sulawesi South Sulawesi is a province of Indonesia, located on the western southern peninsula of Sulawesi island. The province is bordered by Central Sulawesi province to the north, South East Sulawesi province to the east and West Sulawesi province to the west (West Sulawesi province was  and Gorontalo. In Java plantations are found mainly in West Java, Yogyakarta Yogyakarta (yōg'yəkär`tə, yōk'–), Jogjakarta (jōg'–, jōk'–), or Djokjakarta (jōk'–), city (1990 pop.  and East Java East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura and Bawean islands. . Expansions now are planned to West Kalimantan West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator line. , West Sumatra West Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Barat, abbreviated to Sumbar) is a province of Indonesia. It lies on the west coast of the island Sumatra, and borders the provinces of North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara) to the north, Riau and Jambi to the east, and , Riau For other uses, see Riau (disambiguation).

Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. The provincial capital and largest city is Pekanbaru. Other major cities includes Dumai, Bangkinang and Siak Sri Indrapura.
, Merauke Merauke is a town in Merauke Regency, Papua province, Indonesia. It is next to Maro River.

, South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi.

With the expanding sugar plantations, production grew. In 2009, production grew 2.8% to 2.85 million tons from the previous year's 2.66 million tons. The increase in the production of sugar was boosted by rising sugar prices that encouraged farmers to grow sugarcane.

Currently a problem faced by the country's sugar industry is insufficient supply of sugarcane from plantations. The problem is feared to obstruct the government's program to create self sufficiency in sugar supply in the country in 2014. In order to reach self sufficiency in sugar, the industry needs the support of 600,000 hectares of sugar plantations. Additional plantations of 157,000 hectares, therefore, are needed. Currently the forestry ministry is offering 500,000 hectares of idle lands in various areas considered suitable for sugar plantations.

Under its short term plan to meet sugar supply, the government has decided to expand sugar cultivation by as much as 150,000 hectares in 2010 with the first phase 41,705 hectares. The plan will need 1.25 billion seedlings valued at Rp 563 billion. The expansion of sugar cultivation will be focused in Lampung, South Sumatra, Bengkulu, Jambi, Southeast Sulawesi and Merauke. The new cultivation will be in cultivation areas and conversion forest and would not need clearing of forest trees. The project will be financed with state budget and by private investors.

The new cultivation is expected to increase production of sugarcane to feed sugar refineries to produce consumer sugar and industrial sugar. Dependence on import is also expected to be reduced. The country has continued to need import to make up for shortfall in domestic supply. An import of sugar is allowed only when domestic supply falls short of requirement. A month ahead and after milling season normally in May-January, when harvest takes place, the government will not import sugar.

Total areas of sugar plantations

In the past 10 years, a sugar plantation Plantation, city (1990 pop. 66,692), Broward co., SE Fla., a residential suburb of Fort Lauderdale; inc. 1953. The city has grown rapidly along with the development of S Florida.  in Indonesia has continued to expand growing 3.75% per year from 340,660 hectares in 2000 to 473,841 hectares in 2009.

In 2008 and 2009 the expansion was slower by only 2.9% from 460,000 hectares to 473,000 hectares, because of shrinking sugar prices that discourage the farmers. In 2009, plantations reached 473,000 hectares, with cane cane, walking stick
cane, walking stick. Probably used first as a weapon, it gradually took on the symbolism of strength and power and eventually authority and social prestige.
 production at 2.85 million tons, and cane productivity of 5.1 tons per hectare hectare (hĕk`târ, –tär), abbr. ha, unit of area in the metric system, equal to 10,000 sq m, or about 2.47 acres. , sugar content 7.83%, sugar crystal production of 2.6 million tons and sugar crystal productivity of 5.96 tons per hectare.

500,000 hectares of lands ready for development

In 2010, the sugar plantation areas are estimated to expand to 478,206 hectares, or an expansion of 4,365 hectares. The expansion is boosted by sugar price hike both on the domestic and international markets and to increase the country's sugar production.

Starting 2010, expansion will begin of sugar cultivation by 150,000 hectares to be carried out by phases in several areas especially in Java and Lampung, which have been the center of sugar plantations. The expansion is estimated to cost Rp 4.2 trillion One thousand times one billion, which is 1, followed by 12 zeros, or 10 to the 12th power. See space/time.

(mathematics) trillion - In Britain, France, and Germany, 10^18 or a million cubed.

In the USA and Canada, 10^12.
. The project will begin in 2010 in Riau, South Sumatra, Central Sulawesi Central Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tengah) is a province of Indonesia located in the heart of Sulawesi. It was established on April 13, 1964.

Central Sulawesi has an area of 68,033 km (26268 sq mi) 
, Lampung, and Papua.

Altogether the government will prepare 500,000 hectares of lands for additional sugar cultivation. The lands are needed to expand cultivated cultivated,
n in herbal medicine, used to describe plants that are commercially farmed rather than collected from the wild.
 areas from 422,935 hectares at present to 766,613 hectares in 2014. The land will be made available from production forest lands, idle lands or by using lands of state forestry company PT Perhutani under intercropping system. The expansion of smallholder Noun 1. smallholder - a person owning or renting a smallholding
Britain, Great Britain, U.K., UK, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles; divided into England and
 sugar plantations will need an investment of Rp5 trillion. The fund is expected to come as bank loan through the Food and Energy Resilience resilience (r·zilˑ·yens),
 Credit Program with subsidized sub·si·dize  
tr.v. sub·si·dized, sub·si·diz·ing, sub·si·diz·es
1. To assist or support with a subsidy.

2. To secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy.

Areas considered having land suitable for sugar plantations are Lampung, South Sumatra, Riau, Southeast Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua. Sugarcane grows well are with rainfalls not too heavy. Opening new plantations, however, would not be that easy as it will need land clearing which often is obstructed by disputes or rejection by land owners.

Expansion of the cultivation will need an increase in fertilizer fertilizer, organic or inorganic material containing one or more of the nutrients—mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and other essential elements required for plant growth.  supply. This year, fertilizer requirement is estimated to reach 14.5 million tons or an increase of 4%5% from 13.8 million tons in 2008. Around 1.8 million tons of the requirement are subsidized by the government, and the rest imported by the plantation companies. In order to economize e·con·o·mize  
v. e·con·o·mized, e·con·o·miz·ing, e·con·o·miz·es

1. To practice economy, as by avoiding waste or reducing expenditures.

 on fertilizer, especially nitrogen, phosphor A rare earth material used to coat the inside face of a CRT. When struck by an electron beam, the phosphor emits a visible light for a few milliseconds. In color displays, red, green and blue phosphor dots are grouped as a cluster. See screen burn. , and kalium kalium, Latin name for potassium. , the agriculture ministry has developed the technology called hipernano.

A hectare of sugarcane plantation will cost around Rp 28 million not including the cost for the procurement The fancy word for "purchasing." The procurement department within an organization manages all the major purchases.  of processing factory and transport infrastructure. The plantations are developed over cultivation areas and conversion forests. The fund will be provided by the government, and private investors. Currently many investors have indicated interest in developing sugar plantations but land clearing still often becomes the bottleneck.

Plantations by ownership

Plantations are owned by smallholders and large plantation companies. In the beginning smallholders plantations were developed under nucleus nucleus, in physics
nucleus, in physics, the extremely dense central core of an atom. The Nature of the Nucleus
 plasma farm cooperation scheme with large plantation companies either private or government companies as the nucleus. Later plasma farms expanded outside the scheme.

Currently smallholder sugar plantations have dominated sugar plantations in Indonesia. In 2009, smallholder plantations (PR) made up 57.6% or 255,513 hectares of the country's total plantations of 443,832 hectares with private plantation companies (PBS PBS
 in full Public Broadcasting Service

Private, nonprofit U.S. corporation of public television stations. PBS provides its member stations, which are supported by public funds and private contributions rather than by commercials, with educational, cultural,
) making up 24.4% or 108,450 hectares and state plantations (PBN PBN Paint By Number
PBN Procurement Business Number
PBN Pyrolytic Boron Nitride
PBN Policy-Based Networking
PBN Performance-Based Navigation
PBN Progressive Bengali Network
PBN Paintball Nation
PBN Permanent Background Notices
) 80,069 hectares or 18% of the total .

In the period of 2000--2009, PBS expanded only slightly--by 0.9% annually on the average as against an expansion of 4.5% for PR and 3.3% for PBN.

Large Sugar Plantations

Before 2000, large plantations were dominated by state companies (PBN) under PT Perkebunan Nusantara (PTPN PTPN Physical Therapy Provider Network
PTPN Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase, Nonreceptor-Type
PTPN Preemptive Time Petri Net
) X and PTPN XI in East Java. Another state plantation company having large sugar plantations is PT Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia (RNI (Raw Native Interface) A programming interface in Microsoft's Java Virtual Machine used for calling native Windows elements such as GUI routines. RNI is Microsoft's Windows-oriented counterpart of Sun's JNI (Java Native Interface). ). RNI was formerly owned by the first conglomerate conglomerate, in business
conglomerate, corporation whose asset growth, often very rapid, comes largely through the acquisition of, or merger with, other firms whose products are largely unrelated to each other or to that of the parent company.
 in Indonesia Oei Tiong Ham Oei Tiong Ham (Chinese: 黄仲涵) (1866-1924) was a Chinese businessman. He was the son of Oei Tjie Sien (Chinese: 黄志信  Concern, which was taken over by the government in 1964.

Later large private plantation companies grew faster ending the domination domination

the relationship between animals and humans in which little consideration is given to the rights of the animals. The prevailing sentiment is one of proprietary domination.
 of state companies. Currently PT Sugar Group Companies emerged as the largest sugar plantations company in Indonesia with plantations totaling 94,000 hectares.

Other large private companies having large sugar plantations include PT. Kebon Agung and PT. Gunung Madu Plantation with plantations in Java and Lampung.

Profiles of Main Players

PT Sugar Group Companies (SGC SGC Server Gated Cryptography
SGC StarGate Command
SGC South Georgia College (Douglas, GA, USA)
sGC Soluble Guanylate Cyclase
SGC Superannuation Guarantee Charge (Australian finance) 

SGC has three sugar production-based companies PT Gula Putih Mataram, PT Sweet Indo Lampung, and PT Indo Lampung Perkasa. SGC operates in sugar processing industry. This group produces the first branded sugar in Indonesia. The brand is Gulaku, entirely from sugarcane. Its sugar factories are integrated with sugar plantations totaling 94,000 hectares in Lampung.

PT Perkebunan Nusantara XI (PTPN XI)

PTPN XI was established in 1996 through a merger of PT Perkebunan XX (Persero) and PT Perkebunan XXIV-XXV (Persero). PTPN XI operates sugar plantations and factory in East Java. Sugar cultivations are in areas including rice field area and dry lands totaling 69,516 hectares made up of 27,946 hectares of own plantation and 41,570 hectares of plasma farms. Its end products include granulated/refined sugar, molasses molasses, sugar byproduct, the brownish liquid residue left after heat crystallization of sucrose (commercial sugar) in the process of refining. Molasses contains chiefly the uncrystallizable sugars as well as some remnant sucrose. , alcohol and spirit.

PTPN XI cooperates with sugar farmers to supply its factory with sugarcane. More than 81% of the basic material needed by PTPN XI is supplied by farmers. PTPN XI also operates own sugar plantations to help feed its factory.

Altogether in the milling season in 2008, PTPN XI produced 414,641.3 tons of sugar, and 309,796.1 tons of molasses. The production came from the milling of 5,714,729 tons of cane including 1,680,560.2 tons from own plantations and 4,034,168.7 tons from smallholder canes. The sugarcanes n came from 81,123.1 hectares of plantations including 23,504 hectares of own plantations and 58,619.1 hectares of farmers' plantations. The plantations expanded 1.8% compared with in 2007 but the cane milled fell 10.7% in volume and sugar produced declined 4%, and molasses dropped 4.6%.

Productivity fell by 20% on the average from 5.33 to 5.04 tons of sugar crystal/hectare with the sugarcane production down sharply in volume from 79.2 to 69.6 tons/hectare with content rising only from 6.73 to 7.24%. Productivity in 2008 was 8.37 tons of crystal/hectare, 93.1 tons of cane with content 8.05% from own plantation and 5.76 tons of crystal/hectare with cane 68.8 tons and content 6.90% from smallholder plantations.

PTPN XI has 17 units of plantations integrated with sugar factories as follows:
PG. Soedhono
PG. Poerwodadie
PG. Redjosarie
PG. Pagottan
PG. Kanigoro
PG. Kedawung
PG. Wonolangan
PG. Gending
PG. padjarakan
PG. Djatiroto
PG. Semboro
PG. D Maas
PG. Wringin Anom
PG. Olean
PG. Panji
PG. Asembagoes
PG. Pradjekan

In addition to core business, PTPN XI has no core assets producing alcohol, spirit and bags and hospitals.

PTP (1) See peer-to-peer.

(2) (Picture Transfer Protocol) An ISO standard for transferring photos from a digital camera to a computer or photo printer.
 Nusantara X (PTPN X)

PTPN X was established in 1996 through a merger of state plantations in Central Java Central Java (Indonesian: Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of the six provinces of the island of Java. Central Java is both a political entity and a cultural concept.  and East Java formerly PTP XIX, PTP XXI-XXII and PTP XXVII.

PTPN X produces sugarcanes, tobacco and fiber plants (Bot.) plants capable of yielding fiber useful in the arts, as hemp, flax, ramie, agave, etc.

See also: Fiber
. Sugarcane is produced from plantations in rice field areas and dry land totaling 65,320 hectares including 2,857.10 hectares of own plantations and 62,462.90 hectares of smallholder plantations. Tobacco is produced from TBN/VBN plants grown over 2,210 hectares, including 960 hectares of TBN/VBN and 1,250 hectares of N.O. tobacco. Fiber plants are grown over 1,200 hectares of land.

PTPN X has 16 unit's plantations with 12 sugar factories, 3 tobacco plantations and a fiver plant plantation as follows:

1. PG. Kria

2. PG. Watoetoelis

3. PG. Toelangan

4. PG. Kremboong

5. PG. Gempolkrep

6. PG. Djombang Baru

7. PG. Tjoekir

8. PG. Lestari

9. PG. Meritjan

10. PG. Pesantren Baru

11. PG. Ngadiredjo

12. PG. Modjopanggoong, etc.

In addition, PTPN X operates 3 units of tobacco processing plants with the TBN/VBN types 1,053. 3 tons and NO type 1,336.2 tons per year. It also has a fiber processing unit with a production capacity of 2.79 million pieces of gunny sacks per year

PT Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia (RNI)

RNI, which was established in 1964 was formerly Oei Tiong Ham Concern taken over by the government.

RNI operates in agro industry, pharmaceutical & medical instruments and trade. It is a holding company (Investment Holding), having 15 subsidiaries. RNI has 35 branch offices, 10 sugar factories, 2 alcohol plants, 1 pharmaceutical factory, 2 health equipment factories, an oil palm plantation and a tea plantation.

RNI has real sugar plantation 52,461 hectares in West Java, Yogyakarta and East Java.

PT. Kebon Agung

This company was established in 1905 in Malang, East Java. Currently PT PG Kebon Agung is managed by PT Tri Gunabina as the operator of the Kebon Agung sugar factory in Malang and Trangkil sugar factory in Pati PATI P-Aminothiophenol
PATI Passive Airborne Time-Difference Intercept Automatic Direction Finding

Currently PT. Kebon Agung operates sugar plantation 57,923 hectares in Malang, East Java. The sugarcane form the plantation is used to feed its sugar plants in Malang and Pati.

Locations of sugarcane plantations

Based on data from the plantation directorate general, sugar plantations are located only in nine provinces in Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi. In 2008, Java has the largest plantations totaling 301,343 hectares or 65.5% of the total areas of the country's sugar plantation of 460,406 hectares. In Java, East Java has the largest plantations totaling 213,914 hectares and followed by Central Java with 60,616 hectares of plantations.

Sumatra has 141,228 hectares (30.7%). Most or 116,360 hectares of the sugar plantations are located in Lampung, followed by South Sumatra's 12,502 hectares.

Sulawesi's sugar plantations total only 17,835 hectares or 3.8% of the total. The locations of the plantations are in South Sulawesi 12,760 hectares and Gorontalo 5,075 hectares.

Kalimantan has no sugar plantation. The soil in this region is more suitable for oil palm plantations. Papua is a potential area for investment in the plantation sector in the future. There are already plans to build sugar plantations and factories in Papua.

Bi company groups like Bakrie Group, Medco Group and Wilmar Group have indicated strong interest in building sugar plantations and factories in Papua. They plan to open food estates in that region. Companies having a sugar factory in Kendal, Central Java, Sugar industry Nusantara (IGN IGN Ignored (Status)
IGN Institut Geographique National
IGN Ignition
IGN Instituto Geografico Nacional (Spain)
IGN Imagine Games Network
IGN In-Game Name (gaming) 
) also have indicated interest in expanding operation to Papua. In general the lands in Papua are good for sugar plantations, oil palm plantations to be built integration with sugar or palm oil processing factories. The difficulty is lack of infrastructure.

South Papua is especially good for sugar plantations. There is a plan to build two sugar factories and a bio ethanol ethanol (ĕth`ənōl') or ethyl alcohol, CH3CH2OH, a colorless liquid with characteristic odor and taste; commonly called grain alcohol or simply alcohol.  plant in Papua with production partly to be exported to the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , Japan, Europe and South Korea.

Plantation areas by condition of plants

Cultivated lands growing 4.6% per year

Sugar plantation areas expanded 4.6% a year on the average in the 2006--2009 periods. In 2006, cultivated areas totaled only 396,441 hectares, up 4.4% to 438,040 hectares in 2007. In 2009 cultivated area expanded again 4.7% to 473,841 hectares from 460,406 hectares in the previous year. The increase followed rise in sugar prices that encouraged farmer to grow the crop.

Harvest areas grow 4.9% per year

In the period of 2000--2009 harvest areas grew 4.9% per year. Harvest areas in 2000 reached only 340,660 hectares, up to 443,832 hectares in 2009 or 93.6% of the cultivated areas.

In 2010, the whether is not as favorable fa·vor·a·ble  
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.

2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.

 as in 2009 causing a delay in harvest in some areas such as Cirebon, West Java? Heavy rains forced a delay in harvest from May to June. Transport would be a problem if harvest was to be made in rainy rain·y  
adj. rain·i·er, rain·i·est
Characterized by, full of, or bringing rain.

raini·ness n.

 days of May, and the result would a decline in sugar content. Transport of sugarcane to factories must not be delayed longer than 36 hours otherwise the sugar content would decline.

Normally 61,700 kg of sugar could be produced from a hectare of sugarcane with a content of 8.04%.

Condition of sugar cultivation by areas

In 2009, cultivated areas of sugar plantations in the country totaled 459,498 hectares, with harvest area totaling 429,489 hectares or 93% of the cultivated plantations.

In Sumatra cultivated areas totaled 134,864 hectares all producing good harvest. In Java cultivated area reach 311,817 hectares of sugar plantation with harvest areas totaling 281,80 hectares or 90%. In Sulawesi cultivated areas total only 12,817 hectares all producing good harvest

Increase in the cultivated areas was recorded mainly in Java and Lampung the country's largest sugar production centers.

The country has 8 sugar producing provinces. Regencies/municipal city areas having more than 1,000 hectares of plantations with production of more than 1,000 tons a year are called sugar production centers of the provinces.

Production of sugarcane

In the period of 2004-2008, the country's production of sugarcane grew 5.7% per year. The growth was not enough to meet the domestic sugar requirement.

In 2008, the country had sugar plantations totaling 436,505 hectares, producing 32,960 thousand of sugarcane. In 2009, the plantations expanded to 443,832 hectares, with production up 34% to 44.210 thousand a year.

In 2010, the sugarcane production is predicted to rise further to 2.93 million tons despite unfavorable whether. The agriculture ministry has taken steps to expand sugar plantations, improve productivity and built new sugar factories.

Production of sugarcane by plantation owners

Smallholder plantations (PR), which are the largest in area, produced 791,000 tons of sugarcane in 2000, up 1.1% annually to reach 1,547,000 tons in 2009.

Large plantation owned by private companies (PBS) reported an annual growth of 5.4% in sugarcane production in the 2000-2009 periods--up from 655,000 tons to 892,000 tons.

The production recorded by large plantations owned by the state (PBN) in the 2000-2009 periods grew 2.8% per year. Their sugarcane production rose to 411,000 tons from 234,000 tons in that period.

One of state plantation companies is PT Pabrik Gula Rajawali Nusantara II located in Cirebon, West Java. The company is set to boost its production to meet the government target to make the country self sufficient in sugar supply in 2014. In harvest early this year the company succeeded in doubling its sugarcane production from harvest last year. The company has 12,000 hectares of sugar plantation producing 47,800 kg of sugarcane per hectare with sugar content of 6.99% in 2009. This year, the production rose to 76.900 kilograms per hectare with sugar content of 8.55%.


According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the Association of Sugar Farmers (APTRI APTRI Asosiasi Petani Tebu Rakyat Indonesia ) the revitalization re·vi·tal·ize  
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy.
 program for sugar industry aimed at reaching sugar self sufficiency in 2014, could be implemented successfully by improving productivity of the plantations and factories without expansion of plantations.

The productivity of the country's sugar plantations has fluctuated over the past years. PBS plantations reported the highest productivity with production of 8.4 tons per hectare in 2009 up from 6.8 tons per hectare in 2006.

The productivity PR plantations rose from 5.7 tons/hectare in 2006 to 6.1 tons/hectare in 2009. Meanwhile, the productivity PBN plantations fell from 5.2 tons/hectare in 2006 to 5.1 tons/hectare in 2009.

In 2009, Central Java had 59,825 hectares of sugar plantations in 26 regencies with productivity of 53.62 tons of sugarcane per hectare, sugar content of 7% and sugar production of 227,200 tons. In order to achieve self sufficiency in sugar Central Java needs 67,000 hectares sugar plantations with productivity of 75 tons of sugarcane per hectare and sugar content of 8% to turn out 402,000 tons of sugar. Ideally a sugar factory needs the support of sugar plantation of at least 4,000 hectares of sugar plantation to guarantee regular feedstock feed·stock  
Raw material required for an industrial process.

Noun 1. feedstock - the raw material that is required for some industrial process
raw material, staple - material suitable for manufacture or use or finishing

In 2010, the productivity of PBS rose to 8,403 kg/hectare, but the productivity of PBN and PR fell to 5,097 kg/hectares and 6,053 kg/hectare respectively.

New Investment

The government, which has a target to achieve sugar self sufficiency for the country in 2014, has granted license for a number of investors to develop sugarcane plantations from 12 to 40,000 hectares of land each in Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and West Nusa Tenggara West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesian: Nusa Tenggara Barat) is a province in south-central Indonesia. It covers the western portion of the Lesser Sunda Islands, except for Bali. . Among the investors are PT. Rosan Kencan Perkasa, PT Market Indo Selaras and PT. Laju Perdana Indah. They plan to build sugar plantations and sugar factories expected to start operation in 2010-2012. At least Rp28 million will be needed for the procurement of a hectare of land. There are still costs to build the factories and infrastructure.

PT Rosan Kencana Perkasa Indonesia (RKP) in cooperation with Invelt Group from the Czech Republic Czech Republic, Czech Česká Republika (2005 est. pop. 10,241,000), republic, 29,677 sq mi (78,864 sq km), central Europe. It is bordered by Slovakia on the east, Austria on the south, Germany on the west, and Poland on the north.  plans to build a sugar factory with a processing capacity of 6,000 tons of cane per day--8,000 tcd to cost around US$100 million. The Invelt Group will support by providing 85% or US$ 85 million of the investment fund in buyer credit. The factory, to be operational in 2012, will have the capacity to process surplus in sugarcane in Mojokerto, East Java, and nearby areas. The sugar factory will have the support of 46 sugar farmers' cooperative (KPRT KPRT Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team (Canada) ). The cooperative has 70,000 members managing fund more than Rp170 billion.

Singapore-based Wilmar International Ltd. This is known as a large CPO (Chief Privacy Officer) An individual who manages the privacy issues within an organization. Arising out of the privacy regulations in finance and health care in the late 1990s, the CPO position eventually crossed over to all industries.  producer in Sumatra, plans expansion to Papua to build sugarcane plantations and sugar factory with an investment of US$ 2 billion. Wilmar teams up with Kuok Oils and Grains, which has long experience in sugar industry.

Four state plantation companies--PTPN IX, PTPN X, PT XI, and PT Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia (RNI) also plan to build sugarcane plantations and sugar factories Merauke, Papua. The factory will have a processing capacity of 10,000 tons of sugarcane per day.

Source of sugarcane seedlings

In a bid to achieve its target of sugar self sufficiency in 2014, the government will provide support in the procurement of high yield variety of sugarcane seedlings. The government seeks to reduce the number of sugarcane varieties to be developed to make it easier in controlling selection of the best variety in productivity. In the past several years, Indonesia's sugar plantations have decline din DIN - Deutsche Institut fuer Normung. The German standardisation body, a member of ISO.  productivity because of the use of varieties with low productivity. Pruning pruning, the horticultural practice of cutting away an unwanted, unnecessary, or undesirable plant part, used most often on trees, shrubs, hedges, and woody vines.  is repeated more than 10 times even up to 15 times in the same land, while ideally pruning must not be more than three times.

PT Perkebunan Nusantara XI on East Java is growing new sugarcane variety called R-579. The new variety could yield around 10.07 tons of sugar/hectare or more than twice as high as the country's average in productivity of 4 tons of sugar/hectare. The production also exceeds the figure of 8.5 tons/hectare in the program of production acceleration launched in 2007.

The variety is grown in the plantation of PG Djatiroto, Lumajang with productivity varying from 8 to 15 tons of sugar per hectare. With that level of production, the cost of production could be cut by phases from Rp 3,100/kg at present to less than Rp 2,200/kg.

Another variety called POJ POJ Piece of Junk
POJ Plane of Justice (Everquest gaming)
POJ Pasteurized Orange Juice
POJ Praxisorientierte Juristinnen und Juristen
POJ Plenty of Joy
POJ Plenty of Jewelry
 3016 is grown in the plantation of PG Kanigoro, Madiun, yielding 11 tons of sugar /hectare. PTP Nusantara XI also has sugarcane varieties called R-579, PS 90-1428 and JT 26.

The use of high yield varieties is expected to support the program to achieve sugar self sufficiency in 2014. Currently 75% of sugarcane for sugar factories in Java is supplied by smallholder sugar plantations.

The country is seeking to improve the productivity of its sugarcane plantations not only through the use of high yield variety seedlings but also through the application of biotechnology. Development of biotechnology is expected to increase the sugar content of sugarcane to 20% . So far more than 10 new varieties have been used but the content has never been more than 12% . Now the content is only 7% on a number of factors.

Sugarcane varieties in Indonesia are known in three categories Genjah Variety, which is harvestable earlier, ripe in less than 12 months; Sedang Variety, which is ripe in 12-14 months and Dalam Variety, which is ripe in more than 14 months.

The best variety now used in the country is BL, which is similar to POJ-2878. The two varieties are resistant to plant diseases, but BL is more sensitive to pohkabung and insects Insects
See also ants; bees; biology; butterflies; zoology.


a fear of itching or of the mites or ticks that cause it.

aeroscepsy, aeroscepsis

perception by means of the air, said to be a function of the antennae of insects.
 eating the shoot. The productivity of BL is high up to 121.4 quintals of sugar per hectare with highest production of crystal up to 169.2 quintals per hectare.

With BL variety in irrigated field, the production of sugarcane averages 1,504 quintals per hectare (highest 2,093 quintals), with sugar content of 8.07 percent (highest 8.86 percent) and crystal production averaging 121.4 quintals per hectare (highest 169.2 quintals).

Experiment in dry land showed that sugarcane production averages 1,250 quintals per hectare (highest 2.112 quintals), with sugar content of 7.58 percent (highest 8.25 percent), and crystal averaging 97.3 quintals per hectare (highest 172.3 quintals).

Even under trimming system, the BL variety shows promising productivity. An experiment showed that sugarcane production averages 1,222 quintals per hectare (highest 2,012 quintals), with sugar content of 7.81 percent (highest 8.74 percent), and crystal averaging 94.5 quintals per hectare (highest 152.1 quintals).

Exports of sugar by products up

Exports of sugar by products especially molasses have fluctuted depending on the availability of surplus in domestic supply. Molases is used mainly as feedstock for food sweetenerMonosodium Glutamate glutamate /glu·ta·mate/ (gloo´tah-mat) a salt of glutamic acid; in biochemistry, the term is often used interchangeably with glutamic acid.

1. A salt of glutamic acid.
. In 1999, esports of sugar by products totaled only 195,979 tons valued at US$ 8,070,000, up to 526,685 tons valued at US$ 48,649,000 in 2007 and to 947,402 tons valued at US$ 73,199,000 in 2008.

Exports of sugar by products are dominated by molasses, which accounted for 99.8% or 945,859 tons of the total exports in 2008.

Increase in the molasses price to around US$ 120 per ton at present boosted exports in the past years.

Molasses is a by product in the process of producing refined sugar. Its 45% content of sucrose could be used to produce alcohol through fermentation fermentation, process by which the living cell is able to obtain energy through the breakdown of glucose and other simple sugar molecules without requiring oxygen. Fermentation is achieved by somewhat different chemical sequences in different species of organisms. . It is also used as feedstock for monosodium glutamate monosodium glutamate: see glutamic acid.
monosodium glutamate (MSG)

White crystalline substance, a sodium salt of the amino acid glutamic acid. MSG is used to intensify the natural flavour of meats and vegetables.
 (MSG MSG: see glutamic acid. ) and for ethanol.

Vietnam the largest export destination

The largest export destination for Indonesia's molasses is Vietnam to which exports totaled 335,471 tons valued at US$ 24,850,000 in 2008, followed by Taiwan to which exports totaled 219,287 tons valued at US$ 15,850,000 and Spain 157,715 tons valued at US$ 13,396,000.

Other export destinations include South Korea, japan and the United States.

Imports fluctuating fluc·tu·ate  
v. fluc·tu·at·ed, fluc·tu·at·ing, fluc·tu·ates

1. To vary irregularly. See Synonyms at swing.

2. To rise and fall in or as if in waves; undulate.


Imports of sugar by products reached 1,181,397 tons, valued at US$ 358,820,000 in 2004, up to 3,027,423 tons valued at US$ 1,048,269 in 2007 or the largest in 10 years.

In 2008, imports fell to 1,044,000 tons valued at US$363,504,000. Imports remained high as the country exports most of its production.

Thailand the largest supplier for Indonesia

Indonesia has imported molasses from a number of countries. In 2008, Thailand was the largest supplier from which imports totaled 824,934 tons valued at US$ 294,488,000, followed by Taiwan from which imports totaled 42,401 tons valued at US$ 13,394,000, and India from which imports totaled 39,101 tons valued at US$ 12,507,000.

Sugar Prices

In 2005-2009, the price of cane sugar cane sugar: see sucrose.  grew 10% per year--from Rp 5,531/kg in 2005 to Rp 7.94/kg in 2009.

In 2008, the price fell to Rp 6,192 from Rp 6,342/kg in 2007, but in 2009 it surged to Rp 7.940/kg as a result of shortage in supply on the domestic market.

The prices of sugarcane from the farmer are determined through auction handled by cooperatives, farmers associations, and sugar factory.

Government policy

--Expansion of sugar plantations

The government is set to expand the country's sugar plantations and for which 500,000 hectares of land will be provided for new plantations until 2014 when the country is to achieve self sufficiency in sugar supply. The projects will use idle lands in Lampung, South Sumatra, Jambi and Sulawesi.

The expansion of the plantations is to reduce dependence on imports. The government also plans to build at least 10 new sugar factories in short term.

--Issuance of Rights to Cultivate cul·ti·vate  
tr.v. cul·ti·vat·ed, cul·ti·vat·ing, cul·ti·vates
a. To improve and prepare (land), as by plowing or fertilizing, for raising crops; till.


As part of the program to achieve sugar self sufficiency the government will expand the country's sugar plantations by 500,000 hectares until 2014. In 2009 the country had 473,841 hectares of sugar plantations.

The government will simplify the process of securing HGU HGU Human Genetics Unit (UK)
HGU Hak Guna Usaha (Indonesia)
HGU Hospital General Universitario (Spanish)
HGU Hepatic Glucose Uptake
 and HGB Hgb hemoglobin.




Hgb Hemoglobin, see there
 for 25 sugar factories. The new sugar factories will have a milling capacity of 6,000 to 15,000 tons of cane per day.

--Preparing Infrastructure for sugar plantations

The government will also build infrastructure including roads, bridge and irrigation irrigation, in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice.  systems for sugar plantations and factories outside Java.


The government offers incentives in the form of tax facilities including exemption of income tax and import duty and subsidy subsidy, financial assistance granted by a government or philanthropic foundation to a person or association for the purpose of promoting an enterprise considered beneficial to the public welfare.  on credit interest to increase investment in sugar sector.

--Export tax on molasses

The government plans to slap progressive export tax on molasses to better guarantee domestic supply. The export tax is based on the prices of molasses

The export tax will be 0% if the price of molasses is US$ 80 or higher per ton.

The increase in the prices of molasses in international market, the farmers and producers chose to export their molasses resulting in shortage on the domestic market and problem for domestic producers of MSG and ethanol. In 2008, molasses production in the country totaled 1.4 million liters. Around 600,000 liters of the stocks were used by ethanol producers, 600,000 liters by animal feed industry and the remaining 200,000 liters exported.

Conclusion and prospects

A sugar plantation in the country has expanded but the growth was not enough to catch up with the growing demand for sugar in the country. The plantations expanded only around 3.75% per year--from 340,660 hectares in 2000 to 473,841 hectares in 2009 or an addition of only 133,181 hectares in 10 years.

Increase in the price in international market would encourage farmers to grow sugarcane. In 2010, sugar plantations are predicted to rise to 478,206 hectares or an expansion of 4,365 hectares from 2009.

In order to achieve the self sufficiency target in 2014, the government plans to expand the country's sugar plantations. Currently the plantations would not be enough to produce sugar to meet domestic requirement. The government plans to provide 500,000 hectares of land for the expansion of sugar plantations that will bring the country's total plantations from 473,841 hectares in 2009 to 766,613 hectares in 2014. The new plantations will be opened in Lampung, South Sumatra, Riau, Southeast Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua.

The prospects are encouraging for investment in sugar industry. A number of investors have indicated interest in venturing in the sector. So far there are 40 companies seeking the license to open new sugar plantations. Among them are big corporations like Wilmar Group and Bakrie Group and a consortium of state companies (PTPN) planning to build sugar plantations in 2012-2014.

In 2010, the country's sugarcane milled production is forecast to reach 45,536 thousand tons and will rise to 53,200 thousand tons in 2014.
Sugar plantations in Indonesia, 2000-2009

Year             Area (hectares)   Growth (%)

2000                 340,660
2001                 344,441          1.1
2002                 350,722          1.8
2003                 335,725         -4.3
2004                 344,793          2.7
2005                 381,786         10.7
2006                 396,441          3.8
2007                 438.040         10.0
2008                 460.406          5.1
2009                 473.841          2.9
Average growth                        3.75

Source : Plantation directorate general

Expansion of sugar plantations by ownership, 2000-2009

                           Area (hectares)

                     PR /       Growth
Year             Smallholders    (%)     PBN / State

2000               171,279        ...       64,133
2001               178,887        4.4       87,687
2002               196,509        9.9       79,975
2003               172,015      -12.5       87,251
2004               184,283        7.1       78,205
2005               211,479       14.8       80,383
2006               213,876        1.1       87,227
2007               249,487       16.7       81,655
2008               252,783        1.3       82,222
2009               255,313        1.0       80,069
Average growth                    4.7

                       Area (hectares)

                 Growth                 Growth
Year               (%)    PBS / State     (%)

2000                --      105,248        --
2001              36.7       77,867     -26.0
2002              -8.8       74,238      -4.7
2003               9.1       76,459       2.9
2004             -10.4       82,305       7.6
2005               2.8       89,924       9.3
2006               8.5       95,338       6.0
2007              -6.4       96,657       1.4
2008               0.7      101,500       5.0
2009              -2.6      108,450       6.8
Average growth     3.3                    0.9

Source : Plantation directorate general

Owners and status of large sugar plantations, 2009

Name of companies            (hectares)   Locations

State owned :

PTPerkebunan Nusantara II      16,046     North Sumatra
PTPerkebunan Nusantara VII     20,400     Bandar Lampung
PTPerkebunan Nusantara IX       7,422     Semarang
PTPerkebunan Nusantara X       65,320     East Java
PTPerkebunan Nusantara XI      69,516     East Java
PTPerkebunan Nusantara XIV     14,312     Ujung Pandang
PT Rajawali Nusantara          52,461     West Java,
  Indonesia (RNI)                         Yogyakarta and
                                          East Java

Private companies :

PT Kebon Agung                 57,923     East Java
PT Gunung Madu Plantations     36,000     Lampung
PT Sugar Group Companies       94,400     Lampung
Total                         433,800

Source: ICN processed

Production of Non Core Business

No   Description            Units    2007         2009         %

1    Alcohol                liters   6,725,400    6,864,200    102.1
2    Spirit                 liters   1,655,750    1,691,900    102.2
3    Plastic bags           pieces   10,039,182   10,141,902   101.0
4    Gunny sacks            pieces   87,291       85,982       98.5
5    Rope and gunny cloth   kg       130,824      101,157      77.3
6    White Sugar imported   tons     98,620       0            0
7    Raw Sugar              tons     40,225       0            0
8    Hospital:              %        64,10        60,45        94,3
     BOR                    hari     78.115       79.697       102,0
     Treatment days         unit     324          334          103,1

Source: PTPN X

Sugar plantations areas by regions, 2008-2009

Province                      2008      2009

Nasional                   436.505   443.832
Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam        --        --
North Sumatra               12.366    11.556
West Sumatra                    --        --
Riau                            --        --
Riau Islands                    --        --
Jambi                           --        --
South Sumatra               12.502    15.962
Bengkulu                        --        --
Lampung                    116.350   116.608
Bangka Belitung                 --        --
Sumatra                    141.228   144.126
West Java                   23.255    23.932
Banten                          --        --
Central Java                60.616    59.825
DI Yogyakarta                3.528     5.085
East Java                  213.944   222.975
Banten                          --        --
Java                       301.343   311.817
West Kalimantan                 --        --
Central Kalimantan              --        --
South Kalimantan                --        --
East Kalimantan                 --        --
Central Sulawesi                --        --
Gorontalo                    5.075     5.081
Southeast Sulawesi              --        --
South Sulawesi              12.760    12.817
Sulawesi                    17.835    17.899
Maluku                          --        --
Papua                           --        --
West Irian Jaya                 --        --

Source: Plantation directorate general

Areas of cultivated plantation, 2006-2009

       Cultivated areas
Year      (hectares)      Growth (%)

2006       396,441            --
2007       438,040           4.4
2008       460,406           4.6
2009       473,841           4.7
Average Growth               4.6

Source : Plantation directorate general

Harvest areas, 2000-2009

       Harvest area
Year   (hectares)     Growth

2000   340,660          --
2001   344,441         3.4
2002   350,722         3.5
2003   335,725         3.4
2004   344,793         3.4
2005   381,786         3.8
2006   396,441         3.9
2007   428,799         4.3
2008   435,505         4.4
2009   443,832         4.4
Average growth         4.9

Source : Plantation directorate general

Table - 8

Sugar plantation areas by condition of plant, 2009

No    Provinces             Area cultivated (hectares)

                            PR      PBN        PBS     Total

1     North Sumatra      2,294     9,262              11,556
2     South Sumatra        475    11,574     3,913    15,962
3     Lampung           16,168     5,740    94,700   116,608
      Sumatra           18,937    17,314    98,613   134,864
4     West Java         12,014    11,918              23,932
5     Central Java      54,483       831     4,511    59,825

6     DI Yogyakarta      5,085                         5,085
7     East Java        193,077    29,653       245   222,975
      Java             264,659    42,402     4,756   311,817

8     South Sulawesi     1,726    11,091              12,817
      Indonesia        285,322    70,807   103,369   459,498

No    Provinces                Harvest area (hectares)

                            PR       PBN       PBS     Total

1     North Sumatra      2,294     9,262              11,556
2     South Sumatra        475    11,574     3,913    15,962
3     Lampung           16,168       570    94,700   116,608
      Sumatra           18,937    17,314    98,613   134,864
4     West Java         12,014    11,918              23,932
5     Central Java      48,497       831     4,511    53,839

6     DI Yogyakarta      5,085                         5,085
7     East Java        169,054    29,653       245   198,952
      Java             234,650    42,402     4,756   281,808

8     South Sulawesi     1,726    11,091              12,817
      Indonesia        255,313    70,807   103,369   429,489


PR: Smallholder

PBN: State

PBS: Private

Source: Plantation directorate general/Data Consult

Table - 9

Production of sugarcane milled, 2004 - 2008

Year                   Production             Growth
                       (000 tons)

2004                   26,743                     -
2005                   31,242                   16.8

2006                   30,233                  - 3.2

2007                   33,289                   10.1

2008                   32,960                  - 0.9

Average growth                                   5.7

Source: Plantation directorate general

Table - 10

Sugarcane production by plantation owners, 2000 - 2009 (000 tons)

Year        PR    Growth     PBN    Growth     PBS    Growth
                    (%)               (%)               (%)

2000       791               234               665
2001       814      714      311      211      601      501
2002       967      867      298      198      491      391
2003       839      739      370      270      422      322
2004     1,029      929      384      284      639      539
2005     1,194    1,094      423      323      625      525
2006     1,029      929      384      284      639      539
2007     1,515    1,415      425      325      685      585
2008     1,536    1,436      396      296      736      636
2009     1,547    1,447      411      311      892      792

Average growth      1.1               2.8               5.4

Source: Plantation directorate general

Table - 11

Productivity of sugar plantations, 2006 - 2009

Year     Productivity (kg/hectares)

            PR      PBN      PBS

2006     5.721    5.196    6.844
2007     5.278    5.201    7.119
2008     4.910    4.818    7.366
2009     6.057    5.129    8.363


PR: Smallholder

PBN: State

PBS: Private

Source: Plantation directorate general

Table - 12

A number of new investment projects in sugar plantations, 2010 - 2014

Companies                          Location                  Area

PT. Rosa Kencana Perkasa           Mojokerto, East Java         19,000
PT. Sugar Labinta                  Lampung                      16,800
PT. Semesta Berjaya                West Sumatra                 18,000
PT. Bakrie Sumatra Plantation      Merauke, Papua               50,000
PT. Laju Perdana Indah             South Sumatra                21,500
PT. Gumilang Unggul Luhur Abadi    Tuban, East Java             21,000
PT. Tripanca Group                 Lampung                       7,500
PT. Wilmar                         Merauke, Papua               10,000
PT. Cipta Agung Manis              Southeast Sulawesi           18,000
PT.  Gula Manis Tinaggea           Konawe, Southeast Sulawesi   10,000
PT. Source Mutiara Indah Perdana   North Sulawesi               36,000
PT. Sukses Mantap Sejahtera        Dompu, West Nusa Tenggara
PT. Permata Hijau Resources        Sambas, West Kalimantan       5,000
PT. Nurindo Trading                Riau                          5,000
PT. Market Indo Selaras            Konawe, Southeast Sulawesi   12,000
PT. Santos Jaya Abadi              Southeast Sulawesi            7,000

Companies                          Processing                Investment
                                   cap. (tcd)

PT. Rosa Kencana Perkasa           6,000- 8,000         US$ 100 million
PT. Sugar Labinta                         5,400
PT. Semesta Berjaya                       8,000
PT. Bakrie Sumatra Plantation            12,000
PT. Laju Perdana Indah                    8,000           Rp 2 trillion
PT. Gumilang Unggul Luhur Abadi           8,000
PT. Tripanca Group                        4,000
PT. Wilmar                                8,000           US$ 2 billion
PT. Cipta Agung Manis                    10,000
PT.  Gula Manis Tinaggea                  8,000
PT. Source Mutiara Indah Perdana          5,000          Rp1.4 trillion
PT. Sukses Mantap Sejahtera              12,000
PT. Permata Hijau Resources               4,500         Rp 1.8 trillion
PT. Nurindo Trading                       2,000
PT. Market Indo Selaras                   8,000
PT. Santos Jaya Abadi                     5,000

Companies                          Operation plan

PT. Rosa Kencana Perkasa           2010-2012
PT. Sugar Labinta                  2012 - 2014
PT. Semesta Berjaya                2012
PT. Bakrie Sumatra Plantation      2012
PT. Laju Perdana Indah             2012-2014
PT. Gumilang Unggul Luhur Abadi    2014
PT. Tripanca Group                 2014
PT. Wilmar                         2012-2014
PT. Cipta Agung Manis              2012-2014
PT.  Gula Manis Tinaggea           2012-2014
PT. Source Mutiara Indah Perdana   2012-2014
PT. Sukses Mantap Sejahtera        2012
PT. Permata Hijau Resources        2012-2013
PT. Nurindo Trading                2012
PT. Market Indo Selaras            2012
PT. Santos Jaya Abadi              2012- 2014

Source: ICN processed

Table - 13

Types of sugarcane variety in Indonesia

Types of    Genjah, ripe in   Sedang, ripe in   Dalam, ripe in
Sugarcane   <12 months        12-14 months      >14 months

BZ 132      [check]           [check]

PS 57       [check]           [check]

PS 59                         [check]           [check]

PS 58       [check]           [check]

PS 56                         [check]

BZ 148                        [check]

POJ 3016                      [check]           [check]

Source: PTPN XI

Table - 14

Productivity of BL variety

Type of land      Average production of   Average content
                  sugarcane (quintals
                  per hectare)

Irrigated         1,504 (max, 2,093)      8.07 % (max. 8.86 %)

Dry land          1,250 (max, 2,112)      7.58 % (max. 8.25 %)

Trimming system   1,222 (max, 2,012)      7.81 % (max. 8.74 %)

Type of land      Average production of
                  crystal (quintals per

Irrigated         121.4 (max. 169.2)

Dry land          97.3 (max. 97.3)

Trimming system   94.5 (max. 152.1)

Source: PTPN XI

Table - 15

Exports of sugar by products, 1999 - 2008

Year               Volume (tons)    Value (000 US$)

1999                     195,979             8,070
2000                     136,753             5,926
2001                      94,572             6,288
2002                     125,137             8,089
2003                      81,659             4,613
2004                     195,570            11,396
2005                     228,669            19,914
2006                     554,728            50,391
2007                     526,685            48,649
2008                     947,402            73,199

Source: BPS

Table - 16

Exports of sugar by products by countries of destination, 2008

Countries of destination    Volume (tons)    Value (000 US$)

Vietnam                           335,471            24,850
Taiwan                            219,287            15,850
Spain                             157,715            13,396
South Korea                       144,038            10,613
The United States                  30,030             2,502
Japan                              24,170            12,357
Germany                            15,000             1,470
Malaysia                              934               248
Canada                                197               162
Hong Kong                             179               102
Other                              20,411               650
Total                             947,402            73,200

Source: BPS

Table - 17

Imports of molasses and other sugar by products, 2004 - 2008

Year          Volume (tons)    Value (000 US$)

1999              1,583,957           358,820
2000              1,677,611           290,099
2001              1,469,244           254,217
2002              1,113,777           216,341
2003              1,079,592           223,778
2004              1,181,397           269,490
2005              2,033,348           593,301
2006              1,452,956           544,431
2007              3,027,423         1,048,000
2008              1,044,000           363,504

Source: BPS

Table - 18

Imports of molasses by products by countries of origin, 2008

Countries of origin    Volume (tons)    Value (000 US$)

Thailand                     824,934           294,488
Taiwan                        42,401            13,394
India                         39,101            12,507
Malaysia                      34,424            13,931
Egypt                         27,900             4,967
South Korea                   24,593            11,227
Russia                        20,250             3,486
Ukraine                       11,831             2,600
Singapore                      7,500             2,337
Other countries               11,066             4,567
Total                      1,044,000           363,504

Source: BPS

Table - 19

Prices of cane sugar, 2005 - 2009

Year               Prices (Rp/kg)        Growth (%)

2005                       5,531                 2006
5,980               8.1
2007                       6,342               6.1
2008                       6,191             - 2.4
2009                       7,940              28.3

Growth rata-rata                              10.0

Source : KPB PTPN Nusantara

Table - 20

Forecast of sugarcane milled production, 2010 - 2014

Year              Production
                  (thousand tons)

2010              45,536

2011              46,902

2012              49,247

2013              51,709

2014              53,200

Source: ICN processed
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Comment:Development of sugar plantations toward sugar self sufficiency.(INDUSTRY PROFILE)
Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:May 1, 2010
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