Development of spinning industry.
With the abolition of the textile trade quota system ruled by the WTO in January 2005, smaller suppliers like Indonesia which gained from the export quota systems adopted by major textile markets such as the United States, and Europe are now forced to face competition against giant rivals in open markets.
The quota system made it easier for Indonesian textile producers to enter the U.S. or European market without too much difficulty to deal with competitors in the market. With the quota system large producers such as China could not enter the market with full force.
After the abolition of the quota Indonesia's TPT producers are feared to be in no position to meet Chinese rivals in market competition in the U.S. or European markets. Even The United States sees the Chinese TPT products as a serious threat to its own products. Data showed that China recorded an increase of 33.78%, Vietnam 1.8%, India 13.64% and Pakistan 3.07% in TPT exports to the U.S. market.
China recorded an 8-fold increase in exports to US$ 60 billion from 2003, Vietnam from US$ 300 million three years ago to US$ 2 billion at present a year in exports to the United States alone. Indonesia is not competitive as its TPT factory machines have been too old averaging 20 years old in age.
Around 2,155 spinning machines, 4,617 weaving machines and 678 knitting machines and 1,716 printing, dyeing and finishing machines of the country's textile industry are more than 20 years old, according to a survey by Sucofindo.
Until now TPT remains the country's largest export earner outside oil and gas. In addition, the TPT industry provide jobs for 1.5 million workers. In 2006 the country's exports of TPT were valued at US$ 9,457 million or 11% of the country's export earning from non oil/gas sector.
After the abolition of the quota system in 2005, the country's TPT industry has faced a big challenge in competition in international market especially facing Chinese products.
The spinning industry is perhaps the weakest point. The performance of the country's spinning industry declined because of inefficient machines and low productivity.
Around 80.36% or 5,491,602 units of production machines of the country TPT industry are no longer fit for operation. Old machines consume large energy bit productivity is low. According to the industry ministry by the end of 2006, the production machines of the country's TPT industry totaled 8,384,697 units including spinning; weaving and knitting machines as well as finishing machines and machines of supporting units for finishing wear industry.
Around 64.4% or 5.03 million of 7.8 million spindles used by the country's spinning industry are no longer fit. In the weaving industry around 204,393 machines or 82.1% of he total number of 248,957 weaving machines need to be replaced. The machine have low productivity and are large consumers of energy. The problem is worse with soaring prices of energy. Textile producers, hope that the government will be more serious in lending support for the revitalization of the country's TPT industry especially spinning and weaving industries as the two sector have comparative advantage and more competitive.
Indonesia's TPT industry could be more competitive as the industry has been integrated from the upstream to downstream sector. The country's spinning industry is one of the largest in Asia and it is the second largest in weaving industry after China. In addition, the country finished wear products have been quite well known in international market.
Currently, Indonesia is the 11th largest exporter of TOT in the world with a market share of 3.15% of the total market value of US$ 194.7 billion in 2004. In garment market, Indonesia was the ninth largest with a market share of 4.45% of the total market value of US$ 258.1 billion
Characteristics of products
Spinning industry is an intermediate industry processing basic material such as cotton, rayon fiber, acrylic and polyester staple fiber to turn out yarns. The industry different types of yarns depending on the basic materials. Yarns are used by weaving industry to produce fabric and by knitting industry to produce knitted fabric. A spinning factory uses several types of spinning machines including blowing, carding, pre drawing, lap former, combing, drawing, speed, ring spinning, winding machines.
a. Blowing and Carding
Blowing and carding is a process in the production of yarn in which the basic material--cotton or polyester are put into the blowing machine to be blown to remove dirt and then are shaken to produce a homogenous mixture of different types of cotton. The lap produced in the process is then processed further in the carding machine to turn out sliver.
b. Combing, Drawing and Finishing
Combing, drawing and finishing is the follow-up process of blowing and carding to straighten the fiber and smoothen the fiber, and to set the weight of the sliver for a certain length. His function of this section is to turn out a mixture of polyester and cotton through the process of drawing.
c. Ring Spinning and Finishing
This phase is to prepare yarns from the spinning process in the form of cone with the mach conner machine. By Harmonized System (HS) the spinning products of cotton and polyester are include din the following tariff categories.
Production capacity and producers
a. Production capacity almost unchanged
In the 2002--2006 period, the production capacity of the country's spinning industry has grown only by 0.6% annually from 2.34 million tons in 2002 See the following table.
b. Number of machines unchanged
The number of spindles of the country's spinning industry remained unchanged at 90,000 units from 2001 to 2006. The number of spinning machines has also remained the same at 7.8 million units.
Currently 64.4% or 5.03 million units of 7.8 million spindles used by the industry at present are no longer fit for operation.
c. Utilization declines
In the past five years, the capacity utilization of the country's spinning industry declined by 0.99% per year. In 2004, capacity utilization was 70.6%, down to 67.7% in 2005 and 2006.
c. Producers and capacity
Based on data at the Industry Ministry, the country has 204 companies operating in spinning industry, but most of them are small companies. Among major companies are PT. Indorama Synthetics, Tbk, PT. Apac Inti Corpora Tbk, PT. Argo Pantes, PT. Unitex Tbk and PT. Primissima.
PT Indo-Rama Synthetics is a foreign investment PMA) company established in 1975 by S.P. Lohia. The company operates in yarn spinning industry and it is the first producer of polyester in Indonesia. In 1990 Indorama, went public selling 42% of its shares to the public.
Indorama's products include Textured Yarn of Polyester of Synthetic Filament--Man-Made Filaments, yarn of polyester of synthetic filament--synthetic filament, high tenacity yarn of polyester of synthetic filament--synthetic filament, woven fabrics of synthetic staple fibers--synthetic staple fibers.
In the first years of its operation, Indorama built its factory in over a 67-ha plot of land in Purwakarta, West Java. Indorama has a production capacity of 270,000 MT of Spun Blended Yarn and 30 million meters of 100% Polyester Filament Grey Fabrics a year.
Later Indorama built an expansion factory over a 50-ha of land in Cempaka around 15 km from Purwakarta. The new factory has 2 units of yarn spinning facility, one specially for Sewing Thread Yarn (100% polyester) and the other to produce 100% Combed Cotton Spun Yarns with an annual production capacity of 9,000 tons.
The other factory in Bandung produces 22 million meters of dyed and printed 100%--Polyester Filament Fabrics.
The factory of Indorama that uses machine including cutting-edge technology machine was built in cooperation with its principals Du Point (USA), Zimmer, Trutzschler & Schlafhorst (Germany), Toyobo, Teijin Seiki, Toyoda and Murata (Japan).
Indorama built its own power generating plant with a capacity of 60 MW operational in 2006.
Indorama received a certificate of ISO 9001:2000 for Quality Management System and certificate of OEKOTEX for yarn and fiber products. The company exports part of its production to countries like Australia, European Union and the United States.
Indorama is the world's largest exporter of Filament Yarns, Staple Fiber & PET Resin with 93 countries of export destination. In 2004, Indorama reported export sales valued at US$ 255.8 million.
Apac Inti Corpora
PT Apac Inti Corpora is a producer of spun yarn and woven fabric. Apac, located in Semarang, Central Java, operates 16 units of factory employing 14,000 workers. The company has a large and modern integrated facility with spinning and weaving factories.
The company has an annual production capacity of 480,000 bales of yarn a year (1Bale = 181,44 kg); 80 million meters of grew textile, 6 million meters of finished. Apac also produces grey textile with a capacity of 80 million meters, and finished cloth 6 million meters, Denim cloth 60 million yards a year.
Apac uses the brand of "APACINTI". Its products include Yarn, Grey textile, Finished and Denim textiles. Apac has exported its products to 70 countries including North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia (70%) and the rest disposed of on the domestic market. Its exports annually are valued at around US$ 238 million per year.
This company group has two textile subsidiaries--PT. Sinar Pantja Djaja (SPD) and PT. Fiberindo Inti Prima (FIP) operating in spinning industry. SPD, which is located in Semarang, Central Java, has a production capacity of 120,000 spindles, and FIP, which is located in Tangerang, has an annual production capacity of 60,000 spindles.
SPD is one of the country's largest exporters of yarns. Its products include 100% RS viscose Ne 30's, 100% RS polyester Ne 30's, Polyester viscose Ne 30's, Ne 30/2 and Polyester cotton Ne 30's. The two companies have exported yarns to the United States, Brazil, Germany, Mexico, Egypt and South Korea.
Unitex was established in 1971 as a PMA 25.23% owned by Marubeni from Japan. The company, which is located in Bogor, West Java, operates in integrated textile industry with spinning and weaving production facilities. Unitex operates weaving and spinning plants.
In 1982, Unitex was listed in the Jakarta Stock Exchange offering 43.2% of its shares to the public. In 1990, it expanded he capacity of its spinning plant now having 17 units of yarn dyeing machines.
There are two state companies namely PT. Industri Sandang Nusantara and PT. Primissima, which operates in integrated facility of spinning and textile industries. In order to promote the performance of the two state companies, the government plans to privatize PT Industri Sandang Nusantara through strategic sales or IPO and sell its stake in PT Primissima to other shareholders through tender offer. PT. Industri Sandang Nusantara is a textile factory established in 1965. It has a spinning factory with 408,496 spindles.
PT. Primissima was established in 1971 as a joint venture between Gabungan Koperasi Batik Indonesia (GKBI) and the government having one spinning and weaving unit and equipment as a grant from the Dutch government. GKBI provides land, buildings, and capital. Primissima has an annual installed spinning capacity of 2,580 tons. Its factory is located in Yogyakarta producing yarns and grew textiles of good quality 100% cotton. The company has received the certificate of ISO 9001:2000 for good quality.
Production down 0.3 % per year
As already said that most of the spinning machines have been too old and no longer fit. In addition the technology is outdated. Around 64.4% or 5.03 million of 7.8 million spindles are no longer fit for operation.
The productivity, therefore, is low and production falls 0.3% a year in the past five years. Production in 2004 totaled 1.69 million tons from 1.65 million tons in 2003, but fell to 1.62 million tons in 2005. See the following table.
A faster growth in the country TPT industry is recorded in the downstream sector that is garment industry. Intermediate sector such as spinning industry has grown sluggishly.
Based on data at the Capital Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM), there was no new investment in the spinning industry until 2005. New investment was recorded only in 2006 as shown in the following table.
Supply and basic materials
The basic materials needed by spinning industry include cotton, rayon, acrylic and staple fiber.
In general textile yarns are made produced from several types of synthetic fiber (such as polyester-cotton or PC) with certain composition depending n the quality of the yarns to be produced. Fiber industry in the country developed in the country are synthetic fibers, mainly polyester fiber. Polyester fiber industry in Indonesia grew with the operation of five PTA (purified therepthalic acid) factories which need polyester fiber as the basic material with a total capacity of 1.8 million tons.
In addition to polyester, spinning industry also uses cotton as the feedstock. Cotton consumption of TPT industry in the country is around 700,000 tons per year. The country still imports large quantity of cotton to feed its TPT industry. Local production is only around 0.1% of the country's cotton requirement. Cotton is imported mainly from the United States, Australia and Africa.
Cotton imports peaked at 762 tons valued at US$ 1.07 billion in 2002, but in the following years, imports fell to 458 tons valued at US$ 690 million in 2004. See the following table.
In 2006, cotton production in Australia, which normally accounts for 20% of Indonesia's requirement sharply by 67.64% to 1.1 million tons resulting in a rise in price.
According to Chairman of the Australian Cotton Shippers Association, Tony Geitz, in 2008, cotton production of that country is predicted to fall to as low as 800,000 bales. With production of only 800,000 bales, that country could exports only 250,000 bales to Indonesia.
Meanwhile, hundreds of Indonesia's TPT companies grouped in the Indonesian textile association (API), which normally use rayon fiber may be forced to use cotton with the surge in the price of rayon fiber from US$ 1.85 to US$ 2.2 per kg. The surge in the price of rayon fiber comes when the country's cotton production declines. The surge in the price of rayon fiver contributed to the rise in the production cost of TPT 65%--70%. Indonesia needs around 700,000 tons of rayon fiber a year or the same as it cotton requirement.
The change in the basic material will need larger additional investment. Currently Indonesia has two PMA companies producing rayon fiber--PT, Indobharat Rayon (India) and PT South Pasific Viscouse (Austria), which produces 150 tons of rayon per day. The production of the two companies is not enough to cover the domestic requirement. Meanwhile, there is no investor indicating interest in building new rayon fiber factories. The country, therefore, is heavily dependent on imports especially as the two producers exported almost all of their production.
Data at the industry ministry show that this year the country's production of rayon fiber is predicted to reach 282,280 tons, and 220,180 tons of them are exported. Meanwhile, the country needed around 545,470 tons last year with imports contributing 545,110 tons to the domestic consumption.
The two producers of rayon fibers--PT South Pacific Viscose and PT Indo Bharat Rayon exports almost all of their production.
Exports tend to fluctuate
The country's exports of spun cotton yarn and polyester grew 9% annually in the period of 2002-2006--from 762,000 tons valued at US$ 1.23 billion in 2002 to 870,000 tons valued at US$ 1.79 billion in 2006.
Exports of spinning products contributed 84.3% to the country's TPT exports, which totaled 943,000 tons with value accounting for 23.2% of the country's total earning from exports of TPT, which was valued at US$ 7 billion in 2005.
The country's product of spun polyester fiber meets strong competition from Chinese product in Asian market. Since 2003, Chinese exports of spun polyester fiber has continued to scale up with lower prices. With tight competition in Asian market, Indonesian producers has sought to increase exports to the United States and other regions.
The country's exports of spun polyester the United States tripled from US$ 26 million in 2003 to US$ 117 million in 2005. The main type of spun; polyester fiber needed most in the U.S. market is one with texture (HS 54,02,33).
The surge in exports to the United States came as a result of restriction on imports form China.
United State and Europe largest market
Around 80% of the country exports of spun yarns are shipped to the United States and Europe and other Asian countries. Exports to the United States and other Asian countries have continued to increase respectively up 7% and 4% annually. On the contrary exports to the European Union have tended decline lately.
The largest consumers of spun cotton yarns in Asia are Hong Kong and China. Hong Kong and China are the largest importers of that commodity in the world after the United States since mid 1990s. Hong Kong uses around 20% and China 15% of the world production of spun cotton fiber.
The decline in imports by the United States followed the decline of that country textile and garment industries as a result of large imports of finished wear from Asia notably from China.
Meanwhile, China needs larger supply of spun cotton fiber to feed its TPT industry, which expands 22% annually.
The country's imports of spun yarns ranged from 80 tons to 120 tons a year in the period of 2002-2006 as most of the requirement is supplied locally. See the following table.
In 5 years ending 206, the country's consumption of spun yarn declined 1.95% annually on the average. Consumption is assumed to be equivalent to domestic production plus import minus exports.
Based on the assumption the country's consumption of spun yarns rose 13.2% to 1.08 million tons in 2004 from 955,000 tons in 2003, but in the following years, consumption fell 13.4% to 936,000 tons in 2005 and to 879,000 tons in 2006. The decline followed a decrease in the production of woven fabrics. See the following table.
TPT industry in the country is dominated by a few large financially powerful producers using modern facilities with the latest technology. A company with integrated industry having production facilities from spinning to garment making units are more competitive.
Apac Inti Corpora, for example, has 16 production units including 7 units of spinning plant, 7 units of weaving plant and 2 units of garment factory. Its products include yarns, grey fabric, denim fabric and finished fabric, mostly for export. The facilities it has make Apac Inti Corpora more competitive.
In the past several years Indonesian TPT products have faced tough competition from Chinese products in the Asian market. China has even become the world's largest supplier of TPT. It has made large in road the U.S. market, which has been Indonesia's main market for TPT products. China is superior because of its lower production capacity especially labor cost and higher efficiency.
Dependence on import for cotton
Indonesia needs to imports 500,000--600,000 tons of cotton a year to feed its TPT industry. Cotton does not grow well in the country. Cotton has been imported mainly from Australia, the United States and Africa, which are known to contribute 60% to the world's cotton production.
High dependence on imports for cotton makes the country less competitive in international TPT market.
The prices of yarns in the world market have continued to increase. In 2006, the prices of the country's products of yarn in international market was US$ 2.19 per kg up from US$1.77 in 2003. See the following table.
Restructuring of machines
The government has offered aid to restructure factories of the country's textile industry hoping that the industry will be more competitive. The government is concerned with keeping the industry from continuing to decline. There are millions of workers at stake in addition to losses in potential exports if the industry is allowed to collapse in competition especially facing rivals from China and India.
Around 60% of the country's TPT factories now use machines not longer fit for operation aged more than 25% and using outdated technology.
Chairman of API Benny Soetrisno said the country's TPT industry could not improve its competitiveness partly because of the government regulation on fiscal, monetary, investment, labor, port infrastructure, energy and export sectors and market condition.
He cited, the government banking policy does not contribute much to the program of revitalizing TPT industry. Indonesian banks remain reluctant to offer credit to the TPT industry because of the weak policy.
Banks have continued to be reluctant to offer credits to the TPT industry in the past 10 years because of large non performing credits in the wake of the 1997/1998 monetary crisis.
Ironically, foreign banks are more interested in offering credits to TPT industry. Foreign banks such as those of France, Belgium, and Middle East have offered credits to the TPT industry.
Conclusion and prospects
A number of sectors of he TPT industry are still quite competitive especially yarn and garment industries. However, 64.4% of the machines of the country's yarn spinning industry have been too old--around 5.03 million units of 7.8 million units of spindle used by the spinning industry need immediate replacement.
The machines aged from 15 to 25 years are no longer efficient. They need to be replaced but it would need large investment, which could not afford by most producers. In 2006, the country's production of spun yarn fell to 1.62 million tons from 1.69 million tons in 2004.
The government's program to provide subsidy to finance restructuring is expected to help revive the industry and make the industry more competitive.
The government regulations such as labor law are also blamed from the slow progress in reviving the country's TPT industry. API chairman Benny Sutrisno said natural disasters in various areas also slump in the TPT market in the country.
The export market remains potential with growing consumption from year to year. In 2005, the world's consumption of TPT was 56 million tons, up from 47 million tons.
The country's exports of spun yarns rose to 870,000 tons valued at US$ 1.785 million in 2006 from 795,000 tons valued at US$ 1.621 million in 2005. The increase was recorded despite strong competition from China.
The country's TPT industry also still has good prospects in the domestic market. The problem, however, the failure of the government to eradicate illegal imports sold below normal price in the country. Many local producers are considering to close their factories and become importers as they could imports products in cheap price, cheaper than the price they could offer for products the produce in the country.
Table - 1 Harmonized System (HS) of spinning products of cotton and polyester No HS Commodity 52.00.00 Cotton spun yarn 52.03 - 52.07 54.00.00 Polyester Synthetic filament 54.02.20, 54.02.33, 54.02.42, 54.02.43, 54.02.52, 54.02.62 Synthetic staple fiber) 55.01.20, 55.03.20. 55.06.20, 55.09.21, 55.09.22, 55.09.51-59 Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) Table - 2 Production capacity of Indonesia's spinning industry, 2002 - 2006 Prod. capacity Growth Year (000 tons) (%) 2002 2,337 -- 2003 2,335 -0.1 2004 2,397 2.6 2005 2,397 0 2006 2,397 0 Average growth 0.6 Source: Industry ministry Table - 3 Number of spindles and rotors, 2002 - 2006 Spindle Rotor Year (units) (units) 2002 7,803,241 90,000 2003 7,803,241 90,000 2004 7,803,241 90,000 2005 7,803,241 90,000 2006 7,803,241 90,000 Source: Industry ministry Table - 4 Capacity utilization of spinning industry, 2002 - 2006 Utilization Growth Year (%) (%) 2002 70.5 -- 2003 70.6 0.14 2004 70.6 0 2005 67.7 -4.11 2006 67.7 0 Average growth -0.99 Source: Industry Ministry Table - 5 Number of producers of spun yarn and capacity Capacity Companies (per year) Apac Inti Corpora, PT Yarn 480,000 bales (1Bale = 181,44 kg) Argo Pantes Tbk, PT Spinning - 42,500 tons Artha Buana Adiperkasa Cotton Yarn - 5,878 tons Textile Mills, PT Bhineka Karya Manunggal, PT Yarn - 22,900 bales Century Textile Industry, PT Yarn - 4,40 tons Dayasamatex, PT Yarn - 6,811 tons Dhanar Mas Concern, PT Yarn - 24,000 bales Djoni Texindo, PT Yarn - 4,832 tons Dong Il Indonesia, PT Spun Polyester Yarns in Grey - 1,750 tons Spun Polyester Yarns in Dyed - 300 tons Eratex Djaja Tbk, PT Yarn - 9,208 tons Forindo Pandutama Textile, PT Cotton yarn - 60,000 bales Frans Brother Sejati, PT Dyed yarn - 3,000 tons Gistex, PT Yarn - 48,000 bales Gokak Indonesia, PT Yarn - 4,204 tons Hasasi International, PT Yarn - 35.000 bales Indiratex Spindo, PT Yarn - 15,500 bales Indorama Synthetic Tbk, PT Spun blended yarn- 270,000 MT Jabatex, PT Combed Cotton Yarn - 6,000 bales CVC Yarn - 10,800 bales Kahatex, PT Yarn - 7,000 tons Knitted Yarn - 12,000 tons Kamaltex, PT Yarn - 25,000 bales Kanebo Indonesia Textile Woven yarn - 6,500 LBS Mills, PT T/C yarn - 4.000.000 LBS Karya Ali Putra, PT Cotton yarn - 35,000 bales Natatex Prima Corp, PT Yarn - 8,600 tons Pancaharta Persada, PT Polyester yarn - 50,000 bales Patal Putra Sejati Spinning Yarn - 41,000 bales Mills, PT Primayudha Mandiri, PT Yarn - 78,000 tons Primissima, PT Spinning - 2,580 tons Ramagloria Sakti Tekstil Yarn - 16,000 bales Industry, PT Sari Warna Asli Textile Yarn - 18,164 ton Industry, PT Sinar Pantja Djaja, PT Spindles - 120,000 unit Fibrindo Inti Prima, PT Spindles - 60,000 unit Unitex, Tbk Spinning - 14,400 bales Companies Location Apac Inti Corpora, PT Semarang, Central Java Argo Pantes Tbk, PT Bekasi, West java Artha Buana Adiperkasa Bandung, West Java Textile Mills, PT Bhineka Karya Manunggal, PT Karawang, West Java Century Textile Industry, PT Ciracas, East Jakarta Dayasamatex, PT Bandung, West Java Dhanar Mas Concern, PT Bandung, West Java Djoni Texindo, PT Tangerang, Banten Dong Il Indonesia, PT Bekasi, West Java Eratex Djaja Tbk, PT Surabaya and Probolinggo, East Java Forindo Pandutama Textile, PT Gresik, East Java Frans Brother Sejati, PT Tangerang, Banten Gistex, PT Bandung, West Java Gokak Indonesia, PT Bogor, West Java Hasasi International, PT Bandung, West Java Indiratex Spindo, PT Lawang, Central Java Indorama Synthetic Tbk, PT Purwakarta, West Java Jabatex, PT Tangerang, Banten Kahatex, PT Bandung, West Java Kamaltex, PT Ungaran, Central Java Kanebo Indonesia Textile Bandung, West Java Mills, PT Karya Ali Putra, PT Sidoarjo, East Java Natatex Prima Corp, PT Bandung, West Java Pancaharta Persada, PT Sleman, Yogyakarta Patal Putra Sejati Spinning Bogor, West Java Mills, PT Primayudha Mandiri, PT Boyolali, Central Java Primissima, PT Yogyakarta Ramagloria Sakti Tekstil Pasuruan, East Java Industry, PT Sari Warna Asli Textile Boyolali, Central Java Industry, PT Sinar Pantja Djaja, PT Semarang, Central Java Fibrindo Inti Prima, PT Tangerang, West Java Unitex, Tbk Bogor, West Java Source: ICN Table - 6 Indonesia's production of spun yarns, 2002 - 2006 Production Growth Year (000 tons) (%) 2002 1,649 -- 2003 1,649 0 2004 1,692 2.6 2005 1,623 -4.1 2006 1,623 0 Average growth -0.3 Source: Industry Ministry/ICN Table - 7 Investment in spinning industry, 2002 - 2006 Investment Year (Rp trillion) 2002 25.040 2003 25.040 2004 25.040 2005 25.040 2006 25.558 Source: Industry Ministry Table - 8 Imports of cotton, 2002 - 2004 Volume Value Year (tons) (US$ 000) 2002 632,629 707,619 2003 531,823 649,433 2004 548,913 690,064 Source: Central Bureau of Statistic (BPS) Table - 9 Indonesia's yarn exports, 2002 - 2006 Volume Value Year (000 tons) (US$ million) 2002 762 1,229 2003 770 1,208 2004 720 1,480 2005 795 1,621 2006 870 1,785 Source: Central Bureau of Statistic (BPS) Table - 10 Imports of spun yarn, 2002 - 2006 Volume Value Year (000 tons) (US$ million) 2002 83 220 2003 79 190 2004 109 245 2005 108 267 2006 126 283 Source: BPS Table - 12 Estimate of spun yarn consumption, 2002 - 2006 Production Imports Exports Consumption Growth Year (000 tons) (000 tons) (000 tons) (000 tons) (%) 2002 1,649 83 762 970 --- 2003 1,646 79 770 955 -1.5 2004 1,692 109 720 1,081 13.2 2005 1,623 108 795 936 -13.4 2006 1,623 126 870 879 -6.1 Average growth per year -1.95 Source: Industry Ministry/ICN Table - 13 Price development of Indonesia's yarn in export market, 2003 - 2006 Year Price (per kg) 2003 US$ 1.77 2004 US$ 2.05 2005 US$ 2.04 2006 US$ 2.19 Source: API
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|Title Annotation:||INDUSTRY PROFILE|
|Publication:||Indonesian Commercial Newsletter|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2007|
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