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Development of spinning industry.

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With the abolition of the textile trade quota system Quota System can refer to:
  • Quota System (Royal Navy), a system in place from 1795 to 1815 for manning British naval ships
  • Reservations in India
  • Quota Borda system
 ruled by the WTO See World Trade Organization.  in January 2005, smaller suppliers like Indonesia which gained from the export quota systems adopted by major textile markets such as the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , and Europe are now forced to face competition against giant rivals in open markets.

The quota system made it easier for Indonesian textile producers to enter the U.S. or European market without too much difficulty to deal with competitors in the market. With the quota system large producers such as China could not enter the market with full force.

After the abolition of the quota Indonesia's TPT TPT Transport
TPT Trumpet (music scores)
TPT The Physics Teacher
TPT Tara Palmer-Tomkinson (UK celebrity)
TPT Trailer Park Trash
TPT Temporary Part Time
TPT Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory
 producers are feared to be in no position to meet Chinese rivals in market competition in the U.S. or European markets. Even The United States sees the Chinese TPT products as a serious threat to its own products. Data showed that China recorded an increase of 33.78%, Vietnam 1.8%, India 13.64% and Pakistan 3.07% in TPT exports to the U.S. market.

China recorded an 8-fold increase in exports to US$ 60 billion from 2003, Vietnam from US$ 300 million three years ago to US$ 2 billion at present a year in exports to the United States alone. Indonesia is not competitive as its TPT factory machines have been too old averaging 20 years old in age.

Around 2,155 spinning machines, 4,617 weaving weaving, the art of forming a fabric by interlacing at right angles two or more sets of yarn or other material. It is one of the most ancient fundamental arts, as indicated by archaeological evidence.  machines and 678 knitting machines and 1,716 printing, dyeing and finishing machines of the country's textile industry are more than 20 years old, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 a survey by Sucofindo.

Until now TPT remains the country's largest export earner outside oil and gas. In addition, the TPT industry provide jobs for 1.5 million workers. In 2006 the country's exports of TPT were valued at US$ 9,457 million or 11% of the country's export earning from non oil/gas sector.

After the abolition of the quota system in 2005, the country's TPT industry has faced a big challenge in competition in international market especially facing Chinese products.

The spinning industry is perhaps the weakest point. The performance of the country's spinning industry declined because of inefficient machines and low productivity.

Around 80.36% or 5,491,602 units of production machines of the country TPT industry are no longer fit for operation. Old machines consume large energy bit productivity is low. According to the industry ministry by the end of 2006, the production machines of the country's TPT industry totaled 8,384,697 units including spinning; weaving and knitting machines as well as finishing machines and machines of supporting units for finishing wear industry.

Around 64.4% or 5.03 million of 7.8 million spindles used by the country's spinning industry are no longer fit. In the weaving industry around 204,393 machines or 82.1% of he total number of 248,957 weaving machines need to be replaced. The machine have low productivity and are large consumers of energy. The problem is worse with soaring prices of energy. Textile producers, hope that the government will be more serious in lending support for the revitalization re·vi·tal·ize  
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy.
 of the country's TPT industry especially spinning and weaving industries as the two sector have comparative advantage and more competitive.

Indonesia's TPT industry could be more competitive as the industry has been integrated from the upstream to downstream sector. The country's spinning industry is one of the largest in Asia and it is the second largest in weaving industry after China. In addition, the country finished wear products have been quite well known in international market.

Currently, Indonesia is the 11th largest exporter of TOT in the world with a market share of 3.15% of the total market value of US$ 194.7 billion in 2004. In garment market, Indonesia was the ninth largest with a market share of 4.45% of the total market value of US$ 258.1 billion

Characteristics of products

Spinning industry is an intermediate industry processing basic material such as cotton, rayon fiber, acrylic acrylic, artificial fiber made from a special group of vinyl compounds, primarily acrylonitrile. Acrylic fibers are thermoplastic (i.e., soften when heated, reharden upon cooling), have low moisture regain, are low in density, and can be made into bulky fabrics.  and polyester polyester, synthetic fiber, produced by the polymerization of the product formed when an alcohol and organic acid react. The outstanding characteristic of polyesters is their ability to resist wrinkling and to spring back into shape when creased.  staple fiber Noun 1. staple fiber - a natural fiber (raw cotton, wool, hemp, flax) that can be twisted to form yarn; "staple fibers vary widely in length"
staple fibre, staple

natural fiber, natural fibre - fiber derived from plants or animals
 to turn out yarns. The industry different types of yarns depending on the basic materials. Yarns are used by weaving industry to produce fabric and by knitting industry to produce knitted fabric Knitted fabrics are the third major class of fabric, after woven and nonwoven fabrics. Elasticity, thickness and warmth
Compared to the other two classes, knitted fabrics are much more elastic, which accounts for their historical use in stockings and other clothing that requires
. A spinning factory uses several types of spinning machines including blowing, carding, pre drawing, lap former, combing combing, process that follows carding in the preparation of fibers for spinning, lays the fibers parallel, and removes noils (short fibers). The modern combing machine is a specialized carding machine. , drawing, speed, ring spinning, winding machines.

a. Blowing and Carding

Blowing and carding is a process in the production of yarn in which the basic material--cotton or polyester are put into the blowing machine to be blown to remove dirt and then are shaken to produce a homogenous homogenous - homogeneous  mixture of different types of cotton. The lap produced in the process is then processed further in the carding machine carding machine

Machine for carding textile fibres. In the 18th century, hand carding was laborious and constituted a bottleneck in the newly mechanized production of textiles.
 to turn out sliver sliver

in wool processing a continuous band of carded and combed wool which has not yet been twisted into yarn.

b. Combing, Drawing and Finishing

Combing, drawing and finishing is the follow-up process of blowing and carding to straighten the fiber and smoothen the fiber, and to set the weight of the sliver for a certain length. His function of this section is to turn out a mixture of polyester and cotton through the process of drawing.

c. Ring Spinning and Finishing

This phase is to prepare yarns from the spinning process in the form of cone with the mach conner machine. By Harmonized System The Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) of tariff nomenclature is an internationally standardized system of names and numbers for classifying traded products developed and maintained by the World Customs Organization (WCO) (formerly the Customs Co-operation  (HS) the spinning products of cotton and polyester are include din DIN - Deutsche Institut fuer Normung. The German standardisation body, a member of ISO.  the following tariff categories.

Production capacity and producers

a. Production capacity almost unchanged

In the 2002--2006 period, the production capacity of the country's spinning industry has grown only by 0.6% annually from 2.34 million tons in 2002 See the following table.

b. Number of machines unchanged

The number of spindles of the country's spinning industry remained unchanged at 90,000 units from 2001 to 2006. The number of spinning machines has also remained the same at 7.8 million units.

Currently 64.4% or 5.03 million units of 7.8 million spindles used by the industry at present are no longer fit for operation.

c. Utilization declines

In the past five years, the capacity utilization Capacity Utilization measures the rate at which a firm makes use of their capital productive capacities, such as factories and machinery. Capacity Utilization generally rises when the economy is healthy and falls when demand softens.  of the country's spinning industry declined by 0.99% per year. In 2004, capacity utilization was 70.6%, down to 67.7% in 2005 and 2006.

c. Producers and capacity

Based on data at the Industry Ministry, the country has 204 companies operating in spinning industry, but most of them are small companies. Among major companies are PT. Indorama Synthetics, Tbk, PT. Apac Inti Corpora corpora

plural form of corpus.

corpora albicantia
see corpus albicans.

corpora arenacea
sandy or gritty bodies, found in the pineal body; appear to be of glial or stromal origin; have the structure of
 Tbk, PT. Argo Pantes, PT. Unitex Tbk and PT. Primissima.


PT Indo-Rama Synthetics is a foreign investment PMA PMA (papillary-marginal-attached),
n a system of epidemiologic scoring of periodontal disease devised by Schour and Massler in which the symbols denote the areas involved in gingival inflammation.

PMA Progressive muscular atrophy
) company established in 1975 by S.P. Lohia. The company operates in yarn spinning industry and it is the first producer of polyester in Indonesia. In 1990 Indorama, went public selling 42% of its shares to the public.

Indorama's products include Textured Yarn of Polyester of Synthetic Filament--Man-Made Filaments, yarn of polyester of synthetic filament--synthetic filament filament, in astronomy: see chromosphere. , high tenacity yarn of polyester of synthetic filament--synthetic filament, woven fabrics of synthetic staple 1. (language) STAPLE - A programming language written at Manchester (University?) and used at ICL in the early 1970s for writing the test suites. STAPLE was based on Algol 68 and had a very advanced optimising compiler.
 fibers--synthetic staple fibers.

In the first years of its operation, Indorama built its factory in over a 67-ha plot of land in Purwakarta, West Java. Indorama has a production capacity of 270,000 MT of Spun Blended Yarn and 30 million meters of 100% Polyester Filament Grey Fabrics a year.

Later Indorama built an expansion factory over a 50-ha of land in Cempaka around 15 km from Purwakarta. The new factory has 2 units of yarn spinning facility, one specially for Sewing Thread Yarn (100% polyester) and the other to produce 100% Combed comb  
a. A thin toothed strip, as of plastic, used to smooth, arrange, or fasten the hair.

b. An implement, such as a card for dressing and cleansing wool or other fiber, that resembles a hair comb in shape or
 Cotton Spun Yarns with an annual production capacity of 9,000 tons.

The other factory in Bandung produces 22 million meters of dyed and printed 100%--Polyester Filament Fabrics.

The factory of Indorama that uses machine including cutting-edge technology machine was built in cooperation with its principals Du Point (USA), Zimmer, Trutzschler & Schlafhorst (Germany), Toyobo, Teijin Seiki, Toyoda and Murata (Japan).

Indorama built its own power generating plant with a capacity of 60 MW operational in 2006.

Indorama received a certificate of ISO (1) See ISO speed.

(2) (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, An organization that sets international standards, founded in 1946. The U.S. member body is ANSI.
 9001:2000 for Quality Management System and certificate of OEKOTEX for yarn and fiber products. The company exports part of its production to countries like Australia, European Union and the United States.

Indorama is the world's largest exporter of Filament Yarns, Staple Fiber & PET Resin with 93 countries of export destination. In 2004, Indorama reported export sales valued at US$ 255.8 million.

Apac Inti Corpora

PT Apac Inti Corpora is a producer of spun yarn spun yarn
A lightweight line made of several rope yarns loosely wound together, used for seizings onboard ship.

Noun 1. spun yarn
 and woven fabric. Apac, located in Semarang, Central Java Central Java (Indonesian: Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of the six provinces of the island of Java. Central Java is both a political entity and a cultural concept. , operates 16 units of factory employing 14,000 workers. The company has a large and modern integrated facility with spinning and weaving factories.

The company has an annual production capacity of 480,000 bales of yarn a year (1Bale = 181,44 kg); 80 million meters of grew textile, 6 million meters of finished. Apac also produces grey textile with a capacity of 80 million meters, and finished cloth 6 million meters, Denim denim

Durable twill-woven fabric with coloured (usually blue) warp (lengthwise) and white filling (crosswise) threads, also sometimes woven in coloured stripes. The name originated in the French serge de Nîmes.
 cloth 60 million yards a year.

Apac uses the brand of "APACINTI". Its products include Yarn, Grey textile, Finished and Denim textiles. Apac has exported its products to 70 countries including North and South America South America, fourth largest continent (1991 est. pop. 299,150,000), c.6,880,000 sq mi (17,819,000 sq km), the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. , Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia (70%) and the rest disposed of on the domestic market. Its exports annually are valued at around US$ 238 million per year.

Panasia Group

This company group has two textile subsidiaries--PT. Sinar Pantja Djaja (SPD (Serial Presence Detect) The method used by DIMM memory modules to communicate their capacity and features to the computer. Data such as manufacturer, size, speed, voltage and row and column addresses are stored in an EEPROM chip on the module. ) and PT. Fiberindo Inti Prima (FIP FIP

feline infectious peritonitis.
) operating in spinning industry. SPD, which is located in Semarang, Central Java, has a production capacity of 120,000 spindles, and FIP, which is located in Tangerang, has an annual production capacity of 60,000 spindles.

SPD is one of the country's largest exporters of yarns. Its products include 100% RS viscose vis·cose  
1. A thick, golden-brown viscous solution of cellulose xanthate, used in the manufacture of rayon and cellophane.

2. Viscose rayon.

1. Viscous.

 Ne 30's, 100% RS polyester Ne 30's, Polyester viscose Ne 30's, Ne 30/2 and Polyester cotton Ne 30's. The two companies have exported yarns to the United States, Brazil, Germany, Mexico, Egypt and South Korea.


Unitex was established in 1971 as a PMA 25.23% owned by Marubeni from Japan. The company, which is located in Bogor, West Java, operates in integrated textile industry with spinning and weaving production facilities. Unitex operates weaving and spinning plants.

In 1982, Unitex was listed in the Jakarta Stock Exchange Jakarta Stock Exchange

Established in 1977, the largest securities exchange in Indonesia.
 offering 43.2% of its shares to the public. In 1990, it expanded he capacity of its spinning plant now having 17 units of yarn dyeing machines.

There are two state companies namely PT. Industri Sandang Nusantara and PT. Primissima, which operates in integrated facility of spinning and textile industries. In order to promote the performance of the two state companies, the government plans to privatize pri·va·tize  
tr.v. pri·va·tized, pri·va·tiz·ing, pri·va·tiz·es
To change (an industry or business, for example) from governmental or public ownership or control to private enterprise: "The strike ...
 PT Industri Sandang Nusantara through strategic sales or IPO (Initial Public Offering) The first time a company offers shares of stock to the public. While not a computer term per se, many founders, employees and insiders of computer companies have found this acronym more exciting than any tech term they ever heard.  and sell its stake in PT Primissima to other shareholders through tender offer. PT. Industri Sandang Nusantara is a textile factory established in 1965. It has a spinning factory with 408,496 spindles.

PT. Primissima was established in 1971 as a joint venture between Gabungan Koperasi Batik batik (bətēk`), method of decorating fabrics practiced for centuries by the natives of Indonesia. It consists of applying a design to the surface of the cloth by using melted wax.  Indonesia (GKBI) and the government having one spinning and weaving unit and equipment as a grant from the Dutch government. GKBI provides land, buildings, and capital. Primissima has an annual installed spinning capacity of 2,580 tons. Its factory is located in Yogyakarta producing yarns and grew textiles of good quality 100% cotton. The company has received the certificate of ISO 9001:2000 for good quality.

Production declines

Production down 0.3 % per year

As already said that most of the spinning machines have been too old and no longer fit. In addition the technology is outdated. Around 64.4% or 5.03 million of 7.8 million spindles are no longer fit for operation.

The productivity, therefore, is low and production falls 0.3% a year in the past five years. Production in 2004 totaled 1.69 million tons from 1.65 million tons in 2003, but fell to 1.62 million tons in 2005. See the following table.


A faster growth in the country TPT industry is recorded in the downstream sector that is garment industry. Intermediate sector such as spinning industry has grown sluggishly.

Based on data at the Capital Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM BKPM Badan Pengawasan Pasar Modal (Indonesian investment coordinating board) ), there was no new investment in the spinning industry until 2005. New investment was recorded only in 2006 as shown in the following table.

Supply and basic materials

The basic materials needed by spinning industry include cotton, rayon, acrylic and staple fiber.

In general textile yarns are made produced from several types of synthetic fiber Noun 1. synthetic fiber - fiber created from natural materials or by chemical processes
man-made fiber

fiber, fibre - a slender and greatly elongated substance capable of being spun into yarn

acrylic, acrylic fiber - polymerized from acrylonitrile
 (such as polyester-cotton or PC) with certain composition depending n the quality of the yarns to be produced. Fiber industry in the country developed in the country are synthetic fibers, mainly polyester fiber Noun 1. polyester fiber - a quick-drying resilient synthetic fiber consisting primarily of polyester
polyester - any of numerous synthetic resins; they are light and strong and weather resistant
. Polyester fiber industry in Indonesia grew with the operation of five PTA PTA or parent-teacher association: see parent education.  (purified therepthalic acid) factories which need polyester fiber as the basic material with a total capacity of 1.8 million tons.

In addition to polyester, spinning industry also uses cotton as the feedstock feed·stock  
Raw material required for an industrial process.

Noun 1. feedstock - the raw material that is required for some industrial process
raw material, staple - material suitable for manufacture or use or finishing
. Cotton consumption of TPT industry in the country is around 700,000 tons per year. The country still imports large quantity of cotton to feed its TPT industry. Local production is only around 0.1% of the country's cotton requirement. Cotton is imported mainly from the United States, Australia and Africa.

Cotton imports peaked at 762 tons valued at US$ 1.07 billion in 2002, but in the following years, imports fell to 458 tons valued at US$ 690 million in 2004. See the following table.

In 2006, cotton production in Australia, which normally accounts for 20% of Indonesia's requirement sharply by 67.64% to 1.1 million tons resulting in a rise in price.

According to Chairman of the Australian Cotton Shippers Association, Tony Geitz, in 2008, cotton production of that country is predicted to fall to as low as 800,000 bales. With production of only 800,000 bales, that country could exports only 250,000 bales to Indonesia.

Meanwhile, hundreds of Indonesia's TPT companies grouped in the Indonesian textile association (API (Application Programming Interface) A language and message format used by an application program to communicate with the operating system or some other control program such as a database management system (DBMS) or communications protocol. ), which normally use rayon fiber may be forced to use cotton with the surge in the price of rayon fiber from US$ 1.85 to US$ 2.2 per kg. The surge in the price of rayon fiber comes when the country's cotton production declines. The surge in the price of rayon fiver contributed to the rise in the production cost of TPT 65%--70%. Indonesia needs around 700,000 tons of rayon fiber a year or the same as it cotton requirement.

The change in the basic material will need larger additional investment. Currently Indonesia has two PMA companies producing rayon fiber--PT, Indobharat Rayon (India) and PT South Pasific Viscouse (Austria), which produces 150 tons of rayon per day. The production of the two companies is not enough to cover the domestic requirement. Meanwhile, there is no investor indicating interest in building new rayon fiber factories. The country, therefore, is heavily dependent on imports especially as the two producers exported almost all of their production.

Data at the industry ministry show that this year the country's production of rayon fiber is predicted to reach 282,280 tons, and 220,180 tons of them are exported. Meanwhile, the country needed around 545,470 tons last year with imports contributing 545,110 tons to the domestic consumption.

The two producers of rayon fibers--PT South Pacific Viscose and PT Indo Bharat Rayon exports almost all of their production.

Exports tend to fluctuate

The country's exports of spun cotton yarn and polyester grew 9% annually in the period of 2002-2006--from 762,000 tons valued at US$ 1.23 billion in 2002 to 870,000 tons valued at US$ 1.79 billion in 2006.

Exports of spinning products contributed 84.3% to the country's TPT exports, which totaled 943,000 tons with value accounting for 23.2% of the country's total earning from exports of TPT, which was valued at US$ 7 billion in 2005.

The country's product of spun polyester fiber meets strong competition from Chinese product in Asian market. Since 2003, Chinese exports of spun polyester fiber has continued to scale up with lower prices. With tight competition in Asian market, Indonesian producers has sought to increase exports to the United States and other regions.

The country's exports of spun polyester the United States tripled from US$ 26 million in 2003 to US$ 117 million in 2005. The main type of spun; polyester fiber needed most in the U.S. market is one with texture (HS 54,02,33).

The surge in exports to the United States came as a result of restriction on imports form China.

United State and Europe largest market

Around 80% of the country exports of spun yarns are shipped to the United States and Europe and other Asian countries. Exports to the United States and other Asian countries have continued to increase respectively up 7% and 4% annually. On the contrary exports to the European Union have tended decline lately.

The largest consumers of spun cotton yarns in Asia are Hong Kong Hong Kong (hŏng kŏng), Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Guangdong prov.  and China. Hong Kong and China are the largest importers of that commodity in the world after the United States since mid 1990s. Hong Kong uses around 20% and China 15% of the world production of spun cotton fiber.

The decline in imports by the United States followed the decline of that country textile and garment industries as a result of large imports of finished wear from Asia notably from China.

Meanwhile, China needs larger supply of spun cotton fiber to feed its TPT industry, which expands 22% annually.

Imports small

The country's imports of spun yarns ranged from 80 tons to 120 tons a year in the period of 2002-2006 as most of the requirement is supplied locally. See the following table.

Consumption declined

In 5 years ending 206, the country's consumption of spun yarn declined 1.95% annually on the average. Consumption is assumed to be equivalent to domestic production plus import minus exports.

Based on the assumption the country's consumption of spun yarns rose 13.2% to 1.08 million tons in 2004 from 955,000 tons in 2003, but in the following years, consumption fell 13.4% to 936,000 tons in 2005 and to 879,000 tons in 2006. The decline followed a decrease in the production of woven fabrics. See the following table.



TPT industry in the country is dominated by a few large financially powerful producers using modern facilities with the latest technology. A company with integrated industry having production facilities from spinning to garment making units are more competitive.

Apac Inti Corpora, for example, has 16 production units including 7 units of spinning plant, 7 units of weaving plant and 2 units of garment factory. Its products include yarns, grey fabric, denim fabric and finished fabric, mostly for export. The facilities it has make Apac Inti Corpora more competitive.

In the past several years Indonesian TPT products have faced tough competition from Chinese products in the Asian market. China has even become the world's largest supplier of TPT. It has made large in road the U.S. market, which has been Indonesia's main market for TPT products. China is superior because of its lower production capacity especially labor cost and higher efficiency.

Dependence on import for cotton

Indonesia needs to imports 500,000--600,000 tons of cotton a year to feed its TPT industry. Cotton does not grow well in the country. Cotton has been imported mainly from Australia, the United States and Africa, which are known to contribute 60% to the world's cotton production.

High dependence on imports for cotton makes the country less competitive in international TPT market.

Price developments

The prices of yarns in the world market have continued to increase. In 2006, the prices of the country's products of yarn in international market was US$ 2.19 per kg up from US$1.77 in 2003. See the following table.

Government policy

Restructuring of machines

The government has offered aid to restructure factories of the country's textile industry hoping that the industry will be more competitive. The government is concerned with keeping the industry from continuing to decline. There are millions of workers at stake in addition to losses in potential exports if the industry is allowed to collapse in competition especially facing rivals from China and India.

Around 60% of the country's TPT factories now use machines not longer fit for operation aged more than 25% and using outdated technology.

Chairman of API Benny Soetrisno said the country's TPT industry could not improve its competitiveness partly because of the government regulation on fiscal, monetary, investment, labor, port infrastructure, energy and export sectors and market condition.

He cited, the government banking policy does not contribute much to the program of revitalizing re·vi·tal·ize  
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy.
 TPT industry. Indonesian banks remain reluctant to offer credit to the TPT industry because of the weak policy.

Banks have continued to be reluctant to offer credits to the TPT industry in the past 10 years because of large non performing credits in the wake of the 1997/1998 monetary crisis.

Ironically, foreign banks are more interested in offering credits to TPT industry. Foreign banks such as those of France, Belgium, and Middle East have offered credits to the TPT industry.

Conclusion and prospects

A number of sectors of he TPT industry are still quite competitive especially yarn and garment industries. However, 64.4% of the machines of the country's yarn spinning industry have been too old--around 5.03 million units of 7.8 million units of spindle spindle: see spinning.

A rotating shaft in a disk drive. In a fixed disk, the platters are attached to the spindle. In a removable disk, the spindle remains in the drive. Laptops use spindle designations to indicate the number of built-in drives.
 used by the spinning industry need immediate replacement.

The machines aged from 15 to 25 years are no longer efficient. They need to be replaced but it would need large investment, which could not afford by most producers. In 2006, the country's production of spun yarn fell to 1.62 million tons from 1.69 million tons in 2004.

The government's program to provide subsidy to finance restructuring is expected to help revive the industry and make the industry more competitive.

The government regulations such as labor law labor law, legislation dealing with human beings in their capacity as workers or wage earners. The Industrial Revolution, by introducing the machine and factory production, greatly expanded the class of workers dependent on wages as their source of income.  are also blamed from the slow progress in reviving the country's TPT industry. API chairman Benny Sutrisno said natural disasters in various areas also slump in the TPT market in the country.

The export market remains potential with growing consumption from year to year. In 2005, the world's consumption of TPT was 56 million tons, up from 47 million tons.

The country's exports of spun yarns rose to 870,000 tons valued at US$ 1.785 million in 2006 from 795,000 tons valued at US$ 1.621 million in 2005. The increase was recorded despite strong competition from China.

The country's TPT industry also still has good prospects in the domestic market. The problem, however, the failure of the government to eradicate Eradicate
To completely do away with something, eliminate it, end its existence.

Mentioned in: Smallpox
 illegal imports sold below normal price in the country. Many local producers are considering to close their factories and become importers as they could imports products in cheap price, cheaper than the price they could offer for products the produce in the country.
Table - 1
Harmonized System (HS) of spinning products of cotton and polyester

No HS       Commodity

52.00.00    Cotton spun yarn
            52.03 - 52.07

54.00.00    Polyester

            Synthetic filament
            54.02.20, 54.02.33, 54.02.42, 54.02.43,
            54.02.52, 54.02.62

            Synthetic staple fiber)
            55.01.20, 55.03.20. 55.06.20, 55.09.21,
            55.09.22, 55.09.51-59

Source: Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS)

Table - 2
Production capacity of Indonesia's
spinning industry, 2002 - 2006

                 Prod. capacity    Growth
Year               (000 tons)       (%)

2002                 2,337           --
2003                 2,335         -0.1
2004                 2,397          2.6
2005                 2,397            0
2006                 2,397            0

Average growth                      0.6

Source: Industry ministry

Table - 3
Number of spindles and rotors, 2002 - 2006

          Spindle       Rotor
Year      (units)      (units)

2002     7,803,241      90,000
2003     7,803,241      90,000
2004     7,803,241      90,000
2005     7,803,241      90,000
2006     7,803,241      90,000

Source: Industry ministry

Table - 4
Capacity utilization of spinning industry, 2002 - 2006

                 Utilization     Growth
Year                 (%)           (%)

2002                70.5            --
2003                70.6          0.14
2004                70.6             0
2005                67.7         -4.11
2006                67.7             0

Average growth           -0.99

Source: Industry Ministry

Table - 5
Number of producers of spun yarn and capacity

Companies                         (per year)

Apac Inti Corpora, PT             Yarn 480,000 bales
                                  (1Bale = 181,44 kg)
Argo Pantes Tbk, PT               Spinning - 42,500 tons
Artha Buana Adiperkasa            Cotton Yarn - 5,878 tons
  Textile Mills, PT
Bhineka Karya Manunggal, PT       Yarn - 22,900 bales
Century Textile Industry, PT      Yarn - 4,40 tons
Dayasamatex, PT                   Yarn - 6,811 tons
Dhanar Mas Concern, PT            Yarn - 24,000 bales
Djoni Texindo, PT                 Yarn - 4,832 tons
Dong Il Indonesia, PT             Spun Polyester Yarns in
                                  Grey - 1,750 tons
                                  Spun Polyester Yarns in
                                  Dyed - 300 tons
Eratex Djaja Tbk, PT              Yarn - 9,208 tons
Forindo Pandutama Textile, PT     Cotton yarn - 60,000 bales
Frans Brother Sejati, PT          Dyed yarn - 3,000 tons
Gistex, PT                        Yarn - 48,000 bales
Gokak Indonesia, PT               Yarn - 4,204 tons
Hasasi International, PT          Yarn - 35.000 bales
Indiratex Spindo, PT              Yarn - 15,500 bales
Indorama Synthetic Tbk, PT        Spun blended yarn- 270,000 MT
Jabatex, PT                       Combed Cotton Yarn - 6,000 bales
                                  CVC Yarn - 10,800 bales
Kahatex, PT                       Yarn - 7,000 tons
                                  Knitted Yarn - 12,000 tons
Kamaltex, PT                      Yarn - 25,000 bales
Kanebo Indonesia Textile          Woven yarn - 6,500 LBS
  Mills, PT                       T/C yarn - 4.000.000 LBS
Karya Ali Putra, PT               Cotton yarn - 35,000 bales
Natatex Prima Corp, PT            Yarn - 8,600 tons
Pancaharta Persada, PT            Polyester yarn - 50,000 bales
Patal Putra Sejati Spinning       Yarn - 41,000 bales
  Mills, PT
Primayudha Mandiri, PT            Yarn - 78,000 tons
Primissima, PT                    Spinning - 2,580 tons
Ramagloria Sakti Tekstil          Yarn - 16,000 bales
Industry, PT
Sari Warna Asli Textile           Yarn - 18,164 ton
  Industry, PT
Sinar Pantja Djaja, PT            Spindles - 120,000 unit
Fibrindo Inti Prima, PT           Spindles - 60,000 unit
Unitex, Tbk                       Spinning - 14,400 bales

Companies                         Location

Apac Inti Corpora, PT             Semarang,
                                  Central Java
Argo Pantes Tbk, PT               Bekasi, West java
Artha Buana Adiperkasa            Bandung, West Java
  Textile Mills, PT
Bhineka Karya Manunggal, PT       Karawang, West Java
Century Textile Industry, PT      Ciracas, East Jakarta
Dayasamatex, PT                   Bandung, West Java
Dhanar Mas Concern, PT            Bandung, West Java
Djoni Texindo, PT                 Tangerang, Banten
Dong Il Indonesia, PT             Bekasi, West Java
Eratex Djaja Tbk, PT              Surabaya and Probolinggo, East Java
Forindo Pandutama Textile, PT     Gresik, East Java
Frans Brother Sejati, PT          Tangerang, Banten
Gistex, PT                        Bandung, West Java
Gokak Indonesia, PT               Bogor, West Java
Hasasi International, PT          Bandung, West Java
Indiratex Spindo, PT              Lawang, Central Java
Indorama Synthetic Tbk, PT        Purwakarta, West Java
Jabatex, PT                       Tangerang, Banten
Kahatex, PT                       Bandung, West Java
Kamaltex, PT                      Ungaran, Central Java
Kanebo Indonesia Textile          Bandung, West Java
  Mills, PT
Karya Ali Putra, PT               Sidoarjo, East Java
Natatex Prima Corp, PT            Bandung, West Java
Pancaharta Persada, PT            Sleman, Yogyakarta
Patal Putra Sejati Spinning       Bogor, West Java
  Mills, PT
Primayudha Mandiri, PT            Boyolali, Central Java
Primissima, PT                    Yogyakarta
Ramagloria Sakti Tekstil          Pasuruan, East Java
Industry, PT
Sari Warna Asli Textile           Boyolali, Central Java
  Industry, PT
Sinar Pantja Djaja, PT            Semarang, Central Java
Fibrindo Inti Prima, PT           Tangerang, West Java
Unitex, Tbk                       Bogor, West Java

Source: ICN

Table - 6
Indonesia's production of spun yarns, 2002 - 2006

                 Production     Growth
Year             (000 tons)      (%)

2002               1,649           --
2003               1,649            0
2004               1,692          2.6
2005               1,623         -4.1
2006               1,623            0
Average growth                   -0.3

Source: Industry Ministry/ICN

Table - 7
Investment in spinning industry, 2002 - 2006

Year     (Rp trillion)

2002        25.040
2003        25.040
2004        25.040
2005        25.040
2006        25.558

Source: Industry Ministry

Table - 8
Imports of cotton, 2002 - 2004

          Volume         Value
Year      (tons)       (US$ 000)

2002      632,629       707,619
2003      531,823       649,433
2004      548,913       690,064

Source: Central Bureau of Statistic (BPS)

Table - 9
Indonesia's yarn exports, 2002 - 2006

          Volume          Value
Year    (000 tons)    (US$ million)

2002       762            1,229
2003       770            1,208
2004       720            1,480
2005       795            1,621
2006       870            1,785

Source: Central Bureau of Statistic (BPS)

Table - 10
Imports of spun yarn, 2002 - 2006

          Volume          Value
Year    (000 tons)    (US$ million)

2002        83             220
2003        79             190
2004       109             245
2005       108             267
2006       126             283

Source: BPS

Table - 12
Estimate of spun yarn consumption, 2002 - 2006

       Production    Imports      Exports     Consumption   Growth
Year   (000 tons)   (000 tons)   (000 tons)   (000 tons)     (%)

2002     1,649          83          762           970         ---
2003     1,646          79          770           955        -1.5
2004     1,692         109          720         1,081        13.2
2005     1,623         108          795           936       -13.4
2006     1,623         126          870           879        -6.1
Average growth per year                                      -1.95

Source: Industry Ministry/ICN

Table - 13
Price development of Indonesia's yarn
in export market, 2003 - 2006

Year    Price (per kg)

2003       US$ 1.77
2004       US$ 2.05
2005       US$ 2.04
2006       US$ 2.19

Source: API
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Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Date:Aug 1, 2007
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