Development of run/walk training programs for adults with mental retardation.
Development of Run/Walk Training Programs For Adults With Mental Retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living.
If adults with mental retardation (MR) are to improve their inferior fitness levels in order to lead more productive and healthy life styles, then programs of health related physical fitness (HRPF HRPF Health-Related Physical Fitness
HRPF Hexadecimal Reference Publication Format ) must be developed. While run/walk fitness programs are easy to administer and have demonstrated HRPF benefits with the general population, a number of unique factors exist when introducing these programs to persons with MR. In general, because persons with MR possess below average cognitive ability and limited past involvement in structured programs of physical activity, they may lack the skills and fitness levels necessary to successfully complete such a training program. More specifically, a lack of proper pacing techniques and the inability to cope with breathlessness breathlessness
see dyspnea, hyperpnea, tachypnea.
breathlessness Emergency medicine A lack of breathing, detected by a rescuer by looking for chest movements, listening for air escaping during exhalation, and feeling for air flow. and fatigue during a run or walk may interfere with program participation. For these reasons, to date, the research is limited regarding development of run/walk programs for persons with MR. Another issue, which has not been adequately addressed in the literature, relates to maintenance once fitness levels for persons with MR are reached, without elaborate forms of supervision.
The purpose of the study was to develop a systematic 28-week run/walk program to determine the run/walk performance of 13 adults (X=37 years and X=53 IQ) with MR residing and working in a rural community in the midwest. The actual program was 30 weeks in duration, meeting 3 times per week, with two weeks to determine pretest pre·test
a. A preliminary test administered to determine a student's baseline knowledge or preparedness for an educational experience or course of study.
b. A test taken for practice.
2. and post-test measures, 22 weeks of a structured 30-minute run/walk program, which included running partners as well as warm-up and cool down exercises, followed by a 6-week maintenance phase with limited supervision.
Research results revealed a significant (p<0.05) difference between the pretest and post-test period and the pretest, maintenance period on the performance of the Cooper 12-Minute run/walk test. In addition, a significant difference was determined in the pretest, post-test performance of sit-ups.
In general, run/walk programs must be designed and administered which meet the unique and individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. needs of persons with MR. This includes developing safe, progressive, highly structured, and motivational programs.
* The first and foremost consideration of any exercise program must be safety. Programs should carefully adhere to adhere to
verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful
2. exercise procedures outlined by the American College of Sports Medicine '''Founded in 1954, the AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SPORTS MEDICINE is the largest sports medicine and exercise science organization in the world. More than 20,000 international, national and regional members are dedicated to advancing and integrating scientific research to provide educational (ACSM ACSM American College of Sports Medicine. ); i.e., participants engaging in proper warm-up and cool down exercises before and after the actual run/walk program. Exercises should be avoided that are contraindicated; i.e., straight leg sit-ups. This study followed ACSM guidelines and adults were trained to perform all exercises safely on their own, as well as periodically leading the group through a warm-up or cool down session.
* Exercise and resting pulse rate pulse rate
The rate of the pulse as observed in an artery, expressed as beats per minute. checks should be taken prior to, during, and after the actual run/walk session. In this study pulse rate checks were not only important from a safety standpoint, but enabled supervisors to determine if participants were actually exercising within their own prescribed intensity level.
* Properly pacing one's self while run/walking is a unique and abstract concept for may persons with MR. They may display difficulty coping with The Coping With series of books is a series of books aimed at 11-16 year olds, written by Peter Corey and published by Scholastic Hippo. The first book, Coping with Parents, was released in 1989, and the series continued until the last book, Coping with Cash breathlessness and fatigue, staying motivated, and demonstrating knowledge necessary to maintain proper pace. Run/walk partners were used to assist proper run/walk form, pacing techniques, and to provide participants with encouragement and feedback.
* Distance criteria goals need to be gradual, self-paced, and individualized. Study established a baseline run/walk distance score by averaging distance completed by each adult during the first 6 weeks of the program (18 sessions). Each subsequent month new criteria goals were established for each adult by averaging the number of laps completed over the 12 sessions. Participants seemed to understand the concept of goal setting as the majority met or exceeded their established criteria goals.
* To maintain motivation the program should include some form of contingency management
Contingency Management is a type of treatment used in the mental health or substance abuse fields. reinforcement plan consisting of rewards idiosyncratic id·i·o·syn·cra·sy
n. pl. id·i·o·syn·cra·sies
1. A structural or behavioral characteristic peculiar to an individual or group.
2. A physiological or temperamental peculiarity.
3. to each participant. Herein, each adult who met his/her monthly goal earned the privilege of selecting an activity; i.e., frisbee golf, attending a basketball game with the run/walk partner.
* Maintenance of the program on their own, with limited supervision, should be stressed. During the last 6 weeks participants ran/walked without their partners and with only the program coordinator present to count laps. A 24-hour recall timer was pinned to each pair of shorts or shirt, programmed to ring at the end of the 30-minute run/walk session.
* Most importantly Adv. 1. most importantly - above and beyond all other consideration; "above all, you must be independent"
above all, most especially , additional research is needed to assure effective HRPF testing and training programs for persons with MR.
Lavay, B., Zody, J., Solko, C., & Era, K. (1990). The effect of a seven month run/walk program on the physiological fitness parameters of adults with mental retardation. In Doll-Tepper, G.C. Dahms, Doll, B., von Selzam, H. (Eds.) Adapted physical activity: An interdisciplinary approach. Heildberg Springer springer
a North American term commonly used to describe heifers close to term with their first calf. .
Lavay, B. & McKenzie, T. (1990). Development and evaluation of a systematic run/walk program for men with mental retardation. Manuscript submitted for publication.