Development of low temperature curing, 120[degrees]C, durable, corrosion protection powder coatings for temperature sensitive substrates.
Keywords: Differential scanning calorimetry, catalysis, corrosion, corrosion protection, powder, aluminum, low temperature cure
Significant effort is expended and cost is incurred each year to procure, use, and dispose of toxic and hazardous materials associated with the use of solvent-borne corrosion protection coatings. Powder coatings have the potential to eliminate more than 95% of the volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants released during the application of such coatings. Over the past years, powder coatings have increasingly gained popularity as a result of their ecological advantages as well as their economical and performance benefits. (1-7) There are numerous military and civilian applications that require protective coatings, but they involve substrates that are made from materials such as low-tempered metal alloys, composites, plastic, or wood that would be structurally compromised by thermal treatments required to cure conventional powder coatings. The need for powder coatings that cure at ever lower temperatures has been presented extensively and much work on their development has been reported in the literature. (8-28)
This article highlights research to develop a weatherable powder coating that cures at or below 120[degrees]C within 30 min. For specific military applications, this cure schedule is dictated by the temperature sensitive nature of 2024-grade aluminum alloy that is used in several types of aircraft parts, weapon systems, and support equipment. Due to the T3 heat treatment, prolonged exposure to temperatures above 120[degrees]C can compromise the structural integrity of the alloy. In addition to the low temperature cure target, the final coating must also meet functional requirements for corrosion and chemical resistance, adhesion, impact strength, and exterior durability. With the help of research and qualification partners representing several military and government agencies, a comprehensive list of coating performance specifications and tests was compiled from military specification reports and joint test protocols. An abbreviated summary of the performance criteria is provided in Table 1. Only surface quality lacks a quantified specification target at this time.
This article presents the results from a benchmark evaluation of several state-of-the-art low temperature cure powder coatings. Additionally, progress from early efforts to develop powder coatings specifically for a 120[degrees]C/30 min cure schedule is evaluated against performance targets.
Materials and Test Substrates
All the materials used in this study, including finished powders and raw materials, were used as received from their manufacturers. In formulation studies, four grades of acid functional polyester resins, denoted A, B, C, and D with corresponding equivalent molecular weights of 1700, 1600, 1630, and 1650, were combined 93:7 with triglycidylisocyanurate (TGIC) (Araldite PT 810, Huntsman Chemical). Three different catalysts were used in this work: choline chloride (Actiron CC6, Synthron Inc.), and two benzyltrimethylammonium halides (chloride and bromide salts, both from Aldrich Chemical). Two types of corrosion inhibitors were used: zinc phosphate (Halox, Rockwood Pigments), and barium metaborate (Butrol 23, Buckman Laboratories).
Chromated aluminum, 2024T3, was the primary substrate for this research. For testing coating flexibility, a softer T0 annealed version of the same alloy was used with an anodized surface treatment; this substrate type is specified in MIL-PRF-85285. All aluminum test substrates were obtained from Q-Panel Lab Products. For standardized impact testing, untreated 1008 steel panels (R-46, Q-Panel Lab Products) were used.
Melt Compounding and Powder Grinding
Raw materials were dry-blended by either hand shaking in a bag (one minute) or in a Henschel mechanical mixer (60 sec at 2000 rpm). Each formulation, 4.5 kg in size, was then melt-mixed on a 50-mm twin-screw extruder (lab model Baker Perkins) at 500 rpm with a max barrel temperature of 88[degrees]C. Extrudate was passed through water-cooled pinch-rolls and collected onto a stainless steel belt; from exit of the extruder, approximately 60 sec was required to reach ambient temperature. Powder grinding was performed using an air classifying mill, ACM-5, followed by sieving through a 140 mesh screen. This process produced powders with a mean size of 40-50 microns (95% < 105 microns) as measured using a Malvern Series 2600 laser analyzer.
Samples, 15-20 mg in size, were analyzed using a Perkin Elmer DSC 7. The testing protocol utilized an isothermal hold at 120[degrees]C for 30 min followed by a rapid quench and then a temperature scan from 25-300[degrees]C at 10[degrees]C/min. Heat of reaction and the corresponding cured powder percent conversion curve were obtained from the isothermal portion of the test while the cured network [T.sub.g] and residual heat of reaction were assessed from the follow-up scan. Both heats of reaction were used to calculate actual percent conversion at 120[degrees]C for 30 min.
Prior to coating, test substrates were cleaned with an MEK wipe. All powders were applied in an ETI Flexicoat[R] manual powder coating booth using a Nordson SureCoat[R] cup gun with an applied voltage of 70 kV, application pressure of 30 psi, and rinse rate setting of 20 psi. Curing was performed in a Blue-M convection oven. For each panel, mean coating thickness and standard deviation were monitored based on six measurements using an ElektroPhysik Minitest 4100. After curing, panels were held at ambient conditions for a minimum of 24 hr before testing.
Adhesion testing was performed using a Gardner crosshatch knife and Permacel[R] tape in accordance with ASTM D 3359. Flexibility testing followed ASTM D 522 and was performed with a Gardner mandrel bend tester. Direct impact strength was tested in accordance with ASTM D 5420 using a Gardner impact tester. Pencil hardness was assessed following ASTM D 3363. Solvent resistance was determined using the MEK double rub test, ASTM D 5402, with failure report at substrate read-through.
S[O.sub.2] and salt fog corrosion tests were performed using standard ASTM test methods G 85 and B 117, respectively, on both steel and aluminum substrates. For salt fog testing, time to failure, assessed as greater than 1/8 in. undercutting from edge of scribe on coating, up to the test duration of 2000 hr, was reported. For S[O.sub.2] testing, performance was reported as creep after 500 hr of exposure rated on an ASTM scale. A failure rating of 6 corresponds to undercutting from edge of scribe by more than 1/16 in.
For accelerated weathering, an Atlas Ci35a Xenon Weather-Ometer[R] was used. To assess performance, color coordinates were measured as a function of exposure using a Macbeth Colorimeter (Color-Eye 7000A) following ASTM D 2244. The [DELTA]E color change is reported after 2000 hr of exposure.
Gloss was measured at 60[degrees] using a BYK Gardner Tri-Gloss Meter. Coating surface quality was determined using a BYK Gardner Wavescan[TM] distinctness of image (DOI) instrument calibrated relative to the Powder Coating Institute's (PCI) surface quality standards. Results are reported in PCI units ranging from 1-10, with 10 corresponding to the best quality. In samples where gloss was inadequate to allow for use of the Wavescan, visual assessments were made by side-by-side comparison to the surface quality standards.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Commercial Low Temperature Cure Performance
To assess current state-of-the-art technology in low temperature cure powder coatings, product literature, websites, and technical support from many commercial manufacturers were consulted. Several best-in-class low temperature curing powders were sampled from each of the major conventional chemistries including acrylate, epoxy, urethane, and polyester crosslinked using either triglycidylisocyanurate (TGIC) or hydroxyalkylamide (HAA). For each of the five chemistry families, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) scans at 10[degrees]C/min were used to down-select the fastest low temperature reaction kinetics based on onset and peak exotherm temperatures. The down-selected powders were then applied and cured as nominally 3-mil thick powder coatings according to their respective manufacturer's lowest recommended cure schedule and evaluated.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Key performance attributes for each coating are summarized in Table 2. These were evaluated using the corresponding test methodologies indicated in Table 1. The cure schedule used for each coating is also provided in Table 2. Responses that fail to meet Table 1 performance criteria have been shaded dark. Overall, there are tradeoffs among the chemistries, and clearly no solution meets all cure and performance expectations. When selected powders were prepared closer to their manufacturer's standard cure conditions, coating performance improved, most notably chemical resistance. For example, the resistance to MEK double rubs increased to the test limit of 200 for the PE/TGIC and PE/HAA coatings, and to 175 for the acrylate. These results underscore the challenge of designing a powder coating that can effectively crosslink at 120[degrees]C within 30 min and simultaneously meet the performance goals of this research effort. This is further emphasized by the plot in Figure 1, which simultaneously compares each of the five candidate coatings relative to select specification targets.
Many low temperature curing limitations identified in Table 2 can be linked to the nature of the crosslinking mechanism or the base resin chemistry. (29) The acid/hydroxyl reaction is the least reactive mechanism represented. Its curing temperature is limited by the nature of the esterification reaction and the need to drive off water to obtain high conversions. HAA crosslinkers rely on this scheme. Slightly lower temperatures can be used to cure hydroxyl functional resins with protected or dimerized isocyanates to yield urethane coatings. However, the deblocking temperatures of the protective group or the ring-opening kinetics of the uretidione limit the minimum cure temperature to approximately 140[degrees]C. (30,31)
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
The other three coatings chemistries, PE/TGIC, epoxy, and acrylate, are all based on epoxy type reactions. These have the greatest potential for low temperature cure. Epoxies can crosslink with a variety of different chemical functionalities, such as acids, aromatic hydroxyls, amines, or even through catalyzed homopolymerization. (32) Use of bisphenol-A (BPA) and novolacmodified epoxies is effectively restricted to interior applications because of their poor weathering attributes. Poor exterior durability is evident in the epoxy coating in Table 3. (29) Cycloaliphatic epoxies do not suffer from the ultraviolet light instability of the aromatics, but resins suitable for powder coatings are unavailable.
For exterior applications, acrylate resins functionalized with epoxy moieties such as glycidyl methacrylate are increasingly finding use. They offer excellent exterior durability and scratch resistance, but many times this comes at the price of poor chemical resistance and brittleness. Acid functional polyesters are often combined with multifunctional epoxy crosslinkers, most commonly TGIC, to deliver both low temperature cure kinetics and exterior durability. Despite concerns about the potential toxicity of TGIC, there are no commercial alternatives that offer similar performance. Of the commercially available resins, PE/TGIC chemistry offers the best opportunity to develop 120[degrees]C cure, exterior powder coatings with the properties outlined in Table 1. The next section presents development efforts toward achieving the low temperature cure and coating performance goals building on PE/TGIC chemistries.
Resin Screening Study
Four different commercial acid functional polyester resins were sampled from their manufacturers as candidates for low temperature curing powder coatings. These were incorporated into the general factorial screening study illustrated in Figure 2 wherein each of the four resins, combined 93/7 with TGIC crosslinker, were formulated with two different corrosion inhibitors, either zinc phosphate or barium metaborate, and a choline chloride catalyst at levels of 0, 0.3, or 0.5 percent of total formulation. Details on the powder formulations are given in Table 3. Sample panels of each of the 24 powder coatings produced in this design were prepared by curing at 120[degrees]C for 30 min.
For the sake of rapid screening, the complete performance specification list was pared down to eight key performance attributes that include: adhesion, flexibility, toughness, hardness, chemical resistance, gloss, and surface quality. The corresponding tests for these are indicated in Table 1 and the screening results are summarized in Table 4. All test coatings met the 2.3-3.2 mil thickness specification.
At a high level, the results in Table 4 showed a significant effect of resin type on coating performance with resin D systems, and in particular formulations D-2 and D-3, meeting the greatest number of the key performance goals. Compared to resin systems A and B, systems C and D offered simultaneous improvements in flexibility and chemical resistance, but, depending on corrosion inhibitor type, suffered slight to moderate reductions in gloss. Irrespective of resin system, use of barium metaborate appears to adversely affect gloss, especially at higher catalyst loadings. Within the resin D formulations, those with zinc phosphate and added catalyst outperformed analogous formulations with barium metaborate, particularly in chemical resistance. Across all formulations investigated, including the best overall performers, the most severe deficiency was seen in direct impact toughness with values well below the 150 in.-lb goal. These results emphasize the strong effect of component interactions and the potential for competing tradeoffs between performance attributes.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Many of the important factors that likely differentiate these four resins such as chemical structure, molecular weight, functionality, polydispersity, as well as type and level of precatalysis were not provided by their manufacturers. Without this information it is difficult to draw correlations between chemistry and performance. It is possible, however, to compare the reaction kinetics of the four resin systems to learn more about their differences and how these might affect coating performance.
Figure 3 is a compilation of plots for DSC-measured heat evolution as a function of time at 120[degrees]C for the four resin systems. Without catalyst addition (formulations 1 and 4 in each resin series), both the reaction rate and total evolved heat were strongly dependent on the base resin. This was not unexpected as manufacturers commonly precatalyze their resins. The results in Figure 3 suggest resins A and B were less precatalyzed than resins C and D. In fact, without additional catalyst, resin A did not show any appreciable reaction at 120[degrees]C, whereas added catalyst had little effect on the total heat of reaction for resins C and D with average values of approximately 22 and 15 J/g, respectively. The lesser precatalyzed resins, A and B, showed the greatest increase in reaction rate and total exotherm with catalyst addition. In these same systems, corrosion inhibitor selection had a notable effect on reaction kinetics; relative to formulations with zinc phosphate, use of barium metaborate is associated with a faster reaction rate and higher total heat of reaction. This is consistent with the overall reduction in gloss observed with barium metaborate. Moreover, barium metaborate with the highly precatalyzed resin D may have over-accelerated the reaction producing network heterogeneity and caused a drop in chemical resistance.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Using follow-up DSC scans, reaction conversion not realized after 30 min at 120[degrees]C was measured for each of the 24 resin screening formulations. It should be noted that the crosslinked coatings made in this work have glass transition temperatures between 50 and 60[degrees]C, and thus, at the 120[degrees]C cure condition vitrification should not limit reaction conversion. The recovered residual heat of reaction was added to the 120[degrees]C exotherm to calculate a total potential heat of reaction. Figure 4 shows the results of this analysis. Inspection of the data shows that for resins A and B, only certain combinations of catalyst and corrosion inhibitor yielded complete reaction conversion; whereas for resins C and D, complete reaction conversion was attained in all formulations. For the most part, the total potential heat of reaction was unaffected by formulation changes. Exceptions of note occurred in resins B and D. Barium metaborate alone or the combination of zinc phosphate and choline chloride both acted to lower the total potential heat of reaction in resin B by about 35%. In resin D, a choline chloride loading of 0.5% caused a 20% reduction in the total potential heat of reaction. This observation may be indicative of undesirable prereaction during processing that could have the effect of lowering the measurable exotherm.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Higher catalyst loadings of 0.6 and 0.75% were investigated in resins C and D using only the zinc phosphate corrosion inhibitor. Adhesion and flexibility were unaffected by the increased catalyst levels while hardness, gloss, and surface quality showed slight formulation specific changes. The lone exception was in resin D with 0.75% catalyst where both pencil hardness and gloss dropped significantly to values of F and 55, respectively.
Combined with earlier results, direct impact and chemical resistance are plotted as a function of catalyst level in Figure 5. Resin system C was relatively unaffected by catalyst loading, suggesting that this commercial resin was already highly catalyzed. A more pronounced effect was evident in resin D where chemical resistance was improved to the test limit of 200 double rubs with 0.3 and 0.5% catalyst but dropped off at 0.6%, while impact values simultaneously increased to the test limit of 160 in.-lb. A trade-off in chemical resistance and impact is not unusual, but it is surprising that this occurred at higher catalyst loadings. Normally, increasing crosslink density improves chemical resistance and penalizes impact resistance. Partial reaction during processing could lead to gel particles and heterogeneous crosslinking of the coating film. This might explain the reduced solvent resistance and improved impact results at the highest catalyst loadings.
To this point, only choline chloride has been considered as the added catalyst in coating formulations. Many other candidates exist for the acid/epoxy reaction and several of these have been screened in our laboratory specifically for rapid cure kinetics at 120[degrees]C, latency at 93[degrees]C melt processing, and minimal yellowing under 160[degrees]C over bake conditions. (33) In addition to the choline chloride, our work has identified promise in two benzyltrimethylammonium salts based on either bromide (BTMA-Br) or chloride (BTMA-Cl) counter ions.
As an extension to the present study, BTMA-Br and BTMA-Cl, along with choline chloride, were screened in formulations based on resin D with either zinc phosphate or barium metaborate corrosion inhibitors. Two catalyst levels were considered, 0.5 and 0.75%. These levels were chosen to capture the low and high extremes of the potential formulation space. In a first pass at the formulation design, a higher catalyst level of 1.0% was selected, but screening tests found gel formation during extrusion, so the level was lowered to 0.75%. The performance of coatings prepared in this study is summarized in Table 5, with shading again used to denote below target performance.
Relative to noncatalyzed controls (blends D-1 and D-4 in Table 4), good flexibility and hardness were generally realized across the formulations summarized in Table 5, and in several formulations considerable improvements in toughness were made. At the same time, gloss, surface quality, and chemical resistance were compromised; the effect was more significant in the most highly catalyzed formulations. The limited exceptions were the combinations of zinc phosphate and BTMA-Cl, which showed slightly enhanced chemical resistance. In four of the six formulations, the higher catalyst level actually caused a reduction in DSC measured heat of reaction at 120[degrees]C in 30 min. Prereaction during melt compounding is the most probable cause.
The Table 5 formulations based on low-level (0.5%) choline chloride with either corrosion inhibitor represent formulation replicates of chemistries studied in the resin screening study, specifically formulations D-3 and D-6 in Table 4. Similarly, an analogue to the high-level (0.75%) choline chloride with zinc phosphate formulation in Table 5 was previously examined in the increased catalyst study. Even though the noted formulations are the same, processing changes were made between the earlier and later studies. Specifically, hand mixing of components was used in the resin screening and increased catalyst work, whereas more intense machine (Henschel) mixing was used in the catalyst screening study. Comparing 0.5% analogue formulations, the more aggressively mixed versions showed significant improvements in impact resistance and simultaneous reductions in chemical resistance. This is similar to the effect observed in Figure 4 with an increase in the catalyst loading to the highest levels. It is reasonable to suspect that improved reagent mixing increased reagent homogeneity and, thereby, catalyst efficiency. Further building in this direction, a comparison of 0.75% analogues reveals a precipitous drop in both toughness and chemical resistance in the more intensely mixed catalyst screening formulation. This suggests an upper limit where over-catalysis is systemically detrimental. Even below this limit, the lack of processing robustness of highly catalyzed formulations may challenge their viability.
As a benchmark for this research, several commercial low temperature cure powder coatings, including candidates representative of all the major coating chemistries, were sampled and tested. The results highlight tradeoffs that challenge the ability to achieve desired coating performance in a low temperature cure powder coating. With these materials as reference, experimental low temperature cure powder coatings built on commercial acid functional polyester resins with TGIC crosslinker were formulated and studied. Despite similar functional densities, base resin selection had a significant influence on coating performance, but with corrosion inhibitor type, catalyst type, and catalyst loading all having strong and sometimes confounded interactions. For instance, the effect of corrosion inhibitor type was found to be dependent on both the base resin and added catalyst type as well as catalyst level. The corrosion inhibitors themselves appeared to dually act as catalysts for the epoxy/acid reaction. Their effect was difficult to predict, however, complicated in part by the localized surface effects of heterogeneous catalysis.
The best overall coating performance was realized in formulations with heavily precatalyzed resins. Even with these resins, additional catalysis was required to attain adequate network formation for good coating flexibility, hardness, and chemical resistance in a 120[degrees]C cure. Further increases in catalyst level or more aggressive reagent mixing produced a limited window of dramatically improved impact resistance but with a concomitant drop in chemical resistance. These coatings may have been effectively impact-toughened by heterogeneous network formation or, possibly, the higher levels of catalysis may have supported epoxy/epoxy reaction of crosslinker moieties and thereby produced a more chain extended network. At the highest extreme of catalyst loading investigated, gelation during melt extrusion and/or systemic degradation of coating performance became prohibitive.
Overall, progress was made toward closing identified performance gaps for 120[degrees]C/30 min cure powder coatings, but further improvements are needed. This study sets a foundation for subsequent developments in new low temperature cure resins, catalysts, and formulation technologies. Future work will also more closely consider the processing window of highly catalyzed systems and will utilize more rapid extrudate cooling methodologies representative of commercial powder coating production.
The authors thank Douglas S. Richart for his consultation on low temperature powder coating developments. This research was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Defense Contract DACA72-02-C-0025, through the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), Pollution Prevention Program Manager Chuck Pellerin. This work was presented at the 31st International Waterborne, High-Solids, and Powder Coatings Symposium, and is published here with the permission of The University of Southern Mississippi's Polymer Science Press.
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Glen Merfeld,**** Steve Mordhorst, Rainer Koeniger, A. Ersin Acar, Chris Molaison, Joe Suriano, Pat Irwin, and Ron Singh Warner -- GE Global Research*
Ken Gray -- Crosslink Powder Coatings, Inc. ([dagger])
Mark Smith -- Honeywell-Department of Energy**
Kevin Kovaleski and Greg Garrett -- NavAir ([double dagger])
Steve Finley and Debora Meredith -- AFMC***
Mike Spicer and Tom Naguy -- AFRL ([dagger][dagger][dagger])
Presented at the 31st Annual International Waterborne, High-Solids, and Powder Coatings Symposium, February 18-20, 2004, in New Orleans, LA.
* One Research Cir., Building K1, Room 4B37, Niskayuna, NY.
([dagger]) Clearwater, FL.
** Kansas City, MO.
([double dagger]) Patuxent River, MD.
*** WPAFB, OH.
([dagger][dagger][dagger]) WPAFB, OH.
**** Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Table 1 -- Target Performance Specifications for 120[degrees]C/30 min Cure Powder Coatings Specification* Property Test Units LSL USL Thickness Gauge (eddy mils 2.3 3.2 current, magnetic induction) Adhesion Crosshatch ASTM ASTM scale 4B -- D 3359-97 Flexibility Mandrel bend failure dia. in. -- 0.25 ASTM D 522-93 Toughness Direct impact in.-lb 150 -- ASTM D 5420 Hardness Pencil hardness pencil # 2H -- ASTM D 3363 Exterior Durability Xenon arc, 2000 delta color -- 2 hr ASTM G 26-96 Chemical Resistance Skydrol fluid delta pencil # -- 2 immersion, 7 days MEK double rubs double rubs 200 -- ASTM D 5402 Color Match Colorimetry ASTM delta color -- 2 D 2244 Gloss 60[degrees] gloss units 90 -- gloss ASTM D 523 Surface DOI wavescan, standard # -- -- Quality ([dagger]) calibrated to PCI standards Corrosion Resistance Salt fog, ASTM B hr to failure 2000 -- 117 SO2 500 hr, ASTM scribe undercut 7 -- G 85 rating Cyclic on cylces to 80 -- scribed steel GM failure 954P Filiform ASTM in. -- 0.25 2803-93 *LSL=Lower Spec Limit; USL=Upper Spec Limit. ([dagger]) Specification not yet defined. Table 2 -- Commercial Low Temperature Cure Powder Coating Performance Property Test PE/TGIC PE/HAA Cure Schedule* -- 148[degrees]C 154[degrees]C 20 min 30 min Adhesion Crosshatch 5B 4B-5B Flexibility Mandrel bend 0.125 1 Toughness Direct impact 20 20 Hardness Pencil hardness H HB Chem. Resist. MEK double rub 184 80 Durability Xenon arc 0.5 5.6 Surface PCI standard 4 5 Quality ([dagger]) Corrosion Resistance Salt fog (AL) >2000 >2000 Salt fog (Steel) <1576 <1081 S[O.sub.2] (AL) 8 8 S[O.sub.2] (Steel) 9 10 Property Test Urethane Epoxy Cure Schedule* -- 177[degrees]C 121[degrees]C 20 min 15 min Adhesion Crosshatch 5B 5B Flexibility Mandrel bend 0.125 0.125 Toughness Direct impact 100 20 Hardness Pencil hardness HB HB Chem. Resist. MEK double rub 62 200 Durability Xenon arc 0.6 2.8 Surface PCI standard 4 4 Quality ([dagger]) Corrosion Resistance Salt fog (AL) >2000 >2000 Salt fog (Steel) <1576 <2085 S[O.sub.2] (AL) 5 5 S[O.sub.2] (Steel) 9 5 Property Test Acrylate Cure Schedule* -- 148[degrees]C 15 min Adhesion Crosshatch 5B Flexibility Mandrel bend 0.125 Toughness Direct impact 20 Hardness Pencil hardness H Chem. Resist. MEK double rub 67 Durability Xenon arc -- Surface PCI standard 8 Quality ([dagger]) Corrosion Resistance Salt fog (AL) >2000 Salt fog (Steel) <674 S[O.sub.2] (AL) 5 S[O.sub.2] (Steel) 6 *Manufacturer recommended lowest temperature cure schedule. Shaded responses indicate failure relative to performance requirements provided in Table 1. ([dagger]) Specification not defined. Table 3 -- Powder Coating Formulations Used in Resin Screening Experiments Formulation Number Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 Acid polyester 65.0 65.0 65.0 65.0 65.0 65.0 TGIC 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9 Curing catalyst 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.3 0.5 Flow promoter 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Degassing agent 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Antioxiant 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Zinc phosphate 5.0 4.7 4.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 Barium metaborate 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 4.7 4.5 Filler & pigment 22.1 22.1 22.1 22.1 22.1 22.1 Totals 100 100 100 100 100 100 Table 4 -- Resin Screening Summary Resin A Test A-1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6 Adhesion 0B 1B 2B 0B 3B 4B Flexibility. 0.75 NF 1 0.25 1 1 Toughness 0 20 20 0 0 0 Hardness H H F F F H Chem. resist. 4 4 7 3 21 73 60[degrees] Gloss 89 91 80 90 70 63 Surface Quality 4 4 4 4 4 5 Resin B Test B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 B-5 B-6 Adhesion 0B 2B 4B 2B 5B 5B Flexibility. 0.66 0.75 0.75 0.7 0.5 0.135 Toughness 0 0 20 20 20 20 Hardness 2H 2H 2H 2H 2H 3H Chem. resist. 8 10 30 10 110 85 60[degrees] Gloss 88 90 85 86 75 65 Surface Quality 4 4 4 4 4 5 Resin C Test C-1 C-2 C-3 C-4 C-5 C-6 Adhesion 4B 4B 3B 4B 4B 4B Flexibility. NF 0.5 NF NF NF 0.13 Toughness 20 20 20 20 20 40 Hardness 2H 2H 2H 3H H H Chem. resist. 122 116 106 68 136 178 60[degrees] Gloss 84 76 78 75 70 67 Surface Quality 3 5 3 3 4 4 Resin D Test D-1 D-2 D-3 D-4 D-5 D-6 Adhesion 4B 4B 5B 5B 4B 4B Flexibility. NF 0.13 NF NF NF NF Toughness 20 20 20 60 40 40 Hardness H 2H 2H 2H H 2H Chem. resist. 77 199 200 125 67 96 60[degrees] Gloss 78 63 69 59 54 49 Surface Quality 4 5 4 5 5 5 NF = No Failure Shaded responses indicate failure relative to performance requirements. Table 5 -- Catalyst Screening Study Resin D Zinc Phosphate BTMA-Cl (a) BTMA-Br (a) C. Chloride Test Low High Low High Low High Adhesion 4B 4B 4B 4B 4B 4B Flexibility NF (b) NF NF NF NF NF Toughness <20 120 60 160 160 40 Hardness 2H 2H 2H 3H 2H 2H Chem. resist. 107 94 54 54 24 31 60[degrees] gloss 46 27 36 29 40 50 Surface quality 2 3 2 3 3 4 Resin D Barium Metaborate BTMA-Cl (a) BTMA-Br (a) C. Chloride Test Low High Low High Low High Adhesion 4B 4B 4B 4B 4B 4B Flexibility NF NF NF NF NF NF Toughness 60 140 160 40 80 130 Hardness 2H 2H 3H 3H 2H H Chem. resist. 64 53 61 27 34 20 60[degrees] gloss 27 16 26 26 61 37 Surface quality 3 2 2 3 4 3 (a) Catalysts: benzltrimethylammonium chloride (BMTA-Cl) and bromide (BTMA-Br), Choline Chloride Catalyst Levels; Low -0.5, High -0.75 pph. (b) NF = No Failure. Shaded responses indicate failure relative to performance requirements.
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|Date:||Oct 1, 2005|
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