Development of an electronic data interchange model for channel management.
In this paper, the authors propose a new paradigm New Paradigm
In the investing world, a totally new way of doing things that has a huge effect on business.
The word "paradigm" is defined as a pattern or model, and it has been used in science to refer to a theoretical framework. for distribution management based upon research and data collected over an eighteen month period through contributions made to an online conference sponsored by the Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing. Technological linkages between value chain partners using Electronic Data Interchange See EDI.
(application, communications) electronic data interchange - (EDI) The exchange of standardised document forms between computer systems for business use. EDI is part of electronic commerce. (EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) The electronic communication of business transactions, such as orders, confirmations and invoices, between organizations. Third parties provide EDI services that enable organizations with different equipment to connect. ) and Automatic Data Collection (ADC (1) See A/D converter.
(2) (Apple Display Connector) A peripheral connector from Apple that combines digital video display, USB and power in one cable. ) offers firms significant potential for the transformation of interorganizational relationships. Electronic data transfers offer considerable benefits and responsibilities for all participants and, with the increasing technical literacy of the customer-base, are becoming a requirement for sustaining operations rather than a competitive advantage. The growing importance and ubiquitousness of ADC and EDI in logistics and distribution is considered as well as the need for additional conceptual consideration in strategic business pedagogy.
The World-Wide Web was used not only to survey those interested in distribution, but also to collect and synthesize global input on the topics of Automatic Data Collection and Electronic Data Interchange. Automatic Data Collection (ADC) is defined as the collection of data by a firm without human input or with minimal effort. Scanning devices to read products and meters are normally used to collect the data. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), the main focus of the paper, is defined as the electronic exchange of business transactions between companies from one computer to another using an accepted standard format (Jenkins, 1994).
Poised to change channel relationships profoundly, the objective of EDI was to obtain time and cost efficiencies through the direct exchange of data between supplier and purchaser systems (Sawabini, 2001). EDI is sometimes mistaken for other communication methods, such as electronic mail, general access to the Internet (Larson & Kulchitsky, 2000) or derivatives such as "Rip-and-Read" (Lauer, 2000). When EDI is confused with other communication methods, its full potential is not realized (Quinn, 1991). For the exchange to be considered truly EDI, the process must go from one system to the other with no manual intervention (Porter, 1990).
In recent years the growth of EDI has been significant (Hill & Swenson, 1994). It is estimated that over one half of all interorganizational business documents is transmitted between corporations by way of electronic data interchange. Further, channel issues such as efficient customer response, Just-In-Time (JIT JIT - dynamic translation ) manufacturing and stockless inventories have been researched based upon EDI. Organizations utilizing any of these strategies force their supply chain partners, either suppliers or purchasers of goods, to implement EDI or face possible extinction. Thus, organizations are being forced to realign their goals and make decisions with their supply chain partners in mind (Kopczak & Johnson, 2003). However, the data linkages provided by EDI can enable organizations to reduce their inventory costs while improving their response to customer demands. The speed at which data is electronically exchanged is much faster than the traditional paper-based method and systems can be programmed to replenish inventory levels automatically (Ali, 1994).
The increased accent on managerial application has again placed emphasis on the input of the social sciences and non-economic paradigms. However, any new development of channel marketing theory must contain both economic and noneconomic concepts. Relationships can be considered within the economic political paradigm concept. The paradigm is an excellent tool to structure teaching lessons regarding channel management. Marketing pedagogy will be improved with additional concepts to account for and explain the information access influence on channels as well as the economic impact of EDI and ADC on business.
Allowing other channel members access to electronic data makes each firm more dependent upon the other and more committed to them and the system of distribution. The concept of areas of linkage relates well with the most current business thinking and the value web concept. For example, firms are attempting to segregate seg·re·gate
v. seg·re·gat·ed, seg·re·gat·ing, seg·re·gates
1. To separate or isolate from others or from a main body or group. See Synonyms at isolate.
2. services that add value to customers. They determine which competencies distinguish that service and link it to customers (Fine, Vardan, Pethick & Hout, 2002). Allowing channel partners' electronic access fits well with the concepts of re-engineering or process engineering of customer services.
ADC allows firms to track product information throughout the channels of distribution all the way to raw materials assembling and thereby measure more carefully the value that is added. There are several factors that should be considered such as Efficient Consumer Response Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) is a joint trade and industry body working towards making the grocery sector as a whole more responsive to consumer demand and promote the removal of unnecessary costs from the supply chain. (ECR ECR Efficient Consumer Response
ECR European Congress of Radiology
ECR Electron Cyclotron Resonance
ECR El Camino Real (Kings Highway; California)
ECR Electronic Cash Register
ECR East Coast Radio (South Africa) ). ECR is an example of a value added Value Added
The enhancement a company gives its product or service before offering the product to customers.
This can either increase the products price or value. service for customers linked by ADC and EDI. ECR is a series of business practices that utilizes data sharing The ability to share the same data resource with multiple applications or users. It implies that the data are stored in one or more servers in the network and that there is some software locking mechanism that prevents the same set of data from being changed by two people at the same time. and cooperation between retailers and distributors, wholesalers and producers to reduce distribution costs distribution costs distribute npl → Vertriebskosten pl . An ECR program can encompass any or all of the following emerging business concepts: contiguous replenishment (CRP C-reactive protein (CRP)
A protein present in blood serum in various abnormal states, like inflammation.
Mentioned in: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
n.pr See C-reactive protein. ), direct store delivery (DSD (Direct Stream Digital) See SACD. ), cross docking, category management, vendor-managed inventory and activity-based costing In a business organization, Activity-based costing (ABC) is a method of allocating costs to products and services. It is generally used as a tool for planning and control. This is a necessary tool for doing value chain analysis. . However, ECR is more than new terminology for old distribution ideas. It is the assimilation of data capture information technology combined with the unparalleled cooperation between trading partners.
The data allows for ECR to create a demand-driven supply chain and eliminate expenses by reducing inventories and improving delivery efficiency (Burnell, 1995). In a few years, most firms will be forced to become part of an EDI/ADC system to be competitive. Business schools need to make this knowledge part of distribution management pedagogy including the organizational costs and strategic impacts of such arrangements.
What are the organizational impacts of the EDI/ADC wave pressing on logistics activities of all businesses? Nike has joined the mass customization bandwagon through the creation of <www.nikeid.com> which allows customers to go online to design personalized athletic shoes, sport bags, sport watches and golf balls. Land's End also allows their Web site visitors to design a custom fit for a limited number of products and styles. Customers are able to access a Web-based form where they are able to answer a series of questions regarding measurements and body shape. Levi Strauss
Levi Strauss, born Löb Strauß Jean manufacturers also experienced the product customization and product proliferation Product proliferation occurs when organizations market many variations of the same products. This can be done through different colour combinations, product sizes and different product uses. phenomenon. The firm tapped into two key consumer trends by using EDI/ADC technology to adjust the final inventory at retail locations and computerized customization of jeans with its "Personal Pair Jeans" customer interface. The company used in-store computers to create jeans cut to the customers' measurements. As mass customizing capabilities increase and as more variety becomes available, consumers will expect, and eventually demand, specific varieties and customized products and services before spending their money. The purchasing profile of shoppers is changing and is evidenced in decreasing product loyalty and the demise of individual brands (Miller, 1995).
Middle management, throughout the system, tends to resist changes in the way firms administer their distribution. Therefore, an EDI system that is unique would require greater bureaucratic upheaval and resistance to change. Bowersox and Cooper (1992) assert that given the traditional norms, functions, and institutions, a new set of norms and values would have to be promoted by a change agent in order to impact traditional structure. The change agent effort would likely be met with resistance and hostility from established channels. For example, Hill and Swenson (1994) describe how the sales representative job is changing due to electronic data interchange. The nature of the interchange will affect the nature of his job. Any change in that system will further change the salesperson's job. The less compatible the change to old systems the more they and other middle managers might resist the change.
Peter Drucker (1988) has discussed how new practices of management must evolve for the facilitation of information flow. New practices could doom or greatly alter traditional hierarchical command and control organizations. Whatever the level of change resulting from trends in electronic data linkages, it will surely be a factor in future organizational thinking. Organizations are predicted to experience three changes from information technology linkages; they are (1) flatness, (2) empowerment and (3) outsourcing (Meyer & Power, 1989; Rockart & Short, 1989; Savage, 1990).
Flatness may lead to more one-on-one marketing. Thus, the organizational distance between the manufacturer and final consumer will shrink. These concepts are primarily for business-to-business issues thereby final consumers should be linked by ADC/EDI. Empowerment will allow retailers and their various department managers more power over product mix and inventory. Outsourcing could lead to more specialization among channel service operations as well as manufacturers and retailers.
This paper examines the underlying interrelationships between EDI/ADC, process and channel participation (Figure 1). Process is defined as the application and use of EDI/ADC technology characterized by increased/decreased efficiency, value and channel system customization. Channel participant focuses upon the role that channel members hold in the value chain process characterized by power, politics participation and exit costs (Figure 2).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
A set of twelve propositions, concerning the use of EDI and ADC technologies in distribution management, were developed based upon a review of relevant literature. These propositions were then placed on a Web-based conference, sponsored by the Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, for eighteen months. Conferees posted their reactions to the propositions and a revised set of six propositions were developed based upon collected comments. This paper focuses upon the six revised propositions.
The first proposition focuses upon the investigation by many companies into the potential extended benefits available through electronic linkages. One such opportunity is associated with JIT II in which the supplier provides its customers with an onsite company representative acting as a direct salesperson/purchasing agent. The onsite representative infuses his product knowledge with the customer's business plans and operations in order to increase value through improved efficiency and effectiveness of both the supplier and customer (Oliva, 2002). Companies are also beginning to appreciate the benefits associated with JIT III as their relationships with customers are further strengthened via the exchange of information over secure networks at the knowledge-level of the organization. This increasing dependence upon the development of channel relationships via EDI technology promotes the following proposition.
P1 The higher the level of uniqueness of the EDI-Inventory system for a channel of distribution, the higher the political exit costs for channel members.
In a study on EDI adoption in the marketing and logistical channels of individual firms, Williams (1994) found that EDI adoption was influenced by organizational size, product demand uncertainty and, in some cases, power. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. a study conducted by Heide and John (1990), the authors found that when technological unpredictability, defined as uncertainty associated with hardware, software, and human resource requirements The components of a system that are required by software or hardware. It refers to resources that have finite limits such as memory and disk. In a PC, it may also refer to the resources required to install a new peripheral device, namely IRQs, DMA channels, I/O addresses and memory in EDI channels, was present, firms resisted establishing long-term linkages with channel partners. Some studies have found that the higher the investment associated with EDI linkages and thus, the probable sophistication so·phis·ti·cate
v. so·phis·ti·cat·ed, so·phis·ti·cat·ing, so·phis·ti·cates
1. To cause to become less natural, especially to make less naive and more worldly.
2. of the technology utilized, the greater the likelihood of a sustained EDI relationship (Heide & John, 1990; Williams, Magee & Suziki, 1998).
In studies examining the relationships of small to medium sized enterprises (SME (1) (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise) See SMB.
(2) (Subject Matter Expert) An individual who is well-versed in the policies and procedures of a particular department or division. ) with larger channel members, researchers found that several of the SME's studied were reactive in their use of EDI and implemented it at minimalist levels due, in part, to inadequate resources (Chen & Williams, 1998; Dhillon & Caldeira, 2000; Williams, 1994). Some of the SME's were forced to implement EDI or be faced with per paper document charges or lost business (Williams, 1994). This implied power associated with individual channel members leads to the second proposition.
P2 The more unique and individualized the EDI-Inventory system, the more power the channel leader will possess over other channel members.
As the development of technology and the complexity of supply chains continue to increase, organizations are looking beyond their own boundaries to managing their entire supply chain (Hart & Saunders, 1998; Sohal, Power & Terziovski, 2002; Whipple & Frankel, 2000). The Internet and Web-based technologies have enabled organizations to take broader roles in supply chain management (Chan & Swatman, 2000; Cottrill, 1997; Oliva, 2002; Williams, 1994). Organizations are finding that in order to keep their large customers, they often must comply with their requests to utilize strategic alliances such as EDI (Chen & Williams, 1998; Lacovou, Benbasat & Dexter, 1995; Teo, Wei & Benbasat, 2003; Whipple & Frankel, 2000). Often this shift is in the form of an Internet-focused product rather than a more traditionally-oriented form (Bhatt, 2001; Oliva, 2002; Premeaux, 2002).
Organizations maintaining dominant chain roles are in positions to require business partners to adopt specified structures or programs conducive to their business operations Business operations are those activities involved in the running of a business for the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders. Compare business processes. The outcome of business operations is the harvesting of value from assets (Dyson, 1992; Pfeffer & Salancik, 1978). Some selectively build relationships only with channel partners possessing compatible technologies (Williams, Magee & Suzuki, 1998). Competition is arising between supply chain networks rather than just individual firms (Angeles & Nath, 2001). Interest in seamless integration An addition of a new application, routine or device that works smoothly with the existing system. It implies that the new feature or program can be installed and used without problems. Contrast with "transparent," which implies that there is no discernible change after installation. continues to move trading partners to eliminate traditional boundaries and operate as a unified organization (Towill, 1997). Thus, some firms are feeling pressured to join the EDI/ADC technologies fully or lose clients (Williams, 1994).
P3 EDI-Inventory systems will provide consumers with more value for their purchases. The distribution system will become more efficient as EDI expands. As EDI/ADC expands, consumers will demand this level of value and service of all firms.
In an article studying multiple cases from various industries, Kumar and Crook (1996) found that suppliers involved in the chemical sector used EDI to differentiate their services by providing automated inventory handling services to track and order raw materials for their customers. The banking industry was also found to use EDI-initiated cash management applications to subsume sub·sume
tr.v. sub·sumed, sub·sum·ing, sub·sumes
To classify, include, or incorporate in a more comprehensive category or under a general principle: their customers' accounts receivable/payable operations. Some financial services The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page. organizations worked with institutions of higher education in order to serve as clearinghouses for student loan and scholarship payments.
Levi Strauss utilized their EDI systems to strengthen relationships with their customers by providing remarkable improvements in inventory replenishment speed (Keen, 1999). Likewise, Westinghouse Electric utilized EDI to streamline delivery time for Portland General Electric This article is not to be confused with PG&E, a San Francisco, California-based utility company
Portland General Electric (PGE) (NYSE: POR) is an electrical utility, formerly owned by the Houston-based Enron Corporation (but now independent), that distributes electricity to from 15 days to one-half day and the processing costs from $90 to $10 (Keen, 1999). Upper Deck Company The Upper Deck Company, LLC (colloquially as Upper Deck and Upper Deck Authenticated, Ltd. in the UK), founded in 1988, is a private company primarily known for producing trading cards. , a manufacturer of sports trading cards, developed an EDI system with its major retailers in order to establish a more precise, season-oriented JIT system. With this system, shipments are based upon customer sales and the amount manufactured is more precisely matched with the amount demanded (Auguston, 1995). These examples of tailored products and services for individual channel member needs support the fourth proposition.
P4 Retailers will be inclined to join channels with manufacturers who can deliver more computerized, custom-made products efficiently, than manufacturers who cannot customize.
The United Nations is working to develop global standards and procedures for the exchange of electronic data between importers and exporters in the areas of banking, customs, transportation and insurance (Mulligan, 1999). Their aim is to develop agreements on "message standards and structures, implementation rules, translation software, communication links and internal systems integration" (Mulligan, 1999). During his time in office, President Clinton made it mandatory that by 1997, all government purchases had to be made using EDI (Kessler, 1994). Likewise, the Administrative Simplification section of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1996.
According to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) website, Title I of HIPAA protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when of 1996 required members of the health care industry to transfer data electronically by imposed deadlines (CMS (1) See content management system and color management system.
(2) (Conversational Monitor System) Software that provides interactive communications for IBM's VM operating system. , 2002). As demonstrated by the Utility Industry Group, there are specific industries that are encouraging its members to adopt a common format for EDI transmission thus simplifying the capability of switching channel partners (Drazga, 2000). Representatives from large enterprises acknowledged that they were working toward data sharing capabilities with both current and future applications. Proposition 5 is supported by the previous examples.
P5 Major retailers will encourage the development of common EDI-inventory control systems or software to accomplish the same goals so that the exit costs associated with changing suppliers will be lower.
Advances in information technology make it possible to provide mass customization and design numerous products to fit individual customer preferences (Istook, 2002; Liechty, Ramaswamy & Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. , 2001; Zipkin, 2001). As mentioned earlier, one such company, Levi Strauss, has found that mass-customization is definitely a viable option for satisfying customer needs (Miller, 1995). Due to the rising cost of labor and ever-increasing level of imports, U.S. clothing and textile manufacturers are seeking alternative options for differentiating their products and maintaining their share of the market (Istook, 2002). However, firms struggle with the issue of increasing product lines to satisfy customer demands, yet managing the diseconomies associated with such a broad product scope (Dobson & Yano, 2002). Thus, Bhatt (2001) countered that although an industry was information intensive, this did not automatically imply new product and service innovations. Rather, EDI would influence customer responsiveness to sharing information across multiple firms (Bhatt, 2001).
P6 Computerization will lead to more product proliferation with an increase in custom-made products.
METHOD AND RESULTS
Hundreds of individuals responded to the Internet conference including some from the St. Louis Council of Logistics. They were introduced to the Internet article and encouraged to respond at Logistic meetings.
Internet Qualitative Research Qualitative research
Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections.
Analysis of Internet postings can be considered a form of qualitative research. Qualitative research consists of research procedures that produce descriptive data; the subjects' own written or spoken words and observable behavior. This conference allowed subjects to input written comments from a global audience on a particular topic. Recently, due to cost considerations and a realization that big samples do not necessarily produce accurate findings, qualitative research has reemerged and much of it using the Internet. In fact, Trachtenberg, (1987) suggested that the reason for the success of Japanese companies may be partly attributable to their use of more qualitative research techniques. Qualitative research is a method to engage subjects in conversation on their terms, thus making it an effective exploratory research Exploratory research is a type of research conducted because a problem has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. method.
Individuals were encouraged by the author to visit the website or, coincidentally, found it while searching the MCB (Memory Control Block) An identifier (16 bytes) that DOS places in front of each block of memory it allocates. publication website <ww.mcb.co.uk/>. They were encouraged to register and e-mail comments to the posted article. The article explained that the conference was in response to the vast shift in logistics management Logistics Management is that part of Supply Chain Management that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective, forward, and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet toward utilization of electronic data interchange and automatic data collection. The described movement in industry required additional theoretical underpinnings and distillation of procedural knowledge Procedural knowledge is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. See below for the specific meaning of this term in cognitive psychology and intellectual property law. . The article also explained that procedures for instituting EDI linkages and a new paradigm for distribution management would be developed based on results from the Internet conference sponsored by the Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing. The conference paper presented twelve theoretical hypotheses and procedural guidelines for improved logistical linkages. Six of the hypotheses received enough support to consider as new propositions (Appendix).
Approximately 1,498 individuals posted comments on the conference web site and an unknown number of others read all or portions of the Internet conference. Although a large audience commented upon a few concepts, they did not contribute new concepts to those already listed. Generally, respondents felt that EDI and ADC were valuable tools that would increasingly become a necessity for potential players in the world marketplace (Appendix).
A request was made for comments regarding the six propositions of the lead paper. Results indicated that, in regards to proposition one, "The higher the level of uniqueness of the EDI-Inventory system for a channel of distribution, the higher the political exit costs for channel members," 93% of respondents agreed with this proposition and only 7% disagreed that it was true. Proposition two, which stated that, "The more unique and individualized the EDI-Inventory system, the more power the channel leader will possess over other channel members," found that only 75% agreed with this statement while 25% disagreed. Proposition three stated that, "EDI-Inventory systems will provide consumers with more value for their purchases. The distribution system will become more efficient as EDI expands. As EDI/ADC expands, consumers will demand this level of value and service of all firms." This proposition was unanimously accepted by all respondents. Only 3.5% of respondents disagreed to Proposition four which stated that, "Retailers will be inclined to join channels with manufacturers who can deliver more computerized custom-made products efficiently, than manufacturers who cannot customize," all others respondents agreed to the statement. Proposition five found that 86% agreed with the statement, "Major retailers will encourage the development of common EDI-Inventory control systems or software to accomplish the same goals so that the exit costs associated with changing suppliers will be lower," while 14% disagreed. Proposition six revealed that only 3.5% disagreed with the statement that, "Computerization will lead to more product proliferation with an increase in custom-made products," while 93% agreed and 3.5% were unsure.
Some respondents felt that Proposition two was not true because advances in technology will allow for greater interchangeableness of systems and connectivity of different systems and software. Others felt that a truly unique system would make usage more complicated. It would make it harder for customers and channel members to utilize and benefit from the individualized system. A standard EDI system, similar to other channels of distribution, would be recommended. Also, the higher cost associated with exiting the system would hinder companies from joining a channel with very unique EDI systems. Others had a "qualified yes" for Proposition two if the compatibility of the unique systems really worked well. Some felt that custom-made products would greatly proliferate because of the increased information flow created by EDI/ADC. Some respondents indicated that it would take a long time for the third proposition to eventually take affect in the marketplace. Demand for higher levels of product services would take a number of years to be fulfilled.
RECOMMENDED PROCEDURAL IMPROVEMENTS FOR FUTURE INTERNET-BASED STUDIES
Those posting comments did not always display expertise but were interested in the topic and produced reasonable levels of constructive feedback regarding the study. Some of the comments that were received regarding the Web-based data collection method included:
1. The purpose should be to showcase works to a wide audience, normally wider than most journal readership, amongst interested parties in academia, students as well as faculty, and amongst industry executives. Therefore, substantial promotion of the website and its purposes are recommended.
2. The convener should assume the role of master of ceremonies or moderator more forcefully introducing topics, drawing attention to areas of controversy, and specifically inviting responses from the visitors and those posting articles.
3. Surfers must be encouraged to comment on specific concepts and each other's responses generating greater interaction and creativity of new concepts.
4. A strong opening article is essential. A researcher cannot expect surfers and others to develop the concepts. Totally new concepts from observers would be welcome but not essential to generate discussion.
5. At the end of the conference period, the convener should count and summarize the results as in any other qualitative study.
Figure three is a full drawing of the model including a short summation of the three propositions that received the highest support and acceptance from the global respondents to the electronic conference. Proposition three garnered unanimous support from conference respondents. Proposition four had the second highest level of support. Proposition one received the third highest level of acceptance and is the third item on the model. The political realities of the channel members, the outer ring of the model, are a limiting factor A factor or condition that, either temporarily or permanently, impedes mission accomplishment. Illustrative examples are transportation network deficiencies, lack of in-place facilities, malpositioned forces or materiel, extreme climatic conditions, distance, transit or overflight rights, . Managers will resist change, therefore, the political realities of the varying channel members must be considered. Thus, the political economic paradigm must be considered an environmental limiting factor. The channels of distribution can best be linked for efficiency among members externally by EDI and internally by ADC (Figure 3). This sharing and linking of data should heavily influence conditions associated with the exit costs. Pressure from competitors and customers for faster order cycles and customization of products will act as a bond to encourage close channel cooperation when EDI/ADC is working effectively. Also, when unique EDI/ADC systems raise the costs of exiting the system, they act as a bond to strengthen the channel relationships.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION
The business and its trading partners must discuss and decide upon the overall strategic objectives and standards that the EDI system is to follow. Product related customer service and possibly, product customization, will become high priority concerns in the future. Further, the EDI standard should be consistent with the needs of all channel members and possibly the final customer as well. Data transmissions set the "format of electronic transactions, ensuring the verifiability and audit-ability of each" (Tageldin, 1994). These standards work as the engines of EDI by transforming data into a format that is understood by all computer systems in the channel, however, they "must be consistent with the needs of all interested parties" (Ali, 1994).
Once the system is running properly and efficiently, the business can expand the system. EDI conversion should start with a narrow focus to diminish political resistance and then expand as workers adjust to the new systems. Additional trading partners and transaction sets can be acquired to improve and strengthen the system (Cannon, 1993). The firm's "high-tech communications" capability can be used as a marketing and promotional selling point selling point
An aspect of a product or service that is stressed in advertising or marketing.
Noun 1. selling point - a characteristic of something that is up for sale that makes it attractive to potential customers . This will help the channel members realize greater economies of scale and many other EDI benefits. These benefits can be used to attract other channel members and hold them in the system.
Marketing theory has been moving in the direction of increased channel cooperation, relationship marketing and a need for special alliances like the Japanese keiretsu keiretsu: see zaibatsu.
In Japan, a strong alliance of related organizations that shares knowledge and cooperates to control its sector of the business, including the supply chain and distribution. . In Leenders and Blenkhorn's (1988) book regarding reverse marketing, they described the advantages of greater cooperation and integration of suppliers into a major system. EDI is expected to energize en·er·gize
v. en·er·gized, en·er·giz·ing, en·er·giz·es
1. To give energy to; activate or invigorate: "His childhood these new and improved channel structures and alliances thus necessitating further investigation.
It is critical that all channel members in the merchandise flow are capable of both making the connections and handling the EDI system. Thus, before application of EDI, businesses must confirm that there are "mature information technology systems at both ends of the transaction and that both systems are well equipped for transmission" (Ali, 1994, p. 17). It is imperative to ensure the integrity, reliability and operability Operability is the ability to keep a system in a functioning and operating condition. In a computing systems environment with multiple systems this includes the ability of products, systems and business processes to work together to accomplish a common task such as finding and of the existing and planned environments before the implementation of EDI. EDI will not improve ill-conceived business procedures and will not refurbish poorly designed systems. In fact, the introduction of EDI into an unstable channel environment will probably worsen the situation by accelerating the rate of information transfer. Eventually, poorly designed systems will become overburdened and fail (Ali, 1994 p. 17).
Before implementing EDI, both the initiating business and its trading partners must have a well-structured business environment with current and stable information technology systems. Implementation of ADC and EDI as part of the corporate strategy is a challenge. The business must understand the time and costs involved in implementation and the extent of impact it will have on the business functions. All corporate levels in the organization will absorb the pressure of preparing the business to implement an EDI system. Therefore, it is a major political and economic decision for all firms involved as shown by the model and will require everyone's complete cooperation and effort. The first step is to receive top level corporate support. One way to build corporate support is through third party, corporate-wide presentations to educate the company. Once the presentations have been conducted, the organization should schedule additional meetings to determine if EDI is right for them. Throughout these meetings, they should discuss issues that could become implementation obstacles and answer questions regarding application of the technology to business processes.
Next, approval should be sought for the EDI project and funding (Cannon, 1993). Once the EDI project has been approved, the next step is to establish a trading relationship with the businesses that will participate in the EDI exchange (Porter, 1990). Power retailers are politically and economically forcing these reforms on channel members. Although portions of past theory and empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received" support some aspects of this model, the relationships proposed in this model demand further empirical examination. Further, the conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: and proposed propositions in this model demand further anecdotal analysis relative to distribution issues.
Ali, M. F. (1994). Electronic Data Interchange--A Management Primer. CMA CMA - Concert Multithread Architecture from DEC. Magazine, 68, 16.
Angeles, R. & R. Nath (2001). Partner Congruence con·gru·ence
a. Agreement, harmony, conformity, or correspondence.
b. An instance of this: "What an extraordinary congruence of genius and era" in Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)-Enabled Relationships. Journal of Business Logistics, 22(2), 109-127.
Auguston, K. (1995). How EDI Helps us Clear the Dock Every Day. Modern Materials Handling Modern Materials Handling (ISSN-0026-8038) is a trade publication and web site owned by Reed Business Information serving the information needs of material handling professionals in both manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies. , 50, 46-47.
Bhatt, G. (2001). Business Process Improvement Through Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Systems: An Empirical Study. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 6(2), 60-73.
Bowersox, D. & M. B. Cooper (1992). Strategic Marketing Channel Management New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : McGraw-Hill
Burnell, J. (1995). Grocery Industry Feeling Deja vu See DjVu. . Automatic I.D. News, 52-54.
Cannon, E. (1993). EDI Guide: A Step by Step Approach, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Ann arbor Ann Arbor, city (1990 pop. 109,592), seat of Washtenaw co., S Mich., on the Huron River; inc. 1851. It is a research and educational center, with a large number of government and industrial research and development firms, many in high-technology fields such as , MI: University of Michigan (body, education) University of Michigan - A large cosmopolitan university in the Midwest USA. Over 50000 students are enrolled at the University of Michigan's three campuses. The students come from 50 states and over 100 foreign countries. Institute for Social Research.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), previously known as the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), is a federal agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) that administers the Medicare program and (CMS). The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. 16 October 2002. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2 June 2003 http://cms.hhs.gov/hipaa/.
Chan, C. & P. M. C. Swatman (2000). From EDI to Internet Commerce: The BHP Steel Experience. Internet Research This article is about using the Internet for research; for the field of research about the Internet, see Internet studies.
Internet research is the practice of using the Internet, especially the World Wide Web, for research. , 10(1), 72-92.
Chen, J. C. & B. C. Williams (1998). The Impact of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) on SMEs: Summary of Eight British Case Studies. Journal of Small Business Management, 36(4), 68-72.
Cottrill, K. (1997). The supply chain of the future. Distribution, 96(11), 52-54.
Drazga, B. (2000). Electronic Data Interchange. Energy Markets, 28-32.
Drucker, P. (1988). The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review Harvard Business Review is a general management magazine published since 1922 by Harvard Business School Publishing, owned by the Harvard Business School. A monthly research-based magazine written for business practitioners, it claims a high ranking business readership and , 66(1), 45-53.
Dhillon, G. & M. Caldeira (2000). Interpreting the Adoption and Use of EDI in the Portuguese Clothing and Textile. Industry Information Management & Computer Security, 8(4), 184-188
Dobson, G. & C. A. Yano (2002). Product-Offering, Pricing and Make-to-Stock/Make-to-Order Decisions with Shared Capacity. Production and Operations Management Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. , 11(3), 293-312.
Dyson, E. (1992). Friendly Invoices. Forbes, 150(14), 308.
Fine, C. H., R. Vardan, R. Pethick, & J. E-Hout (2002). Rapid-Response Capability in Value-Chain Design. Sloan Management Review, 43(2), 69-75.
Hart, P. J. & C. S. Saunders (1998). Emerging Electronic Partnerships: Antecedents and Dimensions of EDI Use from the Supplier's Perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems The Journal of Management Information Systems (JMIS) is an academic journal that publishes original peer-reviewed research articles in the areas of Information Systems and Information Technology. , 14(4), 87-111.
Heide, J.B. & G. John (1990). Alliances in Industrial Purchasing: The Determinants of Joint Action in Buyer-Supplier Relationships. Journal of Marketing Research, 27, 24-36.
Hill, N. & M. Swenson (1994).Sales Technology Applications: The Impact of Electronic Data Interchange on the Sales Function. The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management Sales Management Role and Goal
Importance of sales management is critical for any commercial organization. Expanding business in not possible without increasing sales volumes, and effective sales management goal is to organize sales team work in such a manner that ensures a , 14(4), 79-84.
Istook, C. (2002). Enabling Mass Customization: Computer-driven Alteration Methods, International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 14(1), 61-76.
Keen, P. Excerpt from Every Manager's Guide to Information Technology: A Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts for Today's Business Leader Second Ed. Boston: Harvard Business School Harvard Business School, officially named the Harvard Business School: George F. Baker Foundation, and also known as HBS, is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. Press, 1999, 01 July 2003 http://www.peterkeen.com/emgit005.htm.
Kopczak, L. R. & M. E. Johnson (2003). The Supply-Chain management Effect. MIT Sloan Management Review MIT Sloan Management Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering all management disciplines, although its particular emphasis is on corporate strategy, leadership and management of technology and innovation. , 44(3), 27-34.
Jenkins, G. (1994). Understanding Electronic Commerce. CMA Magazine, 68(5), 11.
Kessler, A. (1994). Fire Your Purchasing Managers. Forbes, 154, 33.
Kumar, R., & C. Crook (1996). Educating Senior Management on the Strategic Benefits of EDI. Journal of Systems Management, 47(2), 42-48.
Lacovou, C. L., I. Benbasat, & A. Dexter (1995). Electronic Data Interchange and Small Organizations: Adoption and Impact of Technology. MIS Quarterly, 19(4), 465-485.
Larson, P. D. & J. D. Kulchitsky (2000). The Use and Impact of Communication Media in Purchasing and Supply Purchasing and Supply can have several different definitions. According to the Institute for Supply Management (ISM) , purchasing is defined as a major function of an organization that is responsible for acquisition of required materials, services, and equipment. Management. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 36(3), 29-39.
Lauer, T. W. (2000). Side Effects Side effects
Effects of a proposed project on other parts of the firm. of Mandatory EDI Order Processing in the Automotive Supply Chain. Business Process Management Journal, 6(5), 366-375.
Leenders, M. & D. Blenkhorn (1988). Reverse Marketing the New Buyer Supplier Relationship. New York: The Free Press.
Liechty, J., V. Ramaswamy, & S. H. Cohen (2001). Choice Menus for Mass Customization: An Experimental Approach for Analyzing Customer Demand with an Application to a Web-Based Information Service. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(2), 183-196.
Meyer, C. & D. Power (1989). Enterprise Disintegration: The Storm Before The Calm Commentary. Lexington, MA: Tample, Barker and Sloane. Miller, C. (1995). Gaze Into the Crystal Ball for 95 and Beyond Marketing News, 29(3), 910.
Mulligan, R. (1999). EDI in Foreign Trade: A Perspective on Change and Harmonisation Logistics Information Management, 12(4), 299-308.
Oliva, R. (2002). Way Beyond Web Sites. Marketing Management, 11(6), 46-48.
Pfeffer, J. & G. R. Salancik (1978). The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. New York: Harper and Row.
Porter, R. (1990). The Basics of Electronic Data Interchange. Purchasing, 109(3), 26-28.
Premeaux, S. R. (2002). Motor Carrier Selection Criteria: Perceptual Differences Between Shippers and Motor Carriers. Transportation Journal, 42(2), 28-38.
Quinn, F. J. (1991). Why you Should Know About EDI. Logistics Management, 30(7), 45-48.
Rockart, J. & J. Short (1989). IT in the 1990s: Managing Organizational Interdependence. Sloan Management Review, 30(2), 7-17.
Savage, C. (1990). Fifth Generation Management. Boston: Digital Press.
Sawabini, S. (2001). EDI and the Internet. The Journal of Business Strategy, 22(1), 42-43.
Sohal, A. S., D. J. Power, & M. Terziovski (2002). Integrated Supply Chain Management from the Wholesaler's Perspective: Two Australian Case Studies, 32(2), 96-109.
Tageldin, S. (1994). Taking Advantage of EDI. American City and County, 109(11), 12.
Teo, H.H., K.K. Wei, & I. Benbasat (2003) Predicting Intention to Adopt Interorganizational Linkages: An Institutional Perspective. MIS Quarterly, 27(1), 19-49.
Towill, D. R. (1997). The Seamless Supply Chain--The Predators. Strategic Advantage International Journal of the Techniques of Manufacturing, 13(1), 37-56.
Trachtenberg, J. A. (1987). Listening, the Old-Fashioned Way. Forbes, 140(7), 202-204.
Whipple, J. M. & R. Frankel. (2000). Strategic Alliance Success Factors. The Journal of Supply Chain Management, 36(3), 21- 28.
Williams, L. R. (1994). Understanding Distribution Channels: An Interorganizational. Journal of Business Logistics, 15(2), 173-204.
Williams, L. R., G.D. Magee & Y. Suzuki (1998). A Multidimensional View of EDI: Testing the Value of EDI Participation to Firms. Journal of Business Logistics, 19(2), 73-87.
Zipkin, P. (2001). The Limits of Mass Customization. MIT Sloan Management Review, 42(3), 81- 86.
James E. Ricks, Southeast Missouri State University Missouri State University is a state university located in Springfield, Missouri. It is the state's second largest university in student enrollment, second only to the University of Missouri. From 1972 to 2005, Missouri State was known as Southwest Missouri State University.
Dana Schwieger, Southeast Missouri State University
APPENDIX Proposition Agree Oppose P1 The higher the level of uniqueness of the EDI- 93% 7% Inventory system for a channel of distribution, the higher the political exit costs for channel members. P2 The more unique and individualized the EDI- 75% 25% Inventory system, the more power the channel leader will possess over other channel members. P3 EDI-Inventory systems will provide consumers 100% 0% with more value for their purchases. The distribution system will become more efficient as EDI expands. As EDI/ADC expands, consumers will demand this level of value and service of all firms. P4 Retailers will be inclined to join channels with 96.5% 3.5% manufacturers who can deliver more computerized custom-made products efficiently, than manufacturers who cannot customize. P5 Major retailers will encourage the development 86% 14% of common EDI-Inventory control systems or software to accomplish the same goals so that the exit costs associated with changing suppliers will be lower. P6 Computerization will lead to more product 93.3% 3.5% proliferation with an increase in custom-made 3.5% products. unsure Figure 2: Major Components of Political Economy Relations to the Internal Structure and Environment Environment Processes POLITY Political Relations Internal Polity Dependence relations Goals of the social Interorganizational form unit Control mechanisms Distribution of power Power bases Boundary-spanning positions Mechanisms for managing conflicts Characteristics of the Environment Proximity Capacity Differentiation ECONOMY Concentration Economic Relations Internal Economy Turbulence Competitive markets Structure of the Quasi-integrated systems social unit Integrated vertical Internal exchange marketing systems processes Allocation rules Source: (Arndt 1983) Incentive systems