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Development of a questionnaire for determining the factors in technology integration among teachers.



This paper uses the data from a survey among school teachers to conduct a series of factor analysis to test the reliability of a set of items to determine the factors deemed important in technology integration among teachers. The results suggest that there are specific dimensions of items that can be used to determine the factors perceived per·ceive  
tr.v. per·ceived, per·ceiv·ing, per·ceives
1. To become aware of directly through any of the senses, especially sight or hearing.

2. To achieve understanding of; apprehend.
 by teachers as important for technology integration into their classrooms. Five clusters of factors were identified, including: Social Impact, Curriculum Concerns, Interest & Experience, and Personal Need.

*********

Although current teaching practice welcomes technology into the seamless See seamless integration.  curriculum of our schools, teachers' attitudes toward the infusion INFUSION, med. jur. A pharmaceutical operation, which consists in pouring a hot or cold fluid upon a substance, whose medical properties it is desired to extract. Infusion is also used for the product of this operation. Although infusion differs from decoction, (q.v.  of technology into schools is still playing an important role in classroom integration of technology (Demetriadis et al., 2003). Teachers' beliefs are essential in considering how a teacher teaches, thinks, and learns. Teachers' perception as to the use of computer technology influences their teaching philosophy (Sugar, Crawley Crawley, city (1991 pop. 80,113) and district, West Sussex, SE England. Crawley was designated one of the new towns in 1946 to alleviate overpopulation in London. There are diverse industries, including precision engineering, printing, plastics, and food processing.  & Fine, 2004).

As also observed, educators increasingly recognize that in order to teach creatively, teachers need to shift from traditional teaching toward approaches that help students incorporate technology into their learning. However, such a transformation of curriculum and pedagogy is a complex task for teachers who must develop new knowledge, skills and beliefs (Wiske, Sick, and Wirsig, 2001). Although much effort has also been made in preparing teachers to use technology with learning and teaching, teachers might approach technology with different perspectives (Farnsworth Farns·worth   , Philo Taylor 1906-1971.

American electrical engineer who as early as 1927 demonstrated a working television system.
, et al., 2002). School settings and administrative support provided to support individual need of training and implementation are essential considerations in technology integration (Gray, 2001). In addition, social and curricular issues, such as spiritual and physical support from the community, and fulfillment ful·fill also ful·fil  
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.

2.
 of curriculum needs are all important concerns (Shayo, Olfman, & Guthrie Guth·rie   , Woodrow Wilson Known as "Woody." 1912-1967.

American folk singer and composer of numerous songs about hardship and social injustice, including "This Land Is Your Land" (1940).

Noun 1.
, 2000).

A previous study (ChanLin, 2003) employed an in-depth in-depth
adj.
Detailed; thorough: an in-depth study.


in-depth
Adjective

detailed or thorough: an in-depth analysis

 approach to assess teachers' perception about approaching technology among a group of creative teachers. It was observed that teachers with creative teaching techniques are supposed to be more explorative, and positive about how technology is used in classroom. However, most of these teachers still felt that incorporating new technology into classroom requires suitable training. Technical and administrative support or systematic incentives from schools are also critical considerations. Various personal issues, such as the teachers' ability to overcome possible technical problems and to handle technology effectively have impacted on teachers' intentions of implementing technology into their teaching. From the study, 29 items from environment, curriculum, personal, and social aspects were identified (ChanLin, 2003).

As a continuation of the previous study, the purpose of the study was to identify: (1). What were the main factors perceived by teachers as being important to technology integration into classrooms, and (2) What were the constructs of each factor in technology integration? It is suggested that it is possible to construct some specific aspects of the factors of the technology integration in school teaching. The factors being measured might not be necessarily technologically determined. instead, more fundamental concerns of the teacher-technology interaction in the education setting would be identified.

Method

A questionnaire originally containing 29 items focusing on various aspects from environmental, personal, social and curricular issues related to technology integration was used in this study. The items used to construct the scale were derived from previous research (ChanLin, 2003). From the questionnaire, the Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc  ranging from "Strongly disagree" (1 point) to "Strongly agree" (5 points) was used to indicate teachers' agreement on the factors that were important to their approach to technology integration. Data from Three hundred and sixty three teachers were gathered and coded for factor analysis to determine the influential factors perceived by teachers in technology integration into their classrooms. In the study, Principle Component Analysis using Quartimax rotation was employed. Selection criteria for extracting questionnaire items: eigenvalue eigenvalue

In mathematical analysis, one of a set of discrete values of a parameter, k, in an equation of the form Lx = kx. Such characteristic equations are particularly useful in solving differential equations, integral equations, and systems of
 greater than 1.00 and commonality com·mon·al·i·ty  
n. pl. com·mon·al·i·ties
1.
a. The possession, along with another or others, of a certain attribute or set of attributes: a political movement's commonality of purpose.
 loading higher than 0.5. The general process of factor analysis involves the following steps: (1) select the variables to be analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

3.
, (2) compute To perform mathematical operations or general computer processing. For an explanation of "The 3 C's," or how the computer processes data, see computer.  the correlation matrix Noun 1. correlation matrix - a matrix giving the correlations between all pairs of data sets
statistics - a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population
 and determine whether or not to proceed with factor analysis, (3) estimate communalities, (4) rotate the factor axes axes

[L., Gr.] plural of axis. The straight lines which intersect at right angles and on which graphs are drawn. Usually the horizontal axis is the x-axis and the vertical one the y-axis. Called also axes of reference.
, and (5) explain the factors. The factor analyses Verb 1. factor analyse - to perform a factor analysis of correlational data
factor analyze

analyse, analyze - break down into components or essential features; "analyze today's financial market"
 were conducted for four rounds until all the extracted items met the criteria.

Results

Results of the factor analyses were based on the original 29 items that went through a series of selection process. From the analyses, 9 items were dropped, and 20 items were extracted for the final questionnaire items. Five major factors were elicited e·lic·it  
tr.v. e·lic·it·ed, e·lic·it·ing, e·lic·its
1.
a. To bring or draw out (something latent); educe.

b. To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.

2.
: Social Impact, Curriculum Concern, Environmental Support, Interest and Experience, and Personal Need. The accumulated ac·cu·mu·late  
v. ac·cu·mu·lat·ed, ac·cu·mu·lat·ing, ac·cu·mu·lates

v.tr.
To gather or pile up; amass. See Synonyms at gather.

v.intr.
To mount up; increase.
 variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.

In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality
 reached 62.436. The homogenity of each factor was examined using Cronbach alpha. The reliability analysis revealed that all factors of group role measurements seem to be satisfactory in terms of their reliability analysis of factors (Table 1).

Factor 1 was named "Social Impact" which refers to the influences from a teacher's social world, including peers, authorities, students, students parents, and social values. The items in "Social Impact" were clustered by the following items: "Support from peers (working companions, coworkers, colleagues)", "Attitudes of authorities (the principle or supervisor)", "Students' learning achievement, attitudes and responses", "Reactions from students' parents, or actions of support from students' families", and "Social value of using computer technology". From the Factor Analysis, the loading of each item was listed in Table 1. The Cronbach alpha for inter-item reliability test was 0.79.

Factor 2 was named "Curriculum Concerns" which refers to the considerations about how teachers integrated technology into their curriculum. The factor "Curriculum Concerns" was clustered by the following items: "Curricular objectives should be achieved", "Skills and need for literacy to be enhanced", "Assessment of students' performance", and "Adoption with existing teaching strategies". From the Factor Analysis, the loading of each item was listed in Table 1. Cronbach alpha for inter-item reliability test was 0.83.

Factor 3 was named "Environmental Support" which refers to the various support provided to teachers needed from the environment in which they teach. The factor "Environmental Support" was clustered by the following items: "Budget support", "Students' access to a computer and the Internet Internet

Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the
 at home", "Support and management of resources and manpower", and "Allocation The apportionment or designation of an item for a specific purpose or to a particular place.

In the law of trusts, the allocation of cash dividends earned by a stock that makes up the principal of a trust for a beneficiary usually means that the dividends will be treated as
 of time for using computer lab". From the Factor Analysis, the loading of each item was listed in Table 1. Cronbach alpha for inter-item reliability test was 0.83.

Factor 4 was named "Interest & Experience" which refers to the influences coming from the teachers' interest and experiences concerning computers and domain knowledge. The factor "Interest & Experience" was clustered by the following items: "Personal experience using technology", "Integration of computer technology with personal life style", "Interest in using computers", and "'Interest in the teaching domain". From the Factor Analysis, the loading of each item was listed in Table 1. The Cronbach alpha for inter-item reliability test was 0.77.

Factor 5 was named "Personal Need" which refers to a teacher's need from his/her family or himself/herself. The factor "Personal Need" was clustered by two items: "Support from the family" and "Personal growth". From the Factor Analysis, the loading of each item was listed in Table 1. The Cronbach alpha for inter-item reliability test was 0.70.

The correlations of factors were examined using Pearson Pear·son   , Lester Bowles 1897-1972.

Canadian politician who served as prime minister (1963-1968). He won the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in the negotiation of a solution to the Suez crisis (1956).
 Correlation analyses. All of the factors significantly correlated cor·re·late  
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates

v.tr.
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.

2.
 positively except for environmental support and personal need (r = 0.0904). Among these analyses, all of the correlations were significant at p < 0.01 level.

Discussion

An examination of teachers' perceived importance of educational technology is very necessary in exploring teachers' decisions about integrating technology into teaching. In presenting the findings of several different studies, Sugar, Crawley, & Fine (2004) have indicated that teachers' beliefs play an important role in the adoption of new technology. With this notion in mind, the study aimed to provide more reliable support for the questionnaire developed to examine teachers' perceived importance of the factors in technology integration. Based on 29 items constructed from previous research (ChanLin, 2003), three hundred and sixty three teachers filled out the questionnaire. Factor analyses extracted twenty one items and dropped nine items to form the final set of questionnaire items. Five major factors were elicited and named: "Social Impact", "Curriculum Concern", "Environmental Support", "Interest and Experience", and "Personal Need".

The results of this study help to support previous finding of ChanLin (2003), and also suggest that the integration of technology into teaching needs to be made more elaborate and must include a large array of parameters. Indeed, some of these parameters are not teachers' competence in using computers, but rather issues related to social, environmental, personal, and interest/experience aspects.

The first parameter (1) Any value passed to a program by the user or by another program in order to customize the program for a particular purpose. A parameter may be anything; for example, a file name, a coordinate, a range of values, a money amount or a code of some kind.  that needs to be measured is "Social Impact". Social issues relating to relating to relate prepconcernant

relating to relate prepbezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc 
 the use technology have been noted by Shayo, Olfman, & Guthrie (2000). Social values, social attitudes and support from a teacher's working community, including their authority, colleagues, students, and students' parents have the potential to impact on teachers' willingness to use technology. The following items refer to the social impact perceived by teachers as key elements in technology integration in classrooms.

* Support from peers (working companions, coworkers, colleagues)

* Attitudes of authorities (the principle or supervisor)

* Students' learning achievement, attitudes and responses

* Reactions from students' parents, or actions of support from students' families

* Technology trends and social change

* Social value of using computer technology

The second parameter that needs to be measured is "Curriculum Concerns". Curriculum issues concerning student learning objectives and achievement were the major concerns. Some literature has reported that when the use of computer did not closely match the required curriculum, teachers might be reluctant to integrate technology into their classroom (Wilson Wilson, city (1990 pop. 36,930), seat of Wilson co., E N.C., in a rich agricultural region; inc. 1849. It is a commercial and industrial center with a large tobacco market. Manufactures include textile goods (especially clothing), metal products, and processed foods. , Notar & Yunker Yunker Kotei Eki, Yunkeru Kotei Eki, (Japanese: ユンケル 黄帝液), is a health tonic produced by the Sato Pharmaceutical Corporation in Japan. , 2003). Curriculum issues related to skills that students are measured by and how technology can be adopted in existing teaching are both important considerations among teachers. The following items refer to the curriculum concerns perceived by teachers as key elements in technology integration into classrooms.

* Curricular objectives should be achieved

* Skills and need for literacy to be enhanced

* Assessment of students' performance

* Adoption with existing teaching strategies

The third parameter that needs to be measured is "Environmental Support". It was noted that the use of technology in the classroom requires creative and systematic blending of technologies to provide a pedagogical ped·a·gog·ic   also ped·a·gog·i·cal
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of pedagogy.

2. Characterized by pedantic formality: a haughty, pedagogic manner.
 tool for creating experiences for learning (Bednar, 2004). The following items refer to the environmental support perceived by teachers as key elements in technology integration into classrooms.

* Budget support

* Students' access to a computer and the Internet at home

* Support and management of resources and manpower

* Allocation of time for using computer lab

The fourth parameter that needs to be measured is "Interest & Experience". Technology integration into the classroom requires the development of appropriate practice in planning and the use of various technology tools. Teachers' interest and previously developed field-based experience is critical to technology integration (Bucci et al., 2003; Luan et al., 2005). The following items refer to interest and experiences perceived by teachers as key elements in technology integration into classrooms.

* Personal experience using technology

* Integration of computer technology with personal life style

* Interest in using computers

* Interest in the teaching domain

The filth Filth
See also Dirtiness.

Augean stables

held 3,000 oxen, uncleaned for 30 years; Hercules’ fifth labor: washes out dung by diverting a river. [Gk. and Rom. Myth.
 parameter that needs to be measured is "Personal Need". Research reveals that before teachers use technology they must be personally convinced of its benefits (Lam, 2000). Teachers' personal need from their learning personal world might have a potential impact on their approach to technology. The following items refer to personal need perceived by teachers as key elements in technology integration.

* Support from the family

* Interest in personal growth

Conclusion

The analysis presented in this study provides a more reliable construct of the questionnaire items used to measure teachers' perceived importance of the factors relevant to technology integration into classrooms. The items identified from this study include various aspects of the impact on teachers' perception toward technology adoption. They also serve as a way to provide insight for the implementation of technology integration and adoption.

In summary, this paper and the data offers a valid and reliable measurement of key factors that can serve as indicators for the assessment of teachers' perception about technology integration in teaching. The factor analysis revealed five factors: "Social Impact", "Curriculum Concern", "Environmental Support", "Interest and Experience", and "Personal Need". Among the factors, Interest & Experience is significantly correlated with social impact, curriculum concerns, environmental support, and personal need. The study results suggest that positive attitudes toward social, curriculum, and environmental supports, as well as the fulfillment of personal needs, are more likely to help teachers gain positive interest and experience in technology integration. By recognizing the importance of these factors, we can help create a more meaningful, vital and engaging teaching environment for teachers.

Acknowledgement

This paper is based on work that was supported by a grant form the National Science Council whose financial support is gratefully acknowledged.

References

Bednar, M. R. (2004). Idea technology and product technology: Seeing beyond the text to the technology that works. Voice From the Middle, 11(3), 34-37.

Bucci, T. T., Copenhaver, L. L., Lehman Lehman is a common Germanic surname derived from the German word Lehen, meaning fiefdom. It may refer to: Surnames
  • Bruce Lehman, American patent lawyer
  • David Lehman, American poetry editor
  • Ernest Lehman, American screenwriter
, B.& O'Brien O'Bri·en   , Edna Born 1932.

Irish writer whose works, including The Lonely Girl (1962) and Johnny I Hardly Knew You (1977), explore the lives of women in modern-day Ireland.

Noun 1.
, T. (2003). Technology integration: Connections to educational theories. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 3(1), 30-46.

ChanLin, L. (2003) Creative teaching and integration of technology into instruction. Taiwan Taiwan (tī`wän`), Portuguese Formosa, officially Republic of China, island nation (2005 est. pop. 22,894,000), 13,885 sq mi (35,961 sq km), in the Pacific Ocean, separated from the mainland of S China by the 100-mi-wide (161-km) Taiwan  NRC NRC
abbr.
1. National Research Council

2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Noun 1. NRC - an independent federal agency created in 1974 to license and regulate nuclear power plants
 Report: NSC NSC
abbr.
National Security Council

Noun 1. NSC - a committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on foreign and military and national security; supervises the Central Intelligence Agency
91-2522-S-030-001.

Demetriadis, S., Barbas For the Charmed character, see Barbas (Charmed). For the bishop and saint, see Barbatus of Benevento. For other persons named Barba, see Barba (disambiguation).

In demonology, Barbas is a demon described in the Ars Goetia, first section of King Solomon's grimoirea.
, A., Molohides, A., Palaigeorgiou, G., Psillos, D., Vlahavas, I., Tsoukalas, I., & Pombortsis, A. (2003). Culture in negotiation: teachers' acceptance/resistance attitudes considering the infusion of technology into schools. Computer & Education, 41, 19-37.

Farnsworth, B. J., Shaha, S. H., Bahr, D. L., Lewis, V.K., and Benson Benson may mean:

Places in England:
  • Benson, Oxfordshire
Places in the United States:
  • Benson, Arizona
  • Benson, Illinois
  • Benson, Minnesota
  • Benson, Nebraska
  • Benson, New York
  • Benson, North Carolina
  • Benson, Pennsylvania
, L.F. (2002). Preparing tomorrow's teachers to use technology: Learning and attitudinal impacts on elementary students. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29(3), 121-138.

Gray. K. C. (2001). Teachers' perceptions of innovation adoption. Action hi Teacher Education, 23(2), 30-35.

Lam, Y. (2000). Technophilia tech·no·phile  
n.
One who has a love of or enthusiasm for technology, especially computers and high technology: "Other technophiles see genetic engineering as a route to growth that is almost without end" 
 vs. technophobia: A preliminary look at why second-language teachers do do not use technology in their classrooms. Canadian Canadian (kənā`dēən), river, 906 mi (1,458 km) long, rising in NE New Mexico. and flowing E across N Texas and central Oklahoma into the Arkansas River in E Oklahoma.  Modern Language Review, 56(3). 390-420.

Luan, W. S., Fung, N. S., Nawawi, M., & Hong n. 1. A mercantile establishment or factory for foreign trade in China, as formerly at Canton; a succession of offices connected by a common passage and used for business or storage. , T. S. (2005). Experienced and inexperienced in·ex·pe·ri·ence  
n.
1. Lack of experience.

2. Lack of the knowledge gained from experience.



in
 Internet users Internet user ninternauta m/f

Internet user Internet ninternaute m/f 
 among pre-service teachers: Their use and attitudes toward the Internet. Educational Technology & Society, 8(1), 90-103.

Shayo, C., Olfman, L., & Guthrie, R. (2000). Integration of IT into the school curricula: Perceptions of kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be  to high school (K-12) teachers. Proceedings of the 2000 A CM SIGCPR SIGCPR Special Interest Group on Computer Personnel Research  Conference on Computer Personnel Research, 33-38.

Sugar, W., Crawley & Fine, B. (2004). Examining teachers' decisions to adopt new technology. Educational Technology and Society, 7(4), 201-213.

Wilson, J. & Notar, C. (2003). Use of computers by secondary teachers: A report from a university service area. Education, 123(4), 695-704.

Wiske, M. S., Sick, M., &.

Dr. ChanLin is Professor, Department of Library & Information Science, Fu-Jen Catholic University.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. ChanLin, Professor, Department of Library & Information Science, 510 Chung-Chen Road, Hsin-Chuang 24205, Taipei Taipei (tībā`), city (1995 est. pop. 2,632,863), N Taiwan, capital of Taiwan and provisional capital of the Republic of China. Taiwan's largest city, it is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the island. , Taiwan; Email: lins1005@mails.fju.edu See .edu.

(networking) edu - ("education") The top-level domain for educational establishments in the USA (and some other countries). E.g. "mit.edu". The UK equivalent is "ac.uk".
.tw
Table 1

Factor Analysis of Technology Integration

                                                        Accumulated
Item                                          Loading   Variance (%)

Factor 1: Social Impact

Support from peers (working                   0.625     14.091
  companions, coworkers, colleagues)
Attitudes of authorities (the                 0.694
  principle or supervisor)
Students' learning achievement,               0.580
  attitudes, and responses
Reactions from students' parents,
  or actions of support from                  0.564
   students' families
Technology trends and social change           0.730
Social value of using computer technology     0.677

Factor 2: Curriculum Concerns

Curricular objectives should be achieved      0.791     28.115
Skills and need for literacy to be enhanced   0.793
Assessment of students' performance           0.766
Adoption with existing teaching strategies    0.699

Factor 3: Environmental Support

Budget support                                0.769     41.459
Students' access to a computer and            0.666
  the Internet at home
Support and management of resources           0.835
  and manpower
Allocation of time for using computer lab     0.775

Factor 4: Interest & Experience

Personal experience using technology          0.651     53.987
Integration of computer technology            0.677
  with personal life
Interest in using computers                   0.769
Interest in the teaching domain               0.670

Factor 5: Personal need

Support from the family                       0.822     62.436
Interest in personal growth                   0.807

                             List of Dropped Items

Item                                          Failure to Meet
                                              Selection Criteria

Computer facilities (hardware & software)     Commonality Loading <0.5
Opportunity for in-service training           Commonality Loading <0.5
Incentives policy                             Commonality Loading <0.5
Resource support from community               Commonality Loading <0.5
Teaching load: time and effort to             Eigenvalue <1
  prepare classes
Nature of the learning subject: use           Eigenvalue <1
  of technology  and its' relation
   to learning
Control of using technology: easy or          Eigenvalue <1
  difficult to be handled
The level of integration                      Eigenvalue <1
Better achievement from use of technology     Eigenvalue <1

Table 2

Pearson Correlation Analysis Among Factors

                        Social     Curriculum   Environmental
Factor                  Impact     Concerns     Support

Social Impact           1.000      0.548 **     0.366 **
Curriculum Concerns     0.548 **   1.000        0.308 **
Environmental Support   0.366 **   0.308 **     1.000
Interest & Experience   0.432 **   0.441 **     0.394 **
Personal Need           0.216 **   0.141 **     0.094

                        Interest &   Personal
Factor                  Experience   Need

Social Impact           0.432 **     0.216 **
Curriculum Concerns     0.441 **     0.141 **
Environmental Support   0.394 **     0.094
Interest & Experience   1.000        0.319 **
Personal Need           0.319 **     1.000

** Significant level; p<0.01
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Title Annotation:educational psychology research; includes statistical tables
Author:ChanLin, Lih-Juan
Publication:Journal of Instructional Psychology
Date:Dec 1, 2005
Words:2838
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