Development of a questionnaire for determining the factors in technology integration among teachers.
Although current teaching practice welcomes technology into the seamless curriculum of our schools, teachers' attitudes toward the infusion of technology into schools is still playing an important role in classroom integration of technology (Demetriadis et al., 2003). Teachers' beliefs are essential in considering how a teacher teaches, thinks, and learns. Teachers' perception as to the use of computer technology influences their teaching philosophy (Sugar, Crawley & Fine, 2004).
As also observed, educators increasingly recognize that in order to teach creatively, teachers need to shift from traditional teaching toward approaches that help students incorporate technology into their learning. However, such a transformation of curriculum and pedagogy is a complex task for teachers who must develop new knowledge, skills and beliefs (Wiske, Sick, and Wirsig, 2001). Although much effort has also been made in preparing teachers to use technology with learning and teaching, teachers might approach technology with different perspectives (Farnsworth, et al., 2002). School settings and administrative support provided to support individual need of training and implementation are essential considerations in technology integration (Gray, 2001). In addition, social and curricular issues, such as spiritual and physical support from the community, and fulfillment of curriculum needs are all important concerns (Shayo, Olfman, & Guthrie, 2000).
A previous study (ChanLin, 2003) employed an in-depth approach to assess teachers' perception about approaching technology among a group of creative teachers. It was observed that teachers with creative teaching techniques are supposed to be more explorative, and positive about how technology is used in classroom. However, most of these teachers still felt that incorporating new technology into classroom requires suitable training. Technical and administrative support or systematic incentives from schools are also critical considerations. Various personal issues, such as the teachers' ability to overcome possible technical problems and to handle technology effectively have impacted on teachers' intentions of implementing technology into their teaching. From the study, 29 items from environment, curriculum, personal, and social aspects were identified (ChanLin, 2003).
As a continuation of the previous study, the purpose of the study was to identify: (1). What were the main factors perceived by teachers as being important to technology integration into classrooms, and (2) What were the constructs of each factor in technology integration? It is suggested that it is possible to construct some specific aspects of the factors of the technology integration in school teaching. The factors being measured might not be necessarily technologically determined. instead, more fundamental concerns of the teacher-technology interaction in the education setting would be identified.
A questionnaire originally containing 29 items focusing on various aspects from environmental, personal, social and curricular issues related to technology integration was used in this study. The items used to construct the scale were derived from previous research (ChanLin, 2003). From the questionnaire, the Likert scale ranging from "Strongly disagree" (1 point) to "Strongly agree" (5 points) was used to indicate teachers' agreement on the factors that were important to their approach to technology integration. Data from Three hundred and sixty three teachers were gathered and coded for factor analysis to determine the influential factors perceived by teachers in technology integration into their classrooms. In the study, Principle Component Analysis using Quartimax rotation was employed. Selection criteria for extracting questionnaire items: eigenvalue greater than 1.00 and commonality loading higher than 0.5. The general process of factor analysis involves the following steps: (1) select the variables to be analyzed, (2) compute the correlation matrix and determine whether or not to proceed with factor analysis, (3) estimate communalities, (4) rotate the factor axes, and (5) explain the factors. The factor analyses were conducted for four rounds until all the extracted items met the criteria.
Results of the factor analyses were based on the original 29 items that went through a series of selection process. From the analyses, 9 items were dropped, and 20 items were extracted for the final questionnaire items. Five major factors were elicited: Social Impact, Curriculum Concern, Environmental Support, Interest and Experience, and Personal Need. The accumulated variance reached 62.436. The homogenity of each factor was examined using Cronbach alpha. The reliability analysis revealed that all factors of group role measurements seem to be satisfactory in terms of their reliability analysis of factors (Table 1).
Factor 1 was named "Social Impact" which refers to the influences from a teacher's social world, including peers, authorities, students, students parents, and social values. The items in "Social Impact" were clustered by the following items: "Support from peers (working companions, coworkers, colleagues)", "Attitudes of authorities (the principle or supervisor)", "Students' learning achievement, attitudes and responses", "Reactions from students' parents, or actions of support from students' families", and "Social value of using computer technology". From the Factor Analysis, the loading of each item was listed in Table 1. The Cronbach alpha for inter-item reliability test was 0.79.
Factor 2 was named "Curriculum Concerns" which refers to the considerations about how teachers integrated technology into their curriculum. The factor "Curriculum Concerns" was clustered by the following items: "Curricular objectives should be achieved", "Skills and need for literacy to be enhanced", "Assessment of students' performance", and "Adoption with existing teaching strategies". From the Factor Analysis, the loading of each item was listed in Table 1. Cronbach alpha for inter-item reliability test was 0.83.
Factor 3 was named "Environmental Support" which refers to the various support provided to teachers needed from the environment in which they teach. The factor "Environmental Support" was clustered by the following items: "Budget support", "Students' access to a computer and the Internet at home", "Support and management of resources and manpower", and "Allocation of time for using computer lab". From the Factor Analysis, the loading of each item was listed in Table 1. Cronbach alpha for inter-item reliability test was 0.83.
Factor 4 was named "Interest & Experience" which refers to the influences coming from the teachers' interest and experiences concerning computers and domain knowledge. The factor "Interest & Experience" was clustered by the following items: "Personal experience using technology", "Integration of computer technology with personal life style", "Interest in using computers", and "'Interest in the teaching domain". From the Factor Analysis, the loading of each item was listed in Table 1. The Cronbach alpha for inter-item reliability test was 0.77.
Factor 5 was named "Personal Need" which refers to a teacher's need from his/her family or himself/herself. The factor "Personal Need" was clustered by two items: "Support from the family" and "Personal growth". From the Factor Analysis, the loading of each item was listed in Table 1. The Cronbach alpha for inter-item reliability test was 0.70.
The correlations of factors were examined using Pearson Correlation analyses. All of the factors significantly correlated positively except for environmental support and personal need (r = 0.0904). Among these analyses, all of the correlations were significant at p < 0.01 level.
An examination of teachers' perceived importance of educational technology is very necessary in exploring teachers' decisions about integrating technology into teaching. In presenting the findings of several different studies, Sugar, Crawley, & Fine (2004) have indicated that teachers' beliefs play an important role in the adoption of new technology. With this notion in mind, the study aimed to provide more reliable support for the questionnaire developed to examine teachers' perceived importance of the factors in technology integration. Based on 29 items constructed from previous research (ChanLin, 2003), three hundred and sixty three teachers filled out the questionnaire. Factor analyses extracted twenty one items and dropped nine items to form the final set of questionnaire items. Five major factors were elicited and named: "Social Impact", "Curriculum Concern", "Environmental Support", "Interest and Experience", and "Personal Need".
The results of this study help to support previous finding of ChanLin (2003), and also suggest that the integration of technology into teaching needs to be made more elaborate and must include a large array of parameters. Indeed, some of these parameters are not teachers' competence in using computers, but rather issues related to social, environmental, personal, and interest/experience aspects.
The first parameter that needs to be measured is "Social Impact". Social issues relating to the use technology have been noted by Shayo, Olfman, & Guthrie (2000). Social values, social attitudes and support from a teacher's working community, including their authority, colleagues, students, and students' parents have the potential to impact on teachers' willingness to use technology. The following items refer to the social impact perceived by teachers as key elements in technology integration in classrooms.
* Support from peers (working companions, coworkers, colleagues)
* Attitudes of authorities (the principle or supervisor)
* Students' learning achievement, attitudes and responses
* Reactions from students' parents, or actions of support from students' families
* Technology trends and social change
* Social value of using computer technology
The second parameter that needs to be measured is "Curriculum Concerns". Curriculum issues concerning student learning objectives and achievement were the major concerns. Some literature has reported that when the use of computer did not closely match the required curriculum, teachers might be reluctant to integrate technology into their classroom (Wilson, Notar & Yunker, 2003). Curriculum issues related to skills that students are measured by and how technology can be adopted in existing teaching are both important considerations among teachers. The following items refer to the curriculum concerns perceived by teachers as key elements in technology integration into classrooms.
* Curricular objectives should be achieved
* Skills and need for literacy to be enhanced
* Assessment of students' performance
* Adoption with existing teaching strategies
The third parameter that needs to be measured is "Environmental Support". It was noted that the use of technology in the classroom requires creative and systematic blending of technologies to provide a pedagogical tool for creating experiences for learning (Bednar, 2004). The following items refer to the environmental support perceived by teachers as key elements in technology integration into classrooms.
* Budget support
* Students' access to a computer and the Internet at home
* Support and management of resources and manpower
* Allocation of time for using computer lab
The fourth parameter that needs to be measured is "Interest & Experience". Technology integration into the classroom requires the development of appropriate practice in planning and the use of various technology tools. Teachers' interest and previously developed field-based experience is critical to technology integration (Bucci et al., 2003; Luan et al., 2005). The following items refer to interest and experiences perceived by teachers as key elements in technology integration into classrooms.
* Personal experience using technology
* Integration of computer technology with personal life style
* Interest in using computers
* Interest in the teaching domain
The filth parameter that needs to be measured is "Personal Need". Research reveals that before teachers use technology they must be personally convinced of its benefits (Lam, 2000). Teachers' personal need from their learning personal world might have a potential impact on their approach to technology. The following items refer to personal need perceived by teachers as key elements in technology integration.
* Support from the family
* Interest in personal growth
The analysis presented in this study provides a more reliable construct of the questionnaire items used to measure teachers' perceived importance of the factors relevant to technology integration into classrooms. The items identified from this study include various aspects of the impact on teachers' perception toward technology adoption. They also serve as a way to provide insight for the implementation of technology integration and adoption.
In summary, this paper and the data offers a valid and reliable measurement of key factors that can serve as indicators for the assessment of teachers' perception about technology integration in teaching. The factor analysis revealed five factors: "Social Impact", "Curriculum Concern", "Environmental Support", "Interest and Experience", and "Personal Need". Among the factors, Interest & Experience is significantly correlated with social impact, curriculum concerns, environmental support, and personal need. The study results suggest that positive attitudes toward social, curriculum, and environmental supports, as well as the fulfillment of personal needs, are more likely to help teachers gain positive interest and experience in technology integration. By recognizing the importance of these factors, we can help create a more meaningful, vital and engaging teaching environment for teachers.
This paper is based on work that was supported by a grant form the National Science Council whose financial support is gratefully acknowledged.
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Wiske, M. S., Sick, M., &.
Dr. ChanLin is Professor, Department of Library & Information Science, Fu-Jen Catholic University.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. ChanLin, Professor, Department of Library & Information Science, 510 Chung-Chen Road, Hsin-Chuang 24205, Taipei, Taiwan; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1 Factor Analysis of Technology Integration Accumulated Item Loading Variance (%) Factor 1: Social Impact Support from peers (working 0.625 14.091 companions, coworkers, colleagues) Attitudes of authorities (the 0.694 principle or supervisor) Students' learning achievement, 0.580 attitudes, and responses Reactions from students' parents, or actions of support from 0.564 students' families Technology trends and social change 0.730 Social value of using computer technology 0.677 Factor 2: Curriculum Concerns Curricular objectives should be achieved 0.791 28.115 Skills and need for literacy to be enhanced 0.793 Assessment of students' performance 0.766 Adoption with existing teaching strategies 0.699 Factor 3: Environmental Support Budget support 0.769 41.459 Students' access to a computer and 0.666 the Internet at home Support and management of resources 0.835 and manpower Allocation of time for using computer lab 0.775 Factor 4: Interest & Experience Personal experience using technology 0.651 53.987 Integration of computer technology 0.677 with personal life Interest in using computers 0.769 Interest in the teaching domain 0.670 Factor 5: Personal need Support from the family 0.822 62.436 Interest in personal growth 0.807 List of Dropped Items Item Failure to Meet Selection Criteria Computer facilities (hardware & software) Commonality Loading <0.5 Opportunity for in-service training Commonality Loading <0.5 Incentives policy Commonality Loading <0.5 Resource support from community Commonality Loading <0.5 Teaching load: time and effort to Eigenvalue <1 prepare classes Nature of the learning subject: use Eigenvalue <1 of technology and its' relation to learning Control of using technology: easy or Eigenvalue <1 difficult to be handled The level of integration Eigenvalue <1 Better achievement from use of technology Eigenvalue <1 Table 2 Pearson Correlation Analysis Among Factors Social Curriculum Environmental Factor Impact Concerns Support Social Impact 1.000 0.548 ** 0.366 ** Curriculum Concerns 0.548 ** 1.000 0.308 ** Environmental Support 0.366 ** 0.308 ** 1.000 Interest & Experience 0.432 ** 0.441 ** 0.394 ** Personal Need 0.216 ** 0.141 ** 0.094 Interest & Personal Factor Experience Need Social Impact 0.432 ** 0.216 ** Curriculum Concerns 0.441 ** 0.141 ** Environmental Support 0.394 ** 0.094 Interest & Experience 1.000 0.319 ** Personal Need 0.319 ** 1.000 ** Significant level; p<0.01
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|Title Annotation:||educational psychology research; includes statistical tables|
|Publication:||Journal of Instructional Psychology|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2005|
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