Designing a concentric approach to security. (Insiders Outlook).In the past, unauthorized entry was the biggest threat to building security. As the tragic events of and following Sept. 11 have made all too clear, the threats to security have become more varied and sophisticated.
In developing a facility security program today, we also have to take into consideration the threats of blast and of biological and chemical weapons.
That is why it is more important than ever to develop a comprehensive security program to protect building users, the business continuity and real estate assets. As part of this process, it is essential to look not only at the hardware and software comprising the building's security system, but to identify and assess the roles of all human and electronic security assets: integrated electronic security systems; building automation systems; contract security personnel; and public agencies.
Use the results of this assessment to design and implement security measures Noun 1. security measures - measures taken as a precaution against theft or espionage or sabotage etc.; "military security has been stepped up since the recent uprising"
security in six concentric zones, from the interior of the building outward to the public domain.
Zone 1: Protect the Interior. Every building owner has a common need to protect its interior space from unauthorized entry. Some of the means available include:
* An effective system at the front desk or lobby to identify and badge employees and visitors
* Locking systems
* Intrusion detection See IDS and IPS. and 24-hour alarm monitoring
* Closed circuit television (CCTV CCTV
CCTV closed-circuit television ) in key locations
* Security guards
Zone 2: Protect the Perimeter. The typical multi-tenant building is protected at the perimeter by a base, building system. Perimeter security focuses on the following elements, which, ideally, are incorporated into the design of a new structure, but also may be retrofitted:
* Window coatings to minimize shards of glass in the event of a blast; polycarbonate A category of plastic materials used to make a myriad of products, including CDs and CD-ROMs. glass from grade to 30 feet or higher
* Structurally hardened building exterior and curtain wall curtain wall
Nonbearing wall of glass, metal, or masonry attached to a building's exterior structural frame. After World War II, low energy costs gave impetus to the concept of the tall building as a glass prism, an idea originally put forth by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies
* Defensive landscaping -- avoiding landscaping that conceals intruders or provides natural "ladders"
* Lighting and CCTV in key areas to deter and/or identify intruders
* Control of loading dock traffic/visitors
* Control of building entrances -- main lobby and elevator core interface with public
Zone 2: Mail Facilities. Mail facilities are vulnerable to biological and chemical weapons, as well as unauthorized entry:
* Limit access to authorized personnel
* Place at building perimeter to decrease access and reduce the impact of hazards
* Install x-ray package screening equipment
* Install nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC NBC
in full National Broadcasting Co.
Major U.S. commercial broadcasting company. It was formed in 1926 by RCA Corp., General Electric Co. (GE), and Westinghouse and was the first U.S. company to operate a broadcast network. ) detection equipment
* Install negative pressurization Pressurization generally refers to the application of pressure in a given situation or environment; and more specifically refers to the process by which atmospheric pressure is maintained in an isolated or semi-isolated atmospheric environment (for instance, in an aircraft, or system to contain hazardous materials
* HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) In the home or small office with a handful of computers, HVAC is more for human comfort than the machines. In large datacenters, a humidity-free room with a steady, cool temperature is essential for the trouble-free filtering and treatment (e.g., HEPA HEPA
1. high-efficiency particulate air
2. high-efficiency particulate arresting filters, UV treatment)
Zone 2: Air systems. The building's air systems and mechanical room (if located on the perimeter) are vulnerable. Protect air handling systems from tampering:
* Fence off or move fresh air intake and return air vent to roof
* Secure mechanical room exits
Zone 3: Building Grounds. Building grounds should be treated as a defensive zone to prevent cars and trucks, which might be carrying explosives, from crashing into the building. A typical security measure against these threats is the installation of highway barriers, but these are unsightly. Instead, use landscape elements effectively to create a stand-off zone around the building, remembering that the effect of blasts diminishes with distance from the blast center:
* Mature trees, landscaped earth berms, raised planter planter, farm or garden implement that places propagating material such as seeds or seedlings into the ground, usually in rows. Broadcasting, i.e., scattering seed in all directions, by hand followed by harrowing (see harrow) to cover the seed with soil was an early beds, benches, ornamental fencing and ornamental light posts
* Incorporate effective lighting
Zone 4: Sidewalk & Property Boundary. Implement effective security measures at the property line:
* Roadway and barrier systems, such as a guardhouse
* Remote parking lots -- communications (e.g., emergency intercom), CCTV surveillance
* Utilities -- secure access to gas, water, electric, telephone service (e.g., locking manhole covers)
Zone 5: Parking Structure & Lanes. Parking structures are a significant area of vulnerability. Limit and monitor access and use, particularly if within or under the main part of the building:
* Parking control
* Vehicle identification system
* License plate recognition system
* Eliminate on-street curb parking
Zone 6: Public Domain. Finally, leverage the assets that are available to property owners in the public domain: streets, police, fire and emergency services emergency services Emergency care '…services …necessary to prevent death or serious impairment of health and, because of the danger to life or health, require the use of the most accessible hospital available and equipped to furnish those services' departments. Coordinate security policies and procedures Policies and Procedures are a set of documents that describe an organization's policies for operation and the procedures necessary to fulfill the policies. They are often initiated because of some external requirement, such as environmental compliance or other governmental with public agencies at the local, state and federal levels, as appropriate.
Establish a liaison to obtain real-time intelligence about actual and potential threats. In today's world, property owners, developers and managers must take a holistic approach holistic approach A term used in alternative health for a philosophical approach to health care, in which the entire Pt is evaluated and treated. See Alternative medicine, Holistic medicine. to security planning, programming and system design. They must assess the full range of security assets available -- both human and electronic -- and develop a system that protects the property at every zone from the interior to the public domain.