Design and construction of mourning dove research pens.
Abstract: To assist with mourning dove mourning dove
Species (Zenaida macroura) of pigeon (family Columbidae), the common wild pigeon of North America. They have long, pointed tails, and the sides of the neck are violet and pink. Their name comes from their call's haunting, mournful tone. (Zenaida macroura) research, we designed and built 69 outdoor cages. The cages were flexible in meeting our data collection protocols, and the biological needs of captive wild mourning doves. The basic outside dimensions of the cage were 244 cm high, 183 cm wide, and 183 cm deep with the cage floor 61 cm off the ground, and covered with a corrugated cor·ru·gate
v. cor·ru·gat·ed, cor·ru·gat·ing, cor·ru·gates
To shape into folds or parallel and alternating ridges and grooves.
v.intr. steel roof. The number of different length boards and tools were kept to a minimum to simplify construction. The cages were constructed in 5 weeks with 3 full-time employees (40 hr/week), with incidental assistance from 3 other people. Cost of materials in 2001 for each cage was [less than or equal to] $220, including the cost of wood, roofing, wire, and hardware. With minor modifications, the cage design permits research opportunities for a wide range of other avian avian /avi·an/ (a´ve-an) of or pertaining to birds.
Of, relating to, or characteristic of birds. species to gain knowledge about research techniques and associated ecosystem processes.
Key Words: cage design, Missouri, mourning doves, Zenaida macroura
Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) are the most studied and heavily hunted migratory migratory /mi·gra·to·ry/ (mi´grah-tor?e)
1. roving or wandering.
2. of, pertaining to, or characterized by migration; undergoing periodic migration.
emanating from or pertaining to migration. upland game bird Upland game bird is an American term which refers to those non-water fowl game birds hunted with pointing breeds, flushing spaniels, and retrievers. Upland game include the following:
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.
[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin wildlife management question will involve a series of research projects using a variety of research techniques; e.g., trapping and marking individual birds with leg bands, patagial wing tags, and/or radio transmitters.
Until recently, few biologists have considered the potential negative effects of wildlife research techniques, and the impacts those effects may have on the resulting data and related management decisions. One of the most problematic issues affecting mourning dove research is determining the effects of attaching and carrying radio transmitters (Schulz and Sheriff 1995). Using relatively small stainless steel stainless steel: see steel.
Any of a family of alloy steels usually containing 10–30% chromium. The presence of chromium, together with low carbon content, gives remarkable resistance to corrosion and heat. cages (24 x 18 x 18 cm) and 200 wild mourning doves kept in captivity, subcutaneously sub·cu·ta·ne·ous
Located or placed just beneath the skin: subcutaneous tissue; a subcutaneous implant.
sub implanted radio transmitters with external antennas were shown to be a preferred attachment alternative to intra-abdominal implants with external antennas (Schulz et al. 1998). Using slightly larger stainless steel cages (24 x 40 x 18 cm) and 195 wild captive mourning doves, subcutaneous subcutaneous /sub·cu·ta·ne·ous/ (sub?ku-ta´ne-us) beneath the skin.
adj. Abbr. s.c., SQ
Located, found, or placed just beneath the skin; hypodermic. radio transmitter implants with external antennas were shown to be a superior to glue attachment based on retention time, and superior to harnesses based on pathological effects (Schulz et al. 2001). Although the size of the cages used in these previous studies were considered within acceptable research guidelines (Mirarchi 1993, Gaunt gaunt
thin plus obvious diminution in abdominal size, indicative of reduced feed intake leading to reduced gut fill. and Oring 1997), the cages were not large enough to allow the birds to fly; thus, further evaluations must be conducted in larger outdoor pens that simultaneously allow the individual birds to fly while still conducting experiments with relatively large sample sizes of birds. Size, shape, and the number of the outdoor cages are dependent upon the needs of the birds, experimental data collection protocols, cost of materials, and ease of construction. Although several depictions of cages used for mourning dove research have been published (Hanson and Kossack 1963, Mirarchi 1993), they do not provide details on construction or materials. Our objective, therefore, was to design and construct [greater than or equal to] 60 outdoor cages for mourning dove research that would accommodate data collection protocols, would be easily produced, and provide flexibility in meeting the biological needs of captive wild mourni ng doves. Other avian researchers may find this design useful because it allows flexibility in the type of experiments to be conducted (e.g., studying transmitter effects, understanding patterns in stress hormones, and disease/toxicity testing), and can be used with other avian species with minor modifications.
Cage Design and Construction
To economize e·con·o·mize
v. e·con·o·mized, e·con·o·miz·ing, e·con·o·miz·es
1. To practice economy, as by avoiding waste or reducing expenditures.
2. labor and simplify construction, we divided the cage construction process into the following steps: cutting lumber, framing cages, cutting wire, attaching wire, attaching roofing, and building/attaching doors. We used pressure-treated chromated copper arsenate Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a wood preservative used for timber treatment, in use since the mid-1930's. It is a mix of copper, chromium, and arsenic formulated as oxides or salts. (CCA (1) (Common Cryptographic Architecture) Cryptography software from IBM for MVS and DOS applications.
(2) (Compatible Communications A ) lumber which resists termites and fungal decay to ensure that the cages would last for several years. When handling the CCA lumber, we followed recommended personal safety guidelines (Material Safety Data Sheet: Product Type, Wolmanized[R] Treated Wood treated wood Toxicology Wood impregnated with preservatives–eg, chromium-copper-arsenate, creosote, inorganic arsenicals, pentachlorophenol, to ↑ its useful life, thwarting insects, fungi, etc; chronic exposure to the fumes of burning wood or skin and Lumber, June 19, 2000; 4 pp). We also kept the number of different length boards to a minimum to reduce the amount of cutting (Table 1). We used 3 x 5 cm welded wire (183 cm wide in 30 m rolls), and 244 x 91 cm galvanized gal·va·nize
tr.v. gal·va·nized, gal·va·niz·ing, gal·va·niz·es
1. To stimulate or shock with an electric current.
2. metal roof sheathing. A minimum of hand and power tools were needed to complete pen construction; e.g., wire cutter, electric chop-saw, reciprocating power saw, battery-powered electric drills, and a pneumatic stapler sta·pler 1
One who deals in staple goods or staple fibers.
a device used to fasten things together with a staple
Noun 1. . The basic outside dimensions of the cage were 244 cm high, 183 cm wide, and 183 cm deep with the cage floor 61 cm off the ground, and covered with corrugated steel; the basic size allowed us to use commercially available materials with little waste. Each cage had two doors; one smaller bottom door for daily feeding and watering, and a larger upper door for cage cleaning (Figure 1). Approximately 28 CCA 4 x 9 x 244 cm boards were needed per pen with an estimated 2001 cost of [less than or equal to] $220, including the cost metal roofing and wire; shorter pieces of wood (e.g., corner braces) were made from scrap materials (Table 1).
To speed construction, we precut pre·cut
Cut into size or shape before being marketed, assembled, or used: precut fillet of fish; precut construction materials.
tr.v. all wood prior to cage assembly (Table 1). Using 6 cm #8 galvanized wood screws, we screwed together two 4 x 9 x 244 cm boards lengthwise length·wise
adv. & adj.
Of, along, or in reference to the direction of the length; longitudinally.
Adj. 1. lengthwise to form the cage legs. Next, we framed the basic structure by assembling the two sides of the cage by attaching a 173 cm board across the top of two legs, and another 61 cm from the bottom. We stood the two sides upright, and attached 4 additional 173 cm boards at the top and 61 cm from the bottom to complete the basic square cage frame. To increase the rigidity of the cage, we attached comer braces with 450 cut ends to the inside corners at the top and bottom of the cage. Perpendicular to the cage floor side rails, we attached two 173 cm pieces to provide a stable substrate for the wire cage floor. We attached two additional 173 cm pieces across the top of the cage to provide a surface for roof attachment. Next, we attached 173 cm boards to the outside of the cage frame to provide a flat surface for attaching the welded wire.
The cage floor was built using 2 layers of 3 x 5 cm welded wire separated by the 4 x 9 cm floor braces; the two wire mesh wire mesh, wire netting n → tela metálica layers reduced the likelihood of predation predation
Form of food getting in which one animal, the predator, eats an animal of another species, the prey, immediately after killing it or, in some cases, while it is still alive. Most predators are generalists; they eat a variety of prey species. . First, we tipped the cages over on their sides so we could attach the bottom layer of wire using the pneumatic staple gun sta´ple gun`
n. 1. A device used to drive a heavy staple through multiple objects, so as to fasten them together; it has a spring mechanism which stores force as a lever is pulled by the operator's hand, and the force is released all at once . Next, we flipped the cages upright and attached the top layer of wire to the cage floor. After attaching the double cage floor, we attached the pre-cut wire cage to the three sides without doors. We attached the large wire panels by first stapling the center of panel to cage, and then moved towards the edges; this reduced sagging of the wire. We next attached the corrugated metal roofing using galvanized self-tapping roofing screws. The metal roofing was attached to provide approximately 30 cm of overhang Overhang
Calculated as stock options granted, plus the remaining options to still be granted, and then divided by the total shares outstanding.
A high percentage for the overhang is usually a bad thing. on the front and back of the cage, and to fit flush on both sides.
The last step in constructing the cages was to build and attach the doors; much of the material for the doors was obtained from left over scraps. The CCA scrap 4 x 9 cm boards were cut longitudinally (or ripped) on a table saw so that the entire door was made from 4 x 4 cm wood. The smaller bottom door was 61 x 61 cm, and constructed of 2 pieces of wood 61 cm (top and bottom of door) and 2 pieces 53 cm (sides of door; Figure 1). The larger upper door was constructed of 2 pieces of 61 cm (top and bottom of door) and 2 pieces 112 cm (sides of door; Figure 1). After the upper and lower doors were framed, we attached 30 cm corner braces cut with 450 angles on the ends; this provided a stronger door frame and more surface area for attached the wire on the door. Next, we attached pre-cut panels of wire to the doors with the pneumatic stapler. The last step was to attach the doors to the cage with hinges and locking hasps. Once completed, we provided poultry watering jugs and food trays in each cage and used scrap w ood placed through the upper cage corners to provide aerial roosting (Figure 1).
Results and Discussion
We built 69 cages in 5 weeks with 3 full-time employees (40 hr/week) and incidental assistance from 3 other people. By creating a simple design that took advantage of commercially available material in standard sizes, we were able to use a minimum of supplies with little waste. Sixty of the cages were placed in 10 rows of 6 cages to provide a facility for experimental research using captive wild mourning doves; 9 other cages were constructed to provide space for stock-piling birds for future research. Our experience indicates the cages provide ample room for individual birds to conduct normal activities (e.g., flying, roosting, feeding), while simultaneously confining the birds in a small enough space to ensure easy capture and collection of necessary data. The cages also provided a setting where newly captured wild mourning doves can be kept with other doves to acclimate to captivity.
Although these cages were designed and used for mourning dove research, the 60 cage facility can provide research opportunities for other species. For example, we used our cages without any modification for pilot experiments dealing with Northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus Colinus virginianus
see quail. ), Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), and Eastern cottontail Noun 1. eastern cottontail - widely distributed in United States except northwest and far west regions
cottontail, cottontail rabbit, wood rabbit - common small rabbit of North America having greyish or brownish fur and a tail with a rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus Noun 1. Sylvilagus floridanus - widely distributed in United States except northwest and far west regions
cottontail, cottontail rabbit, wood rabbit - common small rabbit of North America having greyish or brownish fur and a tail with a ). This adaptability is important because there are numerous future opportunities to conduct experimental research on a whole suite of captive wild birds to gain knowledge about research techniques and their asssociated ecosystem processes.
Table 1 Construction materials and cost of supplies needed to make one mourning dove cage Material Number Length of Price of of Pieces Each Peice (1) All Pieces CCA Wood (4 x 9 x 244 cm @ $2.45 apiece) 8 244 $19.60 12 173 $29.40 6 163 $14.70 2 81 $2.45 1 183 $2.45 8 30 (scrap wood) Wire (3 x 5 cm mesh; 183 x 3048 cm rolls @ $1.60/30 cm 1006 $52.80 Metal Roofing (91 x 244 cm @ $10.00/sheet) 2 244 $20.00 Galvanized screws and staples $30.00 for pneumatic stapler Hinges, hasps, and $45.00 miscellaneous Total Cost $216.40 (1) Lengths measured in cm.
We thank those individuals who helped with construction of the pens during hot and humid weather; B. Crampton, T. Hinkleman, S. Kistner, C. Rittenhouse, and B. Washburn. Funding for this study was provided by 2001 Webless Migratory Game Bird Research Program (United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. Fish and Wildlife Service and the United States Geological Survey-Biological Resources Division), the University of Missouri (Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences), and the Missouri Department of Conservation Research Center (Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Project W-13-R).
Baskett, T. S., M. W. Sayre, R. E. Tomlinson, and R. E. Mirarchi, editors. 1993. Ecology and management of the mourning dove. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg Pennsylvania, USA.
Dolton, D. D., Holmes, R. D., and G. W. Smith. 2001. Mourning dove breeding population status, 2001. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, Maryland Laurel is a Maryland, U.S. city located midway between Washington, D.C. and Baltimore. Incorporated in 1870, the city maintains a historic district including its Main Street. The official population estimate for Laurel city was 21,945 as of 2006. , USA.
Gaunt, A. S., and L. W. Oring, editors. 1997. Guidelines to the use of wild birds in research. The Ornithological or·ni·thol·o·gy
The branch of zoology that deals with the study of birds.
orni·tho·log Council Special Publication, Washington D.C., USA.
Hanson, H. C., and C. W. Kossack. 1963. The mourning dove in Illinois. Illinois Department of Conservation Technical Bulletin 2, Southern Illinois University Press Southern Illinois University Press (or SIU Press), founded in 1956, is a publisher and part of Southern Illinois University. External link
Mirarchi, R. E. 1993. Care and propagation of captive mourning doves. Pages 409-428 in T. S. Baskett, M. W. Sayre, R. E. Tomlinson, and R. E. Mirarchi, editors. Ecology and management of the mourning dove. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C., USA.
Mirarchi, R. E., and T. S. Baskett. 1994. Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). The birds of North America, number 117. The American Ornithologists' Union The American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) an ornithological organization in the USA. Unlike the National Audubon Society, its members are primarily professional ornithologists rather than amateur birders. , Washington, D.C., USA, and The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Schulz, J. H., and S. L. Sheriff. 1995. Evaluation of field techniques for estimating population parameters for mourning doves in central Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Project W-13-R-49, Final Report.
Schulz, J. H., A. J. Bermudez, J. L. Tomlinson, J. D. Firman Fir´man
n. 1. In Turkey and some other Oriental countries, a decree or mandate issued by the sovereign; a royal order or grant; - generally given for special objects, as to a traveler to insure him protection and assistance. , and Z. He. 1998. Effects of implanted radiotransmitters on captive mourning doves. Journal of Wildlife Management 62: 1451-1460.
Schulz, J. H., A. J. Bermudez, J. L. Tomlinson, J. D. Firman, and Z. He. 2001. Comparison of radiotransmitter attachment techniques with captive mourning doves. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:771-782.
Tomlinson, R. E., D. D. Dolton, R. R. George, and R. E. Mirarchi. 1994. Mourning dove. Pages 5-26 in T. C. Tacha and C. E. Braun, editors. Migratory shore and upland game bird management in North America. International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, Washington, D.C., USA.