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Demographic variables and self-efficacy as factors influencing career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria.

Introduction

The university is established to impart knowledge, conduct research, and provide services to the community. Smith and Porter (1970) affirm this by stating that the university is pre-eminently a knowledge institution, which produces knowledge in the form of skills, research, and credentials.

The need for university education prompted the development of the library as a support system to provide services that will galvanise the human intellectual capacity. To support the university, librarians satisfy the information needs of staff and students. In doing this, lack of motivation and proper funding have affected the performance of librarians, greatly affecting their attitude and commitment to work.

Career commitment of staff, especially librarians in developing countries like Nigeria, affects the quality of service, and consequently affects their satisfaction on the job. McCormick and Tiffin (1994) observe that if workers perceive that their values are realised in the job, they exhibit a positive attitude and have greater career commitment. Martins (1991) affirms that most significant problems of developing countries are economic problems, low wages, non-definition of the status of the librarian, occasional selective promotion, and lack of social security.

All these affect career commitment and self-efficacy. It is difficult to talk about career commitment where there is no motivation. In a survey conducted in Ankara, Kaya (1995) found that librarians were dissatisfied with physical working conditions, job recognition, job security, promotion, social status, wages, social services, authority, and responsibility. All these may affect their career or professional commitment. Kaya concludes that the status of the librarians should be defined, that promotion should depend on objective criteria, and that technological development must be used to inject new ideas. In addition, responsibility must be backed up with authority, participation in the decision-making process, job security, and provision of a proper working conditions. Wages should be improved to make librarians in developing countries like Nigeria committed to their career and satisfied with their jobs. Popoola, Tella, and Ayeni (2007) submit that librarians in research and academic libraries in Oyo state of Nigeria perceive that motivation influences their level of self-efficacy and career/organisational commitments.

Self-efficacy, according to Tella and Ayeni (2006), may be defined as the individual's perceived ability to attain designated types of performance and achieve a specific result. In the study of self-efficacy of librarians, Tella and Ayeni (2006) found out that self-efficacy propels librarians to keep trying to accomplish their goals, and make good decisions that translate into meaningful achievements. They choose to perform more challenging tasks and are more creative. Schwarzer and Smith (2005) studied the success of women in nontraditional business and confirm that self-efficacy has a predictive power in assessing performance.

Demographic or biographical variables also had a significant correlation with career commitment in the case of employees in the Osun State civil service (Popoola and Oluwole, 2007). They submit that gender, age, marital status, job tenure, and educational level should be considered germane to career commitment. While job satisfaction and corporate commitment of workers have been the topics of many studies in the fields of organisational behaviour and information management, the present study presents self-efficacy and career commitment as a way of understanding the behaviour of librarians in the Nigerian federal universities. The foregoing background brings into focus the need for empirical research that will investigate demographic variables and self-efficacy factors influencing career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria.

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are to:

* determine the level of career commitment traits of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria;

* determine the level of self-efficacy characteristics of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria;

* find the correlation among demographic variables (such as age, gender, marital status, educational background, job status), self-efficacy, and career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria.

Research Questions

To achieve the identified objectives of the study, the following research questions were raised:

* What are the career commitment traits of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria ?

* What is self-efficacy characteristic of librarians in relation to their job performance in federal university libraries in Nigeria ?

* Do demographic variables influence career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria ?

Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested in the study at p < 0.05 level of significance:

* There is no significant relationship between demographic variables (gender, age, marital status, academic qualification, job status, numbers of years spent in the library) and career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria;

* There is no significant relationship between self-efficacy and career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria;

* Demographic variables and self-efficacy do not significantly influence career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria.

Literature Review

Career Commitment of Personnel in Organisations

Commitment is an internal decision which cannot be forced. It occurs when one's thoughts and emotions are pointing to the same direction. Career commitment refers to the importance of an individual's career in his or her life. Greenhaus and Parasuraman (1993) found a significant relationship between career commitment and self-esteem. Blau (1988) confirmed that career commitment is distinct from other forms of commitment, such as job commitment and organisational commitment. According to Buchanan (1994), career commitment is demonstrated by an individual who values the goals of his or her profession, and performs professional duties effectively. Commitment is the degree of dedication to a profession or occupation (Meyer, 1993). Meyer says that career commitment is people's motivation to work towards personal advancement in their profession. Demographics, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction have various effects on career commitment. Studies show that, age, gender, educational level, and marital status have a relationship with career commitment (Meyer and Allen 1984; Gruskey 1966; Mowday, Porter, and Steers, 1982). Feelings and beliefs concerned with an individual's perceived capability to produce results and to attain designated types of performance influence career commitment (Bandura, 1977). Camilleri (2001) observes that several variables are vital to career commitment. The variables are satisfactory wages, good conditions of service, participation in decision-making, prompt payment of salaries, and on-the-job training. These are very important because they have a direct effect on the way a worker feels and may influence his career commitment. Popoola (2006) found out that there is no significant difference in the career commitment and educational level of records managers in the civil service in Osun State. He also asserts that the younger records managers are, the more they are committed to their careers. Similarly, it was also found that the less the experience, the stronger their career commitment to their job. This finding corroborates the assertion made by Meyer and Allen (1991) and Irving and Meyer (1994) that on-the-job experience early in one's life plays an important role in the development of career commitment.

Buchanan (1994) sees commitment as a situation where the individual directs efforts toward organizational and professional goals and gains intrinsic satisfaction through achievement. The career commitment of a librarian could be said to be the ability of the librarian perform the job effectively, maintaining loyalty, involvement, and identification, despite the shortcomings of the job, such as recognition, working conditions, achievements, social relationships, and benefits.

The career of any group of workers has been a subject of interest to researchers in the field of industrial psychology and sociology. Career commitment is also referred to as occupational commitment or professional commitment, and is a person's belief in the values of a chosen occupation and a willingness to maintain membership in that occupation (Vandenberg and Scarpelo, 1994; Morrow and Wirth, 1989). There have been controversies on the correct definition of the term "career commitment", because careers may consist of several different jobs over the course of a working life, and non-professionals can also demonstrate commitment to their chosen occupation. In this regard, we use the term "career commitment" exclusively in this study to mean people's motivations to work toward personal advancement in their professions or line of work. Career commitment is a multi-faceted construct that has serious implications for productivity and human resources development programmes of library personnel in the university system.

There are three forms of career commitment. These are affective commitment, the degree at which people experience a sense of identification and involvement with chosen career; continuance commitment, the cost associated with leaving or quitting the chosen career or line of work; and normative commitment, the feeling that one is obligated to remain in a chosen career or line of work. Irving and Meyer (1994) assert that on-the-job experience early in one's tenure plays a significant role in the development of affective commitment. Aryee and Tan (1992) investigated career commitment among teachers and nurses in Singapore and report that those who are committed to their profession are more inclined to keep up with new developments and acquire new skills. Jones and Goulding (1999) observe that commitment to a career can be viewed as willingness to undertake further training, which is also evidence of career confidence.

Demographic Variables

Demographic variables are used to show that age, gender, marital status, and educational qualifications have important effects on career commitment Firebaugh and Harley (2000) assert that if an organisation is to be successful, it must continue to satisfy employees' requests to make them committed to their work. Porter, Steers, Mowday, and Boulian (1974) found that committed employees are more innovative and creative. Mathieu and Zajac (1990) affirm that demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, and academic qualification are very important factors in career commitment. They also submit that an older person may be more committed than a younger person who may change jobs as more readily.

Self-Efficacy

The self-efficacy construct is one of Bandura's (2001) core aspects of cognitive theory. Bandura defines self-efficacy as the individual's perceived capability to attain a designated type of performance and achieve results. Pajare (1996) found out that a strong sense of personal efficacy is related to better health, higher achievement, creativity, and better social integration (Bandura, 1997; Schwarzer, 1992). In a unifying theory of behavioural change, Bandura hypothesised that expectations of self-efficacy determine whether instrumental action will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and failures (Schwarzer and Schmitz, 2005). Low self-efficacy is associated with depression, anxiety, and helplessness. A person with low self-efficacy has low self-esteem and may harbour pessimistic thoughts about their accomplishments and personal development (Schwarzer and Schmitz, 2005). A strong sense of competence facilitates cognitive processes and performance. People with high self-efficacy choose to perform more challenging tasks, allow people to select challenges, explore their environment, or create new ones (Bandura, 1997). Without self-efficacy, the individuals give up trying to accomplish goals and making self-limiting decisions (Lucas and Cooper, 2005). Stajkovic and Luthans (1998) reiterate that self-efficacy predicts performance. The higher the level of people-perceived self-efficacy, the wider the ranges of career options they are prepared to pursue, and the greater is their success (Wood and Bandura, 1989).

Most investigations of self-efficacy in academic settings have sought to determine the predictive value of self-efficacy on performance. This is why Bandura, (1986) argues that the stronger the self-efficacy, the more likely the person is to select challenging tasks, persist at them, and perform them successfully. Academic achievement depends heavily on students' personal conviction of being in charge of their own fate.

Bandura lists four sources of efficacy expectations: "performance accomplishments" (previous experience), "vicarious experience," "verbal persuasion," and forms of "emotional arousal" such as tension and fear (Bandura, 1986). In the case of high perceived self-efficacy, a remediable lack of knowledge or skill, or insufficient effort is seen as responsible for failure. The efficacy judgments that are the most functional, as claimed by Bandura, are probably those that slightly exceed what one can do at any given time. These lead people to undertake realistically challenging tasks and provide motivation for self-development of their capabilities (Bandura, 1986). On the other hand, people with low perceived self-efficacy visualise failure scenarios that undermine performance by dwelling on things that can go wrong (Bandura, 1986).

Career Commitment of Librarians in Organisations

The librarian is a professional worker in a library. It is a profession traditionally associated with a collection of books. Librarians are experts in the organisation and retrieval of information in any format, referral to other community organisations, government offices, suggesting appropriate books to people of different reading levels, and recommending books for recreational readings. Librarians can be found in many organisations such as public, school, and university libraries. They are also found at businesses, government departments, hospitals, law firms, museums, and other large organisations where academic research is performed or where a large quantity of information is stored. Usually, a librarian must have master's degree in library science from an accredited university. The librarian's specific duties vary depending on the size and type of library, and numbers of employees. Many spend their time at the reference desks, in periodicals, or special collections. Some work behind the scenes acquiring and cataloging material. Librarians with experience may be promoted to administrative positions.

Librarians in the University

The librarian in a university organises, collects, and manages a large array of library resources necessary to meet students' needs, selecting and maintaining up-to-date material. The librarian working in a university organises, classifies, and indexes materials, answers student enquiries, teaches students research skills, and helping them locate the information they want. Academic librarians use a variety of equipment in their daily work. At times, librarians work under stressful conditions, as there are often several activities or projects running at one time. They must prepare for teaching, committee work, managing people, and expressing ideas clearly. The librarian must have critical thinking skills, work well under pressure, and have excellent computer skill.

Methodology

Research Design

The descriptive research design of the ex-post facto type was adopted for this study. Kerlinger (1973) states that ex-post facto research is systematic, empirical research, in which the researcher does not have direct control over independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred, or because they are inherently not manipulated. Inferences about relations among variables are made without direct interaction from concomitant variation of independent and dependent variables.

Sample size

Total enumeration technique was used to cover all the 381 librarians working in 24 Federal University Libraries in Nigeria.

Research Instrument

A questionnaire was used for data collection because of the high literacy level of study population. The demographic variables, self-efficacy and job satisfaction and career commitment questionnaire (DVSECC) scale was used in this study. The adaptation was made after extensive review of literature as advised by experts within and outside the Faculty of Education. The questionnaire was divided into three sections. The sections are: A, B and C.

(i) SECTION A: Demographic information of the librarians such as age, gender, marital status, working experience, religion, salary, job status/rank, number of years spent in the library, and highest academic qualifications. This section was developed by the researcher.

(ii) SECTION B: 16 item self-efficacy scale developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1993). Typical examples of the items are: "I am always sure that I will do my work," "I do learn things rapidly," among others. It has a reliability coefficient of 0.81 using Cronbach-alpha method.

(iii) SECTION C: Career commitment of librarians. Fifteen items were used to measure it. Examples are: "I enjoy attending conferences, seminars and workshops, organised by my professional association," "My library profession gives me satisfaction," among others. It has a reliability coefficient of 0.77 using Chronbach-alpha method.

Data Collection

A total of 381 copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents in the 24 federal universities in Nigeria. In order to make the administration of the questionnaire less cumbersome, three research assistants were employed by the researcher. While the researcher visited some of the university libraries, others were visited by research assistants. In some of the university libraries, some authorities in the libraries were kind enough to send the questionnaire back to the researcher by post. Out of 381 copies of the questionnaire that were administered, 363 copies were returned and properly completed. Thus, 363 copies were used for the analysis. The response rate achieved was 95.3 percent.

Analysis of Data

Profile of Respondents

Table 2 below shows the copies of the questionnaire (DVSECC) distributed as well as the usable number that were retrieved.

The highest number of questionnaires received was from Ahmadu Bello University Library, Zaria, with 37, which represents 88.1 percent of the 42 questionnaires distributed to the library and 10.2 percent of the 381 questionnaires distributed to the entire 24 federal university libraries. Seventeen university libraries returned 100 percent of the questionnaires distributed to them and all the 363 copies of questionnaire received were usable.

Demographic Profile of Respondents

This section clarifies demographics of the respondents, including age, gender, marital status, working experience, job status, academic qualification, and number of years spent in the library.

Respondents range in age between 20 and 60 years. Majority of the respondents were between 40 and 49 years (N = 182).

Nearly two-thirds of respondents were male.

Slightly more than two-thirds of respondents are married.

Years of experience was somewhat evenly divided among those with between six and thirty years of experience.

The senior librarian category represents nearly one-third of the total. This was closely followed by librarian I, with about 20 percent.

Most respondents have spent between 6 and 25 years working in the library.

Nearly half of respondents hold a Bachelor's Degree in Library and Information Science.

Results

Research Question One: What are the career commitment traits of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria ?

The mean score, standard deviation, and variance of each university were compared against the overall mean score. The result showed that thirteen universities had a mean score higher than the overall mean, showing a higher level of career commitment.

Research Question Two: What is self-efficacy characteristics of librarians in relation to their job performance in federal university libraries in Nigeria be considered?

The mean scores of the respondents from each of the university libraries were compared with the overall mean score (49.28) of the respondents in the twenty four university libraries in Nigeria. The result showed that eleven universities had a mean score higher than the overall mean, showing a higher level of self-efficacy.

Research Question Three: Do demographic variables influence career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria

Adjusted R = 0.5869

Adjusted R 2 = 0.3445

SEE = 5.3168

a = 0.05 level of significance

Table 11 shows that there is a significant influence of demographic variables on career commitment of librarians working in federal university libraries. {F (7,355) = 4.274, P < 0.05}.

Table 13 shows that age, academic qualification, job status, and number of years spent in the library have significant influence on career commitment of the librarians in the federal university libraries in Nigeria.

Testing of Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between demographic variables and career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria.

This hypothesis was tested using Pearson's correlation method at p < 0.05 significant. The outcome of statistical analysis is contained in the table 4.7 below.

Summary of Test of Significance of Pearson's Zero Order Relationships Between Career Commitment and Demographic Variables of the Respondents.

On the whole, there is a significant multiple relationship between demographic variables and career commitment of the respondents in federal university libraries in Nigeria (r = 0.5869, p < 0.05).

Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between self-efficacy and career commitment of Librarians in the federal university libraries in Nigeria.

The outcome of this hypothesis, which was tested using Pearson's Correlation method at p < 0.05 level of significance, is summarized in table 4.7 below:

P < 0.05

The mean score of self-efficacy is X = 49.28, SD = 6.76 while the mean score of career commitment (X = 43.93, SD = 5.48) of librarians in the federal universities libraries in Nigeria is found to be significant at P < 0.05. Thus, the means of self-efficacy (r = 0.690, N 363, P < 0.05) has significant relationship with career commitment. The null hypothesis is, therefore, rejected.

Summary of Findings

1. Half of respondents were aged between 40 and 49 years. This age bracket may be seen as years of active service and experience on the job.

2. Nearly two-thirds of respondents were male.

3. The mean scores of career commitment traits were found to be high among thirteen federal university libraries when compared with overall mean score of 43.93.

4. The mean scores of self-efficacy characteristics of respondents from each of the twenty-four university libraries were high in eleven, when compared with the overall mean score of (49.28).

5. The mean scores of the respondents' career commitment trait for each of the twenty-four federal university libraries in Nigeria shows that twelve university libraries had low career commitment when compared with overall mean score of 43.94.

6. The self-efficacy characteristics of thirteen university libraries were considered low when the mean scores of respondents in each university were compared with the overall mean score of 49.28.

7. There is a significant relationship between gender, age, marital status, number of years spent in the library and career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria.

8. There is a significant relationship between self-efficacy characteristics and career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria.

9. Age, number of years spent in the library, job status, and self-efficacy have significant influence on career commitment of librarians in federal university libraries in Nigeria.

Discussion of Findings

This study reveals that demographic characteristics have a significant relationship with career commitment. The finding is in accordance with the findings of Meyer and Allen (1984), Gruskey (1996), and Mowday, Porter, and Steers (1982), who affirmed that age, job status, and educational level have a significant relationship with career commitment. The study also shows a significant relationship between self-efficacy and career commitment, as well as between job satisfaction and career commitment. This agrees with the previous findings of Tella (2003) and Pajare and Johnson (1996). Tella, Ayeni, and Popoola, (2007) reinforce these findings by showing that self-efficacy of academic librarians in research libraries in Oyo State of Nigeria has an impact on their career commitment.

This study revealed that career commitment traits in thirteen federal university libraries in Nigeria were high when compared with the overall mean score of career commitment. This may be due to the administrative style of the directors of those libraries, who had motivated the staff through constant training, prompt promotion, and provision of incentives like car loan, housing loan, furniture loan, etc.

This is consistent with research carried out among teachers at Ohio State University, in 2000. This study found that teachers who had high career commitment and were very efficacious in the early years of their job persisted in the face of difficulties. Hence, teachers with high career commitment appear to be more resilient in maintaining their sense of efficacy (Tschannen and Wooffolk, 2001)

The study also shows that mean scores of self-efficacy of librarians in eleven federal university libraries were high when compared with the overall mean score of self-efficacy. This may be due to the ability of librarians to overcome difficult situations rather than accepting failure. This is in accordance with research by Helsin and Klehe (2006) who affirmed that self-efficacy causes people to strive to improve their assumptions and strategies, rather than look for excuses. High self-efficacy helps employees collect relevant information, make sound decisions, and take appropriate actions, particularly when they are under pressure.

Librarians in thirteen federal university libraries in Nigeria experienced low career commitment compared the mean score of each university and overall mean score. This may be due to low motivation and lack of incentives that have affected the staff negatively. Those with low career commitment are less efficacious when they experience challenges on the job. They are not as likely to persevere when faced with difficulties (Fischman, Schutte, Solomon, and WuLan, 2001).

The results of the study also revealed that librarians at thirteen federal university libraries in Nigeria had low self-efficacy when compared with the overall mean score of self-efficacy. Helsin and Klehe (2006) depict a scenario as follows: that in a dynamic work context, low self-efficacy can lead to erratic analytic thinking that undermines the quality of problem solving. People with low self-efficacy tend to blame either the situation or another person when things go wrong. Respondents with low self-efficacy have sense of helplessness and hopelessness about their capabilities to cope with the challenges and demands of work.

Conclusion

Libraries are established in the university system to provide high quality information services in support of teaching and research for academic staff members as well as acquisition of knowledge of the students. Librarians occupy a central position in the university system. The career commitment of librarians has a bearing on the way they carry out their professional duties. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy can explain the organisational behaviour of workers. The present study confirms this, and explores the effect of demographic variables as well.

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Gboyega Adio

University Librarian

Ladoke Akintola University of Technology

Ogbomoso, Nigeria

Dr. S. O. Popoola

Lecturer

Department of Library Archival and Information Studies

University of Ibadan

Ibadan, Nigeria
Table 1 Librarians in the Federal
University Libraries in Nigeria

S/N  Name of University                          Male  Female  Total

1    University of Ibadan, Ibadan                8     10      18
2    Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife         13    9       22
3    Universityof Nigeria, Nsukka                13    13      26
4    Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria              18    24      42
5    University of Lagos, Lagos                  9     8       17
6    Federal University of Technologu, Akure     6     3       9
7    Federal University of Technology, Owerri    6     20      26
8    Federal University of Technology, Minna     3     3       6
9    University of Ilorin, Ilorin                14    6       20
10   University of Jos, Jos                      16    8       24
11   Federal University of Agriculture, Umudike  7     1       8
12   University of Agriculture, Abeokuta         6     2       8
13   Federal University of Technology, Yola      7     2       9
14   University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri          14    7       21
15   University of Calabar, Calabar              15    7       22
16   University of Benin, Benin                  11    5       16
17   Abubakar Tafawa University, Bauchi          16    10      26
18   Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto           7     1       8
19   Bayero University, Kano                     13    1       14
20   University of Uyo, Uyo                      5     4       9
21   Unamidi Azikwe University, Awka             3     5       8
22   University of Agriculture, Markudi          4     3       7
23   University of Abuja, Abuja                  4     2       6
24   University of Port Harcourt, Port-Harcourt  5     2       7
     Total 224                                         157     381

Source of data: Committee of University Librarians
of Nigerian Universities CULNU) meeting of 2006.

Table 2 Distribution of the Respondents by Institutions

S/N    Universities                                        Male  Female

1      University of Ibadan Library.                       8     10
2      Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife Library         13    9
3      Universityof Nigeria Library, Nsukka,               13    13
4      Ahmadu Bello University Library, Zaria              18    24
5      University of Lagos Library, Lagos                  9     8
6      Federal University of Technology Library, Akure     6     3
7      Federal University of Technology, Owerri            6     20
8      Federal University of Technology Library, Minna     3     3
9      University of Ilorin Library, Ilorin                14    6
10     University of Jos Library, Jos                      16    8
11     Federal University of Agriculture Library, Umudike  7     1
12     University of Agriculture Library, Abeokuta         6     2
13     Federal University of Technology Library, Yola      7     2
14     University of Maiduguri Library, Maiduguri          14    7
15     University of Calabar Library, Calabar              15    7
16     University of Benin Library, Benin                  11    5
17     Abubakar Tafawa University Library, Bauchi          16    10
18     Usman Danfodio University Library, Sokoto           7     1
19     Bayero University Library, Kano                     13    1
20     University of Uyo Library, Uyo                      5     4
21     Unamidi Azikwe University Library, Awka             3     5
22     University of Agriculture Library, Markudi          4     3
23     University of Abuja Library, Abuja                  4     2
24     University of Port Harcourt Library, Port-Harcourt  5     2
Total                                                      219   155

       Not           Not       Response Rate
S/N    Administered  Received  (percent)

1      18            15        83.3
2      22            22        100
3      26            26        100
4      42            37        88.1
5      17            17        100
6      9             9         100
7      26            25        96.2
8      6             6         100
9      20            20        100
10     24            22        91.7
11     8             8         100
12     8             8         100
13     9             9         100
14     21            19        90.5
15     22            22        100
16     16            15        93.8
17     26            26        100
18     8             8         100
19     14            12        85.7
20     9             9         100
21     8             8         100
22     7             7         100
23     6             6         100
24     7             7         100
Total  381           363       95.3

Table 3 Age

Age (years)   Frequency (N)   Percentage

20-29         10              2.8
30-39         78              21.5
40-49         182             50.1
50-59         80              22
60+           13              3.6
Total         363             100

Table 4 Gender

Gender   Frequencies (N)   Percentage

Male     235               64.7
Female   128               35.3
Total    363               100

Table 5 Marital Status

Marital Status   Frequency (N)   Percentage

Single           74              20.4
Married          243             66.9
Separated        45              12.4
Divorced         1               0.3
Total            363             100

Table 6 Years of Working Experience

Years of working   Experience
Experience         Frequency (N)   Percentage

1-05               45              12.4
6-10               63              17.4
11-15              60              16.5
16-20              65              17.9
21-25              63              17.4
26-30              48              13.2
31-35              18              5
36 and above       1               0.2
Total              363             100

Table 7 Job Status/Rank

                       Frequency (N)   Percentage

University Librarian   13              3.6
Deputy Librarian       20              5.5
Principal Librarian    52              14.3
Senior Librarian       110             30.3
Librarian I            74              20.4
Librarian II           57              15.7
Assistant Librarian    37              10.2
Total                  363             100

Table 8 Years Spent in the Library

Class range (in years)   Frequency (N)   Percentage

1-05                     54              14.9
6-10                     68              18.7
11-15                    65              17.9
16-20                    64              17.6
21-25                    61              16.8
26-30                    40              11
31-35                    10              2.8
36 above                 1               0.3
Total                    363             100

Table 9 Academic Qualification

Academic Qualification    Frequency (N)   Percentage

B.Sc, BLS                 173             47.5
MLIS, MLS, MSC, and MLA   138             38.2
PhD                       52              14.3
Total                     363             100

Table 10 Mean Scores of Career Commitment Traits of
Librarians in Federal University Libraries in Nigeria

S/N      Name of Universities                    X      SD     Variance

1        Federal University of Agriculture       48.43  4.2    17.62
           Library, Umudike
2        Federal University of Technology        46.36  6.82   46.46
           Library, Akure
3        University of Jos Library, Jos          45.82  4.65   21.58
4        University of Abuja Library, Abuja      45.33  8.87   78.67
5        University of Calabar Library, Calabar  45.32  5.3    28.13
6        Nnamdi Azikwe University Library, Awka  45.25  4.5    12.21
7        Obafemi Awolowo University Library,     45     4.66   21.71
           Ile Ife
8        University of Nigeria Library, Nsukka   44.96  5.3    27.56
9        Federal University of Agriculture       44.75  5.9    34.79
           Library, Markudi
10       University of Ibadan Library, Ibadan    44.53  5.64   31.84
11       Federal University of Technology        44.52  4.81   23.17
           Library, Owerri
12       Ahmadu Bello University Library, Zaria  44.51  5.1    26.03
13       University of Uyo Library, Uyo          44.33  5.75   33
14       Usman Danfodio University Library,      43.75  5.09   25.93
           Sokoto
15       Abubakar Tafawa University Library,     42.96  5.51   30.36
           Bauchi
16       University of Maiduguri Library,        42.95  5.24   27.5
           Maiduguri
17       University of Ilorin Library, Ilorin    42.65  5.1    26.03
18       University of Lagos Library, Lagos      42.53  6.8    46.27
19       Bayero University Library, kano         42.25  4.92   24.21
20       Federal University of Technology        42.17  6.88   47.37
           Library, Minna
21       University of Port-Harcourt Library,    41.71  3.04   9.24
           Port-Hacourt
22       Federal University of Technology        40.56  3.68   13.53
           Library, Yola
23       University of Benin Library, Benin      40.47  7.38   54.41
24       University of Agriculture Library,      40.25  4.1    16.53
           Abeokuta
Overall                                          43.94  5.48   30.06

Table 11 Mean Scores of Self-efficacy Characteristics of
Librarians in Federal University Libraries in Nigeria

S/N      Name of Universities                    X       SD    Variance

1        Federal University of Technology        58.13   5.91  34.94
           Library, Owerri
2        University of Abuja Library, Abuja      56.67   6.5   42.27
3        Usman Danfodio University Library,      55.5    5.45  29.71
           Sokoto
4        Federal University of Agriculture       54.25   3.92  15.36
           Library, Markudi
5        Abubakar Tafawa University Library,     51.08   7.99  63.83
           Bauchi
6        University of Agriculture Library,      51      4.72  22.29
           Abeokuta
7        University of Nigeria Library, Nsukka   50.58   6.91  47.77
8        Federal University of Agriculture       50.57   3.69  13.62
           Library, Umudike
9        Ahmadu Bello University Library, Zaria  49.92   5.87  34.47
10       University of Maiduguri Library,        49.63   5.89  34.69
           Maiduguri
11       University of Ibadan Library, Ibadan    49.53   7.4   54.7
12       Obafemi Awolowo University Library,     49.05   6.18  38.24
           Ile Ife
13       University of Benin Library, Benin      48.8    8.52  72.6
14       Federal University of Technology        48.44   5.59  31.28
           Library, Yola
15       University of Uyo Library, Uyo          48.44   4.45  19.78
16       Federal University of Technology        48.27   4.65  21.62
           Library, Akure
17       University of Ilorin Library, Ilorin    47.5    7.42  55
18       University of Jos Library, Jos          47.5    8.1   65.6
19       Nnamdi Azikwe University Library, Awka  47.25   3.11  9.64
20       University of Calabar Library, Calabar  46.96   6.46  41.67
21       Federal University of Technology        46.67   5.43  29.47
           Library, Minna
22       Bayero University Library, kano         46.5    7.97  63.55
23       University of Port-Harcourt Library,    45.71   5.79  33.57
           Port-Hacourt
24       University of Lagos Library, Lagos      44.35   5.93  35.12
Overall                                          49.28   6.76  45.65

Table 12 Summary of Regression Analysis of Demographic Variables
on Career Commitment of Librarians in Federal University
Libraries in Nigeria

Sources of Variation   SS          DF    MS        F-Ratio   Sig/P

Regression             845.599     7     120.800   4.274     0.00
Residual               10034.815   355   28.268
                       10880.413   362

Table 13 Summary of Test of Significant Influence of Demographic
Variables on Career Commitment of Librarians in Federal
University Libraries in Nigeria

Variables          Unstandardized               Standardized
                   Regression Coefficient       Regression Coefficient
                   ([beta])                     ([beta]) (Betain)

                   ([beta])  SE([beta])         t       Sig. P

Constant           43.412    1.957              22.181  0.000

Gender             0.717     0.606       0.063  1.183   0.238

Age                1.452     0.510       0.220  2.845   0.005 *

Marital Status     0.198     0.488       0.021  0.407   0.085

Years of Working   0.102     0.057       0.165  1.802   0.072
Experience

Academic           0.209     0.057       0.037  3.667   0.046 *
Qualification

Job Status         1.326     0.587       0.117  2.259   0.025 *

No of Years Spent  0.147     0.061       0.231  2.867   0.004 *
in the Library

Table 14 Commitment and Demographic Variables

                             Career
S/N  Variables               Commitments(r)  X      SD    N    Sig P

1    Age                     0.507           43.02  4.83  363  0.002
2    Gender                  0.353           1.35   0.48  363  0.024
3    Marital Status          0.595           1.93   0.58  363  0.005
4    Years of Working        0.557           16.82  8.87  363  0.003
       Experience
5    Number of Years Spent   0.349           15.63  8.62  363  0.009
       in the Library
6    Job Status              0.378           3.99   4.04  363  0.004
7    Academic Qualification  0.325           5.99   3.06  363  0.025

Table 15 Relationship between Self-efficacy and Career Commitment
of Librarians in Federal University Libraries in Nigeria

Variables           Means X   Std Dev   N     R       P       Remark

Career Commitment   43.94     5.48      363   0.690   0.018   Sig
Self-efficacy       49.28     6.76

P < 0.05
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Author:Adio, Gboyega; Popoola, S.O.
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
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Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Feb 1, 2010
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