HISTORICAL DATA IN THIS BOOK MAY DIFFER FROM THOSE in other World Bank publications if more reliable data have become available, if a different base year has been used for constant price data, or if countries have been classified differently.
The former Zaire is referred to as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo DR), and Hong Kong (China, as of July 1, 1997), is sometimes referred to as Hong Kong.
* All dollar ($) amounts are current U.S. dollars unless otherwise specified.
* Billion is a thousand million
Abbreviations and Acronyms AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDSCAP AIDS Control and Prevention Project CSM Condom social marketing (see Glossary, below: Social marketing of condoms) DALY Disability-adjusted life year DHS Demographic and Health Survey DOTS Directly observed treatment short course (for tuberculosis) EC European Commission FSU Former Soviet Union GAPC Global AIDS Policy Coalition GDP Gross domestic product (see Glossary, below) GNP Gross national product (see Glossary, below) GPA Global Programme on AIDS HIV Human immunodeficiency virus IDU Injecting drug user IEC Information, education, and communication MSM Men who have sex with men (see Glossary, below) NEP Needle exchange program NGO Nongovernmental organization (see Glossary, below) OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ODA Overseas Development Administration (U.K.) Ol Opportunistic infection PAHO Pan American Health Organization PCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia PSI Population Services International (private firm) SOMARC Social Marketing for Change (private firm) STD Sexually transmitted disease TB Tuberculosis UNAIDS Joinr United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund USAID U. S. Agency for International Development WHO World Health Organization WHO/GPA World Health Organization/Global Programme on AIDS
Adverse selection: the selection into an insurance pool of people likely to have higher claims than others.
Assortative assortative /as·sor·ta·tive/ (ah-sor´tah-tiv) characterized by or pertaining to selection on the basis of likeness or kind. sexual mixing: the extent to which people with similar numbers of sexual partners pair with each other.
Asymptomatic: infected by a disease agent but exhibiting no medical symptoms; subclinical subclinical /sub·clin·i·cal/ (sub-klin´i-k'l) without clinical manifestations.
Not manifesting characteristic clinical symptoms. Used of a disease or condition. .
Commercial sex: the selling of sexual services for compensation; prostitution.
Concurrent partnership: partnerships that overlap in time.
Disassortative sexual mixing: the extent to which people with many sexual partners pair with people with few partners.
Discordant couple: a couple in which one partner is infected with HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. and the other is not.
Endemic: usually prevalent; persistent at relatively constant levels.
Epidemic: a sudden unusual increase in cases that exceeds the number expected on the basis of experience.
Epidemic, concentrated: an HIV epidemic in a country in which 5 percent or more of individuals in groups with high-risk behavior, but less than 5 percent of women attending urban antenatal an·te·na·tal
before parturition. Called also prenatal, antepartal. clinics, are infected.
Epidemic, generalized: an HIV epidemic in a country in which 5 percent or more of women attending urban antenatal clinics are infected; infection rates among individuals in groups with high-risk behavior are also likely to exceed 5 percent in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic.
Epidemic, nascent: an HIV epidemic in a country in which less than 5 percent of individuals in groups with high-risk behavior are infected.
Epidemiology: the study of the distribution and determinants of disease and injury in human populations.
A consequence of an economic activity that is experienced by unrelated third parties. An externality can be either positive or negative.
Pollution emitted by a factory that spoils the surrounding environment and affects the health of nearby residents is : an unpriced un·priced
Having no assigned price: unpriced merchandise. side effect on a third party of a transaction between two parties.
Gross domestic product: a crude measure of national economic well-being: aggregate expenditure by the residents of a country or final goods and services In economics, economic output is divided into physical goods and intangible services. Consumption of goods and services is assumed to produce utility (unless the "good" is a "bad"). It is often used when referring to a Goods and Services Tax. for consumption, investment, and government services.
Gross national product: an alternative to gross domestic product for measuring national economic well-being. Adds to the gross domestic product income obtained by nationals from labor or property outside the country and deducts the income of foreign nationals residing in the country.
High-risk behavior: unprotected sexual intercourse (i.e., without a condom) with many partners, or sharing of unsterilized injecting equipment.
HIV-positive: having antibodies to HIV
Incidence of HIV: the number of new cases of HIV in a given time period, often expressed as a percentage for a given number of the susceptible population.
Low-risk individuals: individuals practicing behavior that puts themselves and their partners at low risk of HIV infection; depending on the extent to which they mix with high-risk individuals, however, they may nevertheless be at high risk of becoming infected.
Men who have sex with men Men who have sex with men (MSM) is a term used mostly in the United States to classify men who engage in sex with other men, regardless of whether they self-identify as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. : homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual men who have sex with other men.
Merit good: a good (or service) whose consumption by the poor is valued by society as a whole.
Moral hazard: the increase in the average loss incurred by people who are insured compared with those who are not; term used by health insurance companies to refer to the increased demand for health care exhibited by the insured.
Nongovernmental organization: for-profit firms and private nonprofit organizations.
Opportunistic illness: an illness that affects people with weak immune systems.
Pandemic pandemic /pan·dem·ic/ (pan-dem´ik)
1. a widespread epidemic of a disease.
2. widely epidemic.
Epidemic over a wide geographic area.
n. : an epidemic occurring simultaneously in many countries.
Prevalence of HLV HLV Heavy Lift Vehicle
HLV Hessischen Leichtathletik-Verbandes (German)
HLV Heavy Lift Vessel
HLV Hasta La Vista
HLV HTML Link Validator
HLV Human Living Vampire
HLV Hazard Limiting Value
HLV Helensville : the number of people with HIV at a point in time, often expressed as a percentage of the total population.
Public good: a good or service having the following two attributes: (1) consumption by one person does not diminish the amount available to others, and (2) excluding people from consuming the good is impossible or costly.
Reproductive rate: the average number of susceptible people infected by an infected person over his or her lifetime.
Seroprevalence seroprevalence Immunology The proportion of a population that is seropositive–ie, has been exposed to a particular pathogen or immunogen; the seropositivity of a population is calculated as the number of individuals who produce a particular antibody divided : the prevalence of an infection as detected in blood serum.
Sex worker: someone who offers sexual services for money.
Social marketing of condoms: programs designed to raise condom use by improving the social acceptability of condoms, making them more widely available through nontraditional outlets and offering them for sale at subsidized prices.
Susceptible: vulnerable to becoming infected.
Symptomatic: exhibiting sufficient symptoms to require medical treatment.