Definitions, benefits, and barriers of K-12 educational strategic planning.This comprehensive literature review seeks to define strategic planning Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy, including its capital and people. in a K-12 setting. Principally, it asks, what characteristics distinguish educational strategic planning from other planning approaches? What follows is a content analysis of the educational strategic planning literature detailing the critical attributes of various planning models designed specifically for K-12 educational entities. The study focuses on the issues related to K-12 strategic planning. A purposive pur·po·sive
1. Having or serving a purpose.
2. Purposeful: purposive behavior.
pur sampling of selected literature sources was conducted. The authors analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. 66 books, 29 journal articles, 28 research presentations from national conferences and the ERIC data base, 6 doctoral dissertations and several miscellaneous sources completed the data pool. Each evidence piece was interpreted through documentary analysis and a constant comparative approach (Glaser and Strauss, 1967, Strauss and Corbin, 1990, and Merriam, 1998). First, the data was used to develop definitions, benefits and barriers to K-12 strategic planning. Second, a comparison was made of all models of strategic planning to determine critical attributes. Finally, the elements of strategic planning were explored, listed and explained.
Strategic planning in an educational context was defined in a variety of ways in the relevant literature. Basham and Lunenburg (1989) asserted that strategic planning was not a well-defined concept; however, there exists a number of definitions pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to educational strategic planning. Perhaps, more specifically, Basham and Lunenburg referred to the lack of a uniform, discrete definition of educational strategic planning amongst the various prescribed pre·scribe
v. pre·scribed, pre·scrib·ing, pre·scribes
1. To set down as a rule or guide; enjoin. See Synonyms at dictate.
2. To order the use of (a medicine or other treatment). planning models. From the reviewed literature, Table 1 depicts some of the various definitions associated with the concept of educational strategic planning.
The educational strategic planning definitions found in Table 1 provide insights into the concept's underlying premises. What characteristics distinguish educational strategic planning from other planning approaches? To answer this question, Cooper (1985) provided this description:
... typical planning is generated by internal organization goals and priorities. The typical plan charts a course of action to achieve these goals, accounting for external forces primarily as obstacles or incentives to their achievement. The process is often formal and the product is schematic, documenting and projecting current activity in relation to stated objectives of the organization. (p. 1)
a true friend and constant lover. [Br. Lit.: Two Gentlemen of Verona]
See : Faithfulness (1991) provided a more detailed differentiation between typical long-range planning and strategic planning approaches. The differences between the two planning approaches are highlighted in Table 2.
Another differentiation between traditional planning approaches and strategic planning is the impetus Impetus is a stimulus or impulse, a moving force that sparks momentum.
Impetus may also refer to:
pl.n. (used with a sing. or pl. verb)
1. People or society at a local level rather than at the center of major political activity. Often used with the.
2. The groundwork or source of something. " or "bottom-up" approach, where planning is accomplished with input from a variety of organizational constituents or stakeholders Stakeholders
All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government. , as opposed to the traditional "top-down" planning typically employed and directed by central office administrators (Rieger, 1994). Mecca and Adams (1991) contended that strategic planning processes "required administrators to confront district issues which might otherwise be overlooked with conventional planning approaches" (p. 16).
Educational entities using strategic planning found that participative forms of management (e.g., decentralized decision making Decentralized decision making is any process whereby decision making authority is distributed throughout a larger group. It also connotes a relatively higher authority given to lower level functionaries, executives, and workers. , shared power, shared decision-making, site-based decision-making, devolved management) were compatible and viable with this chosen planning approach (Bryson, 1995; Conley, 1994; Cook, 1995; Frese, 1996; Mauriel, 1989; McCune, 1986). Clay et al. (1989) asserted that educational strategic planning features the best features of 'top down' and 'bottom up' management. Top management maintains its responsibility for over-all direction, but the [strategic] planning team includes broad representation of stakeholder stakeholder n. a person having in his/her possession (holding) money or property in which he/she has no interest, right or title, awaiting the outcome of a dispute between two or more claimants to the money or property. groups. Groups are consulted and their needs assessed. Everyone gets involved in realizing the vision. (p. 22)
Conley (1994) highlighted the symbiotic relationship symbiotic relationship (sim´bīot´ik),
n in implantology, that relationship assumed by an implant and the natural teeth to which it has been splinted. between strategic planning and participative management by stating that "strategic planning may be the 'glue' needed for decentralized decision making to succeed" (p. 35). The Aurora Aurora, cities, United States
Aurora (ərôr`ə, ô–).
1 City (1990 pop. 222,103), Adams and Arapahoe counties, N central Colo., a growing suburb on the east side of Denver; inc. 1903. , CO Public School District study of change effectiveness (Frese, 1996) credited the combination of strategic planning and shared decision-making as an enabling vehicle for organizational change within their school district.
The literature contained many descriptions of purported pur·port·ed
Assumed to be such; supposed: the purported author of the story.
pur·ported·ly adv. benefits from utilizing strategic planning within a school district setting (Bell, 1989; Brown & Marshall, 1987; Bryson, 1995; Bryson &Alston, 1996; Cawelti, 1987; Clay et al., 1989; Conley, 1994; Cook; 1995; Cooper, 1985; Kaufman et al., 1996; Mecca & Adams, 1991; McCune, 1986; Pacey, 1992; Romney, 1996; Spikes spikes
see peplomer. , 1985; Strategic Planning Roundtable, 1993; Stone, 1987; Valentine, 1991; Wincek & O'Malley, 1997). Substantiated benefits, documented through research studies, were sparse sparse - A sparse matrix (or vector, or array) is one in which most of the elements are zero. If storage space is more important than access speed, it may be preferable to store a sparse matrix as a list of (index, value) pairs or use some kind of hash scheme or associative memory. ; however, these studies reinforced some of the prescribed planning model claims regarding positive attributes garnered from utilizing strategic planning (Brown, 1996; Cooley, 1992; Frese, 1996; Hatton, 1996; Rieger, 1994). Inversely in·verse
1. Reversed in order, nature, or effect.
2. Mathematics Of or relating to an inverse or an inverse function.
3. Archaic Turned upside down; inverted.
1. , the literature provided insights into negative elements attributed to conducting strategic planning processes in an educational organization (Brown, 1996; Bryson, 1995; Bryson &Alston, 1996; Cook, 1995; Cunningham, 1993; Hatton, 1996; Rieger, 1994; Ronmey, 1996; Schank, 1989; Spikes, 1985; Stone, 1987; Strategic Planning Roundtable, 1993; Valentine, 1991). The Strategic Planning Roundtable warned that "strategic planning models tend to be weak in provisions for evaluating the implementation of plans" (p. 4).
Another problem area was inadequate funding for the strategic planning processes (Bryson & Alston, 1996; Valentine, 1991). In referring to providing adequate resources for implementation, Brown (1996) described some interview responses that recommended
school districts not engage in [strategic planning] unless they were willing to provide sufficient funding at the sites for the implementation of the action plans ... The district level administration talked about being decentralized when in reality they were not willing to allocate funds to the sites to the extent possible. (p. 142)
Another potential barrier to a positive strategic planning experience is the level of commitment to strategic planning and its subsequent action plan implementation (Bryson, 1995; Bryson & Alston, 1996; Romney, 1996). "If there is no internal commitment to the plan, and no intent to implement it, strategic planning is a waste of time and energy" (Ronmey, 1996, p. 17). The same thought prevailed in Bryson and Alston (1996) when it contended, "If the organization lacks the ... commitment of key decision makers, to carry through an effective strategic planning process and produce a good plan, the effort should not be undertaken" (p. 6). "Strategic planning ... probably should not be undertaken if implementation is extremely unlikely. Engaging in strategic planning when effective implementation will not follow is the organizational equivalent of the average New Year's resolution A New Year's Resolution is a commitment that an individual makes to a project or a habit, often a lifestyle change that is generally interpreted as advantageous. The name comes from the fact that these commitments normally go into effect on New Year's Day and remain until the set " (Bryson, 1995, p. 9).
1. Not easily bent; stiff or rigid.
2. Incapable of being changed; unalterable.
3. Unyielding in purpose, principle, or temper; immovable. , was cited as another potential drawback DRAWBACK, com. law. An allowance made by the government to merchants on the reexportation of certain imported goods liable to duties, which, in some cases, consists of the whole; in others, of a part of the duties which had been paid upon the importation. of strategic planning. Bryson (1995) wrote that "too much attention to strategic planning and excessive reverence for strategic plans can blind organizations to other unplanned and unexpected--yet incredibly useful--sources of information, insight, and action" (p. 9). Likewise, the Strategic Planning Roundtable (1993) advised that "goals established through strategic planning may become fixed, hampering the flexibility schools of the future will need to be responsive to changing educational demands" (p. 4).
Other hazards associated with educational strategic planning dealt with participation issues (Brown, 1996; Stone, 1987), bureaucracy replacement, and change denial (Strategic Planning Roundtable, 1993). The number of community/parent representatives participating on the planning team was an issue in Brown's (1996) study, as more participants from these stakeholder groups was desired. Stone (1987) asserted that unless "[those who are responsible] for carrying out the action plans [are involved] in designing them can bring about a breakdown in communications and resistance to or interruption INTERRUPTION. The effect of some act or circumstance which stops the course of a prescription or act of limitation's.
2. Interruption of the use of a thing is natural or civil. of logical action" (p. 47). In their list of cautions to organizations considering adopting strategic planning practices, the Strategic Planning Roundtable (1993) warned about the perception that "a local strategic planning committee runs the risk of simply replacing the old bureaucratic bu·reau·crat
1. An official of a bureaucracy.
2. An official who is rigidly devoted to the details of administrative procedure.
bu system with another top down organization" (p. 4). They also advised that many strategic planning models overlook a pre-requisite condition for system reform, and that being a widely held belief that change is needed in the organization.
We discovered gaps in the research on educational strategic planning. These occurred as we examined empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received" on educational strategic planning to investigate the questions, methodologies, and the subsequent findings of past studies. The body of research studies for this organizational planning approach are relatively sparse and limited primarily to case study and survey methodologies. We limited our review to include only educational organizations serving kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be through twelfth grade This article or section deals primarily with the United States and Canada and does not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page. (K-12) students, as educational organizations that utilize strategic planning processes could include higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. entities. For K-12 academic organizations using strategic planning, we reviewed the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database, the Dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
1. Abstracts International (DAI Dai
n. & adj.
Variant of Tai. ) database, and First Search databases for conference presentations, dissertations, and journal articles. The search netted 11 empirically based articles and dissertations.
We also examined several articles and books that discussed strategic planning in an educational context. In much of this literature, there were prescriptive pre·scrip·tive
1. Sanctioned or authorized by long-standing custom or usage.
2. Making or giving injunctions, directions, laws, or rules.
3. Law Acquired by or based on uninterrupted possession. planning models designated for academic, non-profit, and public sector organizations. From a broad-based review of empirical research, planning models and a variety of journal articles and books about educational strategic planning, gaps can be identified within the literature. The extant ex·tant
1. Still in existence; not destroyed, lost, or extinct: extant manuscripts.
2. Archaic Standing out; projecting. case studies (Frese, 1996; Hatton, 1996; Hoffman, 1997) and survey analyses (Basham & Lunenburg, 1989; Brown, 1996; Conley, 1992; Ray, 1996; Riggs & Valesky, 1990) have limited or no insights, perceptions, or experiences detailed from states whose education department and/or legislature mandate strategic planning or similar processes from K-12 educational organizations. There was a single case study (Hatton, 1996) specifically focused on a rural school district's experiences with mandated strategic planning in Australia; however, to date, there are no similar domestic research studies. There have been several recommendations for longitudinal studies longitudinal studies,
n.pl the epidemiologic studies that record data from a respresentative sample at repeated intervals over an extended span of time rather than at a single or limited number over a short period. (Brown, 1996; Conley, 1993; Schank, 1989) of strategic planning effects, but none, to date, have been conducted. Another recommendation suggested that future studies were needed correlating strategic planning to increased student achievement (Brown, 1996; Rieger, 1994; Schank, 1989).
The literature is replete re·plete
1. Abundantly supplied; abounding: a stream replete with trout; an apartment replete with Empire furniture.
2. Filled to satiation; gorged.
3. with educational strategic planning models, however, these models are prescriptive in their nature. Ascribed advantages to these models and their subsequent processes are suspect due to limited accounts within their literature of actual field testing or practice. Fewer than half of the reviewed educational strategic planning models contained field examples (Bryson, 1995; Clay et al., 1989; Cook, 1995; McCune, 1986; Stone, 1987; Strategic Planning Roundtable, 1993; Valentine, 1991). Unfortunately, school district personnel desiring to implement strategic planning processes within their organization will find few samples of strategic or action plans from the field. Notably lacking from the literature are clear cut methods or means for linking the strategic plans to the operational action plans. From the review of the literature, we feel that there exists no common conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .
A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project. for K-12 educational strategic planning. Each planning model exhibits its own particular components and terminologies. Many adaptations of the planning components and terminologies made by planning model developers and K-12 practitioners have made universal understanding and field implementation of strategic planning quite problematic. To clear this confusion, we suggest the development of a synthesized syn·the·sized
1. Relating to or being an instrument whose sound is modified or augmented by a synthesizer.
2. Relating to or being compositions or a composition performed on synthesizers or synthesized instruments. list of critical phases and components for K-12 educational strategic planning based on a content analysis of models, studies, and other literature sources.
Table 1 Definitions of Educational Strategic Planning Definition Source "... a creative management process powered by the Aurora Public basic human drive to solve problems and to eliminate School District discrepancies between what is and what must be. It (1992) forces people and institutions to reexamine, to refocus, and to seek out or create new means of accomplishing their purposes" (p. 7) "... a process that is designed to move an Brown & educational organization through the steps of Marshall, 1987 understanding changes in the external environment, assessing the internal strengths and weaknesses of the organization, developing a vision of the desired future for the organization and some ways to achieve that mission, developing specific plans to get the organization where it is to where it wants to be, implementing these plans and monitoring that implementation so that necessary changes or modifications can be made" (p. 3) "... a disciplined effort to produce fundamental Bryson, 1995 decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does it. To deliver the best results, strategic planning requires broad yet effective information gathering, development and exploration of strategic alternatives, and an emphasis on future implications of present decisions" (p. 5) "... a process deliberately designed to help leaders Cawelti, 1987 conceive of the kind of institution they would like to create to serve their students" (p. 7) "... the means by which an organization continually Cook, 1995 re-creates itself toward extraordinary purpose" (p. 41) "... the method by which an organization identifies Cooper, 1985 relevant trends in its environment, analyzes their potential implications, and projects an integrated strategy to address these future events and their contingencies" (p. 1) "... a community-based and on-going process of Cordell & imagining a preferred future and then developing the Waters, 1993 strategic and operational actions required to make that future a reality" (p. 27) "... in its most powerful form [strategic planning] Kaufman, 1996 starts with society as the primary client and beneficiary and then rolls-down from that to identify what any organisation commits to deliver. This approach assures the linkages among what organizations use, do, produce, and deliver, and external consequences" (p. 61) "... a process for organizational renewal and McCune, 1986 transformation ... (which) provides a framework for improvement and restructuring of programs, management, collaborations, and evaluation of the organization's progress" (p. 34) "By using information about emerging trends and Mecca & Adams, developments gleaned through a process of 1991 environmental scanning, the [strategic planning process] ... allows district planners to anticipate plausible alternative futures from which to derive appropriate strategic goals. These goals form both the district's collective 'visible' for the future and a basis for ongoing operational planning and management" (p. 16) "... the process by which the guiding members of an Pfeiffer, organization envision the organization's future and Goodstein, & develop the necessary procedures and operations no Nolan, 1989 achieve that future. The vision of the future provides both a direction and the energy to move in that direction ... successful strategic planning is characterized by organizational self examination, confronting difficult choices, and setting priorities" (p. 56) "... a practical process for dealing with the Romney, 1996 ambiguities of the environment. Its purpose is to move the organization from being a pawn to changing events to being a proactive participant, making decisions about and acting to create is own future. It requires organizational flexibility to adapt and revise as conditions change, and a willingness to move beyond obsolete paradigms" (p. 14) "... a series of planned steps to move a school Strategic district from its current state to a desired future Planning state" (p. 4) Roundtable, 1993 "... leads to the identification of a sense of Valentine, 1991 direction for the organization, helps assess internal and external environments, and provides a unified direction to the planning function. Skillful application of the techniques of strategic management can bring an organization's goals into focus. Administrators can then see immediate results and at the same time anticipate future trends. Conceptually, strategic management provides a framework for successful organizational change" (p. 2) "a process that draws together the thinking of the Wincek & community and gives stakeholders an opportunity to O'Malley, 1997 articulate their hopes for the future of the school, address issues that need attention and come to agreement on priorities" (p. 20) Table 2 Strategic Planning Versus Long-range Planning Long-range planning Strategic planning Assumes a closed system within Assumes an open system in which which organizational five- and organizations are dynamic and ten-year blueprints could be constantly changing as they constructed. integrate information from shifting environmental factors. Focuses on the final blueprint Focuses on the process Its application of formulas Is rational because it assumes rationality but is incorporates the reality of the inadequate, as it gives too little irrational. attention to values, politics, and changed circumstances. Tends toward internal analysis, Focuses on the external toward planning as a separate environment, on qualitative institutional function information and intuitive decisions regarding resource commitments, and on integrated, participatory involvement Makes decisions about the future Uses current and future trends to based on present data. make current, not future, decisions. Emphasizes the science of Emphasizes creativity, planning, management, and decision innovativeness, and intuition--the art of planning, management, and making decision making. Focuses on organizational goals Asks what decision is appropriate and objectives five years in the today based on a projection of future. critical external variables five years from now. Note. From Strategic Management in Education: A Focus on Strategic Planning (p. 16), by E.P. Valentine, 1991, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
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An association that is given tax-free status. Donations to a non-profit organization are often tax deductible as well.
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Grant Hambright, Assistant Professor and Thomas Diamantes, Associate Professor, Department of Educational Leadership, Wright State University.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Thomas Diamantes, Associate Professor, Educational Administration, Department of Educational Leadership, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy., Dayton, OH 45435-0001; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org