Defining and Measuring Creativity: Are Creativity Tests Worth Using?Kaltsounis and Honeywell (e.g., 1980) published a substantial list of creativity tests, and Torrance and Goff (1989) identified no fewer than 255 such instruments. Although there is obviously no shortage of tests, many reviewers have questioned their usefulness, usually on the grounds of technical shortcomings A shortcoming is a character flaw.
Shortcomings may also be:
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and properties summarized (see Table 2).
Table 1 Test defined elements of creativity
PRODUCT PROCESS * Originality * "Uncensored" perception and * Relevance encoding of information * Usefulness * Fluency of ideas (large number * Complexity of ideas) * Understandability * Problem recognition and construction * Pleasingness * Unusual combinations of ideas * Elegance/Well-craftedness (remote associates, category * Germinality combination, boundary breaking) * Construction of broad categories (accommodating) * Recognizing solutions (category selection) * Transformation and restructuring of ideas * Seeing implications * Elaborating and expanding ideas * Self-directed evaluation of ideas PRODUCT MOTIVATION * Originality * Goal-directedness * Relevance * Fascination for a task or area * Usefulness * Resistance to premature * Complexity closure * Understandability * Risk-taking * Preference for asymmetry * Pleasingness * Preference for complexity * Elegance/Well-craftedness * Germinality * Willingness to ask many (unusual) questions * Willingness to display results * Willingness to consult other people (but not simply to carry out orders) * Desire to go beyond the conventional PRODUCT PERSONALITY/ABILITIES * Originality * Active imagination * Relevance * Flexibility * Usefulness * Curiosity * Complexity * Independence * Understandability * Acceptance of own differentness * Pleasingness * Tolerance for ambiguity * Elegance/Well-craftedness * Germinality * Trust in own senses * Openness to sub-conscious material * Ability to work on several ideas simultaneously * Ability to restructure problems * Ability to abstract from the concrete
Table 2 Psychometric properties of creativity tests
Reliability Aspect of Creativity Internal Test-Retest Inter-rater Creative Products .70-.90+ -- .70-.90+ Creative Thinking .70-.90+ .60-.75 .65-.90+ The Creative Person - Biographical inventories .50-.90 -- .90 - Special personal properties .45-.90+ .55-.80+ .70-.90 - Motivation and attitudes .60-.80+ .60-.80 .75+ Adjective Check Lists .65-.90 .70 -- Validity Aspect of Creativity Ratings Other Tests Real Life Creative Products -- -- -- Creative Thinking .25-.70 up to .70 .30-.70 The Creative Person - Biographical inventories -- -- .60 - Special personal properties .20-.70 .20-.60 .30-.40 - Motivation and attitudes .60-.70 .20-.55 .25-.50 Adjective Check Lists .30-.50 .25-.65 .40-.50
An early procedure for rating the creativity of products was Taylor's (1975) Creative Product Inventory, which measures Generation, Reformulation, Originality o·rig·i·nal·i·ty
n. pl. o·rig·i·nal·i·ties
1. The quality of being original.
2. The capacity to act or think independently.
3. Something original.
Noun 1. , Relevancy, Hedonics he·don·ics
The branch of psychology that studies pleasant and unpleasant sensations and states of mind. , Complexity, and Condensation. More recently, Besemer and O'Quin (1987) developed the Creative Product Semantic Scale, which is based on three dimensions: Novelty Novelty is the quality of being new. Although it may be said to have an objective dimension (e.g. a new style of art coming into being, such as abstract art or impressionism) it essentially exists in the subjective perceptions of individuals. (the product is original, surprising and germinal Germinal
conflict of capital vs. labor: miners strike en masse. [Fr. Lit.: Germinal]
See : Riot
portrays the sufferings of workers in the French mines. [Fr. Lit. ), Resolution (the product is valuable, logical, useful, and understandable), and Elaboration and Synthesis (the product is organic, elegant, complex, and well-crafted). These dimensions are assessed by raters using a semantic-differential rating scale (e.g., surprising-unsurprising, logical-illogical, or elegant-inelegant) with 43 items in the latest version (Besemer & O'Quin, 1999). Besemer (1998) confirmed empirically that the scale measures three dimensions, and confirmed its ability to distinguish consistently among products (three chairs of quite different design). Reliabilities of the three dimensions ranged from 0.69 to 0.87 (alpha coefficients), with the majority of coefficients being in excess of .80.
It seems logical to use expert opinion in rating products, and Hennessey (1994) emphasized the method of consensual CONSENSUAL, civil law. This word is applied to designate one species of contract known in the civil laws; these contracts derive their name from the consent of the parties which is required in their formation, as they cannot exist without such consent.
2. assessment. However, she reported inter-rater agreement ranging up to .93 even among untrained undergraduates who rated geometric designs or Picasso drawings on Creativity of Product and Creativity of Process on a 7-point scale, simply applying their own subjective understanding of these qualities. Internal reliabilities of the ratings of creativity ranged from .73 to .93. Other studies also suggest that judging properties connected with the creativity of products such as effectiveness, usefulness, complexity, or understandability is not as difficult as might be supposed. Vosburg (1998) reported that untrained judges who rated products on 7-point scales such as Very complex -- Not at all complex or Very understandable -- Not at all understandable achieved inter-rater reliabilities Inter-rater reliability, Inter-rater agreement, or Concordance is the degree of agreement among raters. It gives a score of how much , or consensus, there is in the ratings given by judges. of about .90.
The Creative Process
The Creativity Tests for Children is based on Guilford's (1976) Structure of Intellect A natural language query program for IBM mainframes developed by Artificial Intelligence Corporation. The company was later acquired by Trinzic Corporation, which was acquired by Platinum, which was acquired by Computer Associates. (SI) model of intelligence. Suitable for Grades 4-6, it involves 10 tests from either the semantic (verbal) or the visual and figural fig·ur·al
Of, consisting of, or forming a pictorial composition of human or animal figures.
Adj. (nonverbal non·ver·bal
1. Being other than verbal; not involving words: nonverbal communication.
2. Involving little use of language: a nonverbal intelligence test. ) content areas of the SI model. The tests focus on "divergent di·ver·gent
1. Drawing apart from a common point; diverging.
2. Departing from convention.
3. Differing from another: a divergent opinion.
4. production" of units, classes, relations, systems, transformations and implications. Examples of tests are "Names for stories," "Different letter groups," or "Making objects." Scoring of the tests concentrates on free production of a large number of ideas, not originality or effectiveness. The test manual reports internal reliabilities ranging from .42 to .97, mostly however, between .70 and .85. Test scores correlate only moderately with teacher ratings of creativity, and at a low level (-.06 to .35) with the nowadays better known Torrance Tests discussed below. Also based on the SI model, the Structure of the Intellect Learning Abilities Test: Evaluation, Leadership, and Creative Thinking (SOI (Silicon On Insulator) A chip architecture that increases transistor switching speed by reducing capacitance (build-up of electrical charges in the transistor's elements), and thus reducing the discharge time. The power requirement is also reduced in some designs. : ELCT ELCT Electronic
ELCT Evangelical Lutheran Church in Thailand ) (Meeker Meeker may refer to: Places
out-of-the-box thinking : divergent symbolic relations, divergent symbolic units, divergent figural units, divergent semantic units, divergent semantic relations Noun 1. semantic relation - a relation between meanings
linguistic relation - a relation between linguistic forms or constituents
hyponymy, subordination - the semantic relation of being subordinate or belonging to a lower rank or class , divergent semantic transformations, divergent figural relations, and divergent figural transformations. Factor-analytic studies support the construct validity construct validity,
n the degree to which an experimentally-determined definition matches the theoretical definition. of this test and inter-rater reliabilities are often very high (up to .99).
The best-known of the tests based on divergent thinking, however, are the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT TTCT Tactical Team Coordination Training ), initially published in 1966 and since revised (Torrance, 1999). The test materials include a verbal section "Thinking Creatively with Words," and a nonverbal or figural section, "Thinking Creatively with Pictures," both of them having two forms, A and B. There are six verbal activities (Asking, Guessing Causes, Guessing Consequences, Product Improvement, Unusual Uses, Unusual Questions and Just Suppose) and three figural activities (Picture Construction, Picture Completion and Lines/Circles). The verbal activities yield scores on three dimensions (referred to by Torrance as "mental characteristics"): Fluency flu·ent
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.
b. , Flexibility and Originality. The nonverbal activities yield scores for five mental characteristics: Fluency, Originality, Elaboration, Abstractness of Titles, and Resistance to Premature Closure. In addition, the figural tests can be scored for 13 creative strengths (e.g., Storytelling Storytelling
semi-legendary fabulist of ancient Greece. [Gk. Lit.: Harvey, 10]
Baron traveler grossly embellishes his experiences. [Ger. Lit. Articulateness, Synthesis of Incomplete Figures, and Fantasy).
The test manual reports a median inter-rater reliability derived from a number of studies of the verbal activities of the TTCT of as high as .97, and other research (see for instance Sweetland & Keyser, 1991) indicates that the figure is commonly greater than .90 for both parts. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Treffinger (1985) test-retest reliabilities test-retest reliability Psychology A measure of the ability of a psychologic testing instrument to yield the same result for a single Pt at 2 different test periods, which are closely spaced so that any variation detected reflects reliability of the instrument of the various subdimensions commonly lie between .60 and .70. Mumford, Marks, Connelly, Zaccaro and Johnson (1998) asked judges to use a 5-point rating scale ranging from low to high to rate, among other things, quality (in essence, effectiveness), originality, complexity, and realism of answers on the Guessing Consequences subtest, and after a practice run and a meeting to discuss the basis of ratings the judges achieved inter-rater reliabilities of .90 for quality, .86 for complexity, and .84 for originality. The figure for realism was somewhat lower at .65.
A recent study by Plucker pluck
v. plucked, pluck·ing, plucks
1. To remove or detach by grasping and pulling abruptly with the fingers; pick: pluck a flower; pluck feathers from a chicken. (1999) used sophisticated statistical procedures to reanalyze 20-year longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. data on predictive validity In psychometrics, predictive validity is the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure.
For example, the validity of a cognitive test for job performance is the correlation between test scores and, for example, supervisor performance ratings. originally collected by Torrance. He concluded that composite verbal (but not figural) creativity scores on the TTCT (obtained by averaging scores on three testings) accounted for about 50% of the variance of scores on the criterion of publicly recognized creative achievements and participation in creative activities obtained several years later, and predicted about three times as much of the criterion variance as IQs. This corresponds to a predictive validity coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. of about .7. The TTCT's scores differentiate well between students who subsequently go on to achieve public acclaim as creative and those who do not.
Another influential creativity test to appear during this period was that of Wallach and Kogan (1965), whose major contribution was perhaps their emphasis on a gamelike atmosphere and the absence of time limits in the testing procedure. This test contains three verbal subtests (Instances, Alternate Uses and Similarities) and two subtests consisting of ambiguous figural stimuli (Pattern Meanings, Line Meanings). Probably the most widely applied subtest is Alternate Uses, which, as the name suggests, asks respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. to give as many unusual uses as they can for various common items (e.g., newspaper, knife, car tire, button, shoe, key). Originally, the test was scored by counting the number of responses (fluency) and by identifying responses that were unique to a specific person within the group being tested (uniqueness). Nowadays, some users also score the test for flexibility, originality (statistical uncommonness), and usefulness (practicality and relevance to reality). Fluency and flexibility require merely counting, but originality and usefulness involve rating answers on a 7-point scale (not original - very original; not useful - very useful). Kogan (1983) listed many studies supporting the validity and reliability of this test. More recently, Vosburg (1998) reported inter-rater reliabilities of .92 for originality ratings and .83 for usefulness. An overall alpha (internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. ) reliability of .86 was reported by the same author.
A further, frequently cited test of the foundation period in the 1960s was the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962). This test is now out of print, but because of its seminal seminal /sem·i·nal/ (sem´i-n'l) pertaining to semen or to a seed.
Of, relating to, containing, or conveying semen or seed. influence on creativity testing it will be discussed here. It is based on the fact that some people are better than others at finding remote associates to stimulus words: These people are rated more creative. Each of the 30 items, for which 40 minutes are allowed, consists of several apparently unrelated words (e.g., moon, cheese, and grass) and the task is to find a remote fourth word that links these words (in the case of the example just given blue would be appropriate). The score is the number of correct solutions. Mednick reported internal consistency coefficients of .91 and .92 respectively when the test was administered to samples of male and female undergraduates. The correlation with instructors' ratings on a university level design course was .70, and the scale distinguished significantly between psychology students rated as creative researchers and those rated as low on creativity. Scores on the RAT also distinguished between students with liberal social attitudes and those with conservative attitudes, as well as between those with artistic and those with mechanical-agricultural vocational interests. However, as Kasof (1997) summarized relevant findings, the RAT has not shown more than moderate correlations with creative behavior in nontest situations.
An important advance in creativity testing in recent years derives from increasing recognition of the fact that actual creative production does not depend on divergent thinking alone, but also requires convergent thinking Noun 1. convergent thinking - thinking that brings together information focussed on solving a problem (especially solving problems that have a single correct solution) (e.g., Rickards, 1994; Brophy, 1998). Rickards argued that the process of producing effective novelty needs both kinds of thinking in order to be complete. Facaoaru (1985) called for a two track testing procedure, which assesses the area of overlap between the two kinds of thinking (e.g., goal-directed divergent thinking). Sternberg's Triarchic Abilities Test (Sternberg, 1997) emphasizes that intellectual ability can be better understood in terms of several facets, in this case Analytical Ability, Practical Ability and -- of particular interest for the present discussion -- Synthetic Ability. So far, the test includes material for two age levels: 8-10 years and 15 years and up. The creativity test (Synthetic Ability) involves both multiple-choice items and an essay. The people being tested are also required to perform novel numerical operations. According to Sternberg (1997), this procedure is reliable, displays construct validity -- creativity scores correlate only moderately with those on the other two dimensions-and possesses predictive validity in that test scores correlate with grades in university courses that emphasize creativity.
Urban and Jellen's (1996) Test of Creative Thinking (Divergent Production) (TCT-DP) takes a different approach from those of the procedures described above. It derives scores from what the authors call image production. Respondents' productions are rated according to dimensions derived from a Gestalt-psychology theory of creativity. These include Boundary Breaking, New Elements, and Humor humor, according to ancient theory, any of four bodily fluids that determined man's health and temperament. Hippocrates postulated that an imbalance among the humors (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) resulted in pain and disease, and that good health was and Affectivity. The test has two forms, A and B, on each of which respondents are presented with a sheet of paper containing incomplete figures. Their task is to make a drawing or drawings containing the fragments, in any way they wish. Studies in a number of different countries indicate that the inter-rater reliability of the test is above .90, while test-retest reliability is about .70-.75. The test manual reports correlations up to .82 with teacher ratings of creativity, and correlations with real-life criteria show that TCT-DP scores distinguish between people who follow acknowledged creative pursuits and those who do not.
In examining creative thinking Mumford and coworkers (for a summary, see Mumford, Supinski, Baughman, Costanza & Threlfall, 1997) focused on problem solving problem solving
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. . They developed tests of Problem Construction, Information Encoding See encode. , Category Selection, and Category Combination and Reorganization. The category combination test, for instance, involves problems consisting of sets of four exemplars of each of three categories. To take an example in the style of Mumford et al. (1997), a problem could consist of the following three sets of exemplars: table, chair, lamp, bed; banana banana, name for several species of the genus Musa and for the fruits these produce. The banana plant—one of the largest herbaceous plants—is said to be native to tropical Asia, but is now cultivated throughout the tropics. , pineapple pineapple, common name for one member of and for the Bromeliaceae, a family of chiefly epiphytic herbs and small shrubs native to the American tropics and subtropics. , orange, peach peach, fruit tree (Prunus persica) of the family Rosaceae (rose family) having decorative pink blossoms and a juicy, sweet drupe fruit. The peach appears to have originated in China, where it was mentioned in literature several centuries before Christ. ; telephone book, search warrant, marriage certificate, map. These are given without naming the categories defined by the exemplars. The respondents' task is to identify the categories defined by the exemplars; to combine these categories to create a new, superordinate category; to provide a label for the new category and write a brief, one-sentence description of it; to list as many additional exemplars of the supercategory as possible; to list additional features linking the exemplars combined in the new category. A respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. might identify the three subordinate categories in the example above as .furniture, fruit and printed documents, and might then combine these to form the supercategory of "forest products," supporting this with the explanatory ex·plan·a·to·ry
Serving or intended to explain: an explanatory paragraph.
ex·plan sentence, "All the furniture could be made of wood, all the documents of paper (which is made from wood), and fruit and wood come from trees, which grow in a forest."
In Mumford et al's study, five judges rated the respondents' products on a 5-point scale for quality and originality of solutions. After a brief discussion to iron out discrepancies, inter-rater reliabilities of .84 and .81 were achieved for quality and originality respectively. When Category Combination scores were compared with a criterion consisting of originality of solutions to simulated management and advertising problems correlations of .32 and .40 were achieved. Similar coefficients were obtained for Problem Construction, Information Encoding and Category Selection with the same criteria. When Problem Construction, Information Encoding, Category Selection, and Category Combination scores were combined in a regression approach, the multiple correlations Noun 1. multiple correlation - a statistical technique that predicts values of one variable on the basis of two or more other variables
multiple regression with originality of the solutions to the advertising task was .45, with originality of the management task .61.
A problem-solving test that adopts a novel approach is the Creative Reasoning Test (CRT (1) (C RunTime) See runtime library.
(2) (Cathode Ray Tube) A vacuum tube used as a display screen in a computer monitor or TV. The viewing end of the tube is coated with phosphors, which emit light when struck by electrons. ) (Doolittle, 1990). This test has two levels, Level A for Grades 3-6 and Level B for secondary and college level. There are two forms of each level (Form I and Form 2), each with 20 items. A novel aspect of this test is that the problems to be solved are presented in the form of riddles. At Level A, for instance, these take the form of four-line rhymes, in which some animal or object gives clues to its identity, and respondents must work out what the animal or object is. An example in the style of this test would be: I grow in the park, / where I stand tall and green./ For birds I am home./When the wind blows I lean. Respondents are required to find the correct answer, and a scoring key is provided that contains these answers. According to Doolittle the test, which is in some ways reminiscent of the RAT (see above), requires associative as·so·ci·a·tive
1. Of, characterized by, resulting from, or causing association.
2. Mathematics Independent of the grouping of elements. , inductive inductive
1. eliciting a reaction within an organism.
a form of radiofrequency hyperthermia that selectively heats muscle, blood and proteinaceous tissue, sparing fat and air-containing tissues. and divergent thinking. Since answers are specified in the scoring key, inter-rater reliability is not an issue. The author reported split-half reliabilities of .63-.99 for Form A and .90 for Form B, and validity (correlations with scores on the RAT) of .70, the latter scarcely surprising in view of the similarity of contents.
The Creative Person
Biographical bi·o·graph·i·cal also bi·o·graph·ic
1. Containing, consisting of, or relating to the facts or events in a person's life.
2. Of or relating to biography as a literary form. inventories
The two best known instruments of this kind are Schaefer and Anastasi's (1968) biographical inventory and Taylor's (Taylor & Ellison, 1968)Alpha Biographical Inventory (ABI Abi (ā`bī) [short for Abijah], in the Bible, King Hezekiah's mother.
(Application Binary Interface) A specification for a specific hardware platform combined with the operating system. ). They are now relatively old and do not focus exclusively on creativity: the ABI actually gives equal weight to conventional academic achievement. Schaefer and Anastasi's inventory will be reviewed here to give an idea of the nature of such scales. It consists of 165 items, the ABI 300, some of them in multiple-choice format, some involving selecting from alternatives, and some open- ended. The scale focuses on factual information, and measures five areas: family background (e.g., educational level of parents, degree of public recognition of parents or siblings siblings npl (formal) → frères et sœurs mpl (de mêmes parents) ), intellectual and cultural orientation (e.g., interests and hobbies, level of availability of demanding literature, frequency of visits to museums or art galleries), motivation (possession and use of special equipment such as a microscope, willingness to skip meals to work on a project, taking summer jobs in a field of interest)-referred to by Schaefer and Anastasi as pervasive and continuing enthusiasm, breadth of interest (number of hobbies pursued, number of favorite school subjects), and drive towards novelty and diversity (level of interest in unusual art forms, extent of unconventional collections such as spider webs).
Two scoring keys are available, one yielding a score for Artistic Creativity, the other for Scientific Creativity. In a study of students in the last three years of high school the authors concluded that the scale discriminates significantly between creative adolescents and members of matched control matched study, matched control
a comparison between groups in which each subject animal is matched by a comparable animal in terms of age and all other measurable parameters. Called also matched or paired control. groups, the criterion of creativity being teachers' ratings of products produced by the students. They reported a validity of .64 for the artistic subscale and .35 for the scientific. The test correctly identified 96% of the students whose products were rated by teachers as artistically creative, although 34% of the noncreative were falsely selected (false positives). It selected 46% of the scientifically creative (10% false positives).
More recently, Michael and Colson (1979) developed the Life Experience Inventory (LEI). The 100-item inventory concentrates on factual information (e.g., number of changes of address in childhood, composition of family, education, hobbies and recreation). As the authors pointed out, this approach enhances reliability. In an initial study of 100 electrical engineers This is a list of electrical engineers, people who made contributions to electrical engineering or computer engineering.
The lowest rate of return acceptable on investments. on the inventory were indeed creative according to the criterion (i.e., correctly identified), although 29% of those not identified were, according to the criterion, actually creative (false negatives).
Runco (1987) developed the Creative Activities Checklist, suitable for use with children in Grades 5 to 8. The test simply asks participants to indicate how frequently they have participated in recent times in real-life activities in six areas: literature, music, drama, arts, crafts, and science. Scoring can be carried out by simply adding the number of instances of participation in, for instance, the last year (e.g., writing a story or poem, playing at a school, church or club concert, acting in a school play, participating in a science fair, and so on). In some studies respondents merely list their three most creative achievements to date. These can then be rated for degree of creativity. Runco (1987) reported inter-rater reliabilities in excess of .90 for such ratings. Very recently, Russ, Robins & Christiano (1999) reported alpha coefficients of about .90 for reliability of the total scale and from about .50.85 for the various areas.
Special personal properties
A second approach to the study of the creative person involves identifying personal characteristics whose presence is thought to increase the likelihood of creativity or even to be essential for its appearance. The Creativity Checklist (CCL 1. CCL - Coral Common LISP.
2. CCL - Computer Control Language. English-like query language based on COLINGO, for IBM 1401 and IBM 1410. ) (Johnson, 1979) can be used for rating people at all age levels, including adults in work settings. On a 5-point scale ranging from never to consistently, observers rate the behavior of the people being assessed on eight dimensions: In addition to the cognitive dimensions Cognitive dimensions are design principles for notations & programming language design, described by researcher Thomas R.G. Green. The dimensions can be used to evaluate the usability of an existing interface, or as heuristics to guide the design of a new one. Fluency, Flexibility, and Constructional Skills, personal properties such as Ingenuity, Resourcefulness Resourcefulness
clever and temerarious dog perseveres in the Klondike. [Am. Lit.: Call of the Wild]
butler proves to be infinite resource for castaway family on island. [Br. Lit. , Independence, Positive Self-Referencing, and Preference for Complexity are assessed. Inter-rater reliabilities ranged from .70 to .80, and the test correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. between .51 (RAT) and .56 (TTCT) with other tests.
The Creative Behavior Inventory (Kirschenbaum, 1989) also involves ratings by observers. It has two forms, CBI CBI
cumulative book index
CBI Confederation of British Industry
CBI n abbr (= Confederation of British Industry) → C.E.O.E. 1 for Grades 1-6 and CBI 2 for Grades 7-12. The test contains 10 items, with ratings ranging from 1-10, according to the frequency with which the child behaves in the way indicated: e.g., This child notices and remembers details. The ratings yield scores on five dimensions: Contact, Consciousness, Interest, Fantasy, and Total Score. The first four are thought to be aspects of a phase of preparation in the process of creative thinking. The author reported an alpha coefficient of .93 for the test, and showed that it distinguished well between children who produced creative products in the course of an enrichment enrichment Food industry The addition of vitamins or minerals to a food–eg, wheat, which may have been lost during processing. See White flour; Cf Whole grains. program and those who did not.
Some scales in this area involve self-ratings. An example is the Group Inventory for Finding Creative Talent (GIFT) (Rimm & Davis, 1980) and its upward extension the Group Inventory for Finding Interests (GIFFI I and GIFFI II) (Davis & Rimm, 1982). The authors describe these scales as measuring attitudes and interests associated with creativity. There are three levels of GIFT: a 32-item scale for kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be to grade 2, a 34-item scale for grades 3-4, and a 33-item scale for grades 5-6. GIFFI has two levels (I for junior high school and II for senior high school), which each contain 60 items. As the names imply, the tests can be administered in a group setting. Children rate themselves by answering Yes or No to statements such as, "I like to make up my own songs," or "Easy puzzles are the most fun." The tests yield scores for traits like curiosity, originality, independence, flexibility, or risktaking. Davis and Rimm reported internal consistencies of .80-.88 and a test-retest reliability of .56 for GIFT and .88 and .94 for GIFFI I and GIFFI II respectively. In various studies with GIFT validity was measured by correlating test scores with teacher ratings, judged creativity of drawings and judged creativity of stories. The resulting coefficients ranged from .07-.54, but were in the main in the area .30-.40. In the case of GIFFI I and GIFFI II, correlations with teachers' ratings ranged from .21 to .68.
Kumar, Kemmler and Holman's (1997) Creativity Styles Questionnaire (CSQ CSQ Certificat de Sélection du Québec (Quebec selection certificate; immigration document)
CSQ Carrier Squelch (radio, scanner)
CSQ Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire ) measures seven dimensions: Belief in Unconscious Processes; Use of Techniques; Use of Other People; Final Product Orientation; Environmental Control; Superstition superstition, an irrational belief or practice resulting from ignorance or fear of the unknown. The validity of superstitions is based on belief in the power of magic and witchcraft and in such invisible forces as spirits and demons. ; Use of Senses. Participants rate themselves on 76 items (e.g., "Creative ideas occur to me without even thinking about them," "When I get a new idea, I get completely absorbed by it," or "I typically create new ideas "New Ideas" is the debut single by Scottish New Wave/Indie Rock act The Dykeenies. It was first released as a Double A-side with "Will It Happen Tonight?" on July 17, 2006. The band also recorded a video for the track. by combining existing ideas"), using a 5-point scale ranging from "Strongly agree" to "Strongly disagree." The authors reported alpha coefficients for the seven subscales ranging from .45-.83. Another recent self-rating scale is the Abedi-Schumacher Creativity Test (O'Neil, Abedi & Spielberger, 1994), a multiple choice test on which students rate themselves on 60 questions regarded as indicators for fluency, flexibility, originality, or elaboration (e.g., "How do you approach a complex task?"). Auzmendi, Villa and Abedi (1996) reported internal reliabilities of .61 to .75 (average = .66) for the four subscales when a Spanish version of the test was administered to over 2,200 children. Scores on the subscales correlated only between .02 and .32 with teachers' ratings of creativity (average correlation = .24) and scores on the TTCT (average correlation =. 11). The reliabilities also fell short of customary levels. Despite this, Auzmendi, Villa and Abedi concluded that further refinement of the scale would easily deal with this shortcoming short·com·ing
A deficiency; a flaw.
a fault or weakness
Noun 1. . These authors also reported data on a further self-rating scale, the Villa and Auzmendi Creativity Test, which consists of a list of 20 adjectives such as imaginative, or flexible, on which students rate themselves using a 5-point scale ranging from very to not at all. This test also yields scores for fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration. Internal consistencies for the subscales ranged from. 14 to .69 (average = .41). Subscale scores correlated from between .20 and .55 with subscales of the Abedi-Schumacher test.
Colangelo, Kerr, Huesman, Hallowell and Gaeth's (1992) developed the Iowa Inventiveness Inventiveness
(287–212 B. C.) invented military engine which saved Syracuse. [Gk. Hist.: Hall, 31]
Bell, Alexander Graham
(1847–1922) inventor of telephone (1876). [Am. Hist. Inventory, initially by studying inventors who held industrial or agricultural patents. The final instrument consists of 61 statements (e.g., Whenever I look at a machine, I look at a machine, I can see how to change it.) with which respondents indicate level of agreement on a 5-point scale. The inventory distinguished significantly between acknowledged creative individuals and other people, for instance sorting into the expected older acknowledged inventors, young inventors rated as inventive in·ven·tive
1. Of, relating to, or characterized by invention.
2. Adept or skillful at inventing; creative.
in·ven by teachers, and noninventive academically-talented adolescents. The test-retest reliability of the inventiveness score reported by Colangelo et al was .66 and internal consistency was .70.
Motivation and attitudes
Directly related to the role of motivation in creativity is Williams's (1972) How Do You Really Feel About Yourself? test, which measures curiosity, imagination, risk-taking and preference for complexity. This test has been used with schoolchildren schoolchildren school npl → écoliers mpl;
(at secondary school) → collégiens mpl; lycéens mpl
schoolchildren school in grades 6 to 12. More recent is Williams's (1980) Creativity Assessment Packet. This scale is designed for use with children in grades 3-12. It includes 12 partially complete figures that are completed by the child and scored for fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. These are flanked by a self-rating scale involving 50 multiple-choice items that are scored for divergent feelings (curiosity, risk-taking, desire for complexity, and imagination). There is also a rating scale for use by parents or teachers on which they rate the frequency of behaviors indicating the presence of the traits just mentioned. The test manual reports test-retest reliabilities over 10 months 'in the .60s', and unspecified Adj. 1. unspecified - not stated explicitly or in detail; "threatened unspecified reprisals"
specified - clearly and explicitly stated; "meals are at specified times" validity coefficients of .71-.76. Test scores were also reported to correlate from .59-.74 with adult ratings of the children's creativity. Presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. , interrater reliabilities and internal consistencies were higher than .60+, as the validity coeficients just mentioned would otherwise be impossible
The Creatrix Inventory (C & RT) (Byrd, 1986) is of considerable interest, because it integrates both cognitive (thinking) and noncognitive (motivation) dimensions of creativity. It is based on the concept of idea production, the ability to produce unconventional ideas, creativity being regarded as the result of an interaction between creative thinking and the motivational dimension of risk-taking. The test consists of two blocks of 28 self-rating or attitude statements, one block measuring creative thinking, the other risk-taking. These are answered using a 9-point scale ranging from complete disagreement to complete agreement (e.g., "I often see the humorous side when others do not," "Daydreaming is a useful activity"). Scores on the items of each dimension are summed and the total score for the dimension rated as high, medium, or low. Each person's scores are then plotted on a two-dimensional matrix (creativity versus risk-taking) and the person assigned to one of eight styles: Reproducer An early tabulating machine that duplicated punch cards. , Modifier (programming) modifier - An operation that alters the state of an object. Modifiers often have names that begin with "set" and corresponding selector functions whose names begin with "get". , Challenger, Practicalizer, Innovator, Synthesizer synthesizer
Machine that electronically generates and modifies sounds, frequently with the use of a digital computer, for use in the composition of electronic music and in live performance. , Dreamer, and Planner. The innovator is high on both creative thinking and risktaking, the reproducer low on both, the challenger high on risktaking but not creativity, the dreamer high on creativity but not risktaking, and so on. Byrd reported a one-week test-retest reliability of .72 for this scale. He argued that the scale possesses face validity face validity (fāsˑ v·liˑ·di·tē),
n , but provided no data on other forms.
Kirton's (1989) Adaptation-Innovation Inventory (KAI) does not mention creativity in its title, but is frequently cited in creativity research. This test distinguishes between people who seek to solve problems by making use of what they already know and can do (adaptors), and people who try to reorganize re·or·gan·ize
v. re·or·gan·ized, re·or·gan·iz·ing, re·or·gan·iz·es
To organize again or anew.
To undergo or effect changes in organization. and restructure the problem (innovators innovators
people who will try new things.
important figures in the farming or client community because they are the leaders in the introduction of new techniques and management systems. ). Kirton's view is that both adapting and innovating are involved in creative problem-solving, but the innovative style (which is accompanied by greater motivation to be creative, higher levels of risk-taking, and greater self-confidence) leads to higher productivity. The scale consists of 32 items (e.g., Will always think of something when stuck, Is methodical me·thod·i·cal also me·thod·ic
1. Arranged or proceeding in regular, systematic order.
2. Characterized by ordered and systematic habits or behavior. See Synonyms at orderly. and systematic, Often risks doing things differently) on which respondents rate themselves, indicating how difficult it would be for them to be like this on a 5-point scale (very easy -- very hard). The procedure yields an overall score and scores on three subscales: Originality, Conformity, and Efficiency. Kirton himself reported KR20 reliabilities of from .76-.82 for the subscales and .88 for the total score, and test-retest reliability over seven months of .82 for the total score. Puccio, Treffinger and Talbot (1995) reported alpha reliabilities for the total score of .86-.88, and from .61-.83 for the subscales. The same authors reported correlations ranging from about .25 to .47 for the subscale Originality with the rated originality of products.
Basadur and Hausdorf (1996) emphasized a somewhat different aspect of the personal correlates of creativity: attitudes favorable fa·vor·a·ble
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.
2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.
3. to creativity (e.g., placing a high value on new ideas; believing that creative thinking is not bizarre). The 24-item Basadur Preference Scale consists of statements with which respondents express their degree of agreement/disagreement on a 5-point scale ranging from strong agreement to strong disagreement. Items include "Creative people generally seem to have scrambled scram·ble
v. scram·bled, scram·bling, scram·bles
1. To move or climb hurriedly, especially on the hands and knees.
2. minds," "New ideas seldom work out," or "Ideas are only important if they impact on major projects." Factor analysis yielded three dimensions when the scale was administered to university students and young adults working in business settings: Valuing New Ideas, Creative Individual Stereotypes, and Too Busy for New Ideas. Test-retest reliabilities of the three dimensions ranged from .58-.63, while alpha coefficients ranged from .58-.76. Basadur and Hausdorf reported validity coefficients involving correlations with other creativity tests of about .25.
Procedures Based on the Adjective adjective, English part of speech, one of the two that refer typically to attributes and together are called modifiers. The other kind of modifier is the adverb. Check List
The Adjective Check List (ACL See access control list.
1. ACL - Access Control List.
2. ACL - Association for Computational Linguistics.
3. ACL - A Coroutine Language.
A Pascal-based implementation of coroutines.
["Coroutines", C.D. ) (Gough & Heilbrun, 1983) can be used for both self-ratings and also for ratings by observers. In an early application to measuring creativity Smith and Schaefer (1969) developed a 27-item subset A group of commands or functions that do not include all the capabilities of the original specification. Software or hardware components designed for the subset will also work with the original. of adjectives that discriminated significantly between groups of high school students judged by their teachers to be more or less creative, as well as between scientists and engineers judged on the basis of a biographical inventory to be creative and others judged to be less creative. This scale also possessed a certain degree of construct validity, the scores of business undergraduates correlating .63 with the originality subscale of Kirton's Adaptor-Innovator Scale (see above), .41 with self-ratings of creativity, and .48 with colleagues' ratings. Domino developed a 59-item subscale of the ACL, the Domino Creativity Scale, that also discriminated between several groups of more and less creative college students, when used by instructors to rate the students (Domino, 1994). The criterion of creativity involved either instructors' ratings or choice of a creative course (e.g., dance, music, cinematography cinematography: see motion picture photography.
Art and technology of motion-picture photography. It involves the composition of a scene, lighting of the set and actors, choice of cameras, camera angle, and integration of special ).The scale also discriminated significantly between inventors and noninventors. Other assessments of validity yielded values of up to .65 (correlations with other creativity scales), .63 (self-ratings of creativity), .55 (colleagues' ratings), or .34 (instructors' ratings). The Schaefer and Domino scales correlate about .90 with each other, scarcely surprising when it is borne in mind that they have 19 common items. Domino reported internal reliability of .88-.91 for his scale.
Gough himself developed the 30-item Creative Personality Scale (Cps) (Gough, 1992; Gough & Heilbrun, 1983), largely because both the Schaefer and Domino scales showed little or no correlation with the rated creativity of mature scientists, despite their usefulness with schoolchildren and college students. This subscale, which has become a routine element of the scoring of the ACL, involves 18 adjectives that receive a positive weight (e.g., clever wide interests, original) and 12 that receive a negative weight (e.g., sincere, conventional, commonplace). Its scores differentiate between creative and less creative adults in many, but not all, studies. Reported reliability coefficients for the Cps are often about .80, although Gough and Heilbrun themselves reported an internal consistency coefficient of .63, and test-retest reliabilities of about .70, depending on gender. It correlates moderately with scores on Guilford tests of divergent thinking (about .25) and with measures of openness, as well as with self-assessments (.41) and peer assessments (.48) of creativity, while correlations with creativity at work, in university studies (as rated by faculty members), and in biographical inventories are about .40.
The creativity tests reviewed here define creativity in a multifaceted mul·ti·fac·et·ed
Having many facets or aspects. See Synonyms at versatile.
Adj. 1. multifaceted - having many aspects; "a many-sided subject"; "a multifaceted undertaking"; "multifarious interests"; "the multifarious way (products, processes and personal factors). An overview of these facets is given in Table 1.
Table 2 summarizes the data on reliability and validity presented in this article. For ease of reference, the coefficients cited in the table have been rounded up or down by placing only 0 or 5 in the second decimal place decimal place
The position of a digit to the right of a decimal point, usually identified by successive ascending ordinal numbers with the digit immediately to the right of the decimal point being first: , as well as being bunched by omitting outlier outlier /out·li·er/ (out´li-er) an observation so distant from the central mass of the data that it noticeably influences results.
an extremely high or low value lying beyond the range of the bulk of the data. values that distort the general picture. The table does not reflect nonnumerical findings unsupported by relevant coefficients, such as statements in some studies that creativity tests were good predictors of adult creativity.
A Stocktaking stock·tak·ing
1. A reappraisal of a situation, a person, or one's own position or prospects.
2. The act or process of inventorying merchandise or the supplies on hand.
Inter-rater reliabilities in excess of .90 are frequently reported for creativity tests, while internal consistencies commonly reach .80, and test-retest reliabilities range from .60-.80. Thus, the dimensions they measure can be assessed with high agreement among raters, people taking the tests behave in a consistent manner within a single testing, and scores are reasonably stable over time. A comparison with data for the highly respected Wechsler intelligence scales shows that the figures for creativity tests are better than some critics have suggested. For the subtests of the WISC-R WISC-R Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised Sattler (1992) listed split-half reliabilities (these are usually higher than test-retest coefficients) ranging from .70-.86 (Mdn = .77).
In the case of validity, the fact that the highest coefficients were for correlations of divergent thinking tests with each other (up to .70) is scarcely surprising, since these tests focus on the cognitive aspect of creativity and thus embody em·bod·y
tr.v. em·bod·ied, em·bod·y·ing, em·bod·ies
1. To give a bodily form to; incarnate.
2. To represent in bodily or material form: the most unitary unitary
pertaining to a single object or individual. definition of it. Measures of creative person correlate lower at about .50 with other similar tests. These validity coefficients can be compared with construct validity coefficients (correlations with other intelligence tests) for WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQs ranging from .26-.75 (Mdn = .61) reported by Sattler. The IQs are composites obtained by summing six subtests, so that the validity coefficients are enhanced by combining information from several sources. Lower correlations among tests of personal properties than among cognitive tests Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and animals. Tests administered to humans include various forms of IQ tests; those administered to animals include the mirror test (a test of self-awareness) and the T maze test (which tests learning ability). would be expected if individual tests measure different aspects of the creative person. Table 1 suggests that this is the case. Because of the multifaceted nature of creativity as measured by tests, Davis and Rimm (1998) recommended that assessments should be based on several different tests.
The tests' ability to predict achievements in real life, sometimes years later, also involved coefficients around .50. By contrast, IQs frequently correlate about .70 with school grades, although much lower with gifted achievements in adult life (e.g., Gibson & Light, 1967). One possible explanation for the lower predictive validity of creativity tests is that their tasks do not resemble real-life creative behavior (questionable face validity), whereas the contents of intelligence tests are rather like school tasks. It also seems likely that real-life creative achievement requires more than creativity, with other psychological factors also playing a major role. Convergent thinking has already been mentioned. Further factors were identified in a recent 30 year longitudinal study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. on college women by Helson (1999): Youthful openness and unconventionality un·con·ven·tion·al
Not adhering to convention; out of the ordinary.
uncon·ven (typical characteristics emphasized in tests of the creative person) are strongly predictive of adult creative achievement when they are associated with depth, commitment and self-discipline, but when accompanied by unresolved Not completed; not finished; not linked together. See resolve. identity problems, lack of persistence, self-defeating behavior, or overt Public; open; manifest.
The term overt is used in Criminal Law in reference to conduct that moves more directly toward the commission of an offense than do acts of planning and preparation that may ultimately lead to such conduct.
OVERT. Open. psychopathology psychopathology /psy·cho·pa·thol·o·gy/ (-pah-thol´ah-je)
1. the branch of medicine dealing with the causes and processes of mental disorders.
2. abnormal, maladaptive behavior or mental activity. they are not. Consequently, a number of authors (e.g., Kitto, Lok & Rudowicz, 1994; Helson, 1999) suggested that creativity tests are best thought of as tests of creative potential, not of creativity.
Some writers have suggested that there is no need for a separate concept creativity at all. Carroll (1993) argued that cognitive tests do not measure a separate ability but Broad Retrieval (Fluency). Wallach (1976, p. 57) concluded that tests tell us little about talent, Milgram (1990) asked whether creativity is a concept whose time has come and gone, and Czikszentmihalyi (1996) argued that creativity is simply a diffuse diffuse /dif·fuse/
1. (di-fus´) not definitely limited or localized.
2. (di-fuz´) to pass through or to spread widely through a tissue or substance.
adj. category of positive judgment in the mind of critics. Nonetheless, Hocevar (1981) concluded that children's degree of participation in creative activities out of school is a defensible de·fen·si·ble
Capable of being defended, protected, or justified: defensible arguments.
de·fen way of assessing their creativity, and Baldwin (1985) concluded that dedicated pursuit of an interest is the best indicator in minority and disadvantaged children. Kumar, Kemmler and Holman (1997) emphasized that self-rating scales have a certain phenomenological authenticity The correct attribution of origin such as the authorship of an e-mail message or the correct description of information such as a data field that is properly named. Authenticity is one of the six fundamental components of information security (see Parkerian Hexad). , since respondents describe themselves.
Among tests of creative thinking the TTCT-DP has much to recommend it. It is based on a more general theory of creativity than the relatively ad hoc For this purpose. Meaning "to this" in Latin, it refers to dealing with special situations as they occur rather than functions that are repeated on a regular basis. See ad hoc query and ad hoc mode. test-derived models centering on divergent thinking (Torrance) or divergent production (Guilford), and encompasses both thinking and personality. My own experience confirms that it is also suitable for administration to people over a very wide age range, is readily accepted by respondents, is easy to administer and score, and can be used for counseling purposes (see for instance Cropley & Cropley, 2000). The scores can be used either at the differentiated level of the 13 dimensions suggested in the handbook (Urban & Jellen, 1996) or by combining subtest scores to form the three more-complex dimensions Productivity, Novelty and Unconventionality that have been demonstrated factor-analytically (e.g., Cropley & Cropley, 2000). Focus on a multidimensional mul·ti·di·men·sion·al
Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
multi·di·men concept of creativity, on assessment of potential and on the use of tests as a basis for differentiated counseling suggests that creativity tests are worth using.
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Wallach, M. A. (1976, January-February). Tests tell us little about talent. American Scientist American Scientist (ISSN 0003-0996) is an illustrated bimonthly magazine about science and technology. Each issue includes four to five feature articles written by prominent scientists and engineers. , 57-63.
Wallach, M. A., & Kogan, N. (1965). Modes of thinking in young children. New York: Holt holt
A wood or grove; a copse.
[Middle English, from Old English.]
the lair of an otter [from , Rinehart and Winston.
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Arthur J. Cropley is the author of 20 books and many articles and received the 1997 Creativity Award of the World Council for Gifted and Talented Children. He taught school in Australia, England and Canada. After graduate study in Canada he taught in universities in Australia, Canada and Germany until retiring in 1998.
Manuscript submitted March, 2000.
Revision accepted September, 2000.