Decoding and fluency: foundation skills for struggling older readers.
Abstract. A large number of secondary students read between the 2.5 and the 5.0 grade level. What separates many of these students from their higher performing peers is their inability to read multisyllabic words and to read fluently flu·ent
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.
b. . These students need instruction in decoding de·code
tr.v. de·cod·ed, de·cod·ing, de·codes
1. To convert from code into plain text.
2. To convert from a scrambled electronic signal into an interpretable one.
3. long words using one of three approaches: reading segmented words part by part, decoding different syllable syllable
Segment of speech usually consisting of a vowel with or without accompanying consonant sounds (e.g., a, I, out, too, cap, snap, check). A syllabic consonant, like the final n sound in button and widen, also constitutes a syllable. types, or using a flexible strategy for reading long words. These students also need sufficient reading practice to increase their reading rates. This practice might include oral guided reading Guided reading is a method of teaching reading to children. It forms part of the National Literacy Strategy for England and Wales and is therefore a preferred approach employed within primary schools. Guided Reading sessions involve a teacher and a group of around six children. , choral cho·ral
1. Of or relating to a chorus or choir.
2. Performed or written for performance by a chorus.
[Medieval Latin chor reading, partner reading, and/or repeated reading activities. The authors suggest that significant gains in reading are more likely to occur when teachers implement research-validated programs that have a well-designed sequence, provide systematic instruction to students, and furnish fur·nish
tr.v. fur·nished, fur·nish·ing, fur·nish·es
1. To equip with what is needed, especially to provide furniture for.
2. adequate practice.
The current emphasis in reading is on robust beginning instruction to reduce the number of students later having reading challenges. Despite this laudable laud·a·ble
Healthy; favorable. focus on prevention of reading problems, a staggering number of middle and high school students read significantly below grade-level expectations. The National Education Goals Panel (1995) reported that only 28% of eighth graders and 34% of twelfth graders achieve proficient pro·fi·cient
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.
An expert; an adept. reading standards. Unfortunately, 74% of students identified with reading disabilities in third grade continue to have significant reading challenges in ninth grade (Lyon, 1995).
Struggling secondary readers often have challenges in all areas of reading: decoding, fluency flu·ent
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.
b. , vocabulary, and comprehension. Many of them have listening comprehension that is significantly higher than their reading comprehension Reading comprehension can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text. For normal reading rates (around 200-220 words per minute) an acceptable level of comprehension is above 75%. . When listening comprehension exceeds reading comprehension, inaccurate and slow word recognition is likely to be the cause (Shankweiler et al., 1999). Thus, decoding and fluency are the critical foundation on which all other reading skills are laid.
What Are the Decoding Challenges of Struggling Secondary Readers?
Many researchers have determined that word recognition is the foundational process of reading and is needed to support vocabulary attainment and reading comprehension (Stanovich, 1996). Poorly developed word recognition skills are believed to be the most pervasive and debilitating de·bil·i·tat·ing
Causing a loss of strength or energy.
Weakening, or reducing the strength of.
Mentioned in: Stress Reduction source of reading challenges (Adams, 1990; Perfetti, 1985; Share & Stanovich, 1995). Although difficulty in pronouncing pro·nounc·ing
Relating to, designed for, or showing pronunciation: a pronouncing dictionary. the individual words in the text is the common denominator common denominator
1. Mathematics A quantity into which all the denominators of a set of fractions may be divided without a remainder.
2. A commonly shared theme or trait. of reading disability (Shankweiler, 1989, 1999), there are two distinct groups of secondary struggling readers with regard to decoding skills. Students in the smaller group are still reading at first- and second-grade levels. They have not mastered beginning reading skills: the phonemic awareness Phonemic Awareness is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to distinguish phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. For example, a listener with phonemic awareness can break the word "Cat" into three separate phonemes: /k/, /a/, skills of blending and segmenting, letter-sound associations, reading of decodable words, recognition of high-frequency irregular words, and reading of decodable text Decodable text is a type of text often used in beginning reading instruction. With this type of text, new readers can decipher words using the phonics skills they have been taught. (National Reading Panel, 2000).
In order for these students to make significant gains in reading, an adequate amount of time, perhaps as much as two hours a day, must be dedicated to systematic instruction using age-appropriate materials (Moats, 2001). Because the time left before these students leave school is short and the need is great, intensive instruction must be offered using a research-validated program (e.g., Corrective cor·rec·tive
Counteracting or modifying what is malfunctioning, undesirable, or injurious.
An agent that corrects.
n Reading; Engelmann, Carnine, Johnson, Meyer, Becker, & Eisele, 1999; Language!; Greene, 2000; or Wilson Reading System The Wilson Reading System® is a research-based reading and writing program designed for students (grades 2-12 and adults) who have difficulty with decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling). ; Wilson, 1996) that will quickly close the gap between these readers and their higher performing peers.
In this article, the authors address the larger group of struggling secondary readers. These students read between the 2.5 and the 5.0 grade level. They generally can decode (1) To convert coded data back into its original form. Contrast with encode.
(2) Same as decrypt. See cryptography.
(cryptography) decode - To apply decryption. single-syllable words and recognize some high-frequency irregular words. Their major decoding difficulty is with multisyllabic words. When faced with words such as "unconventionality un·con·ven·tion·al
Not adhering to convention; out of the ordinary.
uncon·ven " or "accomplishments," many of these students have no systematic approach for attacking these words, much less the confidence that would support multiple attempts at reading a difficult unknown word. Many poor decoders, even those who can read single-syllable words, have difficulty with multisyllabic words (Just & Carpenter, 1987). The inability of poor readers to decode long words increases the qualitative differences between good and poor readers (Perfetti, 1986). Poor decoders are more likely to mispronounce mis·pro·nounce
v. mis·pro·nounced, mis·pro·nounc·ing, mis·pro·nounc·es
To pronounce badly or incorrectly.
To make a poor pronunciation. affixes and to disregard large portions of letter information. They are two to four times as likely to omit o·mit
tr.v. o·mit·ted, o·mit·ting, o·mits
1. To fail to include or mention; leave out: omit a word.
a. To pass over; neglect.
b. syllables as more proficient readers (Shefelbine & Calhoun, 1991). For example, given a word such as "unconventionality," the struggling reader might say "unvention."
Why Is Decoding Instruction on Multisyllabic Words So Critical?
An emphasis on multisyllabic word reading is critical because of the number of novel words introduced in intermediate and secondary textbooks and the potential for failing to learn from material if the words cannot be read. From fifth grade on, it is estimated that the average student encounters approximately 10,000 words per year that they have never previously encountered in print (Nagy & Anderson, 1984). Most of these new words are multisyllabic words.
The meaning of content-area passages is almost totally carried by the multisyllabic words. To illustrate this point, read the following paragraph from a sixth-grade social studies textbook, saying "blank" for all the underlined, multisyllabic words. Ask yourself, "What level of comprehension would you achieve if you were unable to read these words?"
The framers of the Constitution faced a difficult conflict. They saw the need for a strong national government. At the same time, they did not want to take away all power from the states. Like most Americans, they believed that state governments would better understand the special needs and concerns of their citizens. (from the American Nation  published by Prentice Hall)
The inability to read words accurately has both short-and long-term consequences. The short-term consequences are more obvious: the reader is unable to understand the vocabulary embedded Inserted into. See embedded system. in the passage and equally unable to extract meaning from what has been read (Perfetti, 1986). No comprehension strategies are powerful enough to compensate for not being able to read the words within the text.
The long-term consequences of the failure to read multisyllabic words are less obvious on any given day but painfully apparent over time to all who have worked in secondary schools. In the authors' experiences, students with reading challenges are:
1. More likely to struggle in secondary coursework coursework
work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's
2. More likely to drop out of school when given the first opportunity
3. Less able to obtain employment that supports themselves and their families as adults
4. More likely to have social/emotional challenges as a adults
5. Less able to participate in post-high school education training programs at technical schools, community colleges, colleges, and universities
This last challenge was dramatically illustrated in a recent visit to a Florida community college. For each of its training programs (plumber (programming, tool) Plumber - A system for obtaining information about memory leaks in Ada and C programs.
http://home.earthlink.net/~owenomalley/plumber.html. , nail specialist, hairdresser, mechanic), a reading level of ninth grade or higher was required for admission. Applicants who failed to meet this criterion would be denied admission. Clearly, struggling older readers have a need to learn to decode multisyllabic words.
Can the Multisyllabic Word Reading of Secondary Students Be Improved?
Fortunately, when given systematic, intentional in·ten·tion·al
1. Done deliberately; intended: an intentional slight. See Synonyms at voluntary.
2. Having to do with intention. instruction, the skill of decoding multisyllabic words is attainable by most struggling secondary readers. A number of studies have demonstrated that it is not too late for struggling secondary readers to learn to read multisyllabic words and to improve their overall reading ability. Working with fourth and sixth graders, Shefelbine (1990) found that students made significant gains when taught to use affixes and vowels to decode longer words. In a secondary study, seventh, eighth, and ninth graders who were taught a decoding strategy for reading long words had fewer oral reading errors and increased comprehension (Lenz & Hughes, 1990).
Similarly, reading-deficient students in fourth and fifth grades who were taught a decoding strategy in which they peeled off affixes and used vowels to determine other decodable parts of words made significant gains over students receiving monosyllabic word instruction (Archer, 1981; Archer, Gleason, Vachon, & Hollenbeck, 2003). In another study in which the same strategy was taught to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders, the students made significant gains in word reading accuracy and in fluent fluent /flu·ent/ (floo´int) flowing effortlessly; said of speech. reading of connected text (Vachon, 1998; Vachon & Gleason, 2003). Consistent with other intervention research, the use of systematic, direct instruction paired with explicit strategy instruction can have positive results for struggling students (Swanson, 1999; Vaughn, Gersten, & Chard, 2000).
What Constitutes Effective Multisyllabic Word Instruction?
At one time, students were taught a set of syllabication syl·lab·i·fy or syl·lab·i·cate
tr.v. syl·lab·i·fied or syl·lab·i·cat·ed, syl·lab·i·fy·ing or syl·lab·i·cat·ing, syl·lab·i·fies or syl·lab·i·cates
To form or divide into syllables. rules, instructed to use the rules to divide words into parts, and then asked to apply their phonetic pho·net·ic
1. Of or relating to phonetics.
2. Representing the sounds of speech with a set of distinct symbols, each designating a single sound. knowledge to determine the pronunciation pronunciation: see phonetics; phonology.
Pronunciation - In this dictionary slashes (/../) bracket phonetic pronunciations of words not found in a standard English dictionary. of the unknown word. Many of us have memories of receiving a list of long words that we were to "divide" into perfect dictionary syllables. In recent years, research has supported a shift from rigid rules to a more flexible approach to decoding of longer words. Shefelbine (1990), in a research study that taught syllable types to fourth- and sixth-grade students, stressed that students should locate alternative decodable chunks if the first ones did not result in a recognizable word. Students were taught to use alternative pronunciations until a match was made to their oral vocabulary. The need for flexibility is reinforced by an analysis of two-syllable words containing open and closed syllables (Greif, 1981). In this analysis of 138,000 words, the author determined that only 45% of open-syllable words and 56% of closed-syllable words would be correctly pronounced using the understanding that in closed syllables a short vowel sound Noun 1. vowel sound - a speech sound made with the vocal tract open
speech sound, phone, sound - (phonetics) an individual sound unit of speech without concern as to whether or not it is a phoneme of some language should be used and in open syllables a long vowel sound should be used.
Syllabication rules are seldom taught today for a number of reasons: (a) the rules are too numerous and complex to remember, (b) most teachers have concluded that mastery of the rules did not enhance their students' decoding skills, and, most important, (c) research has demonstrated little relationship between knowing the rules and successful reading (Canney & Schreiner, 1977). Instead of teaching complex syllabication rules, students must be exposed to the visual patterns found in English, and flexibility must be emphasized (Cunningham, 1998; Shefelbine, 1990). Instead of using complex rules to divide words into parts, readers are taught to divide words into decodable chunks by first looking quickly at almost all letters, and then segmenting big words into parts based on familiar patterns found in words.
Instructional programs that teach decoding of multisyllabic words give attention to several instructional design Instructional design is the practice of arranging media (communication technology) and content to help learners and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively. The process consists broadly of determining the current state of learner understanding, defining the end goal of features in order to prepare students for this task: (a) careful instruction on necessary preskills such as the pronunciation of affixes and vowels, (b) an adequate number of word examples for practice, and (c) the diligent dil·i·gent
Marked by persevering, painstaking effort. See Synonyms at busy.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin d selection of those words to include only useful sounds and affixes.
In the following sections, we will describe three approaches to teaching older students to read longer words that have emerged from the research literature. We will use research-validated secondary programs to illustrate each approach: Corrective Reading (Engelmann et al., 1999), Language! (Greene, 2000), and REWARDS (Archer, Gleason, & Vachon, 2000). The three approaches differ in how the long words are broken down into decodable chunks: (a) identifying known parts, (b) decoding syllable types, and (c) using a flexible strategy that identifies known affixes and vowel sounds and uses that information to form word parts.
Part-by-part decoding instruction. In the first approach to decoding multisyllabic words, students are taught to identify one or more parts, read the known parts first, and then read the whole word. For example, in one lesson, students would be taught the sound for ly. In another lesson, they would be taught re. Then, when encountering the word repeatedly, they would first read re and ly before attempting the whole word.
An example of part-by-part multisyllabic word reading instruction is seen in Corrective Reading: Decoding (Engelmann et al., 1999), a three-level program that has been validated for use with intermediate and secondary students whose reading levels range from first to sixth grade (Campbell, 1988; Grossen, 2002; Grossen, in press; Vitale, Medland, Romance, & Weaver, 1993). Throughout the program, students are introduced to sound-symbol relationships and the pronunciation of affixes, which are immediately applied to the reading of single-syllable and multisyllabic words. When longer words are introduced, students are asked to read a difficult part (or parts) of the word and then to read the entire word. The difficult parts are underlined. For example, in the word "occasionally," ly is underlined. Students would first read ly, then read the whole word. Students are given a great deal of practice reading long words containing taught elements and passages containing multisyllabic words. It is the assumption of the program that students will generate a strategy for attacking multisyllabic words as a result of reading many long words and being exposed to consistent patterns found in English words.
Another example of part-by-part multisyllabic word reading instruction is embedded in the flexible strategy taught in the REWARDS program (Archer et al., 2000). (The entire flexible strategy is described in a later section.) Before students are taught the flexible strategy so they can independently read multisyllabic words, they are presented long words with loops drawn under the decodable chunks (see Figure 1). The teacher leads them in determining the pronunciation of the word by asking them, "What part? What part? What part?" and finally "What word?"
Similar part-by-part multisyllabic word reading instruction was investigated in the original research study on REWARDS (Archer, 1981). In the teacher-led condition, students read long words with loops the teacher had drawn under the words, indicating decodable parts. Following four weeks of instruction, intermediate-age students with learning disabilities made significant gains on multiple measures of word recognition over students taught monosyllabic word reading. Their gains were not as great as those of students who were taught the entire flexible strategy. However, the teacher-led decoding instruction could be adopted easily by teachers or support staff to preteach the pronunciation of difficult words found in content-area textbooks. The sixth-grade science teacher or the seventh-grade social studies teacher could read a content-area selection, locate difficult-to-pronounce words, write the words on the board or an overhead transparency, indicate the decodable chunks with loops under the parts, and lead students in the pronunciation of the words. Preteaching the pronunciation of difficult words would not only increase students' accuracy and fluency on the given passage, but, if repeated over time, would build students' competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. in independently attacking long words.
Syllable-type instruction. The second approach is to teach students how to read different syllable types found within words. Students are introduced to the six major syllable types found in English (Moats, 2000, 2001; Shefelbine, 1990). Using this method, students are introduced to sound-symbol correspondences for vowels within the context of common syllable types such as open and closed syllables (see Figure 2). The students then practice reading words containing these syllable types. From this practice, students learn to visually chunk sequences of letters and understand the spelling patterns found within English.
Language! (Greene, 2000) is a research-validated program (Greene, 1996, 1998; Moats, in press) designed for adolescents with reading disabilities that utilizes syllable-type instruction as one approach to attacking multisyllabic words. In this program, students are introduced to a syllable type, read single-syllable words with that structure, and read multisyllabic words with the same syllable type. For example, in Unit 19 students are introduced to open syllables and read short words such as "be" and "go," followed by reading longer words such as banjo banjo, stringed musical instrument, with a body resembling a tambourine. The banjo consists of a hoop over which a skin membrane is stretched; it has a long, often fretted neck and four to nine strings, which are plucked with a pick or the fingers. , introvert introvert /in·tro·vert/ (in´tro-vert)
1. a person whose interest is turned inward to the self.
2. to turn one's interest inward to the self.
3. a structure that can be turned or drawn inwards. , and rodent rodent, member of the mammalian order Rodentia, characterized by front teeth adapted for gnawing and cheek teeth adapted for chewing. The Rodentia is by far the largest mammalian order; nearly half of all mammal species are rodents. containing the same syllable type. Students are given extensive practice in reading multisyllabic words, spelling these words, and analyzing the syllable types found in words. In this final exercise, students rewrite re·write
v. re·wrote , re·writ·ten , re·writ·ing, re·writes
1. To write again, especially in a different or improved form; revise.
2. vocabulary words indicating the syllable types in the words (stumble, stum stum
1. Unfermented or partly fermented grape juice; must.
2. Vapid wine renewed by an admixture of stum.
tr.v. stummed, stum·ming, stums
To ferment (vapid wine) by adding stum. + ble; ruffle, ruf + fle). As students' proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.
Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence in reading long words with these syllable types increases, morpheme morpheme: see grammar.
In linguistics, the smallest grammatical unit of speech. It may be an entire word (cat) or an element of a word (re- and -ed in reappeared). units including prefixes, roots, and suffixes from Latin and Greek are introduced.
Flexible strategy instruction. In the final approach, students are taught a flexible strategy for decoding multisyllabic words in which they are given a series of steps to take in order to segment a word into parts, read the word part by part, and then read the word independently. In this approach, students learn that they can be flexible in dividing the word into parts as long as they can ultimately make the word into a real word.
An example of learning a flexible strategy for reading long words is seen in the REWARDS program. REWARDS (Archer et al., 2000) is designed specifically for students in fourth through twelfth grade This article or section deals primarily with the United States and Canada and does not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page. who have mastered skills associated with first- and second-grade reading but have difficulty reading long words and/or who read slowly (i.e., 60 to 120 correct oral words per minute Noun 1. words per minute - the rate at which words are produced (as in speaking or typing)
rate - a magnitude or frequency relative to a time unit; "they traveled at a rate of 55 miles per hour"; "the rate of change was faster than expected" ). Unlike Corrective Reading and Language!, it does not address students who read below a mid-second-grade reading level. Instead, it was designed to be an intense, short-term program for struggling secondary readers reading between a 2.5 and 5.0 grade reading level. When it was used with fourth and fifth graders having learning disabilities in an intervention lasting 30 minutes a day for four weeks, the students in the condition that parallels the current program significantly outperformed similar students receiving monosyllabic word reading instruction on multiple measures of word recognition (Archer, 1981; Archer et al., 2003). The curriculum was also used in a study involving middle school students with reading deficiencies, including students with learning disabilities (Vachon, 1991; Vachon & Gleason, 2003). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mastery learning Mastery Learning is an instructional method that presumes all children can learn if they are provided with the appropriate learning conditions. Specifically, mastery learning is a method whereby students are not advanced to a subsequent learning objective until they demonstrate on multisyllabic word reading component skills and the effects of practice context on word and text reading skills. Over the course of 15 weeks, regardless of the assigned intervention condition, students made statistically significant gains in their ability to decode multisyllabic words and to apply the strategy of identifying word parts when encountering unfamiliar words.
The goal of REWARDS is to teach students a flexible strategy for decoding long words that is both effective and efficient. Initially, students learn an overt Public; open; manifest.
The term overt is used in Criminal Law in reference to conduct that moves more directly toward the commission of an offense than do acts of planning and preparation that may ultimately lead to such conduct.
OVERT. Open. strategy that involves physical behaviors (see Figure 3). When given a long word, students segment the word into decodable parts (not necessarily perfect dictionary syllables) by circling word parts (prefixes) that come at the beginning of the word, circling word parts (suffixes) at the end of the word, and underlining un·der·lin·ing
1. The act of drawing a line under; underscoring.
2. Emphasis or stress, as in instruction or argument. vowel sounds in the rest of the word. Students then say the parts, say the whole word, and finally make it a real word. This last step might involve adjusting the vowel sounds or accent to match their pronunciation to a real word. This overt strategy is gradually faded until the students can examine the word covertly cov·ert
1. Not openly practiced, avowed, engaged in, accumulated, or shown: covert military operations; covert funding for the rebels. See Synonyms at secret.
2. (cognitively), looking for Looking for
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. word parts at the beginning and end of the word and for vowel sounds in the rest of the word. They would then say the parts, say the parts fast, and make it a real word.
Although this strategy is quite simple, extensive instruction was needed to ensure mastery. Prior to introduction of the strategy, the students had to be taught a number of critical preskills. The two most important skills are also addressed in Language! and Corrective Reading: the ability to accurately pronounce pro·nounce
v. pro·nounced, pro·nounc·ing, pro·nounc·es
a. To use the organs of speech to make heard (a word or speech sound); utter.
b. the phonemes for vowel vowel
Speech sound in which air from the lungs passes through the mouth with minimal obstruction and without audible friction, like the i in fit. The word also refers to a letter representing such a sound (a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y). graphemes and the ability to pronounce prefixes and suffixes. Students received extensive instruction on the pronunciation of vowel sounds in response to common vowel graphemes. Phonemegrapheme associations for vowels were stressed because in English vowels are misread mis·read
tr.v. mis·read , mis·read·ing, mis·reads
1. To read inaccurately.
2. To misinterpret or misunderstand: misread our friendly concern as prying. twice as frequently as consonants This is a list of all consonants, ordered by place and manner of articulation. Ordered by place of articulation
1. " and "suffix suf·fix
An affix added to the end of a word or stem, serving to form a new word or functioning as an inflectional ending, such as -ness in gentleness, -ing in walking, or -s in sits.
tr.v. " were broadly defined as recognizable groups of letters at the beginning and end of the word that students can use to assist in the correct pronunciation of words (Lenz & Hughes, 1990). In REWARDS, students are directly taught phoneme-grapheme correspondences for vowels and affix pronunciations through modeling, practice, and daily review. In addition to these two preskills, students practiced blending word parts from an orally segmented model presented by the teacher and correcting close approximations to a word's pronunciation using context.
How Are Multisyllabic Word Reading Skills Generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.
2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.
Initial strategy instruction, while demanding systematic instruction, is often not as problematic as getting students to actually USE the strategies. The challenge of strategy generalization gen·er·al·i·za·tion
1. The act or an instance of generalizing.
2. A principle, a statement, or an idea having general application. was vividly portrayed por·tray
tr.v. por·trayed, por·tray·ing, por·trays
1. To depict or represent pictorially; make a picture of.
2. To depict or describe in words.
3. To represent dramatically, as on the stage. on a visit to an eighth-grade class using REWARDS.
Anthony was asked to read a sentence containing many multisyllabic words. He began reading with confidence until he came to the word "exemption." At that point, he looked up and said, "I don't know Don't know (DK, DKed)
"Don't know the trade." A Street expression used whenever one party lacks knowledge of a trade or receives conflicting instructions from the other party. that word." When it was suggested that he use his decoding strategy, even using his pencil to circle affixes and underline underline
an animal's ventral profile; the shape of the belly when viewed from the side, e.g. pendulous, pot-belly, tucked up, gaunt. vowel sounds, he replied with earnestness, "You mean I can use it?!" Although Anthony knew the strategy, he had not yet determined that he could USE it.
In the field of learning disabilities, there is a long history of research on enhancing generalization (e.g., Borkowski & Muthukrishna, 1992; Ellis, Lenz, & Sabornie, 1987; Horner, Bellamy, & Colvin, 1984; Swanson & De La Paz La Paz, city, Bolivia
La Paz (lä päs), city (1992 pop. 713,378), W Bolivia, administrative capital (since 1898) and largest city of Bolivia. The legal capital is Sucre. , 1998; Vaughn et al., 2000; Wong, 1994). For example, we understand that generalization is enhanced when: (a) students are told when, why, and where to use the strategy; (b) students reach a high automaticity on the strategy; (c) students are given a great deal of practice on using the strategy as they would in their daily lives; and (d) students are directed to use the strategy.
These principles were used in REWARDS to increase the probability of generalization of the strategy. First, from the first day of instruction, we discussed with students the situations in which they might encounter long words and therefore could use the REWARDS strategy. Next, we provided students with a great deal of practice on the strategy so that they would have automaticity in using it. A total of 787 novel multisyllabic words were introduced. Then, to enhance generalization, students practiced the strategy as it would be used in their daily lives. In this case, generalization practice occurred by having students read text containing many multisyllabic words such as the text found in secondary science, social studies, and health books. Given that struggling secondary readers have more difficulty with expository than narrative text in terms of fluency and comprehension (Saenz & Fuchs, 2002), it was particularly important to provide this practice. Our final generalization procedure was rather simple: we told students to use the strategy!
Prompting students to use the strategy at the point at which a reading error occurs has proven to be particularly helpful. When middle school students were consistently prompted, they, on an average, successfully corrected 50% of their multisyllabic word reading errors without further assistance from the teacher. By the end of the study, this consistent prompting for use of the strategy brought students to a 98% to 99% level of reading success in grade-level social studies material (Vachon & Gleason, 2003).
What Is Reading Fluency?
We know it when we hear it! When a fluent student reads, he or she literally seems to float along the lines, enunciating a clear stream of words while adding necessary expression--pure music to the teacher's ear. We sit back and celebrate the flow. A disfluent student reads slowly and laboriously la·bo·ri·ous
1. Marked by or requiring long, hard work: spent many laborious hours on the project.
2. Hard-working; industrious. , stopping often to sound out words and rereading sections to regain comprehension. We listen, trying to keep ourselves from interrupting. When the student reaches the end of a sentence, we use the pause to quickly call on another student, relieved that we can spare the student, the other group members, and ourselves a continuation of this painful experience.
Although we recognize it when we hear it, there is a great deal of debate over the definition of fluency. Recently, it has been argued that fluency refers to automaticity in all processes used while reading (Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001). In other cases, fluency has been given a much more limited definition. For example, it has been defined as being able to read words accurately and fluently with expression or prosody prosody: see versification.
Study of the elements of language, especially metre, that contribute to rhythmic and acoustic effects in poetry. (Hudson, Mercer mer·cer
n. Chiefly British
A dealer in textiles, especially silks.
[Middle English, from Old French mercier, trader, from merz, merchandise, from Latin merx , & Lane, 2000). Meyer and Felton (1999) concluded that fluency is "the ability to read connected text rapidly, smoothly, effortlessly ef·fort·less
Calling for, requiring, or showing little or no effort. See Synonyms at easy.
effort·less·ly adv. , and automatically with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading such as decoding" (p. 284).
For our purposes, an even more pragmatic definition of fluency has been adopted: rate plus accuracy. This definition, while reductionist re·duc·tion·ism
An attempt or tendency to explain a complex set of facts, entities, phenomena, or structures by another, simpler set: "For the last 400 years science has advanced by reductionism ... in nature, allows for ease in measurement and intervention. As we will see, for secondary students, even this simple definition takes on importance in their daily lives.
Why Is Fluency Important?
Why should increased fluency (accuracy plus rate) be a goal of secondary reading programs? The most common reason is the relationship between fluency (rate) and comprehension. Both empirical and clinical research support the relationship between fluent oral reading and overall reading ability, including comprehension (e.g., Calfee & Piontkowski, 1981; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Fuchs, Fuchs, & Maxwell, 1988; Gough, Hoover, & Peterson, 1996; Herman, 1985; Jenkins, Fuchs, Espin, van den Broek, & Deno, 2000; Krashen, 1993; Meyer & Felton, 1999; Rasinski, Padek, Linek, & Sturtevant, 1994; Reutzel & Hollingsworth, 1993). This relationship is often explained by means of the information processing theory The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. Information processing theorists proposed that like the computer, the human mind is a system that processes information through the (LaBerge & Samuels, 1974). Human beings have limited cognitive resources in terms of attention and short-term memory short-term memory
Abbr. STM The phase of the memory process in which stimuli that have been recognized and registered are stored briefly. . As readers, there are two things that we must direct our cognitive energies toward: recognizing the printed words (decoding) and constructing meaning (comprehension). If we are very slow readers and must laboriously sound out many words, it is plausible that our cognitive energies will be drawn away from meaning, thus compromising our comprehension (National Reading Panel, 2000).
A recent incident with a young friend provided the perfect analogy. He had just obtained his driver's permit at age 15-1/2 and begged to drive to the store. As drivers, our cognitive resources must respond to two aspects of driving: the mechanics of driving (brakes, gas, windshield wipers
The Wipers were a punk rock group formed in Portland, Oregon in 1977 by guitarist Greg Sage, drummer Sam Henry and bassist Dave Koupal. , etc.) and road hazards. As a new driver, Matt was deeply engrossed en·gross
tr.v. en·grossed, en·gross·ing, en·gross·es
1. To occupy exclusively; absorb: A great novel engrosses the reader. See Synonyms at monopolize.
2. in the mechanics of driving. As he searched for the windshield wipers, he pulled into the wrong lane, and we were faced with a semi-truck. After one of us grabbed the wheel and pulled us back to safety, Matt's gift to us became evident: the perfect fluency analogy. Attend to the mechanics and face a semi. Attend to decoding and miss the gist.
In our work with children, other reasons for fluency have become equally important. One critical result of laborious la·bo·ri·ous
1. Marked by or requiring long, hard work: spent many laborious hours on the project.
2. Hard-working; industrious. decoding and low fluency is little reading practice (Moats, 2001). Lack of practice produces a delay in the development of automaticity and speed (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998). As struggling readers continue to read very slowly, they are exposed to less text. In addition, they experience decoding as taxing and frustrating frus·trate
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart: and consequently choose activities other than reading: television, soccer, and meeting with friends. As a result, these students read less over time and fail to gain fluency while their peers read more and more over time and become increasingly fluent; thus, the gap between the best readers and the weakest readers widens as they get older. The term "Matthew Effect The term "Matthew effect" may refer, depending on context, to a number of ideas all related to a parable in the Gospel of Matthew: Biblical
The "Matthew effect " illustrates this rich-get-richer and poor-get-poorer phenomenon (Stanovich, 1986). We can easily speculate on other fortunes accrued ac·crue
v. ac·crued, ac·cru·ing, ac·crues
1. To come to one as a gain, addition, or increment: interest accruing in my savings account.
2. by proficient, avid AVID Cardiology A clinical trial–Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators that compared the effect of implantable defibrillators vs the best medical therapy–antiarrhythmics for survivors of MI or those with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia readers as a result of being more fluent and reading more. These students are likely to gain, among other things, increased vocabulary, background knowledge, ideas that can be incorporated into written products, visual memory of words for spelling, and schema for understanding certain genres. It has even been suggested that voracious voracious
said of appetite. See polyphagia. reading can alter measured intelligence (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998). As Stanovich (1993) concluded, the extent to which students spend their time reading generally translates into learning new words, new meanings, new linguistic structures, and new ways of thinking.
Finally, fluency has a direct impact on work completion. This is a very pragmatic reason to increase fluency. Let's say two eighth-grade students have identical class schedules. Marcus reads 180 correct oral words per minute, whereas James reads James Christopher Read (born July 31, 1953) is an American actor.
Read was born in Buffalo, New York. He stared acting as student of the University of Oregon where he graduated in 1976. only 60 correct words per minute. One particular evening, Marcus' homework assignments required two hours of reading. If James were able to stay on task, it would take him six hours to accomplish the same reading assignments. It is unlikely that James will be tenacious te·na·cious
1. Clinging to another object or surface; adhesive.
2. Holding together firmly; cohesive.
viscid; adhesive. enough to complete his work. This distinction is critical. Many times teachers misjudge mis·judge
v. mis·judged, mis·judg·ing, mis·judg·es
To judge wrongly.
To be wrong in judging. James, believing that he is an irresponsible ir·re·spon·si·ble
1. Marked by a lack of responsibility: irresponsible accusations.
2. Lacking a sense of responsibility; unreliable or untrustworthy.
3. or resistant student. However, in James' case, the problem is not that he "won't" do the reading assignments but that he actually "can't" do the reading.
How Can the Reading Fluency of Secondary Students Be Improved?
Automaticity in any area, from typing, to piano playing piano playing Neurology A fanciful descriptor for finger movements linked to the loss of position sensation, in which the Pt seeks to discover finger position in space by periodic movement; PP occurs in Dejerine-Sottas syndrome; PP also refers to intermittent , to IEP IEP
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Irish Punt.
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion. writing, to reading, is a product of practice (Allington, 1977; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). In the case of a struggling secondary reader, we witness a vicious circle A Vicious Circle (1996) is a novel by Amanda Craig which dissects and satirizes contemporary British society. In particular, it describes the world of publishing -- its aspiring young authors, busy agents and opportunist literary critics. . The struggling reader avoids reading because it is laborious, thus getting less practice. As a result of getting little practice, fluency doesn't increase, and thus little reading is done. For this reason, we must have a very systematic plan for increasing the amount of practice. As with decoding, gains will not occur from a casual, occasional approach. We cannot count on silent reading in class or at home to bring about these gains (National Reading Panel, 2000). Instead, we must organize reading groups to optimize the amount of reading practice that each student receives and supplement that practice with repeated readings. A number of excellent syntheses of research explain and illustrate multiple reading fluency interventions (e.g., Chard, Vaughn, & Tyler, 2002; Dowhower, 1994; Kuhn & Stahl, 2000; Mastropieri, Leinare, & Scruggs, 1999; Strecker, Roser, & Martinez, 1998; Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001). Although they generally focus on interventions for elementary students, the same interventions have been successfully used with secondary students reading between 2.5 and 5.0 grade levels. A few of the most commonly used, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. these syntheses, are mentioned here.
Passage reading in class. Across numerous studies, it was found that students in reading classes serving students with reading disabilities spend much of their time waiting to be taught, completing worksheets, or doing other independent work (Vaughn, Levy, Coleman, & Bos, 2002). However, to accelerate reading growth a good deal of the time must be dedicated to oral reading practice rather than silent reading or worksheet activities. Dedicated oral reading practice can be integrated with daily passage reading using a number of methods: (a) guided oral reading, (b) choral reading, and (c) partner reading.
Guided oral reading has a good deal of support as a method to increase students' accuracy and fluency (National Reading Panel, 2000). Guided reading generally involves calling on individual students to read orally, correcting errors when mispronunciations occur, and asking questions that guide students' understanding and help teachers ascertain comprehension.
Although guided oral reading provides sufficient oral reading practice for students in small groups, a number of struggling secondary readers need much more practice, especially in large classes. The amount of text practice can be increased by using choral reading. For example, students can be asked to chorally cho·ral
1. Of or relating to a chorus or choir.
2. Performed or written for performance by a chorus.
[Medieval Latin chor read word lists, sentences, and/or paragraphs with their reading group members and/or the teacher. Choral reading with a teacher has proven to be effective in increasing reading fluency (Heckelman, 1969). By reading with the students in a louder voice than theirs, the teacher can model reading with expression, stopping at periods and chunking chunk
1. A thick mass or piece: a chunk of ice.
2. Informal A substantial amount: won quite a chunk of money.
3. A strong stocky horse. words together into phrases. Choral reading allows all students to practice simultaneously while also supporting lower-performing students who have decoding challenges.
As another alternative, students can read text material to a peer partner. Partner reading, as part of a multicomponent reading intervention, has proven effective for a range of readers, including middle school students with learning disabilities (Bryant et al., 2000). Partner reading is an excellent way to increase the amount of reading done by secondary struggling readers for a number of reasons. First, it matches the need of members of this age group to connect with their peers. Second, it guarantees that the students are actually reading, because unlike silent reading, partner reading can be monitored by the teacher. In addition, comprehension strategies can be added. For example, in the PALS program (Fuchs, Fuchs, & Kazdan, 1999; Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes, & Simmons, 1997), partners alternate reading sections of text material and engaging in three comprehension activities. One of these activities, paragraph shrinking, could easily be added to partner reading even if not using the PALS program. When paragraph shrinking, partners guide their peers in identifying the main idea by asking the reader to identify who or what the paragraph is about and the most important thing about the who or what. The reader is then asked to combine the information into a main-idea statement of 10 or fewer words.
Repeated reading. What is the benefit of repetition? Consider this analogy. Did you take typing in high school? Certainly, typing teachers understood fluency. They knew that you needed great automaticity in typing. They understood that if you were hunting for a letter, your attention would be drawn away from the content of your manuscript or document. So, these wise teachers gave us exercises to improve our speed. On Monday, we received a speed drill exercise. We practiced the same material on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and on Thursday. On Friday, we had the notorious speed drill test in which we typed the same material for a specified amount of time and then determined the number of correct words per minute. Now, as we sit and type this manuscript, we send a word of thanks to our typing teachers who understood the importance of automaticity and "repeated typing." Repeated reading exercises are similar to "repeated typing." Students are given a list of words, phrases, or a short passage at their independent level (the level that they can read with few errors) and are asked to read a number of times to increase their fluency.
Numerous studies have supported the use of repeated readings to increase the fluency of students at many reading levels and ages (e.g., Carver carver /car·ver/ (kahr´ver) a tool for producing anatomic form in artificial teeth and dental restorations.
carver (carving instrument),
n , 1997; Dowhower, 1987; Fleisher, Jenkins, & Pany, 1979; Herman, 1985; Homan, Klesius, & Hite, 1993; Mercer, Campbell, Miller, Mercer, & Lane, 2000; Meyer & Felton, 1999; O'Shea, Sindelar, & O'Shea, 1985, 1987; Rashotte & Torgesen, 1985; Rasinski, 1990; Sindelar, Monda Monda is a town and municipality in the province of Málaga, part of the autonomous community of Andalucía in southern Spain. The municipality is situated approximately 44 kilometres from the provincial capital and 10 from Coín. It has a population of approximately 2000 residents. , & O'Shea, 1990; Stout stout, alcoholic beverage: see beer. , 1997). In sum, after completing a comprehensive review of fluency intervention studies intervention studies,
n.pl the epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause and effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population. conducted in the past 25 years, Chard et al. (2002) concluded that repeated reading interventions with students with learning disabilities are associated with improvement in reading rate, accuracy, and comprehension.
Repeated reading activities usually consist of three phases: the initial timing phase, the practice phase, and the final timing phase. These activities generally begin with a "cold timing," in which students determine the number of words they are able to read without practice. The students then practice the material from a minimum of three times to a maximum of seven times (O'Shea et al., 1987). Repeated reading of text materials might also be coupled with listening to an adult model of fluent reading (Rose & Beattie, 1986; Smith, 1979), listening to a proficient peer reading the text (Mathes & Fuchs, 1993), listening to an audiotape au·di·o·tape
1. A relatively narrow magnetic tape used to record sound for subsequent playback.
2. A tape recording of sound.
tr.v. or computer CD (Daly & Martens, 1994; Gilbert, Williams Gilbert, William, 1544–1603, English scientist and physician. He studied medicine at Cambridge Univ. (M.D., 1569), where he was elected a Fellow of St. , & McLaughlin, 1986; Rose & Beattie, 1986), or a combination of these practices (Simmons, Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes, & Hodge, 1995; Weinstein & Cooke, 1992). During the practice phase of repeated reading, feedback on performance, including correction of errors, is beneficial in increasing fluency (Smith, 1979). Finally, the students engage in a "hot timing," in which they are timed for one minute, and their number of words per minute are determined and graphed. Consistently, monitoring students' progress and providing feedback has positive results (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986). The power of repeated readings is also related to the consistency and intensity of the intervention. Corrective Reading, Language!, and REWARDS all contain repeated reading exercises in which students practice reading word lists or passages followed by a timing for one minute.
In some cases, a supplementary program specifically designed to increase fluency may be used. For example, Read Naturally (Ihnot, Matsoff, & Gavin, 2001) is a research-validated program for fluency building from first- to seventh-grade reading levels (Hasbrouck, Ihnot, & Rogers, 1999). Each level consists of 24 passages with corresponding audiotapes. To give students opportunities to gain information even while building fluency, the authors used factual passages. Students begin with a cold timing of one of these factual passages, orally reading for one minute to determine their rate with no practice. Next, students practice by reading along with an audiotape or a trained reader to increase accuracy and rate. The students then continue individual practice until they believe that they can meet their desired rate. After answering comprehension questions on the passage, the students are given a "hot timing," in which they read for one minute with a teacher or paraeducator. Their rate is then graphed. When students pass a story, they move to another passage until they have read approximately 10-12 stories at an equivalent level.
Another research-validated program, Great Leaps (Campbell, 1995; Mercer et al., 2000), may also be used to provide supplementary fluency practice needed by many secondary struggling readers. Great Leaps (5th-9th grade) consists of a series of phonics phonics
Method of reading instruction that breaks language down into its simplest components. Children learn the sounds of individual letters first, then the sounds of letters in combination and in simple words. (decodable words), sight word (phrases containing high-frequency words), and story (age-appropriate passages) pages. For 10 minutes a day, a student works on a one-to-one basis with a teacher or paraeducator who times the student for a minute on each page and provides corrective feedback. When students achieve goals in an area, they advance to a more challenging step. Using the Great Leaps program, middle school students with learning disabilities made significant gains when given this small amount of fluency practice (Mercer et al., 2000).
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE
It has been our observation that student gains in secondary reading programs are much more likely when teachers implement research-validated programs with proven effectiveness with adolescents. The programs discussed in this article to illustrate the decoding approaches and the methods for developing fluency can be combined and used for approximately an hour a day in a secondary setting. For example, in one secondary setting, a teacher might use Corrective Reading: Decoding and rereading of passages with a partner on a daily basis. In another setting, the teacher might choose to use REWARDS and Read Naturally. In addition, in each of these settings, the content-area teachers could reinforce what the students have learned when students are asked to read in their classes. For example, in the setting in which REWARDS and Read Naturally are being used, the content-area teachers could hang the poster on their wall that shows the REWARDS strategy and prompt students to use the strategy for all multisyllabic words. Once students have read their textbook passages and learned the science or social studies content, the content-area teachers could choose one page of the textbook and guide the students to use choral or partner reading for extra oral reading practice.
It is unfortunate that we continue to have a large number of secondary students who are not proficient readers. However, the good news is that their reading progress can be accelerated with adequate time for instruction, the use of effective materials, and robust, systematic instruction in decoding longer words, and opportunities for developing fluency.
Are these students willing to participate in such rigorous reading instruction? The answer is YES. Despite their past challenges in learning to read, struggling secondary readers are fully aware of the importance of reading proficiency to their later success and have indicated a willingness to learn to read (McCray, Vaughn, & Neal, 2001). Now more than ever, powerful reading programs exist that assist the secondary teacher in delivering what these students need.
Figure 1. Example of part-by-part decoding instruction when preteaching content area words. im per ial pro tect or ate im per ial ism dis cov er y im per ial ist lo ca tion im per ial is tic pro duc tion pos ses sion Figure 2. Six syllable types used in syllable-type instruction. Syllable Type Examples Description of Syllable Type Closed rab bit A syllable having a short vowel de pen dent and ending in a consonant. (VC, re jec tion CVC, CCVC, CVCC) Open ta ble A syllable with a long vowel sound de fame that is spelled with a star vat ion single-vowel letter. (CV, CCV) Vowel Combinations can teen A syllable with a vowel pro claim combination such as ai, oa, ea, or un speak able oi. (CVVC, CCVVC, CVVCC) R-controlled va por ize A syllable containing sur render ar-controlled vowel such as ar, per fection er, or, ir, or ur. Vowel-consonant-e es cape A syllable with a long vowel sound obso lete with a consonant and final e. window pane (VCe, CVCe, CCVCe) Consonant-le pud dle A final syllable containing a rum ble consonant before le.
Figure 3. Strategy chart showing the steps used in strategy instruction.
1. Circle the word parts (prefixes) at the beginning of the word.
2. Circle the word parts (suffixes) at the end of the word.
3. Underline the letters representing vowel sounds in the rest of the word.
4. Say the parts of the word.
5. Say the parts fast.
6. Make it a real word.
re con struc tion
1. Look for word parts at the beginning and end of the word, and vowel sounds in the rest of the word.
2. Say the parts of the word.
3. Say the parts fast.
4. Make it a real word.
Requests for reprints should be addressed to: Anita Archer, 1105 NW 26th Ave, Portland, OR 97210.
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1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. structured language curriculum for middle and high school students. Annals an·nals
1. A chronological record of the events of successive years.
2. A descriptive account or record; a history: "the short and simple annals of the poor" of Dyslexia dyslexia (dĭslĕk`sēə), in psychology, a developmental disability in reading or spelling, generally becoming evident in early schooling. To a dyslexic, letters and words may appear reversed, e.g. , 46, 97-121.
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Of, relating to, or having the nature of sound, especially speech sounds.
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See : Bravery , MN: Read Naturally.
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Please help [ improve the introduction] to meet Wikipedia's layout standards. You can discuss the issue on the talk page. , sensitivity to impairment Impairment
1. A reduction in a company's stated capital.
2. The total capital that is less than the par value of the company's capital stock.
1. This is usually reduced because of poorly estimated losses or gains.
2. , and context facilitation Facilitation
The process of providing a market for a security. Normally, this refers to bids and offers made for large blocks of securities, such as those traded by institutions. . Paper presented at the Pacific Coast Research Conference, San Diego, CA.
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Local vs. Global Ambiguity
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ANITA L. ARCHER, Ph.D., is an educational consultant and curriculum author. She formerly was on the faculties of University of Washington, University of Washington, University of, at Seattle; state supported; coeducational; chartered and opened 1861 as the Territorial Univ. of Washington, renamed 1889. There are noted schools of medicine and engineering, and the university operates laboratories for the marine Oregon, and San Diego State University San Diego State University (SDSU), founded in 1897 as San Diego Normal School, is the largest and oldest higher education facility in the greater San Diego area (generally the City and County of San Diego), and is part of the California State University system. .
MARY M. GLEASON, Ph.D., is currently director of training for the National Institute for Direct Instruction (NIFDI). For twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
2. , she was a professor at University of Oregon.
VICKY L. VACHON, Ph.D., is a project director for NIFDI who oversees the implementation of literacy programs in schools throughout the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. .