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Death and the Cardinal: The Two Bodies of Guillaume d'Estouteville [*].



This article examines the circumstances of the death of Cardinal Guillaume d'Estouteville Guillaume d'Estouteville (1403 – 1483) was a French ecclesiastic, was bishop of Angers, then bishop of Digne, archbishop of Rouen, prior of Saint Martin des Champs, abbot of Mont St Michel, of St Ouen at Rouen, and of Montebourg.  (d. 1483) and his plans for burial in his Roman church of Sant'Agostino and in the Cathedral of Rouen of which he was archbishop. I argue that the cardinal planned for his body to be interred near the high altar of Sant'Agostino, in a monument since lost, while his heart was to be taken to Rouen and buried in the crossing of the cathedral. By means of an analysis of burial practices in Italy and France, I propose that d'Estouteville's designs anticipated such grandiose sixteenth-century projects as those of Julius II Julius II, 1443–1513, pope (1503–13), an Italian named Giuliano della Rovere, b. Savona; successor of Pius III. His uncle Sixtus IV gave him many offices and created him cardinal.  (d. 1513) and Cardinal Georges d'Amboise Georges d'Amboise (Château de Chaumont 1460 — 1510), French cardinal styled Cardinal de Rouen from 1498 and minister of state, belonged to a noble family possessed of considerable influence: of his nine brothers, four were bishops.  (d. 1510).

On Tuesday, 14 January 1483, the preeminent Cardinal of the Sacred College Sa·cred College  
n. Roman Catholic Church
The College of Cardinals.

Noun 1. Sacred College - (Roman Catholic Church) the body of cardinals who advise the Pope and elect new Popes
College of Cardinals
, Guillaume d'Estouteville, lay ill in Rome. On this day, he roused himself to sponsor four successive wills and several related acts; these were duly witnessed by French members of his household and by his executors. [1] In succeeding days, as he lingered in the half-world between the living and the dead, d'Estouteville registered four additional codicils. These variants were each binding in their turn. [2] Yet his chosen resting place, the church of Sant'Agostino, was not quite ready. [3] As his constituents in both Italy and France waited, probably with some acquisitive curiosity, for word of his end to come, he must have weighed his choices of tomb monuments. Despite the prayers of his conventual community at nearby Sant'Agostino, the cardinal died eight days later. How was he going to be remembered?

D'Estouteville's death -- as with his long life as a whole -- constitutes an intriguing episode in late fifteenth-century cross-cultural relations. [4] His passing illustrates the tenacity of medieval views regarding the treatment of the corpse, while demonstrating at the same time how indigenous burial practices could be, and were, transmuted through translation onto foreign soil. The death of this great figure, who had been Archpriest of Santa Maria Santa Maria, city, Brazil
Santa Maria (sän`tə mərē`ə), city (1991 pop. 217,592), Rio Grande do Sul state, S Brazil. It is a major railroad terminus and the site of an important military base.
 Maggiore, Protector of the Augustinian Hermits Noun 1. Augustinian Hermits - a monastic order of friars established in 1256 by the Pope
Augustinian order - any of several monastic orders observing a rule derived from the writings of St. Augustine
, and Archbishop of Rouen The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Rouen is Primate of Normandy and one of the fifteen Archbishops of France.

According to legend the diocese was founded by Nicaisius, a disciple of St. Denis who was martyred after arriving in Normandy.
, foreshadows the actions and motivations of high churchmen of the sixteenth century churchmen in whose interests it might have been to extinguish his long, Gallic shadow. [5] Italy's warrior-pope, Julius II (formerly Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere and d'Estouteville's successor as Cardinal of Ostia Ostia (ŏs`tēə), ancient city of Italy, at the mouth of the Tiber. It was founded (4th cent. B.C.) as a protection for Rome, then developed (from the 1st cent. B.C.) as a Roman port, rivaling Puteoli. ) could well have been among such churchmen. So, too, could Cardinal Georges d'Amboise (d. 1510), premier ministre of France and d'Estouteville's successor in various French titles, including Roue rou·é  
n.
A lecherous dissipated man.



[French, from past participle of rouer, to break on a wheel (from the feeling that such a person deserves that punishment)
 n. D'Estouteville's actions in life, further, were at least as indicative of the performance of his death as his testaments. Together, his actions and final words illuminate the social construction of death in a period in Rome often falsely construed as transitional -- even retardataire -- with respect to the sixteenth century.

Death was a cleric's preoccupation. D'Estouteville's pious colleague, the Augustinian Hermit hermit [Gr.,=desert], one who lives in solitude, especially from ascetic motives. Hermits are known in many cultures. Permanent solitude was common in ancient Christian asceticism; St. Anthony of Egypt and St. Simeon Stylites were noted hermits.  and Observant, Cardinal Alessandro Oliva, buried near the high altar of Sant'Agostino in 1475, had made a secret daily practice of contemplating a painted image of himself, dead. He had hidden away in his domestic chapel a tomb in the form of a scrigno which could be easily opened. Inside, he was portrayed deceased, in cardinalate car·di·nal·ate  
n. Roman Catholic Church
1. The position, rank, dignity, or term of a cardinal.

2. The College of Cardinals.
 dress, and on the side was the text: "In omnibus operibus tuis memorare novissima tua et non ET NON. And not. These words are sometimes employed in pleading to convey a pointed denial. They have the same effect as without this, absque hoe. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2981, note.  delinques in aeternum in ae·ter·num  
adv.
To eternity; forever.



[Latin : in, in, for + aeternum, all the time to come, from neuter accusative of aeternus, eternal.]
." [6] This was his sobering check on worldly vanity, his reminder of life's transience, and of its physical end. D'Estoureville was less outwardly devout than Oliva, and he had possessed a celebrated -- some might even have said meddlesome med·dle·some  
adj.
Inclined to meddle or interfere.



meddle·some·ly adv.

med
 -- public profile. If our actions in life constitute a part of our death, d'Esrouteville's dying, unlike Oliva's, was ordained or·dain  
tr.v. or·dained, or·dain·ing, or·dains
1.
a. To invest with ministerial or priestly authority; confer holy orders on.

b. To authorize as a rabbi.

2.
 to be complicated, politicized and, employing a word often used to introduce him, worldly.

The earliest surviving record of the Frenchman's intentions was not kept in Rome but had been sent, in 1470, to the cathedral chapter In accordance with canon law, a cathedral chapter is a body of clerics (chapter) formed to advise a bishop and, in the case of a vacancy in the bishop’s seat, to govern the diocese in his stead.  of Rouen. He wished, he stated, to be interred in the nave of the cathedral or, in the eventuality of his death outside France, that his heart be returned there. Despite his attachment to Italy, where he had been more or less permanently based since mid-century, and where he lived with his mistress and Romanised family, he did not categorically intend to be buried on Italian soil:

Petitions presented to the Chapter on the part of Cardinal d'Estouteville requesting that, should he end his days in France, his body be buried in the nave of the cathedral where the tomb commonly known as the tomb of Saint Maurile is located, and, in the case that he dies outside the realm, that his heart be placed here and a structure similar to that of the king be made in which the heart of the said lord be kept in the manner of a tomb ["en maniere de sepulture"]. [7]

As he lay dying in Rome on 14 January, he repeated the request for the separation of his heart and body and for the transportation of the heart to Rouen for interment at the cathedral. [8] He chose Rome, then, at the last, as the destination for his body -- a possible outcome that the circumstances of his illness precipitated but which he had entertained for a decade.

He had been rebuilding the church of Sant'Agostino since the middle of the century when he settled at his palace at Sant'Apollinare across the piazza. The project came swiftly to conclusion only following an accelerated burst of building, beginning in November 1479. The new apse was erected in February of 1482, and the facade that bears his name ("GVILLERMVS DE ESTOVTEVILLA EPISC. OSTIEN. CARD. ROTHOMAGEN. S.R.E. CAMERARIVS FECIT ... MCCCCLXXXIII") concluded the decisive campaign, announcing the year of his death. In fact, the final spurt of activity at Sant'Agostino and the Augustinians' methodical record of its stages in their conventual accounts seem to have coincided with the moment at which the Protector must have felt some urgency in the matter of his funerary fu·ner·ar·y  
adj.
Of or suitable for a funeral or burial.



[Latin fner
 arrangements. [9] But although the legal declaration of his wishes in the Roman context was made late, it did not contradict the previously articulated design of this assimilated expatriate and Roman prince to end his life as a royal Frenchman, o ne whose body would be eviscerated in a practice dating back to Roman times and later customary for medieval royal families in northern Europe. [10]

In such instances, the place of death could govern the treatment of the body: in the fourteenth century, for example, Clemence of Hungary had asked in her will that, should she die in Provence, she wished to be interred whole; if in Paris, her corpse should be divided into three and her heart sent to Provence, to a chapel that was a sequel to her father's. [11] In fact, it had probably been a French prelate's preferences that propelled Boniface VIII Boniface VIII, 1235–1303, pope (1294–1303), an Italian (b. Anagni) named Benedetto Caetani; successor of St. Celestine V.

As a cardinal he was independent of the factions in the papal court, and he opposed the election of Celestine.
, already suffering a troubled relationship with the French monarchy, to promulgate To officially announce, to publish, to make known to the public; to formally announce a statute or a decision by a court.  his futile Bull Detestande feritatis (1299) against the heathen separation of entrails en·trails
pl.n.
The internal organs, especially the intestines; viscera.
 and the boiling of bones after death. [12] So futile was the Bull, in fact, that one can say that separate destinations for body parts was more the rule than the exception, certainly in the French thirteenth century but also in Italy into the era of the Avignonese papacy. The Avignon tomb of Cardinal de la Grange La Grange (lə grānj).

1 City (1990 pop. 25,597), seat of Troupe co., W central Ga., inc. 1828. It is an industrial center that produces lumber, plastics, textiles, and transportation equipment.
 was, after all, an entrail tomb; his bones went back to Amiens. The tradition of sep aration of the body was tenacious, perhaps, in accordance with the rank of the patron in his or her native France, and it was one, furthermore, that had its earliest roots in Normandy where it seems to have been more common than in the Ile-de-France. After a brief dying out of the tradition in the early fifteenth century; and shortly after d'Estouteville's time, Charles VIII Charles VIII, king of France
Charles VIII, 1470–98, king of France (1483–98), son and successor of Louis XI. He first reigned under the regency of his sister Anne de Beaujeu.
 and the French royal family revived it. [13]

Aside from his testamentary bequest, the death and funeral of d'Estouteville prompted some surprising criminal behavior among his Roman neighbors. The Roman chroniclers, Jacopo Gherardi and Gaspare Pontani, marveled at the events of d'Estouteville's funeral of 23 January, in which the body was seized upon by both the canons of Santa Maria Maggiore and by the Augustinians. The vividness of their accounts suggests that even the ritual pillaging of the churchman's material memory was taken to indecorous extremes -- indecorous in part, perhaps, because it was acted out in the profane setting of the street. Yet even there, such "'difference, combustions, and debates'" in funeral processions of the powerful were a familiar sight to urban dwellers in both Italy and in France. [14] These events were heralded, on 20 January, by an ostentatious os·ten·ta·tious  
adj.
Characterized by or given to ostentation; pretentious. See Synonyms at showy.



os
 theft by Bernardo de' Massimi, a Lateran canon, in the palace at Sant'Apollinare where the ailing d'Estouteville was laid up. Silver objects, valued at 30,000 ducati, were take n. "Robbed in life as in death," as Pontani sympathized, his body was then seized upon as it made its way to Sant'Agostino on the 23 January, at first by the canons of Santa Maria Maggiore, who appeared to covet cov·et  
v. cov·et·ed, cov·et·ing, cov·ets

v.tr.
1. To feel blameworthy desire for (that which is another's). See Synonyms at envy.

2. To wish for longingly. See Synonyms at desire.
 the precious vestments, and subsequently by the Augustinians. The latter seem to have attempted to fight off their competitors but then also to have energetically participated in the thieving frenzy. The corpse lost its rings -- for a cardinal, a marked symbolic loss -- and then, later, its miter miter

bishop’s headdress signifying his authority. [Christian Symbolism: EB VI]

See : Authority
 in the sacristy of the church:

that when the body was carried to Sant'Agostino the brothers of Santa Maria Maggiore and those of Sant'Agostino set to fighting each other, because the former wanted to steal some of the gilt brocades in which the body was covered from head to foot, and they went at each other for a while with torches, and many swords were unsheathed; then the body was seized and carried into the sacristy and was there robbed of the ring from the hand and they say that they took from him there the miter which he wore on his head. [15]

The theft of these items parallels similar contemporary spoliations taking place in Rome after the death of popes and high churchmen. Similar misfortunes befell the person and vestments of Jean de Bilheres-Lagraulas, the patron of Michelangelo's Pieta. [16] That the thefts took place at the funeral itself, instigated by participants in the cortege, apparently by those closest to the bier bier  
n.
1. A stand on which a corpse or a coffin containing a corpse is placed before burial.

2. A coffin along with its stand: followed the bier to the cemetery.
, was not uncommon to Italian burial rites. On the death of a religious dignitary; his church's property -- like the dignity of his office -- falls into a vacuum, devolving to his superior, to the Church universal, or to the head of the Church. [17] This momentary lapse into speculative ownership during such an interregnum INTERREGNUM, polit. law. In an established government, the period which elapses between the death of a sovereign and the election of another is called interregnum. It is also understood for the vacancy created in the executive power, and for any vacancy which occurs when there is no government. , before the body was buried and a successor named, must have spurred on, and seemed to give an advantage to, existing aggravations and aggressions among the churchman's competing associates.

Yet the convent's records report the spilling of blood, and claim that the canons of Santa Maria Maggiore envied the fact that d'Estouteville's tomb (sepultura) was in Sant'Agostino rather than in their basilica (eorum Ecclesiam). [18] This suggests, albeit from a partisan point of view, that the fighting may have been over more than processional precedence and the appealing glint of the cardinal's attire. The skirmishes evoked the old conflicts between urban clergy and friars that funerals occasioned over issues such as the mortuary fee that belonged to a parish. Erasmus famously castigated such vulture-like predations in "The Funeral," in which a parish priest Parish priest may refer to
  • A Parish Priest, a parish's assigned pastor
  • A biography of Fr. Michael J. McGivney by Douglas Brinkley and Julie M. Fenster
 must confront the regular clergy See Regular,

n. os>, and Secular,

a. os>

See also: Clergy
, united in a rare instance of mutual greed, at the bedside of George, who is not making a good death. The tensions revolved around the priest's sense of proprietorship of his parish, and his right to dispense the Sacraments, as well as over the dying man's goods which the bickering bick·er  
intr.v. bick·ered, bick·er·ing, bick·ers
1. To engage in a petty, bad-tempered quarrel; squabble. See Synonyms at argue.

2.
 mendicants coveted cov·et  
v. cov·et·ed, cov·et·ing, cov·ets

v.tr.
1. To feel blameworthy desire for (that which is another's). See Synonyms at envy.

2. To wish for longingly. See Synonyms at desire.
 (764-79). There m ay have been, too, in d'Estouteville's case, a vestige vestige /ves·tige/ (ves´tij) the remnant of a structure that functioned in a previous stage of species or individual development.vestig´ial

ves·tige
n.
 of the papal right to reclaim objects from a cardinal's chapel for the pontifical pon·tif·i·cal  
adj.
1. Relating to, characteristic of, or suitable for a pope or bishop.

2. Having the dignity, pomp, or authority of a pontiff or bishop.

3. Pompously dogmatic or self-important; pretentious.
 sacristy -- such as the highly significant ring -- should the cardinal in question die intestate The description of a person who dies without making a valid will or the reference made to this condition.


intestate adj. referring to a situation where a person dies without leaving a valid will.
. [19]

In one of his wills of 14 January; d'Estouteville had, in fact, made mention of a tomb or burial location (sepultura) in Santa Maria Maggiore. But in the same document and in two other wills, as well as in two acts, he had also decreed his burial and future monument to be in Sant'Agostino. [20] In a contemporaneous testament to Santa Maria Maggiore, however, he makes no mention of a tomb monument, nor of the division of his corpse. [21] There emerge a number of possibilities. The cardinal may have intended, or even begun, a commemorative monument for the patriarchal basilica, in his Chapel of SS. Michele Arcangelo e Pietro in Vincoli. Supervising the renovation of the chapel in the mid-1460s, he may have already been evaluating his options, among which was his entitlement to burial here. Nearly twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
     2.
 later, he meant to be buried in Sant'Agostino with an as yet unrealized tomb to be erected by his executors. He may even have been playing off his various Roman constituents against one another by a proce ss of omission, perhaps anticipating monuments at each foundation, and even preparing in each a fitting funerary context, but preferring at the last a sepulcher in Sant'Agostino. Following such a line of reasoning Noun 1. line of reasoning - a course of reasoning aimed at demonstrating a truth or falsehood; the methodical process of logical reasoning; "I can't follow your line of reasoning"
logical argument, argumentation, argument, line
, aware of his own reputation, he becomes, in a sense, responsible for his own damnatio memoriae Damnatio memoriae is the Latin phrase literally meaning "damnation of memory", in the sense of removed from the remembrance. It was a form of dishonor that could be passed by the Roman Senate upon traitors or others who brought discredit to the Roman State. . It was not unusual, in any event, and for whatever reason, for a cardinal to change his mind about his place of interment. The Cardinal of Portugal, Antonio Martinez de Chiavez, oscillated between Santa Maria sopra Minerva Santa Maria sopra Minerva is a basilica church in Rome. The church, located in the Campus Martius region, is considered the only Gothic church in Rome, and is the city's principal Dominican church.  and the Lateran where, after his death in 1447, he was buried in the transept transept (trăn`sĕpt'), term applied to the transverse portion of a building cutting its main axis at right angles or to each arm of such a portion. : "fieri fecit cappellam cum sepulcro." [22]

That d'Estouteville wavered in deliberate ways is particularly likely since he was using two extremely well-connected notaries with distinct loyalties, Baldassare Rocca and Camillo Beneimbene, and since he must have foreseen a potential danger in the inevitable squabbles over his prestigious legacy and his innumerable and widespread possessions. In one version of his will, executed by Beneimbene, the relevant clause regarding a tomb in the Marian basilica is carefully cancelled with a line -- a change with which that notary notary
 or notary public

Public officer who certifies and attests to the authenticity of writings (e.g., deeds) and takes affidavits, depositions, and protests of negotiable instruments.
, whose son married d'Estouteville's daughter, Giulia, is likely to have concurred. [23] Perhaps the hidden power of the legal presence makes itself known here in the written -- but also deleted -- clauses of the wills.

The issue of the existence and location of a tomb in Sant'Agostino for d'Estouteville has been shrouded in mystery and obscured by extensive renovations, as well as by the moving and, ultimately, the removal of numbers of tombs from the church. While he had requested, in at least three places, that a monument be made for him, it is unclear whether his executors ever satisfied his request. Given the survival of such important late Quattrocento quat·tro·cen·to  
n.
The 15th-century period of Italian art and literature.



[Italian, short for (mil) quattrocento, one thousand four hundred : quattro, four (from Latin
 memoriae as the Piccolomini tombs and the recovery of others, as well as the extensive eighteenth-century documentation of the inscriptions and tomb slabs of Sant'Agostino, it is highly unlikely that his tomb, had it been finished, would have been lost without a trace. In 1778, a prior at the convent, Tommaso Bonasoli, collected and recorded the location and inscriptions of all of the sepulchral se·pul·chral  
adj.
1. Of or relating to a burial vault or a receptacle for sacred relics.

2. Suggestive of the grave; funereal.



se·pul
 remains within the church, paying care to note those preceding 1759 (including a number of fifteenth-century examples) when a new pavement had been installed. D'Estouteville's p lace of burial, or even fragments from it, receive no mention. [24]

In any case, on 24 January, his physically maligned ma·lign  
tr.v. ma·ligned, ma·lign·ing, ma·ligns
To make evil, harmful, and often untrue statements about; speak evil of.

adj.
1. Evil in disposition, nature, or intent.

2.
 and humiliated hu·mil·i·ate  
tr.v. hu·mil·i·at·ed, hu·mil·i·at·ing, hu·mil·i·ates
To lower the pride, dignity, or self-respect of. See Synonyms at degrade.
 body made its way into the church, eventually to be buried there. The theologian and future General of the Order, Silvestro da Bagnorea, delivered a funeral oration. [25] On 28 January, there were payments for the exequies that included twenty lances, sponges, four wooden bowls, and nails of varying sizes. [26] On 10 February, Francesco de Como muratore received payment for wood and torches for the castrum doloris Castrum doloris (Latin for Castle of grief) is a name for the structure and decorations sheltering or accompanying the catafalque or bier that signify the prestige or high estate of the deceased. , or "castle of grief," an ephemeral funerary structure. He had previously been engaged in the construction of the church. [27] Even while d'Estouteville was ill, Francesco had begun to receive funds, suggesting that he may have already been working on this project for the temporary construction surrounding the corpse, the main function of which, unlike the more tomb-like catafalque cat·a·falque  
n.
1. A decorated platform or framework on which a coffin rests in state during a funeral.

2. Roman Catholic Church
, was to support a host of lights around the body. During the course of the extended exequies, numerous torches illuminated the structure -- perhaps the r equisite hundred candles. The corpse would have been on display dressed in black or violet, wearing gloves and sandals (depending on what had survived), stretched on a bier draped drape  
v. draped, drap·ing, drapes

v.tr.
1. To cover, dress, or hang with or as if with cloth in loose folds: draped the coffin with a flag; a robe that draped her figure.
, perhaps, with cloth of gold cloth of gold, fabric woven wholly or partly of gold threads. From remote times gold has been used as material for weaving either alone or with other fibers. In India tapestries were made from gold threads as fine as silk.  exhibiting his coat of arms coat of arms: see blazonry and heraldry.
coat of arms
 or shield of arms

Heraldic device dating to the 12th century in Europe. It was originally a cloth tunic worn over or in place of armour to establish identity in battle.
. During the obsequies ob·se·quy  
n. pl. ob·se·quies
A funeral rite or ceremony. Often used in the plural.



[Middle English obsequi, from Old French obseque, from Medieval Latin obsequiae
, the castrum doloris might have been displayed under a cappella a cap·pel·la  
adv. Music
Without instrumental accompaniment.



[Italian : a, in the manner of + cappella, chapel, choir.]

Adj. 1.
 ardente, in which burning lights above the coffin were placed on a tabernacle-like wooden framework attached to the bier. [28] The natural and God-willed demise of his person and the perpetual dignitas of his office were simultaneously made manifest.

Processional or temporary articles fashioned immediately following d'Estouteville's death had to be repaired after the violations of the 23rd of January. During the succeeding months of 1483, changes to the castello were made. In August, there was a payment for some taffeta taffeta, cloth, originally silk but now also made of synthetic fibers, supposed to have originated in Persia. The name, derived from Persian, means "twisted woven." Taffeta is in the same class and demand as satin made of silk.  used, probably in the canopy above the body, as well as for more torches to be burnt in the cardinal's honor. [29] Typical of the castrum, and redolent red·o·lent  
adj.
1. Having or emitting fragrance; aromatic.

2. Suggestive; reminiscent: a campaign redolent of machine politics.
 of carved tombs, d'Estouteville's may well have contained cushions at his head and feet, each supporting a cardinal's hat. As late as 1487 and 1491, there were services in d'Estouteville's name, including one for a French congregation. One might imagine that these were held in connection with the site of this ephemeral creation, which was maintained through the 1490s. [30] The upkeep of the commemorative arrangement, or its regular resurrection in some form, indicate that it must have had an integral connection to the burial site. By 1488, or shortly thereafter, there was still no sign of any permanent tomb monument. This is so if we are to accept the veracity veracity (vras´itē),
n
 of an ironic conversation between a friend of Gherardi (and famigliare of Sixtus IV Sixtus IV (sĭk`stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. ) and a touring Frenchman who was wandering futilely about the interior of the church looking for Looking for

In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with.
 d'Estouteville and mistakenly admiring Oliva's tomb. [31] Perhaps by then, the site of d'Estouteville's grave was obscured, but it is also possible that neither visitor had made inquiries or explored the church behind the altar, as far as the choir.

At late as October 1496, a payment was made by the convent for "a large table to support the benches holding the torches around the body of the Reverend Cardinal of Rouen." [32] In the mid-1490s, therefore, elements of the castrum doloris were still in use, and the mention of a "body" alludes to the burial site and perhaps to a temporary effigy EFFIGY, crim. law. The figure or representation of a person.
     2. To make the effigy of a person with an intent to make him the object of ridicule, is a libel. (q.v.) Hawk. b. 1, c. 7 3, s. 2 14 East, 227; 2 Chit. Cr. Law, 866.
     3.
 which commonly took part in the castrum. [33] Where such a site was located, however, and in what relationship to a tomb, unfinished or otherwise, must remain uncertain. D'Estouteville's fideicommissum appears to have been extremely slow in carrying out their charge for his monument or, at least, for a monument should he have intended a grandiose one. In such instances of delay, an effigy, in regalia and displaying the "dignity" of the deceased's person, that which never dies, served a particularly useful purpose, in part as an interim tomb. Effigies ef·fi·gy  
n. pl. ef·fi·gies
1. A crude figure or dummy representing a hated person or group.

2. A likeness or image, especially of a person.
 were introduced to France at Rouen, in fact, in 1422, when one was laid on the coffin of Henry V. [34] The efforts of d 'Estouteville's executors, had they made any, may have been halted altogether by the death of one of them, Giovanni Arcimboldo, in October 1488.

The castrum doloris, comprising such elements as heraldic he·ral·dic  
adj.
Of or relating to heralds or heraldry.



he·raldi·cal·ly adv.

Adj. 1.
 banners and torches, could have been built in relation to a simple floor monument, or preparations for one, in the manner of Cosimo de' Medici's tomb of the mid-1460s, and of at least one contemporary Frenchman's grave in Rome. Jean de Montmirail (Giovanni di Montemirabile), the Bishop of Vaison and a neighbor of d'Estouteville's, possessed a floor tomb in the Chapel of S. Giovanni Battista Giovanni Battista, was a common Italian given name (see Battista for those with the surname) in the 16th-18th centuries, which in English means "John the Baptist". Common nicknames include Giambattista, Gianbattista or Giovambattista.  in the Augustinian church of Santa Maria del Popolo Santa Maria del Popolo is a notable Augustinian church located in Rome. It stands to the north side of the Piazza del Popolo, one of the most famous squares of the city, between the ancient Porta Flaminia (one of the gates of the Aurelian Walls and the starting point of the Via . The slab was completed after his death. [35] The heart of another northerner, the learned German, Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa (Nicolaus Cusanus), 1401?–1464, German humanist, scientist, statesman, and philosopher, from 1448 cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. The son of a fisherman, Nicholas was educated at Deventer, Heidelberg, Padua, Rome, and Cologne.  (Kues) (d. 1464), was returned to his birthplace from Rome, and buried in the choir of the chapel of the hospice of St. Nicholas. A plaque and portrait commemorated the site in Kues. His body was buried in his titular tit·u·lar  
adj.
1. Relating to, having the nature of, or constituting a title.

2.
a. Existing in name only; nominal: the titular head of the family.

b.
 church, San Pietro in Vincoli Coordinates:  
For other churches of this dedication, see St Peter ad Vincula (disambiguation).
, and its location marked by a sepulchral slab and relief sculpture. Later, in 1499-1500, the tomb slab was the manner of monument also preferred b y Jean de Bilheres-Lagraulas for his chapel in St. Peter's St. Peter's or similar terms may mean:

Places
  • St. Peter's, County Dublin, Republic of Ireland
  • St Peter's, Guernsey
  • St Peter's, Kent, United Kingdom
  • St Peters, Leicester, Leicestershire, a suburb of Leicester, England
 (fig. 1). [36]

D'Estouteville's testaments and legacies of 1483 never described the form or materials of the tomb in Sant'Agostino or its exact placement -- a legacy that contrasts, as we shall see, with the meticulous specifications, albeit on the part of his French Chapter, for a highly expensive monument in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Rouen. It remains, then, an open and tantalizing tan·ta·lize  
tr.v. tan·ta·lized, tan·ta·liz·ing, tan·ta·liz·es
To excite (another) by exposing something desirable while keeping it out of reach.
 question not only whether a Roman monument for d'Estouteville had been initiated or was ever completed, but whether he had ever intended a large or otherwise conspicuous tomb in Rome at all.

He clearly expected to be buried in prestigious proximity to the high altar. Should he have chosen a large, sculpted sculpt  
v. sculpt·ed, sculpt·ing, sculpts

v.tr.
1. To sculpture (an object).

2. To shape, mold, or fashion especially with artistry or precision:
 wall monument, he may have envisaged it as similar to that of the influential model by Andrea Bregno Andrea di Cristoforo Bregno (Osteno, near Como, 1418 – Rome 1506)[1] was a Lombard sculptor and architect of the Early Renaissance who worked in Rome from the 1460s and died just as the High Renaissance was getting under way.  and others of 1465 for his friend and relation, Cardinal Louis d'Albret, in Santa Maria in Aracoeli Santa Maria in Aracoeli ("St. Mary of the Altar of Heaven") is a titular basilica church in Rome, located on the highest summit of the Campidoglio. It is still the designated Church of the Italian Senate and the Roman people (Senatus Populusque Romanus).  (fig. 2). Cardinal Alain de Coetivy, a relation of d'Estouteville's, also possessed a monument of this type. [37] Perhaps he had also admired Montmirail's tomb, in which case he was honored with a simple gilded gild 1  
tr.v. gild·ed or gilt , gild·ing, gilds
1. To cover with or as if with a thin layer of gold.

2. To give an often deceptively attractive or improved appearance to.

3.
 and painted floor slab. Given the survival of the Piccolomini wall tombs from Sant'Agostino and the lack of any trace of a tomb for him, the latter option is a more plausible one. With a modest solution, he placed himself at the end of a long line of cardinals who specifically asked in their testaments to be buried under a pavement (even if by the high altar), "Humile et depressum," in one medieval instance and, in others, with no hedificium whatsoever. Having nothing to do with economics, these desires were principled ones: the elevated body bespoke be·spoke  
v.
Past tense and a past participle of bespeak.

adj.
1. Custom-made. Said especially of clothes.

2. Making or selling custom-made clothes: a bespoke tailor.
 a proud soul. [38]

Cardinal Oliva initially shared the sentiment, as did Cardinal Jacopo Ammannati Piccolomini, whose wall tomb of 1479 was clearly destined des·tine  
tr.v. des·tined, des·tin·ing, des·tines
1. To determine beforehand; preordain: a foolish scheme destined to fail; a film destined to become a classic.

2.
 for the new transept of Sant' Agostino. These ostensibly os·ten·si·ble  
adj.
Represented or appearing as such; ostensive: His ostensible purpose was charity, but his real goal was popularity.
 diffident requests ran counter to the tenor of the ambitious edifices that were ultimately installed, particularly in the case of Ammannati. His undated un·dat·ed  
adj.
1. Not marked with or showing a date: an undated letter; an undated portrait.

2.
 will stated his hope to be buried in St. Peter's on the right of the tomb of his patron, Pius II Pius II (pī`əs), 1405–64, pope (1458–64), an Italian named Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini (often in Latin, Aeneas Silvius), renamed Pienza after him, b. Corsigniano; successor of Calixtus III. , and with no monument. It is possible that, on the death of Ammannati's mother, Costanza, in 1477, a woman who had been affiliated with the church's confraternity con·fra·ter·ni·ty  
n. pl. con·fra·ter·ni·ties
An association of persons united in a common purpose or profession.



[Middle English confraternite
 of Saint Monica, he changed his mind. He then commissioned a sequel for himself that reenacted Augustine's devotion for his forbearing for·bear 1  
v. for·bore , for·borne , for·bear·ing, for·bears

v.tr.
1. To refrain from; resist: forbear replying. See Synonyms at refrain1.
 parent. It may well be that Jacopo cared more for honoring his mother than for commemorating himself alone. [39]

In the new church, in the later 1470s, both he and d'Estouteville appear, in fact, to have been consciously reviving Monica's last utterance (as recorded by Augustine), reinventing her as an exemplar of Augustinian piety and by way of recognizing their own professional mendicant context. In her unworldly way, Monica had wanted to be buried without a marker at Ostia: "All I ask of you is that, wherever you may be, you should remember me at the altar of the Lord." [40] Her prestigious relics, fortuitously uncovered in 1429, were the oldest of the church's attractions. As their fifteenth-century curial cu·ri·a  
n. pl. cu·ri·ae
1.
a. One of the ten primitive subdivisions of a tribe in early Rome, consisting of ten gentes.

b. The assembly place of such a subdivision.

2.
a.
 custodian, Maffeo Vegio Maffeo Vegio (1407-1458) was an Italian poet who wrote in Latin; he is regarded by many as the finest Latin poet of the fifteenth-century. Born near Milan, he studied at the University of Pavia, and went on to write some fifty works of both prose and poetry. , once remarked, even Eugenius IV had not been persuaded by the idea of an ornamented sculpted tomb for himself; the writer, however, couldn't help but applaud such a thing. But for the pope, a man like Oliva with Observant sympathies, it was the location of his remains -- near his namesake, Eugenius III Eugenius III
 orig. Bernard of Pisa

(born , near Pisa—died July 8, 1153, Tivoli, near Rome; beatified 1872; feast day July 8) Pope (1145–53).
 -- that counted. Nicholas V Nicholas V, antipope
Nicholas V, antipope (1328–30); see Rainalducci, Pietro.
Nicholas V, pope
Nicholas V, 1397–1455, pope (1447–55), an Italian named Tommaso Parentucelli, b.
 was similarly impatient with the idea of a worldly memorial , a feeling with which even the urbane classical enthusiast, Leon Battista Alberti, concurred. [41] By the late Quattrocento, these would be lonely instances, and perhaps deliberately ambiguous ones, of a desire for self-abnegation after death.

It is likely that d'Estouteville was -- or intended to be -- buried in the choir, a highly honorable location for which even he, as archbishop, seems to have been ineligible at Rouen, possibly because he was not a monarch. A location in the choir (which meant, in Rome, behind the tribune) was already gradually becoming known, and d'Estouteville must have been aware of Florentine and even Venetian antecedents. This was the commanding site in SS. Apostoli favored by the Della Rovere and Riario network, several members of which, including Raffaele Riario Raffaele Sansoni Galeoti Riario (May 3, 1461 – July 9, 1521) was an Italian Cardinal of the Renaissance, mainly known as the constructor of the Palazzo della Cancelleria and the one who called Michelangelo in Rome. , had taken up residence in d'Estouteville's palace at Sant'Apollinare in the 1480s. [42] Doge Moro, the major benefactor of the cappella maggiore of the Observant church of San Giobbe, was buried there in the sanctuary in 1471, and, to rake a Florentine example, in the tribune of Santa Maria Novella novella: see novel.
novella

Story with a compact and pointed plot, often realistic and satiric in tone. Originating in Italy during the Middle Ages, it was often based on local events; individual tales often were gathered into collections.
, the Tornaquinci and then the Tornabuoni in the later 1480s had also staked their claim. [43] Moreover, across the Alps, there was quite a tradition of burial behin d the high altar. There was, too, the royal tradition of burial in the choir, this usually being in the central nave. In this respect, we need only think of the tomb of Charles the Bald Charles the Bald, French king: see Charles II, emperor of the West.  in the Gothic choir of Saint-Denis. Moreover, d'Estouteville's immediate family had chosen burial in the choirs of several Norman abbeys in the fifteenth century, asserting thereby their royal lineage. [44]

Burial both behind the high altar and in the choir, if this had been the case with d'Estouteville, would have been a vital precedent, a northern one, for his successor as Cardinal of Ostia, Julius II, whose projects rendered the choirs of Santa Maria del Popolo and St. Peter's architectonic ar·chi·tec·ton·ic   also ar·chi·tec·ton·i·cal
adj.
1. Of or relating to architecture or design.

2. Having qualities, such as design and structure, that are characteristic of architecture:
 and decorative unities. Giuliano's own interests in France, including the bishopric of Carpentras and archbishopric arch·bish·op·ric  
n.
1. The rank, office, or term of an archbishop.

2. The area under an archbishop's jurisdiction; an archdiocese.
 of Avignon, as well as his legations there in the later 1470s, meant that he kept French culture in his sights, even though he was not initially a promoter of the royal cause. In conscious emulation, perhaps, of his older, French alter ego A doctrine used by the courts to ignore the corporate status of a group of stockholders, officers, and directors of a corporation in reference to their limited liability so that they may be held personally liable for their actions when they have acted fraudulently or unjustly or when , Julius II made the cappella maggiore an autonomous work of art. [45] D'Estouteville's own contribution of lavishly carved choir stalls to Rouen bears witness, as we shall see, to the same artistic impulse. In favoring this place in Rome, he would have called attention to himself as patron and founder, in a rhetorical sense, and brought to the city very early the quintesse ntially French notion of the free-standing tomb.

Had d'Estouteville's tomb ever been underway, its ideation ideation /ide·a·tion/ (i?de-a´shun) the formation of ideas or images.idea´tional

i·de·a·tion
n.
The formation of ideas or mental images.
 would have certainly contributed to Sixtus IV's burial chapel and floor tomb of 1493 in Old St. Peter's, itself containing tantalizing analogies to royal French monuments. The analogy to Sixtus's bronze effigy also recalls the type of Pietro Foscari's tomb, dating to after 1485, originally located in the small chapel to the left of the apse of Santa Maria del Popolo where the bronze effigy lay on a low marble bier. [46] Indeed, even though it is to the Della Rovere model that we look for surviving Roman antecedents for interment in the choir, given d'Estouteville's ties to the nipoti through Sixtus IV, and the early date of the 1450s for the beginnings of his interventions at Sant'Agostino, who is to say that he, a Frenchman, was not the logical originator -- the missing Roman first link -- in the development of this idea?

After his death, from Easter 1483 until at least as late as February 1489, the convent received regular payments from his cappella through the bankers to the Sacred College, the Franciotti, and the Medici Medici, Italian family
Medici (mĕ`dĭchē, Ital. mā`dēchē), Italian family that directed the destinies of Florence from the 15th cent. until 1737.
. [47] The convent continued to honor their great benefactor through the mid-eighteenth century with a daily Mass ab antiquo at the high altar. [48] As he had requested, his heart traveled back to Rouen, departing Rome on 6 March:

on a mule, in a coffer coffer

In architecture, a square or polygonal ornamental sunken panel used in a series as decoration for a ceiling or vault. Coffers were probably originally formed by wooden beams crossing one another to produce a grid.
 covered by black drapery with the cross, and all the monks of Sant'Agostino saying the Office with many torches, and behind the heart went many mounted bishops in company, and it was taken to France. [49]

As far as his spiritual possessions in France were concerned, d'Estouteville had controlled a far-flung web of financial and political influence orchestrated from Rome through the actions of proxies. His ties to his archbishopric at the Cathedral of Notre-Dame were actively maintained and expressed through the actions of his agents, several of whom regularly traveled to and from Italy. He himself seems to have made only two visits to Normandy after settling in Rome in the 1440s. These distant ties were reinforced, however, by the longstanding seigneurial seign·eur  
n.
1. A man of rank, especially a feudal lord in the ancien régime.

2. In Canada, a man who owned a large estate originally held by a feudal grant from the king of France.

3.
 presence of his family. [50]

In the instances of his responsibilities held in commendam IN COMMENDAM. The state or condition of a church living, which is void or vacant, and it is commended to the care of some one. In, Louisiana, there is a species of partnership called a partnership in commendam. Vide Commendam. , such as the Norman abbeys of Montebourg in the archdiocese of Coutances, Sr-Ouen in Rouen, or Mont-St-Michel on the coast, there is little or no evidence of his presence, but rather of actions in his name carried out by vicars general and suffragans. [51] Nicholas V officially sanctioned the situation. His Bull of April 1454 authorized procurators to visit the "cathedrals, monasteries, priones and other sacred places Sacred Places


Alph

sacred river in Xanadu. [Br. Poetry: Coleridge “Kubla Kahn”]

Delphi

shrine sacred to Apollo and site of temple and oracle.
" in the cardinal's French provinces. [52] The able and learned men who represented him at Rouen, men such as Guillaume Auber and Jean Masselin, governed in both the spiritual and temporal spheres. They conducted services, carried out ordinations, made judgements in cases of doctrinal error, collected the accounts of the farming properties of the archbishopric and supervised the financial life within their jurisdictions. [53] They watched over the artistic and architectural changes at the cathedral, and probably selected the master mason master mason
n.
1. An expert mason.

2. Master Mason The third degree of Freemasonry.
 s, for example, and the woodworkers. This situation compares with those of the sites of several of d'Estouteville's building programs in Italy, such as those at the Augustinian convent of Sant'Oliva at Cori, in which his name lent prestige to visible architectural renovations but his personal involvement was minimal. For these French projects, as with his Italian ones, the cardinal preferred the work of local artists, in the French instance, those employed by his family. [54]

Rouen was the preeminent diocese of France and, before the Revolution, it was one of the most populous and extensive. D'Estouteville's patronage at his archbishopric, following his appointment by Nicholas V in 1453, illuminates his Italian projects and rounds out the character and mechanisms of his artistic tastes. Under him, the revival of the diocese became the expression, perhaps, of revived Norman pride, and it led to increasing prosperity By 1455, the diocese had lost more than half the revenues it had claimed fifty-five years earlier. Yet the revenues collected during d'Estouteville's time, primarily from urban sources and in the form of silver, must have become the means for his ambitious restoration program in Rouen. [55] Furthermore, and in a sense comparable with fifteenth-century Rome, the need for restorations to the foundations under his sway, whether abbeys, monasteries, priories, or hospitals, must have been tangible, and had been so since the end of The Hundred Years' War Hundred Years' War

(1337–1453) Intermittent armed conflict between England and France over territorial rights and the issue of succession to the French throne. It began when Edward III invaded Flanders in 1337 in order to assert his claim to the French crown.
. [56]

Since becoming archbishop in controversial circumstances in 1453, d'Estouteville undertook extensive renovation programs at the chateau of Gaillon, the country retreat of the archbishopric. [57] Most prominently, he made provisions for considerable rebuilding at the episcopal manor in Rouen, adjacent to the cathedral, including the addition of a new wing. Following his visit to Rouen in the mid-1450s, he had requested plans for the palace to be sent to him. In 1459, Guillaume Mesard carried "le devis" (the design) of the new palace to Rome, "dresse" (drawn up) by the master mason of the cathedral, Geffroi Richier. In 1464, the works were finished and "la painture dudit hostel" was sent to Rome. [58] By this time, the archbishop's arms had been liberally distributed throughout the compound, inset into the windows of the episcopal chapel, for example, and painted on its doors. For the absent patron, such insignia functioned as active surrogates for him. In November 1461, he wrote to the Chapter of Rouen from R ome regarding the palace project:

You know that we have had built a rich and sumptuous work, in our episcopal palace in Rouen, and that this continues each day; and we hardly doubt that you will not greatly agree, since this contributes in no small way to the beauty and honor of the Church, and to the satisfaction of the whole city. And because this depends on us, we have decided to have completed all that is necessary there, and that can make it pleasant; and to that end abundant water is necessary .... [59]

Inside the cathedral, he instigated changes to the interior while visiting from Rome for a year, in 1454. On 2 September, on an inspection there, he opened the tabernacle Tabernacle (tăb`ərnăk'əl), in the Bible, the portable holy place of the Hebrews during their desert wanderings. It was a tent, like the portable tent-shrines used by ancient Semites, set up in each camp; eventually it housed the Ark  of the Sacrament, and looked at the reliquaries, especially the relics of the ancient bishop of Ravenna This is an incomplete list. Please add to this list if you are aware of an omission. This page is a list of Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops of Ravenna, and (from 1985[1]) of the Archdiocese of Ravenna-Cervia. , St. Severus, before which he made an act of veneration. He gave a sermon to the canons on the text: "Estote in caritate radicati et fundati." [60] He later endowed the foundation with sacred objects Sacred Objects


Ark of the Covenant

gilded wooden chest in which God’s presence dwelt when communicating with the people. [O.T.
 and at least thirty silk and velvet vestments, including chasubles and tunics, and altar cloths, many out of cloth-of-gold, richly embroidered em·broi·der  
v. em·broi·dered, em·broi·der·ing, em·broi·ders

v.tr.
1. To ornament with needlework: embroider a pillow cover.

2.
 and decorated with pearls. Many of these were brought from Italy by his officials returning from Rome, and several were manufactured in Florence. [61] As his subordinates moved through the Mass wearing these robes, the congregations at Rouen observed palpable signs of his stewardship.

In August 1470, d'Estouteville initiated the construction of lavish wooden choir stalls, carved by Laurent Adam, hucher, with the contributions of the Flemish woodworker, Gillet du Chastel, and Jacques Thouroulde. These supported an extensive iconographic program and eventually cost more than 4,500 livres. Within these stalls stood d'Estouteville's new episcopal throne, painted by Jean le Moyne Jean Le Moyne (February 17, 1913 – April 1, 1996) was a Canadian journalist, researcher, screenwriter and senator.

Born in Montreal, Quebec, in 1961 he wrote Convergences, winner of the 1961 Governor General's Awards. He won the Molson Prize in 1968.
. Both the throne and the stalls were largely destroyed during the Revolution. [62] In the choir, at least one king was already buried, and an alabaster alabaster, fine-grained, massive, translucent variety of gypsum, a hydrous calcium sulfate. It is pure white or streaked with reddish brown. Alabaster, like all other forms of gypsum, forms by the evaporation of bedded deposits that are precipitated mainly from  image of the Virgin was placed on one of the tombs. [63] D'Estouteville provided, then, a glorious modern setting for these remains and, with virtuosic material embellishment, enhanced the liturgical life of the cathedral.

On 20 January 1455, he gave permission for the cleaning and regilding of the images of Our Lady placed on the high altar, "et bene avertat ne fiat fraus." [64] The many works of repair and restoration taking place in the cathedral during his tenure included the repainting of the faces of the "ymages" of the Virgin on the high altar, and of the alabaster image beneath the Crucifix. [65] His Marian interests were expressed in a number of ways and in accordance with the dedication of the cathedral. These included the gift of "sept ystores de Notte-Dame-des-Neiges" in 1466-1467, a reference which suggests that he may have commissioned a painted altarpiece altarpiece

Painting, relief, sculpture, screen, or decorated wall standing on or behind an altar in a Christian church. The images depict holy personages, saints, and biblical subjects.
 or, perhaps more likely, a set of tapestries. He established the feast of NotreDame-des-Neiges on 5 August in direct relation to his appointment at Santa Maria Maggiore, a foundation that owed its legendary Early Christian beginnings to a miraculous August snowfall. [66] Through d'Estouteville, in January 1476, the feasts of the Annunciation Annunciation
dove and lily

pictured with Virgin and Gabriel. [Christian Iconography: Brewer Dictionary, 645]

Elizabeth

Mary’s old cousin; bears John the Baptist. [N.T.
 and of the Visitatio n were established, succeeded in the following month by a celebration of the indulgences granted the cathedral for its Marian calendar by Sixtus IV, and by the sounding of the Ave Maria Ave Maria (ä`vā märē`ä) [Lat.,=hail, Mary], prayer to the Virgin Mary universal among Roman Catholics, also called the Ave, the Hail Mary, and the Angelic Salutation.  at midday, most probably on the newly-cast bells in the Tour St. Romain, on the left of the cathedral's portal, known as "d'Estouteville" (later "Guillaume") and "Marie." It even seems to be an appropriate commentary on his ambition that, in 1469, a "gratification" was paid to a man who had found a way to make the bell "d'Estouteville" swing with only four men where previously ten or twelve had been required. This was the bell that he wished sounded at his funeral services. [67] In all of these enterprises, the cardinal made himself ever present to his Rouennais diocese through his special appeal to their senses -- his absence necessitated it.

D'Estoureville shared the attention he gave to the cathedral with the French monarchy. He warmly welcomed his cousin Charles VII Charles VII, king of France
Charles VII (Charles the Well Served), 1403–61, king of France (1422–61), son and successor of Charles VI. His reign saw the end of the Hundred Years War.
 to the cathedral, reaffirming the see's new obedience to the French throne and symbolizing the degree to which Normandy was once again claimed for the French kings. [68] In October 1461, Louis XI Louis XI, king of France
Louis XI, 1423–83, king of France (1461–83), son and successor of Charles VII. Early Life


As dauphin Louis was almost constantly in revolt against his father.
 pronounced himself simultaneously affectionate towards the cathedral and towards the duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy stems from various Danish, Hiberno-Norse, Orkney Viking and Anglo-Danish (from the Danelaw) invasions of France in the 8th century. A fief, probably as a county, was created by the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte in 911 out of concessions made by King , with which he later effected a treaty, and he named the cardinal lieutenant general over matters of judicial and administrative reform. The monarch himself was received in the cathedral in August 1462. [69]

On 14 August 1465, Louis XI heard Mass and Vespers vespers (vĕs`pərz) [Lat.,=evening], in the Christian Church, principal evening office. In the Roman rite, vespers have consisted since the 6th cent. of a few prayers, five psalms, a lesson, the Magnificat, and an antiphon.  in the Chapel of the Virgin behind the choir, which he again honored in May 1475. [70] On the feast of Corpus Christi Corpus Christi, in Christianity
Corpus Christi [Lat.,=body of Christ], feast of the Western Church, observed on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday (or on the following Sunday).
 in 1467, the king placed on the same altar of the Virgin 15 ecus d'or and, on the ledge of the altar of Corpus Christi behind the high altar, 31 ecus. [71] In April 1475, a gift from him of 1,200 ecus d'or was announced "so that this sum can be used for the foundation of the church," and in June 1481, he sent 124 ecus d'or to the Chapter, destined as alms and as a mark of his piety towards the Virgin. [72]

D'Estouteville's sense of precedence as archbishop and, more importantly, of the historical continuum of which he was a vital part, are definitively expressed in his wishes for a tomb, for which he had now prepared an edifying ed·i·fy  
tr.v. ed·i·fied, ed·i·fy·ing, ed·i·fies
To instruct especially so as to encourage intellectual, moral, or spiritual improvement.
 stage. In the early 1460s, his mother (d. 1421) and his sister had been commemorated with tombs erected over their burial sites at the Benedictine abbey of Notre-Dame at Valmont, the cardinal's birthplace and the seigneurial seat of the family. [73] He, however, had a different and more audacious plan for himself.

On 18 October 1471, sixteen months after he had sent his initial statement to the Chapter from Rome regarding the burial of his body in the nave of the cathedral, and of his heart in "a structure like that of the king," his obits were instituted at the cathedral. [74] The king whose tomb d'Estoureville proposed to emulate was Charles V Charles V, duke of Lorraine
Charles V (Charles Leopold), 1643–90, duke of Lorraine; nephew of Duke Charles IV. Deprived of the rights of succession to the duchy, he was forced to leave France and entered the service of the Holy Roman emperor.
 (d. 1380), whose body was buried at Saint-Denis and whose heart came to rest in the choir at Rouen, in front of the high altar. The effigy clutched his heart in his hand. [75] On 13 and 14 May 1474, the Chapter deliberated over the matter of d'Estouteville's tomb. The commission, composed of five of the Archbishop's agents, including Guillaume Auber and Jean Masselin, decided to erect a model "en planches" which was subsequently accepted. [76]

By enclosing his heart in a permanent memorial, the cardinal was acknowledging his royal origins and representing his status, his self-image, in unambiguous terms. "That of himself which is most noble" as the Chapter had written to him -- a turn of phrase that resounds not only in burial customs among his peers, but more ubiquitously and emblematically in his culture at large: the heart as poetic form (burning or devoured) or as a political form (the traitor's heart excised by command of a monarch), and with resonances in New Testament symbolism whereby the heart is not only "the seat of vital forces" but the focus of "moral conscience, of unwritten law Unwritten rules, principles, and norms that have the effect and force of law though they have not been formally enacted by the government.

Most laws in America are written. The U.S.
, of encounters with God." [77] D'Estouteville elected Rouen, then, as the home of his true "self," his political and ethical essence as he wanted them publicly remembered. In Rome, on the other hand, in equally symbolic terms, the body politic BODY POLITIC, government, corporations. When applied to the government this phrase signifies the state.
     2. As to the persons who compose the body politic, they take collectively the name, of people, or nation; and individually they are citizens, when considered
 stayed behind.

In 1475, Pierre le Sinierre, "machon," was recompensed for a depiction on parchment of the tomb ("ung pourtraict en parchemin de la sepulture pour escriptura") which was destined for the nave of the cathedral ("en la nef des son eglise de Rouen"). [78] Alabaster from Grenoble was purchased, together with marble from Amiens, for a tomb in black marble to support the gisant ("pour une tumbe de marbre noir pour faire le gesant de la sepulture"). The image of the cardinal himself was carved from alabaster: "to make out of alabaster both the representation of Monseigneur and the figures who are around the tomb, and all the other things that are needed for the tomb." [79] At least seven masons were occupied with the project and the total cost of the materials, the attendant travelling and its expenses, came to more than 500 livres for the year 1475 alone. The selection of alabaster -- presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
adj.
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
 gypsum gypsum (jĭp`səm), mineral composed of calcium sulfate (calcium, sulfur, and oxygen) with two molecules of water, CaSO4·2H2O. It is the most common sulfate mineral, occurring in many places in a variety of forms.  alabaster -- allied the cardinal with the European elite of his time, particularly the upper strata of French soci ety. Claus Sluter Claus Sluter (born 1340s in Haarlem [1]; died in 1405 or 1406, Dijon) was a sculptor of Dutch origin.[2]

Sluter probably worked in Brussels before moving to the city of Dijon, where from 1385 to 1389 he was the assistant of Jean de Marville, Court
, to take an astoundingly inventive example, fashioned the tomb for Philip the Bold Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy
Philip the Bold, 1342–1404, duke of Burgundy (1363–1404); a younger son of King John II of France. He fought (1356) at Poitiers and shared his father's captivity in England.
, Duke of Burgundy
For the butterfly Hamearis lucina'', see Duke of Burgundy (butterfly)
The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's
, in Dijon from alabaster. The brilliant white marble of the royal tombs in Saint-Denis must have quickened his preference. [80]

In 1477, expenses were again incurred "a cause de la sepulture de monseigneur" of at least 80 livres, which included the journeys of Pierre le Sinierre and Guillaume de Bourges, "machon et ymaginier" from Saint-Nicolas of Rouen, to Lyon, Grenoble and Rouanne to find more alabaster. [81] In April 1480, a place for d'Estouteville's body was being made ready, as he had requested, in the place known as the Tombe S. Mauril. This locus was that of the venerated, eleventh-century and posthumously canonized can·on·ize  
tr.v. can·on·ized, can·on·iz·ing, can·on·iz·es
1. To declare (a deceased person) to be a saint and entitled to be fully honored as such.

2. To include in the biblical canon.

3.
 Archbishop of Rouen, Maurile, situated at the first right pier of the crossing, across from the entrance to the choir. Above the tomb, a Crucifix was located. [82] At the site, in 1480, the workmen preparing d'Estouteville's grave found a sealed and covered stone sepulcher in which the canons established the presence of Maurile's bones, fragments of a wooden cross and of a chasuble. The Chapter resolved to continue the work at this sacred and, for a new tomb, somewhat presumptuous pre·sump·tu·ous  
adj.
Going beyond what is right or proper; excessively forward.



[Middle English, from Old French presumptueux, from Late Latin praes
, location. [83]

On the last day of January 1483, Jean Gouel, an officer of the bailiff bailiff

Officer of some U.S. courts whose duties include keeping order in the courtroom and guarding prisoners or jurors in deliberation. In medieval Europe, it was a title of some dignity and power, denoting a manorial superintendent or royal agent who collected fines and
 of Rouen, came to inform the Chapter of the vacancy of the seat through the death of their archbishop, and instructed them, through the king, to make preparations for an election. [84] On April 12, shortly after the election of the canon and archdeacon, Robert de Croixmare, to the vacant archbishopric, the cardinal's heart was ceremonially received for burial in the cathedral.

The secular clergy In the Catholic Church, secular clergy are religious ministers, such as deacons and priests, who do not belong to a religious order. While regular clergy take vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience and place themselves under a rule (regulum  processed to the city gates to receive the heart, which was in its coffer and covered by red-flowered cloth of gold. This was followed by the reading of the accompanying Bull of Sixtus IV verifying his permission and the heart's authenticity. [85] Among his famigliari accompanying the pallium pallium (păl`ēəm), vestment proper to the pope, who confers it on archbishops in token of their union with and obedience to him. It is a band of cloth worn around the neck and has a 2-in. (5.  from Rome, as the cardinal had requested in a codicil A document that is executed by a person who had previously made his or her will, to modify, delete, qualify, or revoke provisions contained in it.

A codicil effectuates a change in an existing will without requiring that the will be reexecuted.
 to his will, were Nicola Saraceni and the canon of Rouen, Robert Fortin. The pallium was received "in the choir in front of the high altar and the tomb of King Charles King Charles can refer to:
  • A number of kings named Charles I
  • A number of kings named Charles II
  • A number of kings named Charles III
  • A number of kings named Charles IV
  • A number of kings named Charles V
  • A number of kings named Charles VI
 V" in view of a multitude of barons, prelates, nobles, and notable persons. [86] The nave would be draped in black for a year. [87]

D'Estouteville's heart, his "most noble part," was buried beneath the sculpted monument by Pierre le Sinierre at the prestigious site outside the choir. [88] The site was not only that of Archbishop Maurile's tomb but it was also believed to be that of the earlier high altar. It had been Maurile himself, in fact, who had moved the original altar in circa 1063 in order to extend the east end of the church. [89] In having his heart interred at this holy location, d'Estouteville reaffirmed his role as a munificent patron in the cathedral's history and, symbolically, his pivotal relationship to its fifteenth-century fabric. The location in the nave might also have recalled to him that of Martin V's floor tomb in San Giovanni San Giovanni, the Italian form of "Saint John" (q.v.), a name that may refer to dozens of saints.

At least 58 comuni in Italy are named San Giovanni, and at least 49 more are named San Giovanni...
 in Laterano. [90] A French patron and builder a century and a half before him, Cardinal Renaud de la Porte La Porte (lə pôrt), city (1990 pop. 21,507), seat of La Porte co., NW Ind.; inc. 1835. It is a manufacturing center in fertile farmland on the edge of the Calumet industrial region. , had equally selected burial beside the high altar, in the choir arcade of the Cathedral of Limoges, his bishopric. When he died at the Curia in 1325, his body was taken to Limoges, to a polychromed, double-sided tomb that he must have had a hand in before he died. Within an arcade, six figures are ranged along the tomb base, while two angels display the effigy wearing pontifical vestments; they pull aside curtains at each end of the bier. At the second level, another pair of (lost) sculpted figures was placed in niches, while four paired narrative reliefs decorated the inside ends, one above the other. A canopy hung suspended above. [91]

As a curial forbear for·bear 1  
v. for·bore , for·borne , for·bear·ing, for·bears

v.tr.
1. To refrain from; resist: forbear replying. See Synonyms at refrain1.
 with Italianate preferences, Cardinal de la Porte reminds us of the enduring intermingling of northern and southern tastes, of the preexistence pre·ex·ist or pre-ex·ist  
v. pre·ex·ist·ed, pre·ex·ist·ing, pre·ex·ists

v.tr.
To exist before (something); precede: Dinosaurs preexisted humans.

v.intr.
 of well-placed, figured memoria for churchmen long before d'Estouteville was making his choices, and of the availability; too, to French sculptors of variants -- in Cardinal de la Porte's case, the high and thus rather awkwardly viewed object -- on which they might improvise. While the fifteenth-century Norman chose comparable sites close to the high altar in churches in Italy and France, the evidence for his tomb at Rouen suggests that it was a single-storied structure in which the figures simply stood in niches around the tumba beneath the effigy; or accompanied it on the same level. These variants, in more complex guise, were explored in such French monuments as that of Charles VIII (now destroyed) by Guido Mazzoni of 1498, of Francis II of Brittany and Marguerite de Foix of 1499 (fig. 3) in the Cathedral of Nantes, by Michel Colombe and Girola mo da Fiesole, and of the children of Charles VIII in the Cathedral of Tours of 1506 (fig. 4). If the heart tomb of d'Estouteville exhibited the Virtues, as Charles VIII's had done, these would, in turn, have preceded the king's, and have been, therefore, their earliest known northern instance. [92] Unlike a wall tomb, which, in its earliest Roman incarnation, was exclusive to clerics, this lower construction also permitted the open embrace of the airy crossing, and all the figures' participation, by association, in the ceremonies at the altar. [93] D'Estouteville had, then, "the whole church as a grand tomb," as Paolo Giovio had encapsulated Cosimo de' Medici's occupation of the nave of San Lorenzo. [94] With regard to his chosen site, d'Estouteville communicated his awareness of Maurile's roles as builder, opponent of heresy and patriotic survivor of a war with the English that led to the victory of France. This was an outcome that d'Estouteville himself had seen re-enacted in his formative years on the bes ieged Norman coast. [95]

No trace of his heart monument survives. Some part appears to have been moved shortly after his death since, on 18 July 1493, it was decided that the body of the newly-deceased archbishop, Robert de Croixmare, would be buried in the Chapel of the Virgin, near d'Estouteville's tomb. [96] The eastern chapel, behind the choir and the high altar, was a worthy site for him. At the entrance, the holy archbishop and friend of St. Louis, Eudes Rigaud, was buried after his death in 1275. D'Estouteville's predecessor, Raoul Roussel, was buried there on the right side, with an epitaph epitaph, strictly, an inscription on a tomb; by extension, a statement, usually in verse, commemorating the dead. The earliest such inscriptions are those found on Egyptian sarcophagi. , in 1452. [97] In 1465, Pierre de Breze, the grand senechal of Anjou and Normandy and a favorite of Charles VII, was also buried there, on the left, in a large tomb by an unknown sculptor which, like all but six of those in the cathedral, has suffered the ravages rav·age  
v. rav·aged, rav·ag·ing, rav·ages

v.tr.
1. To bring heavy destruction on; devastate: A tornado ravaged the town.

2.
 of the sixteenth and then the eighteenth centuries. [98]

In 1525, Georges I d'Amboise, the Archbishop of Rouen since 1493, and Cardinal and premier ministre of France since 1498, would be honored by a colossal, three-storied, highly ornate, marble and alabaster tomb set against the right wall in the chapel (fig. 5). He designated the chapel in his will: "ou sont enterres mes predecesseurs." [99] On a platform of black marble, the alabaster figure of Georges I, on the left, and the white marble figure of his nephew (who was buried below some thirty years later) kneel within a structure that combines figures in niches and elaborately-carved decorative relief panels. Above them, a gilded, coffered cof·fer  
n.
1. A strongbox.

2. often coffers
a. Financial resources; funds.

b. A treasury: stole money from the union coffers.

3.
 dais projects outward, supporting a third figural fig·ur·al  
adj.
Of, consisting of, or forming a pictorial composition of human or animal figures.



figur·al·ly adv.

Adj.
 zone. [100]

The lower zone is in marble, and here six theological Virtues reside in niches which bear several inscriptions, including a dialogue between France and a voyager, and verses alluding to the cardinal's achievements on both sides of the Alps through reference to the gold fleur de lys and the oak, the Della Rovere emblem. [101] D'Estouteville's monument, which equally comprised black marble and an alabaster image of the patron -- "the representation of Monseigneur and the figures who are around the tomb and all the other things" -- must have been, as far as can be ascertained, the immediate predecessor, as a sculpted tomb for an archbishop, of that of Georges I d'Amboise. As with d'Estouteville, d'Amboise's heart (and entrails) were removed from his body; they were taken to the Celestine cel·es·tine  
n.
See celestite.



[German Zölestin, from Latin caelestis, celestial; see celestial.]
 convent at Lyons: "and a statue and figure from life was taken to all the churches of Lyon, being in height and aspect like that of our Sire SIRE. A title of honor given to kings or emperors in speaking or writing to them.  the Legat," accompanied, according to one account, by 11,000 priests, 1,200 prelates, and 200 gentlemen. [102]

Any effort to reconstruct d'Esrouteville's tomb by looking back from an elaborate construction of the High Renaissance must, of course, be tempered with caution. The surviving descriptions make clear, however, that the alabaster gisant of the cardinal reclined re·cline  
v. re·clined, re·clin·ing, re·clines

v.tr.
To cause to assume a leaning or prone position.

v.intr.
To lie back or down.
 on a marble slab, surrounded by alabaster figures of the theological Virtues. According to one seventeenth-century source, the tomb was "a little below the Crucifix, and the figure of the Cardinal one saw there in relief, under an iron grate." [103]

The great cardinal chose at Rouen an ostentatious site that celebrated him as both magnanimous mag·nan·i·mous  
adj.
1. Courageously noble in mind and heart.

2. Generous in forgiving; eschewing resentment or revenge; unselfish.
 builder and holy reformer. This site, too, seemed to proclaim, symbolically, his place at a juncture in the medieval and Renaissance history of the cathedral. In Rome, on the other hand, his burial site in the choir of Sant' Agostino -- had this been where he had intended to lie -- represented a dignity which even he was not permitted in his native Normandy. In each city Rouen and Rome, he thought about local practice and local tradition and capitalized on them, while bringing to each place an international elan. He furthered his posthumous profile and made, even at the last, in his burial designs, two characteristically assertive and culturally incontrovertible in·con·tro·vert·i·ble  
adj.
Impossible to dispute; unquestionable: incontrovertible proof of the defendant's innocence.



in·con
 legacies. His selection of site in Rome contributed to and perhaps even helped to shape an evolving pattern of conspicuous burial in the choir. This was a selection that arose from his northern instincts but that nevertheless confirmed Italian trends and wo uld play a profoundly influential role in the choices made by high prelates in Rome in the Quattrocento and early Cinquecento cin·que·cen·to  
n.
The 16th century, especially in Italian art and literature.



[Italian, from (mil) cinquecento, (one thousand) five hundred : cinque, five (from Latin
.

UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME

(*.) This article was completed while I was a Fellow at Villa I Tatti (The Harvard Center for Italian Renaissance Studies) in 1997-1998. I wish to thank, in addition to the director, Walter Kaiser, and the staff and Fellows of I Tatti, both Eve Borsook and Kenneth Gouwens for their close and insightful readings of an early draft. I continue to be deeply grateful to Benjamin G. Kohl for his insights regarding archival practice and Renaissance patronage. With great patience and generosity, John Monfasani lent his expert eye to the Latin texts. David Chambers and Kathleen Weil-Garris Brandt graciously waived their anonymity as readers for the Renaissance Quarterly; the manuscript benefited immeasurably from their suggestions.

(1.) See appendix 1. His executors were Rodrigo Borgia, papal Vice-Chancellor, and Giovanni Arcimboldo, Cardinal of Novara and Cardinal Priest of Santa Prassede. Borgia was d'Estouteville's successor as Cardinal Bishop of Porto and Archpriest of Santa Maria Maggiore and was guardian of d'Estouteville's sons. Giovanni Borgia, an Apostolic Protonotary pro·ton·o·tar·y  
n.
Variant of prothonotary.
, also appears as a witness in the documents. Arcimboldo was made cardinal by Sixtus IV on 7 May 1473 on the wishes of the Duke of Milan, and he was, through this connection, a political associate of d'Estouteville, See Platina pla·ti·na  
n.
Platinum, especially as found naturally in impure form.



[Spanish, diminutive of plata, silver, plate, from Vulgar Latin *plattus; see plate.]
, 410; Ansani, 435.

(2.) This was a legal state of affairs that distinguished the later Quarttrocento from the preceding century when the first articulation was definitive. Gardner, 1992, 5.

(3.) On 14 January, Mass was said for d'Estouteville "qui graviter Infirmabatur" (Archivio di Stato, Rome, Agostiniani in S. Agostino [henceforth ASA Asa (ā`sə), in the Bible, king of Judah, son and successor of Abijah. He was a good king, zealous in his extirpation of idols. When Baasha of Israel took Ramah (a few miles N of Jerusalem), Asa bought the help of Benhadad of Damascus and ] 107, Exitus, fol. 19v); "Die xxiii. [January) hora ho·ra also ho·rah  
n.
A traditional round dance of Romania and Israel.



[Modern Hebrew h
 ottava ot·ta·va  
adv. & adj. Music
At an octave higher or lower than the notes written. Used chiefly as a direction, positioned above or below a staff.
 mortuus est MORTUUS EST. A return made by the sheriff, when the defendant is dead, as an excuse for not executing the writ. 4 Watts, 270, 276.  Cardinalis Rotomagensis 1483" (ASA 107, Introitus, fol. 33v). Both the wills and an act refer to the church as "quasi perfecta per·fec·ta  
n.
See exacta.



[From American Spanish (quiniela) perfecta, perfect (quinella), feminine of perfecto, perfect, from Latin perfectus; see perfect.
."

(4.) By the early Cinquecento, non-Romans (including Italians) dominated Rome's natives numerically and politically. It was common knowledge in Vatican circles that there was a political disadvantage in hiring Italians. Cortesi recommended as servants to cardinals Englishmen, Frenchmen, and Germans. See Lee; d'Amico, 51.

(5.) For the cardinal's biography, in brief, see: Jouen and Fuzet, 261-88; Esposito; Darricau; Muller: Morandiere. 321; Cardella, 3:88-91.

(6.) Campano in Raponi, 193.

(7.) Document of 13 June 1470 (Rouen, Archives Departementales de la Seine-Maritime [henceforth ADSM (ADSTAR Distributed Storage Manager) The former name of a comprehensive software system for backup, HSM and disaster recovery from IBM. It backed up data from more than 25 client and server platforms to an ADSM server running on any IBM platform, HP-UX, Solaris ], G 2138) in Mollier: "Demandes presentees au chapitre de la part du cardinal d'Estouteville requiert pour le cas ou il finiroit ses jours en France que son corps soir inhume in·hume  
tr.v. in·humed, in·hum·ing, in·humes
To place in a grave; bury.



[French inhumer, from Old French, from Latin inhum
 en la nef de l'eglise ou est une tombe qui vulgairement est nommee la tombe Saint-Moril, et on cas qu'il mouroit hors le royaulme, que son cueur audit lieu fu pose et que l'a l'en peult faire une elevacion comme celle Celle (tsĕl`ə), city (1994 pop. 73,670), Lower Saxony, N Germany, on the Aller River. Its manufactures include food products, electronic components, chemicals, and textiles. Wax processing and horse breeding are important locally.  du Roy la ou tendroit le dit DIT

di-iodotyrosine.
 sieur son cueur en maniere de scpulture" (37). Calendar given in Beaurepaire, Archives Departmentales, 2:236. All translations are my own unless otherwise noted.

(8.) See appendix 1: Separation of the body.

(9.) The capitular capitular

pertaining to a capitulum or the head of a bone.
 archives in Rouen record that the cardinal was seriously ill as early as the end of 1480 when he had planned a visit to that city. Already in May 1481, the Chapter discussed the election of a successor; see Jouen and Fuzet, 287-88. Muntz (3:156-58) originally published extracts of the building records; see Gill, 1997, 121 n. 16.

(10.) In 1452, his secretary cunningly communicated to the Milanese that the cardinal's heart, in fact, lay in Italy: "Io non poria dire la summa affectione che ha Monsignore a le parti de Italia e corte romana, perche quantunche qui sia fra li soi, che sono di sangue regale, et riceva grandissimi honori, pur nienedimeno nullo altro singular desiderio ha che di pensare lo suo retorno in Italia dove a lui pare consista ogni suo vivere e felicitade ... conosco lui essere piu italiano che francese" (Giovanni Battisra degli Artizagani da Cremona to Cicco Simonetta, the Duke's chief secretary. Bituri [Berry], 16 June 1452, Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Italien, Cod. 158, fol. 133, qtd. in Ilardi, 1130 n. 11). D'Estouteville was known to speak marvelous Italian; see Canensi, 33.

(11.) Gardner, 1988, 58-59.

(12.) Ibid., 1992, 10-11; see especially Brown; Park, 10-11. According to Park, Boniface VIII reacted to a French bishop's request regarding his brother's corpse by forbidding that it be cremated, boiled "or even cut into." The Bull had no effect in Italy, according to Park, as compared to France where, by the fifteenth century, the tradition reasserted itself.

(13.) Gardner, 1988, 57-58; Aubert and Desfayes; Erlande-Brandenburg, 93-96, and 118-19.

(14.) Metcalf and Huntington, 177.

(15.) See appendix 2c. On Bernardo de Paolo de' Massimi, see Adinolfi, 56. Camillo Beneimbene, a prominent Roman citizen and Priore delli Caporioni in 1482, was also the Massimi's notary by 1493 (see appendix 1, wills 1, 3, and 4; second codicil). See also Frommel, 1973, 2:233 n. 7. A nephew of Bernardo, mentioned in a codicil to the cardinal's will, married d'Esroureville's daughter, Margherita, in December 1481; see Von Reumont, 3.1:256. In October 1481, Bernardo's brother Francesco de' Massimi, received, as d'Estoureville's banker, 3,000 ducati from d'Estouteville; see Rome, Archivio Colonna, perg. LXV, 20. The theft was perpetrated, then, by someone from within the circle of d'Estouteville's acquaintance, and by someone who knew what he was looking for. These circumstances reinforce the impression, too, of the notaries' vested interests in the cardinal's testaments; see n. 23.

(16.) On the death of Cardinal Lodovico Trevisan (d. 1465), Paul II, a long-time enemy, seized the cardinal's goods, including a jewelry collection. The tomb was later broken into by a canon of the church who stole the corpse's vestments and ring; see Davies, 78. For another account, see Gaspare da Verona, 25-26. Sixtus IV's apartments were plundered after his death in 1484 by his officials and servants such that the corpse required guards; see Burchardus, 1:12. See, too, the contemporary account of Marco Barbo's death (d. 1490) in Zippel. For the prelate's death in general, see Herklotz, 1990a, 223-48; Gardner, 1992, 12. On the funeral of Jean de Bilheres, see Schiavo, 41 n. 1.

(17.) Kantorowicz, 314-17.

(18.) See appendix 2a.

(19.) Gardner, 1992, 5ff; Rodocanachi, 17. Compare the will of 1483 of Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga who asks to be buried "cum anulo in digito" (Miintz, 3:297).

(20.) See appendix 1; Gill, 1996. On 20 Februar, the convent paid for a copy of the will and a part of the will of Beneimbene, ASA 107, Exitus, fol. 20v.

(21.) Will 1, BAV BAV Bavaria
Bav Bavarian (linguistics)
BAV Brand Asset Valuator
BAV Bundesdeutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Veränderliche Sterne (German Workgroup for Variable Stars)
BAV Bilim Arastirma Vakfi
, Fonda S. Maria Maggiore, Cart. 74, perg. 246.

(22.) Kiihlenthal, 108-12.

(23.) See appendix 1: The Deletion. Cf. Marini: "Questo Benimbene... come dice lo stesso Burcardo, ha il suo Epitaffio nella Chiesa di S. Agostino ... dove anche la Cappella... Fu Gentiluomo Romano, e si rogo di tutti tut·ti   Music
adv. & adj.
All. Used chiefly as a direction to indicate that all performers are to take part.

n. pl. tut·tis
1.
 i contratti della Famiglia Borgia nel Pontificato di Alessandro... [si vede] un suo epigramma, nel cui titolo lo chiama 'utriusque juris consultissimum, Poetam, almae Urbis Conservatorem, Gymnasiique Romani Reformatorem'" (270). Beneimbene recorded d'Estouteville's plans for burial in that church in will 3 and in the codicil, and he made out will 1 for Santa Maria Maggiore in which there is no mention of a tomb at all. Rocca, the notary for Santa Maria Maggiore, recorded d'Estouteville's allusion to a "sepultura" there only in will 2.

(24.) Bonasoli, 1760.

(25.) Gherardi, 11. See also 114: "Ad xxix eiusdem et diem mercurii [January], funeralia sacra sa·cra  
n.
Plural of sacrum.
 de more capta sunt, apud eandem Augustinensium edem; Balues cardinalis Andegavensis rem divinam egit, Silvester eius ordinis procurator PROCURATOR, civil law. A proctor; a person who acts for another by virtue of a procuration. Procurator est, qui aliena negotia mandata Domini administrat. Dig 3, 3, 1. Vide Attorney; Authority.  orationem habuit, pontificis familia This article is about the Polish political party. For other uses, see Familia (disambiguation).
Familia ("The Family," from the Romain familia
 sacris interfuit, quod quod
Noun

Brit slang a jail [origin unknown]
 (ut audio) consuetum non est." On Silvestro, an oratore preclarissimo, see Quintarelli, 67ff; Perini, 1:84-85. Silvestro became General in 1485, after Ambrogio da Cori, but he died later that year. See Bonasoli, 1778: "An. 1483, die 22. Jan. Obiit Cardinalis Guilelmus de Estoteville Benedictinis. Hic HIC Habitat International Coalition
HIC Health Insurance Commission
HIC Head Injury Criterion
HIC Health Information Center
HIC Health Insurance Claim
HIC Humanitarian Information Center
HIC Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography
HIC Health Informatics Conference
 agebat annos 80 sepultusque est in ecclesia S. Augustini de Urbe, in qua post exequias peractas orta est inter Fratres, et Clerum S. Marie Majoris, magna controversia, arque, tumultus circa funeralium supellectiles, ita ut omnes ad eas dirigiendas properabant" (268). See also Torelli, 7:328.

(26.) See appendix 3f.

(27.) See appendix 3e.

(28.) On the discinction between castrum doloris, cappella ardente and catafalque, see Berendson, 1ff; 20-21.

(29.) See appendix 3i.

(30.) See appendix 3n-p.

(31.) The encounter, occurring probably between 1488 and July 1490, is narrated by Timoteo Balbano in a letter (BAV, Vat. Lat (Local Area Transport) A communications protocol from Digital for controlling terminal traffic in a DECnet environment.

LAT - Local Area Transport
. 56411, fol. 93r) to Giovanni Lorenzi. See Pasehini, 173-84.

(32.) See appendix 3p.

(33.) On this practice, see Kantorowicz, 4l9ff; 425 n. 367.

(34.) Kantorowicz, 421-24; Woodward. Until the death of Louis XII, the effigy remained on top of the coffin. This was the case for Charles VII (1461) and Charles VIII (1498), at least for part of the funeral. At the funeral of Francis I (1547), the coffin, draped in black, preceded the effigy in triumph at the honorific hon·or·if·ic  
adj.
Conferring or showing respect or honor.

n.
A title, phrase, or grammatical form conveying respect, used especially when addressing a social superior.
 rear position.

(35.) Bentivoglio and Valtieri, 163-64; XXIX fig. 73. In a copy of his will (16 September 1480), Montmirail requested that: "in celebratione dictae Missae solemnis, aureum sive alium honorabilem pannum sive pallium. . . super sepulturam dicti dnj Iohannis epi sub positis lignis extendere, ac cuibus laterj dicri panni arma prefati dnj ep.i in carta papirea, seu aliis depicta affigeretur ...."

(36.) On Nicholas of Cusa, see "Essai de liste generale," 149; Roll; Weil-Garris Brandt, 112, fig. 9.

(37.) On 25 October 1482, d'Estouteville received money as an executor of d'Albert's will: "carlinos papales centum cen·tum  
adj.
Designating those Indo-European languages, including the Italic, Hellenic, Celtic and Germanic subfamilies, that merged the palatal velar stops with the plain velars k, g, gh
 ordinem Reverendissima ex intimatione [?].... domino Cardinali Rothomagensis Protectoris nostro a domino Guglielmo gallico Auditore Rothae: executoribus quondam quon·dam  
adj.
That once was; former: "the quondam drunkard, now perfectly sober" Bret Harte.
 bone memorie Reverendissimi domini Cardinalis de Libreto sepulti in ecclesia Sancte Marie de Araceli ... depositatos presente priore ... Summa ducati xi, bolognini xxxiii" (ASA 107, Introitus, fol. 31v). See also Toesca.

(38.) Herklotz, 1990b, 229-30.

(39.) In 1477, he had written to Gregoria Lolli after Costanza's death of his intentions: "faciundum nunc curo ejus sepulchrum, breveque epitaphium jam cogitavi, quod mitto ad te ..." (Gnoli, 429-31). The inscription on the very lowest socle so·cle  
n.
1. A plain square block higher than a plinth, serving as a pedestal for sculpture, a vase, or a column.

2. A plain plinth supporting a wall.
 zone of his tomb (albeit a late addition) states that both tombs were finished before his death.

(40.) English trans. by Pine-Coffin, 1961, 199; "'Ponite' inquir 'hoc corpus ubicumque: nihil uos eius cura conturbet; tantum illud uos rogo, ut ad domini altare memineritis mei, ubiubi fueritis.'" The story of Saint Monica's death is covered in Confessionum, bk. 9, chaps. 10-11, pp. 147-49.

(41.) This is noted by Herklotz, 1990b, 230.

(42.) On SS. Apostoli and the Della Rovere, see Frank; on the nipoti at Sant'Apollinare (including Raffaele Riario, Girolamo Basso, and Leonardo Grosso della Rovere), see Adinolfi, 1863, 106-09; Burchardus, 1906, 368 n. 3; Albertini.

(43.) On Moro, see Cicogna, 728. This location behind the tribune was thought to be where Giovanni, Cardinal of Aragon, was buried in Santa Sabina in October 1485. See also Pontani, 50 n. 15. There are a number of medieval precedents in Italy for burial in the choir. In the Trecento tre·cen·to  
n.
The 14th century, especially with reference to Italian art and literature.



[Italian, from (mil) trecento, (one thousand) three hundred : tre, three
, for example, Bernabo Visconti, buried in the apse of San Giovanni in Conca San Giovanni in Conca is a crypt of a former basilica church in Milan, northern Italy. It is now located in the centre of Piazza Missori. History
The basilica of San Giovanni in Conca dates from the 4th century AD, and was located in a residential quarter of the ancient
 in Milan, makes a proprietorial claim to the east end and to the church as he gazes commandingly over the high altar. He earned this privilege following renovations. The Carrara of Padua, also in the Trecento, earned by their unchallenged status as the local signori si·gno·ri  
n.
1. A plural of signor.

2. A plural of signore.
, the right to burial in the apse of Sant'Agostino. See Longhurst, nos. M. 10 and 11; Dellwing, 60-63. So, too, did a visiting foreigner, Henry VII, who was buried in Tino da Camaino's tomb, commissioned in 1315, in the Cathedral of Pisa. See Kreytenberg, 33ff.

(44.) Frommel, 1977, 47. On Saint-Denis, where eight Carolingian and eight Capetian kings and queens were buried in the second half of the thirteenth century, see Sommers Wright, 224-43. A predecessor as Archbishop of Rouen, and Cardinal of San Lorenzo in Lucina San Lorenzo in Lucina is a basilica of Rome, dating back to the 4th century, and dedicated to Saint Lawrence, Roman deacon and martyr.

The name Lucina comes from the Roman matron owner of the house on which the church was built.
, Jean de la Rochetaillee, was buried in the choir of Saint Jean in Lyons in 1439. To this foundation he also left his gilded cross, valuable liturgical objects and 800 gold ducats for the celebration of his anniversary; see Pommeraye, 550-51.

(45.) On Giuliano, see Gallia Cristiana 1, col. 829-30; Bourgin, 304; 308-10. For French-Italian relations, especially after 1483 (but not d'Estouteville), see Poeschke.

(46.) Bentivoglio and Valtieri, 35 n. 37; XXXVI fig. 94.

(47.) [June 1483] ASA 107, Introitus, fol. 37v; [(October] fol. 41r; [November] fol. 42r; [January 1484] fol. 44r; [March] fol. 45r; [July] fol. 49v; [September] fol. 51r; [December 1488] fol. 91r; [January 1489] fol. 91v; [February] fol. 93r. The Franciotti were related to the Della Rovere through Giovanni Francesco Franciotti, Depositarius of the Camera Apostolica under Sixtus IV; see De Luca, 74-90; Baurgin, 317-18.

(48.) Rome, Archivio della Curia Generalizia Agostiniana, Libro dello Stato degli Obblighi del 1775, A 26, fols. 457-58.

(49.) Pontani, 24-25: "... sopra un mulo, in una cassa coperta di panno negro con la croce, et tutti li frati de Santo Agostino dicendo l'offitio con molte torcie, et dereto a detto core andavano in compagnia molti vescovi a cavallo, et fu portato in Francia."

(50.) Apart from his legation legation: see diplomatic service; extraterritoriality.  to France in 1451-1452, he visited Rouen in 1454-1455 and in May 1456. Morandiere, 414-15. According to Jouen and Fuzet (cc; clvi; ccvi), he made only one visit, from 27 July 1454 to 17 June 1455: "cela est si vrai que d'Estouteville qui vivait a Rome prit ses dispositions pour accomplir une fois le cycle des fetes pontificales dans sa cathedrale: il officia le jour de Noel, 'le jeudi absolu, les jours Pasques, Penthecouste et Saint-Sacrement."' In his absence, d'Estouteville's brother, governor of Normandy, lived at the archbishopric. Guillaume Auber, who came from a family of vassals at Valmont, seems to have been in charge of the family possessions; see Beaurepaire, 1887, 1:63.

(51.) At Mont-St-Michel, Louis, the cardinal's brother (described by Morandiere, a chronicler of Mont-St-Michel, as "le plus riche homme d'argent comptant, ce disait-on, du royaume de France" [486]) was Captain. By 1478, "le lambris de la nef" (348) was "paracheve" (393), "et aux 2 cotes les armes de Mgr" (452). In 1462, d'Estouteville became abbot of Saint-Ouen, obtaining a papal Bull of indulgences in 1464. He constructed the vault of the nave and a jube jube
Noun

Austral & NZ informal same as jujube
 (ruined in 1562 and 1791): "enrichi d'excellentes figurs et de rares embellissements ... Les armes de ce magnifique Cardinal etaient sous le Jube, dans la porte du choeur" (Pommeraye, 444-45). He received the Benedictine abbey at Montebourg in commendam from Louis XI in 1472, and he was prior in commendam of Saint Martin-des-Champs in Paris from 1457, sending there precious vestments; see Morandiere, 468 and 485.

(52.) ADSM, G 2135 [1454-60], fol. 269v; also in Beaurepaire, 1868, 2:233; Pommeraye, 567. Where available, the notes will include cross-references to Beaurepaire, 1868, and will appear in parentheses See parenthesis.

parentheses - See left parenthesis, right parenthesis.
 after the primary citation.

(53.) These men were either vicars for the diocesan administration or officers for the spiritual jurisdiction. Auber (d. August 1482) was vicar general of d'Estouteville, canon and chancellor of the Cathedral of Rouen and parish priest of Saint-Michel, Rouen. Masselin was a canon lawyer, canon of Rouen, vicar for Cardinal Jean Balue in 1470, and treasurer for d'Estouteville in 1477. Guillaume Mesard was a secretary of d'Estouteville and his vicar general at the abbey of St-Ouen, Rouen from 1460. Many such proxies were bishops in addition to acting as vicars general or suffragans; see Beaurepaire, 1868, 2:21-39.

(54.) On Cori, see Fiorini and Palombi, 107 n. 21; Giovannoni; Correspondance de la Famille d'Estouteville, 6-8 n. 9; Jouen and Fuzet, 353.

(55.) D'Estouteville had jurisdiction over 388 parishes divided into 28 doyennes and six archdioceses. See Beaurepaire, 1868, 2:3. On the earliest history of the archbishopric, which represented a third of the territory of Normandy, see Pommeraye, 1-27; Tabbagh.

(56.) See Denifle, especially 1:66-90.

(57.) Records of the works at the chateau of Gaillon, which had been devastated dev·as·tate  
tr.v. dev·as·tat·ed, dev·as·tat·ing, dev·as·tates
1. To lay waste; destroy.

2. To overwhelm; confound; stun: was devastated by the rude remark.
 by the English, and of the estate revenues, begin with d'Estouteville's appointment (ADSM, G 53 [1455], ff. 40r-42v; G 58 [1460-1461], fol. 33r if). He spent 7,377 livres on Gaillon alone between 1455-1464; see Tabbagh, 213.

(58.) ADSM, G 59 [1461-1462]-G 64 [1466-1467]; G 70 [1474-1475]; Jouen and Fuzet, xxix-xxxvii, and 288-370. Between 1461 and 1465 alone, approximately 400,000 francs were spent; see ADSM, G 653 and G 51 (Beaurepaire, 2:153 and 2:17).

(59.) "Vous scavez que nous avons fait construire un riche & somptueux ouvrage, dans nostre Palais Archiepiscopal ar·chi·e·pis·co·pal  
adj.
Of or having to do with an archbishop or an archbishopric.



[Medieval Latin archiepiscop
 de Roiien, & qui se continue tous les iours; & nous ne doutons point que vous ne l'agreerez beaucoup beau·coup   also boo·coo or boo·koo Chiefly Southern U.S.
adj.
Many; much: beaucoup money.

n. pl.
, puisqu'il ne contribue pas peu la beaute & l'honneur de l'Eglise, & Ia satisfaction de toute Ia Ville. Et parce qu'en-ce qui depend de Nous, nous avons resolu de la faire accomplir de tout ce qui y est necessaire, & qui le peut rendre agreable; & qu'a cet effet l'abondance des eaux y est necessaire, Nous exhortons vos bienveillances ..." (Pommeraye, 569). Two copies of d'Estouteville's will in Rome (will 2 by Rocca [fol. 374v] and will 4 by Beneimbene [fol. 382v]) record his continuing patronage at Rouen, induding gifts to the episcopal manor and to several Benedictine foundations, such as Mont-Saint-Michel, held by him in commendam.

(60.) He issued proscriptions regarding the cathedral: that the poor, as Christ's brethren, should nor be cast out of the building; that candles should not be sold; that the choir boys be granted the feast of the Holy Innocents; see ASDM ASDM Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
ASDM Adaptive Security Device Manager
ASDM Airbag System Diagnostic Module
ASDM Air Bag System Diagnostic Module
ASDM Advanced Surgical Design and Manufacture (Australia) 
, G 2135 [1454-1460] (Beaurepaire, 2:231); Jouen and Fuzet, 275 n. 4; 276.

(61.) ADSM, G 58 [1460-1461], fol. 32r; 33r; G 67 [1471] (Beaurepaire, 1:21): "A Jehan Dufour, marchand de draps, pour avoir apporte trois chappes de pers brocques d'or depuis Fleurence jusques a Genesve, 10 livres 5 sous, er depuis Genesve jusquez a Rouen, 6 livres 12 deniers, lesquelles chappes Monseigneur a donnees a son eglise de Rouen. A Jehan Dufour, broudeur, pour avoir fait les armes de Monseigneur aux dites chappes, 13 livres 10 sous" See also ADSM, G 2135, 39v; fol. 270r; G 2136, fol. 90r; G 2138, fol. 171r; G 2141 [1480-1482], fol. 85r; fols. 188r-v; G 52, fol. 48r; G 68 [1470-1471] (Beaurepaite, 1:22); Pommeraye, 568.

(62.) ADSM, G 52 [1454-1455]; G 56 [1458-1459]; G 2501 [1465-1466]; G 64 [1466-1467] (Beaurepaire, 2:17-18 and 21); ADSM, G 2138 (Beaurepaire, 2:236); G 2501 [1465-1466] and G 2502 [1466-1467]; G 2503 [1467-1468] (Beaurepaire, 2:353-54); G 2139 [March 1476] (Beaurepaire, 2:237). Morandiere gives the final sum of 6,961 livres for the choir stalls.

(63.) ADSM, G 2491 [1432-1433] (Beaurepaire, 2:350): "... in sepultura regis Henrici, existente in choro versus latus capelle Sancti Pauli." In July 1476, the tomb of a king in the choir was repaired; see ADSM, G 2138 (Beaurepaire, 2:237); ADSM, G 2497 [1462-1463] (Beaurepaire, 2:352). In 1485, payment was made: "Pour avoir double le drap estant sur la tombe du roy Charles, au choeur de l'eglise" (ADSM, G 2511 [1484-85]; Beaurepaire, 2:356). This was probably the tomb of Charles V mentioned in 1432-1433; see ADSM, G 2491 (Beaurepaire, 2:350).

(64.) ADSM, G 2135 (Beaurepaire, 2:231-32).

(65.) ADSM, G 2509 [1478-1479] (Beaurepaire, 2:355): "A Jehan Cotain, paintre, tant pour sa paine d'avoir paint les visaes des ymages de Notre-Dame estant sur le grant autel de l'eglise et aussy pour avoir paint l'image d'allebastre estant sous le crucifix de la dicte eglise, 6 sous."

(66.) D'Estouteville projected himself into this miracle in a narrative relief carved by Mino da Fiesole Mino da Fiesole (mē`nō dä fyā`zōlā) or Mino di Giovanni (dē jōvän`nē), 1429–84, Florentine sculptor of the early Renaissance.  in the 1460s. The cardinal appears at the shoulder of Pius II as Pope Liberius. On the ciborium ci·bo·ri·um  
n. pl. ci·bo·ri·a
1. A vaulted canopy permanently placed over an altar.

2. A covered receptacle for holding the consecrated wafers of the Eucharist.
, most recently see Caglioti; Zuraw.

(67.) For the Marian feasts, see ADSM, G 52. See also ADSM, G 53 [1454-1455]; G 2139 (Beaurepaire, 2:237-38); Jouen and Fuzet, 285. The bell "d'Estouteville" cost more than 1,918 livres: "pour ung drap de toille ou a este paint la grandeur et facon de la dicte cloche cloche  
n.
1. A close-fitting woman's hat with a bell-like shape.

2. A usually bell-shaped cover, used chiefly to protect plants from frost.
 pour envoyer a Monseigneur tant pour le drap que pour la peinture, 37 sols 6 deniers" (ADSM, G 64 [1466-1467], fols. 23-25); see also ADSM, G 2503 [1467-1468] (Beaurepaire, 1:353); G 2138 (Beaurepaire, 1:236); Morandiere, 485-86. In May 1470, he established a donation to the cathedral of his miter and silver cross, valued at 678 livres; see ADSM, G 2138 [1468-1472], fol. 127r-128v (Beaurepaire, 1:236); Pommeraye, 568-69.

(68.) Pommeraye, 562.

(69.) ADSM, G 2136 [1460-1465] (Beaurepaire, 2:233).

(70.) Ibid.; ADSM, G 2137 [1465-1468] (Beaurepaire, 2:234); ADSM, G 2139 [1472-1476] (Beaurepaire, 2:237).

(71.) ADSM, G 2137 [28 May 1467] (Beaurepaire, 2:235); G 2491 [1432-1433] [Beaurepaire, 2:350).

(72.) ADSM, G 2139 [1472-1476] (Beaurepaire, 2:237); ADSM, G 2141 [1480-82] (Beaurepaire, 2:240).

(73.) ADSM, G 58 [1460-1461], fol. 32v (Beaurepaire, 2:19): "A Jaquet et Guerouldin ditz ditz  
n. Slang
A scatterbrained or eccentric person.



[Back-formation from ditsy.]
 Theoruldes pour une tombe pour Madame de Estouteville, mere de Monseigneur, 40 livers. -- A Regnault pour avoir porte la dicte tombe de Rouen jusques a Valmont, 9 livres 7 sous 6 deniers; pour avoir assis la dicre tombe en l'eglise de Valmont au lieu ou la mere et Ia soeur de mon dit seigneur sont en sepulture, 30 sous." His mother was buried behind the altar on the epistolary e·pis·to·lar·y  
adj.
1. Of or associated with letters or the writing of letters.

2. Being in the form of a letter: epistolary exchanges.

3.
 side. See Morandier, 430.

In the late 1470s, d'Estouteville's older brother, Robert, and his wife were buried there, in the choir, in a sculpted tomb: "... elevees sur une pierre, ledit Robert represente en habit de cevalier selon l'ancienne mode, portant panons ou deux escussions sur les espaules, auxquelles les pleines armes sont insculptees et gravees, et les coussins ou gisent leurs tetes et leurs vestures sont semes desdits armoires d"Estouteville" (Memoire du dix-septieme siecle, Papiers Bornot, in Morandiere, 64; 502-03).

D'Estouteville's brother Louis (d. 1464), and his wife had their tombs placed in the center of the choir of the abbey at Hambye, rebuilt in the fifteenth century: "ils etaient representes au trait sur une plaque de cuivre, place sur une immense dalle en pierre de Caen, de 7 8 pieds environ sur 3... par la beaute des materiaux et leur eloignement, donne une grande idee des richesses et de la magnificence des fondateurs" (in Morandiere, 454).

(74.) ADSM, G 2138 [1468-1472] (Beaurepaire, 2:236); "Verse au Chapitre par commandement de Mgr, la somme de 2,500 ecus d'or pour la fondation de ses obits" (ADSM, G 66; G 67, in Jouen and Fuzet, 284 n. 5). The following year, 1,056 ecus were spent. According to Pommeraye (568), the final figure was 4,800 livres: "pour acheter une Terre qu'il destina pour la fondation de 12. Obits Solemnels, a l'insrar de ceux de Charles V. lesquels Obits seroient dits a pareil iour du mois qu'il decederoit." The Chapter replied: "qu'ils sont heureux qu'il elise cette eglise pour depositaire de ce qu'il y a de plus noble en lui-meme; que cette place est auguste, pour ce que l'ancien grand autel y etait, et qu'ils ne la voudraient donner a personne qu'a l'insigne et principal bienfaiteur de leur eglise" (Morandiere, 486).

(75.) Deville, 1833, 218; Aubert and Desfayes 19-20. D'Estouteville's maternal grandmother was a sister of Charles's wife; see Jouen and Fuzet, 261.

(76.) ADSM, G 2139 (1472-1476] (Beaurepaire, 2:237); Jouen and Fuzet, 285.

(77.) Le Goff, 16; Jager, 4-26.

(78.) ADSM, G 70 [1474-1475], fol. 31r (Beaurepaire, 2:23). Sinierre and many of his colleagues mentioned here also worked at Gaillon. See Deville, 1850; Aubert and Chirol.

(79.) ADSM, G 70, fols. 31r-v: "... pour faire tarn la representacion de monseigneur que les ymages qui sont entour la tumbe que toutes aultres choses quil fault dallebastte pour la sepulture... pour ung cheval... pour aller a Grenoble achater de lallebastre."

(80.) Penny, 60-64.

(81.) ADSM, G 72 [1476-1477], fat. 20v (Beaurepaire, 2:23): "voyage du promoteur a la cour du Roi 'pour le fair de l'allebastre achate a Grenoble afin d'avoir la deliverance de Monseigneur l'admiral de l'arrest qui y avait este mis, 14 jours, 50 sous."'

(82.) Jouen and Fuzet, 288.

(83.) ADSM, G 2141 [1480-1482] (Beaurepaire, 2:240): "... sed quia locus ille et tumba antiqua de super erecta vulgo la tumbe S. Moril vocabatur, quod etiam pie creditur, ne fama et memoria depereat, cum ipse vivens, licet canonicus non existat, vite sanctissime fuerit, atquehuic ecclesie, ut invenitur, bona maxima contulerit, fiat aliquod signum aut epitaphium ve1 sepultura quo ejus memoria et inhumatio perpetuo conservari valeat"; Deville, 1833, forward.

(84.) ADSM, G 2142 [1483-1485) (Beaurepaire, 2:241).

(85.) Described in ADSM, G 2142, fol. 26v; Pommeraye, in Morandiere, 524.

(86.) ADSM, G 2142, fol. 26v: "... in choro primum altare maius et sepulturam Caroli Regis quinti depositum et collocatum extitit." On Saraceni and the pallium, see ASR (Automatic Speech Recognition) Using voice recognition to replace keypad entry for telephone voice menus. Typically used to speak the digits 0 through 9 insted of keying them, ASR systems may be able to recognize a limited vocabulary. See voice recognition and AVSR. , ACNC ACNC Accounts Currently Not Collectable  175, fol. 370r. Fortin was probably related to d'Estouteville's secretary, Jean Fortin of Normandy, buried in Sant'Agostino in 1476. Jean traveled between Rouen arid Rome; see ADSM, G 59 (Beaurepaire, 2:19). On the composition of the pallium, bestowed on the incumbent by the pope, and its significance for the archbishops of Rouen as a mark of their authority over the bishops in their province, of their humility and pastoral care in proportion to their great dignity, see Pommeraye, 20-22: "L'usage est d'enterrer les Prelats avec le Pallium, & s'il a passe pas·sé  
adj.
1. No longer current or in fashion; out-of-date.

2. Past the prime; faded or aged.



[French, past participle of passer, to pass, from Old French; see
 d'un Siege a un autre, de le revestir de tous les deux." Pope Mark, in the fourth century, instructed the Bishop of Ostia The Bishop of Ostia is the ecclesiastical head of the Catholic diocese of Ostia, one of the seven suburbicarian sees of Rome. The position is now attached to the post of Dean of the College of Cardinals, as it has been since 1150[1]  (which d'Estouteville was) to wear the ancient vestment since he had the prerogative of consecrating popes.

(87.) ADSM, G 2142, fol. 26v. In 1485, Robinet Pinel was reimbursed for linens or canvas, on which were the cardinal's arms, placed at the pulpit and at the base of the nave on the day of commemorative services; see ADSM, G 2511 [1484-1485] (Beaurepaire, 2:356).

(88.) ADSM, G 2142 [1483-1485], fol. 25v; fol. 26v; "pro lapidis levandis ad inhumacionem cordis domini archiepiscopi defuncti, ... qui sepulture opus ... Maitre Pierre chigneure;" "... cor ipsum ad locum locum /lo·cum/ (lo´kum) [L.] place.

locum te´nens , locum te´nent a practitioner who temporarily takes the place of another.
 de presente sepulture in eiusdem ecclesiam deportatum" (ADSM, G 2142, fol. 26r; Beaurepaire, 2:241).

(89.) Devil1e, 1833,7. D'Estouteville's treasurer and a benefactor of the cathedral, Masselin (d. 1500) wished to be buried in the choir and only succeeded after un arret from the Court of the Exchequer forced the Chapter to give in. Masselin was allowed neither tomb nor epitaph; see Deville, 1833, xxii (Beaurepaire, 2:32). Just behind the high altar, for example, were buried Richard-Coeur-de-Lion and the son of the king, John, Duke of Bedford The titles of Earl or Duke of Bedford (named after Bedford, England) were created several times in the Peerage of England. It was first created for Enguerrand VII de Coucy, son-in-law of King Edward III, in the 14th century. .

(90.) Montini; Poeschke, 88-89.

(91.) Gardner, 1988. 37-42.

(92.) See Panofsky, 75.

(93.) On the evolution of the earliest Roman ecclesiastics' tombs, see Herklotz, 1990b, 170-200.

(94.) Poeschke: "... avesse tutta una chiesa per larghissimo sepolcro" (91).

(95.) In gilt letters on black marble, on the opposite pier to that of the inscription commemorating d'Estouteville (see below), was another: "IN MEDIA NAVI/ E REGIONE HUJUS COLUMNAE JACET/ BEATAE MEM (MicroElectroMechanical) See MEMS. . MAURILIUS/ ARCHIEP. ROTOM. AN. MLV/ HANC HANC Hebrew Academy of Nassau County (New York)
HANC Haight Ashbury Neighborhood Council
HANC Horizontal Ancillary Data (Video, SMPTE, DVB, SDI*
 BASILICAM PERFECITI /CONSECRAVITQUE ANNO MLXIII./ VIX VIX

The implied volatility on the S&P 100 (OEX) option. This volatility is meant to be a forward looking volatility. It is calculated from both calls and puts that are near the money. The VIX is a popular measure of market risk.
 ENATOS BERENGARII ERRORES/ IN PROVIN. GONCIL. PR/EFOCAVIT./ HOC PONTIF. NORMANNI/ GUILLEL. DUCE ANGLIA POLITI SUNT/ANNO MLXVI"; see Deville, 1833, 186, and 204-05.

(96.) ADSM, G 2144 [1488-1494] (Beaurepaire, 2:243; 353). This chapel had originally been enlarged by Archbishop Guillaume de Flavacourt (buried on the left of the entrance) in the fourteenth century to house the flocks of visitors. In it were placed painted and gilded sculptures, including two angels in front of the altar, cherubim cherubim

four-winged, four-faced angels inspired Ezekiel to carry God’s message to the people. [O.T.: Ezek. 1:15]

See : Angel


cherubim

defended tree of life with flaming swords. [O.T.: Genesis 3:24]

See : Guardianship
, and prophets. According to Deville, 1833 (185, 236-37, and 247-48), the entrails of Jean III d'Estouteville were buried in 1517 in the nave of the cathedral beside the cardinal's tomb; his body was carried to the abbey at Valmont. The heart of Jean d'Estouteville of Villebon was also buried in the cardinal's tomb in 1566. These suggest that some part of the monument survived until 1566 and that the moving of part of it in the late fifteenth century (if this source is correct) did not alter the upkeep of the original burial site in the nave.

(97.) Deville, 1833, 26; Pommeraye, 562.

(98.) De Breze's entrails were buried at Anet, his heart at the Abbey of Coulombs A Coulomb is a unit of measurement in SI units.

Coulombs is the name or part of the name of several communes in France:
  • Coulombs, in the Calvados département.
  • Coulombs, in the Eure-et-Loir département.
, near his father, and his body in the Chapel of the Virgin at Rouen. Here, his grandson, Louis de Breze (d. 1531) would be buried in a dramatic extant tomb of alabaster and black marble, comprising an equestrian statue above a representation of the corpse. Deville, 1833, 57-59; fig. V; and 203-63. Those buried in the cathedral before the desecrations of the mid-sixteenth century included three kings, members of the families of the Norman dukes, several cardinals and many archbishops.

(99.) Testament quoted in Deville, 1833, 90. See also Bottineau-Fuchs.

(100.) Deville, 1833, fig. VI; 73-101. From 1520-1521, there were as many as 18 masons or stonecutters employed on the tomb. These were gradually reduced to four. Georges II d'Amboise initially commissioned a marble statue of himself as archbishop from Jean Goujon in 1541. In his will of 1550, he requested that a second statue of himself as cardinal (the present one) be substituted. The cardinals are buried at the foot of the wall monument. The burial site was violated in 1793.

(101.) Deville, 1833, 77-78. On the next zone, behind the two prelates, in niches, were figures including the Virgin and Child, St. John the Baptist John the Baptist

prophet who baptized crowds and preached Christ’s coming. [N.T.: Matthew 3:1–13]

See : Baptism


John the Baptist

head presented as gift to Salome. [N.T.: Mark 6:25–28]

See : Decapitation
, the local saint, Romain, and three archbishops. The figures in the attic In the Attic can refer to:
  • In The Attic (webcast)
  • In the Attic (band)
 zone above the dais included the apostles in twos between single prophets. Georges I was himself a generous patron at Rouen, donating, like d'Estouteville, many sacred vestments and church furnishings, and a bell. He was responsible for the sculpted portal of the cathedral and patron of several civic buildings, above all the rebuilding of the chateau of Gaillon. See Deville, 1833, 100-01; Sirmond; Baudier, especially 246-63, for a description of his will, death and obsequies. The inscription reads: "Pastor cram Cleri, populi Pater PATER. Father. A term used in making genealogical tables. , aurea sese/Lilia subdebant, Quercus & ipsa nihi./Mortuus en iaceo, morte extinguntur honores,/At virtus mortis nescia, morte viget."

(102.) See appendix 4.

(103.) Pommeraye, in Morandiere, 524: "un peu au-dessous du Crucifix, et la figure du Cardinal s'y voit en relief, sous un treillis de fer." See also Pommeraye, 576: "on avoit couvert ce Tombeau d'un treillis de fer au milieu de la Nef, pour le mieux conserver, & il y demeura jusques en l'an 1562." The two silver plates ("plats"), berween which the heart was enclosed, were sold after the destruction of the monument by Calvinists. An inscription in gilt on black marble was once legible on the pier: "PERENNI MEMORAE/ D.D. GUILLELMI D'ESTOUTEVILLE/ S.R. ECC (1) (Error-Correcting Code) A type of memory that corrects errors on the fly. See ECC memory.

(2) (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) A public key cryptography method that provides fast decryption and digital signature processing.
. CARDINALIS,/ ARCH. ROTOM. AN. MCCCCLIII,/ A SUM. PONT. NICOLAO V/ AD CAROLUM VII GALLIARUM REGEM/ LEGATI A LATERE,/ QUI ROTOM. ECCLESIAM/ AMANTISSIMI CORDIS HAEREDEM/ ROMAE MORIENS INSTITUIT/ ANNO MCCCC MCCCC Midwest Conference on Combinatorics, Cryptography and Computing
MCCCC Mississippi Coast Coliseum and Convention Center (Biloxi, Mississippi) 
 LXXXII./ RECONDITUM EST IN TUMULO/ B. MAURILII ARCHIEP" (Deville, 1833, 181-82). These are the only descriptions of the appearance of the original monument. There is now a modern inscription in front of the railing leading to the high altar, in the center of the crossing at the end of the central never "IN PROXIMO prox·i·mo  
adv. Archaic
Of or in the following month.



[Latin proxim (m
. COR. EST RECONDITVM GVILLELMI. CARDINALIS. DE. ESTOVTEVILLA ARCHIEPISCOPI. ROTOMAGENSIS ROMAE. QVI QVI Quality Vision International, Inc. (Rochester, NY)
QVI Quality Verification Inspection
. OBIIT. ANNO. M.CD. LXXXIII EO. PONTIFICE. AB. OMNI OMNI Omnidirectional
OMNI Organising Medical Networked Information
OMNI Opportunities for Micronutrient Interventions Project
OMNI Operating Missions as a Node on the Internet (NASA networking project) 
. CRIMINE NON. QVINTIL. AN. M.CD.LVI VINDICATA. EST. IOHANNA. DE. ARC." There was also a funerary stone erected to him at Valmont: "dans les ruines de cette eglise plusieurs fragments d'une pierre richement sculptee, sur lesquels j'ai Pu lire ces mots: Guillaume............ cardinal archevesque de Rouen lequel trespassa l'an mu CCCC CCCC Cerro Coso Community College (California)
CCCC Conference on College Composition and Communication (NCTE)
CCCC Central Carolina Community College
CCCC Canadian Council of Christian Charities
 LXXIII............ en lhonneur duquel.......(Deville, 1833, 183-84). In April 1944, bombardment destroyed a large section of the eastern end of the cathedral, including the right pier of the crossing and all but one chapel in the south nave.

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Variant of medieval.


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Adjective

same as medieval

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Appendices

APPENDIX 1:

THE TESTAMENTS OF GUILLAUME D'ESTOUTEVILLE

1. Citta del Vaticano, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana [BAV], Fondo S. Maria Maggiore, Cart. 74, perg. 246 [14 and 22 January 1483 by Camillo Beneimbene]. (Sections transcribed by Marx.)

2. Rome, Archivio di Stato, Archivio del Collegio dei Notari Capitolini [ASR, ACNC] 175, fols. 371r-76r [14 January 1483 by Baldassare Rocca].

3. ASR, ACNC 175, fols. 377r-78v [14 January 1483 by Camillo Beneimbene].

4. ASR, ACNC 175, fols. 379r-84r [14 January 1483 by Camillo Beneimbene].

The Codicils

ASR, ACNC 175, fol. 370r; fol. 384r [16 January]. The first codicil reflected d'Estouteville's concerns for the distribution of his property, including vestments ("omnia sua paramenta que in domo ipsius") and pallium. Some of these he wished returned to Rouen.

ASR, ACNC 175, fols. 401r-v [19 January]. The second codicil was made out for his bishopric of St-Jean-de-Maurienne in Savoy, held in commendam, and for Francesco de' Massimi and Ludovico de' Mattei, both of whom were entrusted with significant responsibilities in connection with the legacies for the cardinal's family. (Seen. 15 above.)

ASR, ACNC 175, fols. 405r-v [19 January]. An alteration of the will.

ASR, ACNC 175, fols. 409r-v [22 January]. In the fourth codicil, d'Estouteville made further arrangements for the guardianship of his children.

ADDITIONAL ACTS

a. "... Sepulturam sibi eregit in ecclesia Sancti Augustini per ipsum testatorem a fundamentis instaurata ... Monumentum ac sepulturam sibi statui voluit ac mandavit. ... operis ... et [ecclesia] iam quasi perfecta ..." ["Legata conventui et ecclesie S. Augustini et pro sepultura," 14 January] ASR, ACNC 175, fols. 369r-v.

b. "... animam suam omnipotenti deo ... commendando ... [quando] corpus dissolui contingent sepulturam sibi elegit ELEGIT, Eng. practice, remedies. A writ of execution directed to the sheriff, commanding him to make delivery of a moiety of the party's land, and all his goods, beasts of the plough only excepted.
     2.
 in ecclesia sancti Augustini, per ipsum testatorem a fundamentis non solum so·lum  
n. pl. so·la or so·lums
The upper layers of a soil profile in which topsoil formation occurs.



[Latin, base, ground.
 instaurata sed ... renovata, in eo loco quem sui fideicommissarii, heredes, et exequutores elegerint, quorum arbitrio monumentum ac sepulturam sibi statui voluit ac mandavit ..." ["Particula legatorum pro Sancto Augustino," n.d.] ASR, ACNC 175, fol. 387r.

c-g. Another act of 14 January comprised a legacy to his familiari (fols. 386r-v), while others dealt with endowments, including property in Florence, tutoring for his children (fols. 391r-v; fols. 392r-v; fols. 395r-97r) and dowries for his daughters (fols. 399r-v).

SEPARATION OF THE BODY:

[will (2)] "Item asserens idem reverendissimus dominus testator One who makes or has made a will; one who dies leaving a will.

A testator is a person who makes a valid will. A will is the document through which a deceased person disposes of his property. A person who dies without having made a will is said to have died intestate.
 ita obtinuisse ex spetiali dispensatione sanctissimi domini nastri pape, iussit et mandavit postquam fuerit anima anima /an·i·ma/ (an´i-mah) [L.]
1. the soul.

2. in jungian terminology, the unconscious, or inner being, of the individual, as opposed to the personality presented to the world (persona); by extension, used to
 ipsius a corpore separata, cor suum a corpore ... et separari et in aliquo vase, prout dicti fideicommissarii et executores ordinaverint, ad sepeliendum in sepultura ecclesiae suae metrapolitanensis transmicti et exportari." [fol. 371v; also in will (4)].

[will (3)] "Item asserens idem reverendissimus dominus testator ex spetiali dispensatione obtinuisse a sanctissimo domino nostra pape ut possit, separata anima a corpore, cor suum in patriam transferri facet, constituit et ordinavit ut dictum cor suum a corpore discerptum in aliquo vase, prout ipsi exequutares et fideicommissarii ordinaverint, ad sepelliendum in sepultura ecclesie sue metropolitane exportitur et in dicto monumento seu sepultura reconditur [fol. 377v].

BURIAL LOCATION:

[will (2)] "... cum ab hoc seculo migrari contigerit corpus suum sepelliri iussit in ecclesia beati Augustini, per ipsum testatorem a fundamentis instaurata ac noviter constructa, in eo loco quem infrascripti fideicommissarii er executores elegerint et deputaverint, quorum arbitrio et voluntate monumentum ac sepulturam sibi statui voluit et mandavit." [fol. 371r; also in will (4) fol. 379r].

"Ordinavit ac statuit dictus reverendissimus dominus testator quad post eius mortem fiant sibi exequiae cum solemnitate prout episcopis cardinalibus et camerario fieri solent, tam in loco sepulturae quam et in ecclesia basilica Sanctae Mariae Maioris, cum salemnitate missarum per novem continuos dies et quad presbiteris et clericis intervenictibus candele solite distribuantur et conferantur" [fol. 371v].

[will (3)] "... Sepulturam quoque in ecclesia beati Augustini pro ipsum testatorem a fundamentis instaurata ac renovata sibi elegit in eo loco quem sui exequutores constituent, quorum arbitrio monumentum et sibi constitui iussit. Cui ecclesie ultra alias maximas impensas quas fecit pro operis incepti et quasi perfecti totali et integrali absolutione et perfectione ..." [fol. 377r].

"... quod post eius mortem fiant exequiae ut moris est et quales episcopo, cardinali, et camerario fieri solent et debent et prout dissertioni exequitorum et fideicommissariorum suorum visum fuit et placebit ... et in ecclesia S. Mariae Maioris eodem tempore celebretur missa per unum antistem cum sollemnitatibus in similibus exequalibus officiis consuetis" [fol. 377v].

THE DELETION:

[will (4)] "... prout episcopis cardinalibus et camerario fieri solent, tam in loco sepulture quam et in ecclesia basilica Sancte Marie Maioris, cum sollemnitate missarum per novem cantinuos dies et quad presbiteris et clericis intervenientibus candele mare solito distribuantur et conferantur..." [fol. 379v].

APPENDIX 2:

a. [23 January] "...propter rumores et percussiones usque ad sanguinis effusionem in funeralibus Reverendissimi D. Cardinalis Rothomagensis hac presenti die defuncti circa viii. horam et sepulti, insurgentibus contra Conventum propter quedam cervicalia pavonatia de velluto imbrocato de auro canonicis ex capitulo cathedralis Ecclesie Sancte Marie Maioris de Urbe, invidentibus de sepultura supradicti Reverendissimi Domini Cardinalis in nostra et non in eorum ecclesia, cum illius ecclesie est Archipresbiter, et nostram ecclesiam fundasset, cum maximo totius populi scandalo, quod nunquam fuit auditum, et in eorum maximum prejudicium et infamiam..." (ASA 107, Exitus, fol. 19v). [A short fragment of the last sentence was published by Muntz, III, 42.]

THE EXEQUIES AND DESPOLIATION de·spo·li·a·tion  
n.
The act of despoiling or the condition of being despoiled.



[Late Latin dspoli
 OF GUILLAUME D'ESTOUTEVILLE

b. "Ipse autem cardinalis nocte diei mercurii, qui XXII ianuarii fuit, in suis edibus apud Apollinarem moritur; pater non minus annis (octuagenarius erat) quam omni pretiosa suppellectile et locupletibus sacerdotiis onustus, quippe qui ultra annos octo et triginta in cardinalatu fuerat, maximis regum et principum clientelis clarus camerariatum etiam, defuncto Latino Ursino, ademptus est; cenobia multa, quibus prefuit, precipue extra Italiam, ornavit et ampliavit et sacris vestibus decoravit. Rome testimonium perhibent basilica beate Marie Maioris, cultu precipuo et religione semper a se habite, et templum Augustinensium paulo ante obitum a fundamentis instauratum. De hoc patre plura dici possent, que nunc narrare non est instituti mei. Defuncti corpus in edium suarum aula cum episcopalibus insignibus positum, de more. Oratio ibi matutina pro defunctis, patribus presentibus, dicta Opinions of a judge that do not embody the resolution or determination of the specific case before the court. Expressions in a court's opinion that go beyond the facts before the court and therefore are individual views of the author of the opinion and not binding in subsequent cases ; inde cadaver cadaver /ca·dav·er/ (kah-dav´er) a dead body; generally applied to a human body preserved for anatomical study.cadav´ericcadav´erous

ca·dav·er
n.
 in proximam Augustinensium edem delatum. Tumultus ibidem IBIDEM. This word is used in references, when it is intended to say that a thing is to be found in the same place, or that the reference has for its object the same thing, case, or other matter. IOU, contracts.  excitatus a canonicis beate Marie, asserentibus sibi vestem sacram deberi, que pretiosa admodum crat. Audio in eo tumultu annulos e defuncti patris digitis detractos esse; tamen prevaluerunt Augustinenses, cum in edibus propriis esset contentio, quamvis dictum fuerit eos postea convenisse" (Gherardi, 114).

c. "Alli 23. more lo cardinale de Roano, camorlengo di N. S., quale qua·le  
n. pl. qua·li·a
A property, such as whiteness, considered independently from things having the property.



[From Latin qu
 stava a Santo Apollinare, et fu robbato da messer Bernardo de' Massimi nanzi la sua morte; entro per la chiesa de Santo Apollinare et robbb argenti lavorati per trentamila ducati in circa et portateseli a Venetia.

Alli 24. lo povero cardinale de Roano fu rubbato in vita et in morte, che quando fu portato lo corpo a Santo Agostino si appicciarono li frati de Santa Maria Maiore con quelli de Santo Agostino, che quelli volsero tollere certi capitali di broccato d'oro quali portava lo corpo da capo et da pede, et fu fatto tanto Tanto may refer to several things. Please see:
  • Tantō - A Japanese weapon
  • Tanto, Stockholm - A district of Stockholm, Sweden.
See also: Tonto.
 romore che se dettero un pezzo con le torcie, et furno poi poi, slightly fermented, sticky food paste eaten in the Pacific islands, usually accompanied with meat, fish, or vegetables. It is made by grinding or pounding the roasted, peeled roots of the taro.


(Point Of Interest) See in-dash navigation.
 sfoderate molte spade, adeo che se fu pigliato lo corpo et portato in sacrestia et li furno robbate le anella che teneva in mano ma·no  
n. pl. ma·nos
A hand-held stone or roller for grinding corn or other grains on a metate.



[Spanish, hand, mano, from Latin manus, hand; see manner.]
 et dicesi che li fu tolta la mitria che teneva in capo" (Pontani, 23-24).

APPENDIX 3:

CONVENTUAL ACCOUNTS AND INVENTORIES

DEATH OF D'ESTOUTEVILLE

a. [23 January 1483] "Dialmatica et tunicella istorum paramentorum fuerunt posita in sepulcro et induto ipsius Cardinalis Rothomagensis 1483. xxiii. mensis Ian" (ASA 34, fol 241r).

"Item duo panni seu paramenta de setani nigro, quod fuit in castro doloris, in funeralibus Reverendissimi quondam Cardinalis Rothomagensis quorum unum et ad usum lecteriae in officiis defunctorum, aliud vera ad usum vexilli crucis quando aguntur defunctorum funeralia, foderati de tela nigra ..." (ASA 34, fol. 254r).

b. [16 January 1484] "Item una statera grande che fu di fra Girolamo, la quale ... e presenta al modo che fa la sepulture di monsignore de Roano" (ASA 34, fol. 315r).

FRANCESCO DE COMO

c. [5 January 1483] "... fratri Angela predicto procuratori carlinos papales centum quinquaginta per manus MANUS. Anciently signified the person taking an oath as a compurgator. The use of this word probably came from the party laying his hand on the New Testament. Manus signifies, among the civilians, power, and is frequently used as synonymous with potestas. Lec. El. Dr. Rom. Sec. 94.  magistri Francesci de Chumo muratoris et ducatos duogenta ... per manus magistri Baptiste de Roma. Summa ducati xvii, bolognini xlv" (ASA 107, Exitus, fol. 19v).

d. [early February 1483] "... fratri Angelo de Roma procuratori Conventus ducatos currentes decem, bologninos triginta per manus magistri Francisci de Cumo muratoris. Summa ducati x, bolognini xxx" (ASA 107, Exicus, fol. 20v).

e. [10 February 1483] "... carlinos papales centum per manus patris provincialis a magistro Francisco de Chumo muratore de lignis castri doloris Reverendissimi domini Cardinalis olim Rothomagensis, protectoris nostri, et lignorum, torticiarum, corporum [?] ecclesie ac cupulei [?]. Summa ducati x, bolognini xxx" (ASA 107, Introitus, fol. 34r).

OBSEQUIES

f. [28 January 1483] "Item dedi die Martis xxviii mensis pro bocchali [?] sedici, quatro grandi pro quatrinis sei l'uno de unpetitto l'uno, dodici de mezzo mez·zo  
n. pl. mez·zos
A mezzo-soprano.


mezzo
Adverb

Music moderately; quite: mezzo-forte

Noun

pl -zos
 petitto l'uno pro quatrini cinque ciaschuno bolognini vintiuno, et bolognini quaranta pro dieci lancie longe n. 1.
1. A thrust. See Lunge.
2. The training ground for a horse.
1. (Zool.) Same as 4th Lunge.
, et bolognini vinticinque pro dieci lancie mezane, et pro spongnie bolognini quindici, et bolognini undici pro quatro catini de legno, et bolognini octo pro bollecte large et corte, et bolognini doi pro supradicto et bolognini dicisepte et mezzo pro cinque stutatori de ferro staginato pro quatrini quatordici l'uno, et hec pro le exequie de la Reverendissima ... del Cardinale supradicto ..." (ASA 107, Exitus, fol. 19v).

g. [January 1483] "Item dedi eodem die carlinos papales vinticinque pro libre septa septa /sep·ta/ (sep´tah) [L.] plural of septum.
Septum (plural, septa)
The dividing partition in the nose that separates the two nostrils. It is composed of bone and cartilage.
 cinque de ferro lavorato et vinti doi ferri pro le corde de paramenti de la sacristia incomensati con li paramenti ... de la bona memoria de Reverendissimo Cardinale de Roano devoluntati ... con libri cinque et mezza de chiodi, et bolognini ... sei pro libri doi de chiodi de quaranta pro lo castello dolore [sic.] ..."

"Item dedi eodem die pro reacconciare li stutatori de ferro guasti in le prime exequie ..."

"Item dedi pro cinque altre uncie de spongnia bolognini quartordici pro le exequie et produce [?] le prime comparate in le prime exequie ..."

"Item dedi eodem die carlinos papales tres pro doi fiaschi grandi de vetro et dieci para de ampolline pro le supradicte exequie Reverendissimi domini Cardinalis Rothomagensis ..." (ASA 107, Exitus, fol. 20r).

h. [14 February 1483] "... carlinos papales centum quadraginta quatuor a Francisco de Rugeriis aromatario in platea Sancti Laurentii in Damaso et fratribus per manus et magistri Baptiste de Roma de ducentis sexdecim libris torticiarum et facularum venditarum die Sabbi. viii. presentis mensis pro bon [?] quinque qualibus libris per manus patris provincialis et fratris Angeli de Roma, procuratoris Conventus. Que cera fuit de exequiis Reverendissimi domini domini Cardinalis Rothomagensis, protectoris nostri supradicti ... Summa ducati xv. bolognini" (ASA 107, Introitus, fol. 34r).

i. [3 August 1483] "Item dicti [mensis] eodem die ... bolognini diciocto presente lu padre provinciale ad uno Matteo tentore che tenze una di quelle pecie di taffecta pro levarne via l'arme che stectero intorno allo allo
abbr.
allegro
 castello aliundo fo facto lo offitio della bona memoria de monsignore nostro de Roano et della sopradicta pecia di taffecta havemo facto fare uno pano per lo legio et uno altro per la croce ..." (ASA 107, Exitus, fol. 22v).

j. [15 July 1484] "Item dedi die Iovis xv. mensis carlenos papales quinque per manus fratris Angeli de Roma ad pellegrina[m], sorella de Juliano Spangnolo, pro certa quantita de francia de seta se·ta
n. pl. se·tae
A stiff hair, bristle, or bristlelike process or part.



seta

a bristle. Called also chaeta.
 negra pro lo panno de seta negro de la croce ad uso mortoro facto de novo [Latin, Anew.] A second time; afresh. A trial or a hearing that is ordered by an appellate court that has reviewed the record of a hearing in a lower court and sent the matter back to the original court for a new trial, as if it had not been previously heard nor decided.  deli funerali Reverendissimi olim domini Rothomagensis ..." (ASA 107, Exitus, fol. 28v).

k. [January 1487] "... bolognini octo et mezo allo sopradicto Gabriele spitiale pro una libra de candele date assiculiri Franciosi in aniversario della bona memoria dello Reverendissimo Cardinale de Rouano celebrato die marti xxiii presentis mensis. Summa ducati bolognini viii" (ASA 107, Exitus, fol. 36v).

l. [July 1487] "Item dedi die Jovis xxvi. mensis ... bolognini cinque a madonna Marta molglie che fo de Johanni Piccinino pro acconciatura di dui pianete antiche, videlicet VIDELICET. A Latin adverb signifying to wit, that is to say, namely, scilicet. (q.v.) This word is usually, abbreviated Viz.
     2. The office of the videlicet is to mark, that the party does not undertake to prove the precise circumstances alleged, and in such
, la pianeta gialla che se usa ogne die et una la pianeta biancha di seta ... che la sua diamaticha et tunicella forano messe a monsignore de Rouano quando fo seppellito. Summa ducati bolognini v" (ASA 107, Exitus, fol. 38v).

m. [8 August 1483] "... ducati vintiquattro ad bolognini septanta cinque pro ciasche ducato presentibus lu patre provinciale et lu patre priore et frate Angelo procuratore pro quattrocento libre di cera, cioe torcie et facule dell'assequio della bona memoria de monsignore nostro de Roano pro bolognini quattro et mezo la libra venduta ad Juliano spitiale in Sancta sanc·ta  
n.
A plural of sanctum.
 Maria Rotonda nella portica de Pietro de Massimo ... Summa ducati xxv" (ASA 107, Introitus, fol. 39r).

UPKEEP OF THE CASTRUM DOLORIS

n. [23 December 14901 "...pro una lancia pro lo palio grande di Roano..." (ASA 107, Exitus, fol. 54r).

o. [31 October 1491] "...ad mastro Iacomo carpentario bolognini octo pro adconciare le banchette pro tener ii torci allo offitio di Rouano. Summa ducati o, bolognini viii" (ASA 107 Exitus, fol. 59v).

p. [October 1496]"... bolognini trenta septe e mezo per uno tavolone grosso per fare le banche da tenere le torcie in torno al corpo del Reverendissimo Cardinale de Rouano in presentia del patre soperiore fratre Giovanni de Valentia... Summa ducati o. bolognini xxxviii..."

"... bolognini dicisepte e mezo per septe piane per fare una trabacche [?] per mettere lo palio de monsignore de Rouana per quatrini [?] dieci l'una per mano de mastro Augustino falename. Summa ducati o, bolognini xvii, denari viii" (ASA 108, Exitus, fol. 4v).

APPENDIX 4

THE EXEQUIES OF GEORGES I D'AMBOISE

"... et fut mene une statue et personne en vie par toutes les grandes Esglises de Lyon estant en la stature et semblance de mondict Sieur le Legat... Toute l'Esglise des Celestins estoit soursainte de velours noir, et Monsieur le Legat estoit couche en un lict de camp encourtine de velours noir, et de ses armes, pendant qu'on enterroit ses entrailles ausdicts Celestins, et monte la despence dudict obit a trente mille francs: ledict Legat ordonne trois cens francs par iour, pour la despence de ceux qui le meneront despuis Lyon iusques a Rouen, et le sont allez conduire trois cens hommes pauvres vestus de noir portans torches, cinq Evesques et un Cardinal ... et Messieurs ses nepueux montant a cinq cens chevaux qui le menoient tous houssez de noir iusques enterre, et quatre chariots de quatre Mandians et un personnage en Archevesque, tout revestu de son habillement qu'il portoit en son vivant, et marche chacun selon son ordre" (Baudier, 253-54).
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Author:GILL, MEREDITH J.
Publication:Renaissance Quarterly
Geographic Code:4EUIT
Date:Jun 22, 2001
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