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Danau Sentarum's wildlife: part 2. Habitat characteristics and biodiversity distribution within and surrounding Danau Sentarum.



This paper presents a broad analysis of wildlife habitat usage and the need for habitat conservation To conserve habitat life for wild species and prevent their extinction or reduction in range is a priority of a great many groups that cannot be easily characterized in terms of any one ideology.  within and surrounding Danau Sentarum National Park, West Kalimantan West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator line. , Indonesia. Flood and dry season habitat analysis reveal that intact Peat Swamp swamp, shallow body of water in a low-lying, poorly drained depression, usually containing abundant plant growth dominated by trees, such as cypress, and high shrubs.  and Hill Forests, largely outside DSNP's boundaries, support much greater bird and mammal mammal, an animal of the highest class of vertebrates, the Mammalia. The female has mammary glands, which secrete milk for the nourishment of the young after birth.  species numbers, and endemic endemic /en·dem·ic/ (en-dem´ik) present or usually prevalent in a population at all times.

en·dem·ic
adj.
1.
 and threatened species, than the Stunted stunt 1  
tr.v. stunt·ed, stunt·ing, stunts
To check the growth or development of.

n.
1. One that stunts.

2. One that is stunted.

3.
 Swamp Forests of the DSNP DSNP Digital Signal Noise Processing
DSNP Danau Sentarum National Park (Borneo)
DSNP Digital Synchronization Network Plan
 central lakes basin. Peat Swamp Forest Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soils prevent dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing, which over time creates thick layer of acidic peat. Large areas of these forests are being logged at high rates.  and hill stream habitats also act as key year-round habitats for the majority of the site's endemic fish, and threatened crocodile crocodile, large, carnivorous reptile of the order Crocodilia, found in tropical and subtropical regions. Crocodiles live in swamps or on river banks and catch their prey in the water. They have flattened bodies and tails, short legs, and powerful jaws. , tortoise tortoise (tôr`təs), common name for a terrestrial turtle, especially one of the family Testudinidae. Tortoises inhabit warm regions of all continents except Australia. , turtle turtle, a reptile of the order Chelonia, with strong, beaked, toothless jaws and, usually, an armorlike shell. The shell normally consists of bony plates overlaid with horny shields. , waterbird and fish populations. Furthermore, these habitats provide a vital dry season refuge to fish fauna fauna

All the species of animals found in a particular region, period, or special environment. Five faunal realms, based on terrestrial animal species, are generally recognized: Holarctic, including Nearactic (North America) and Paleartic (Eurasia and northern Africa);
 migrating up-catchment to escape the dry season drying up of the central basin lakes. Comparatively the extensive "within-reserve" lake basin habitat offers key year-round habitat only to terrestrial fauna ecologically restricted to the area (i.e. Proboscis Monkey proboscis monkey

Species (Nasalis larvatus, family Cercopithecidae) of long-tailed arboreal Old World monkey of swampy mangrove forests on Borneo. Diurnal vegetarians, they live in groups of about 20. They are red-brown with pale underparts; the young monkey has a blue face.
), and only a flood season habitat for the diverse fish fauna of the central basin lakes and rivers. These patterns suggest that the inclusion in the Park of all the forests that surround the lakes would significantly increase the Park's biodiversity biodiversity: see biological diversity.
biodiversity

Quantity of plant and animal species found in a given environment. Sometimes habitat diversity (the variety of places where organisms live) and genetic diversity (the variety of traits expressed
. Finally, available data form an adequate basis to initiate a "blanket approach" to habitat and faunal fau·na  
n. pl. fau·nas or fau·nae
1. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Animals, especially the animals of a particular region or period, considered as a group.

2.
 community conservation, i.e. exercising the assumption that habitat conservation measures will by default also conserve the fauna species shown to use these habitats. Yet, the ecological detail concerning wildlife nutrition, breeding, habitat use, ranging and migration, as needed as needed prn. See prn order.  to initiate firmer "species-focused" conservation programs, is still lacking. This data gap is becoming increasingly crucial as the risk of site and regional species extinction mounts in the face of accelerating habitat destruction Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. In the process of land-use change, plants and animals which previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity.  and uncontrolled harvest and trade impacts.

Introduction

In view of the bioregional and global importance of the wildlife diversity in Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP) (see Jeanes and Meijaard, 2000), and against a background of increasing human population and development pressure, there is currently a pressing need to initiate concerted conservation action to head-off the mounting risks of local and regional species extinction. Effective wildlife management can only be successful if based on accurate knowledge of the ecological requirements of the target species in the area. This is especially the case because many wildlife species in the area are threatened in their survival and it is unlikely that these species will survive if their ecological needs are not specifically addressed. What is needed, therefore, are data on wildlife habitat preferences, ranging needs, feeding ecology and species population dynamics Population dynamics is the study of marginal and long-term changes in the numbers, individual weights and age composition of individuals in one or several populations, and biological and environmental processes influencing those changes. . This paper summarizes and discusses ecological data that have been gathered by a variety of researchers working in DSNP. Relatively little research ha s been done on the ecology of Danau Sentarum's wildlife, and this overview of species ecology is necessarily brief. Still we hope that this account of the more recent findings concerning habitat importance, wildlife ecology and population distributions will assist in improving wildlife management in DSNP.

Methods

Detailed methodology of the publications and reports on wildlife ecology will not be described here, unless specific mention is required to explain certain findings. As a fundamental data requirement for any in-situ fauna conservation program, a clear definition is needed of the relationship between animal species and habitats, most notably how faunal biodiversity is distributed within the site and where it is found in greatest concentrations. As a first step in the analysis a classification of terrestrial and aquatic habitats is needed.

Terrestrial

Derived from the ecological studies of Giesen (1987, 1994, 1996, 2000) and Jensen, et al. (1994)-(reported in Giesen (2000)), and based on the associated floristic, phenology phe·nol·o·gy  
n.
1. The scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions.

2.
, structural, soil, flood pattern, classification and mapping detail generated concerning DNSP's vegetation types, a simplified mapping of the major terrestrial habitat types of DSNP and near-catchment surrounds has been made (see Jeanes, 1997; source Dennis, 1996, 1997) defining six major terrestrial habitat types as follows:

A. Surrounding Uplands with shifting cultivation This article or section is written like a personal reflection or and may require .
Please [ improve this article] by rewriting this article or section in an .
;

B. Elevated River Levees with shifting cultivation;

C. Hills and Hill Forest;

D. Peat lands and Tall Swamp Forest;

E. Fresh water Swamp and Stunted / Dwarf Swamp Forest; and

F. Fresh water Swamp and Riparian riparian adj. referring to the banks of a river or stream. (See: riparian rights)  Swamp Forest.

The initial two cleared landscapes were not mapped, but are identified as the boundary between the lake basin fresh water swamps (D and E) and the Kapuas river The Kapuas River (Indonesian: Sungai Kapuas) is located in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. At approximately 1,143 km, it is the longest river in Indonesia, and is the major river of the western portion of Borneo. It is also the world's longest river on an island.  levee levee (lĕv`ē) [Fr.,=raised], embankment built along a river to prevent flooding by high water. Levees are the oldest and the most extensively used method of flood control.  to the south (B); the boundary between Tall Peat Swamp Forest (D) and the well-drained uplands (A) to the north east, north and west; and the tongues of cleared land on river levees of the catchment catch·ment  
n.
1. A catching or collecting of water, especially rainwater.

2.
a. A structure, such as a basin or reservoir, used for collecting or draining water.

b.
 tributaries (B) extending into the Tall Swamp Forest belts from the east, north and west. All other habitat units are clearly mapped; with the hills divided into forested (C) and secondary regrowth/ladang (r) belts, and the lake basin habitats mapped as a complex of lakes, water ways, Dwarf Swamp Forest and Stunted Swamp Forest (E). The few remaining un-cleared sites of Riparian Swamp forest (F) are marked as strips along the Tawang, Tengkidap, Belitung and Belitung Hulu Rivers.

Aquatic

Despite a lack of systematic data there is ample evidence in the analysis of site data to suggest that numerous differing "aquatic habitats" exist in the DSNP lake basin. Based studies of water quality data, differing hydrology hydrology, study of water and its properties, including its distribution and movement in and through the land areas of the earth. The hydrologic cycle consists of the passage of water from the oceans into the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration (or , flooding patterns, and periods of flooding within and surrounding DSNP (reported in Giesen (1987, 1996; Jeanes, 1997), nine potentially differing "aquatic habitats" have been defined in DSNP as outlined in Table 1.

A. The main Kapuas river.

B and C. The two classes of hydrological hy·drol·o·gy  
n.
The scientific study of the properties, distribution, and effects of water on the earth's surface, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere.
 connection between the Kapuas the lake basin (i.e. main and peak flood season water flow routes).

D and E. Catchment tributaries (generally "white" water).

F, G and H. three classes of lake (two seasonal; and one permanent).

I. the black-water swamp and forest streams.

Despite the lack of details on aquatic species ecology and population distributions (particularly for fish), such a limnology-based habitat classification remains the best basis for further strategic study concerning aquatic wildlife ecology, hydrological patterns, and water quality.

Results

Beyond consideration of habitat type, analysis must progress to define patterns of habitat use by individual species, the concentrations of biodiversity in differing habitats, and consideration of how these patterns influence species ecology.

Fish

Vaas (1952) provides some limited data concerning feeding habits and habitat distribution of DSNP and adjacent Kapuas River fish species. Suryaningsih (1993) adds data on the feeding behavior and length to weight ratios of five DSNP fish species. Such work on selected DSNP fish species (i.e. feeding behavior and breeding cycles) has also been carried out by staff of the Freshwater fresh·wa·ter  
adj.
1. Of, relating to, living in, or consisting of water that is not salty: freshwater fish; freshwater lakes.

2. Situated away from the sea; inland.

3.
 Fisheries fisheries. From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long  Research Institute (Palembang) in mid-1996 (unpublished data). Widjanarti (1996), and Kottelat (1993) to a lesser extent, provide brief notes on fish species distribution and ecology for most of their 218 listed fish species. As such, knowledge of fish habitat preferences and requirements remains sketchy. Only the work of Kottelat (1993) notes some trends in fish biodiversity distribution with 125 species found in the central lakes basin, 175 species in the "lakes area" plus fringing forest lakes, and 185 species from the total DSNP site and near catchment. Kottelat (1993) suggested, and recent surveys proved, that over 20 0 fish species could inhabit in·hab·it  
v. in·hab·it·ed, in·hab·it·ing, in·hab·its

v.tr.
1. To live or reside in.

2. To be present in; fill: Old childhood memories inhabit the attic.
 the DSNP central lakes basin and peripheral lakes, making it the most biodiverse habitat complex for DSNP fish fauna. However, he also notes that the addition of the tall swamp forest zone surrounding DSNP, would add at least 50 species, translating into a 25% increase in the Park's fish biodiversity. Particularly, if the extension zone would include the priority habitats of upland Upland, city (1990 pop. 63,374), San Bernardino co., S Calif., in a citrus-fruit region at the foot of the San Gabriel Mts.; inc. 1906. Citrus fruits and grapes are packed and processed in the city. Paint, orchard heaters, auto parts, and feed products are also made. , headwater head·wa·ter  
n.
The water from which a river rises; a source. Often used in the plural.

Noun 1. headwater - the source of a river; "the headwaters of the Nile"
 and hill streams, oligotrophic ol·i·go·tro·phic  
adj.
Lacking in plant nutrients and having a large amount of dissolved oxygen throughout. Used of a pond or lake.



ol
 blackwater habitats, and other perennial fish habitats, a significant increase in the number of species is expected. Upland streams are known to have a distinctive fauna, which is usually very rich in endemics. Similarly, oligotrophic blackwater habitats are known to host a poorer fauna in terms of biomass, but a much richer one in terms of species diversity and endemicity rate, when compared to the usually nutrient-rich "white" (silt-loaded) waters (such as the Kapuas river) (Kottelat, 1993).

Subsequent buffer zone buffer zone
n.
A neutral area between hostile or belligerent forces that serves to prevent conflict.

Noun 1. buffer zone
, hill stream and black-water habitat surveys suggest Kottelat's (1993) predictions to hold true at DSNP (see Kottelat, 1995; Martin-Smith, 1996; Ng and Kottelat, 1996; Widjanarti, 1996). These surveys show that habitats of nine of the 14 newly discovered fish species at DSNP, and nine of the 13 new fish species collection sites, are in black-water (tall peat swamp) or upland/headwater stream sites. This suggests that a large percentage of DSNP's population of the rare, endemic and new species (see Table 1 in Jeanes and Meijaard, 2000) do not inhabit the central lakes basin, but inhabit the peat swamps and near-catchment surrounds. This includes the Arowana (Scleropages formosus), a key conservation species, which now appears to be largely restricted to remote swamp forest areas due to high fishing pressure elsewhere in the lake basin.

Reptiles reptiles

terrestrial or aquatic vertebrates which breathe air through lungs and have a skin covering of horny scales. They are poikilothermic, oviparous or ovoviviparous, and, if they have legs they are short and constructed solely for crawling.
 

As with fish species, data concerning the ecology, population numbers and distribution of reptile species within the DSNP basin is incomplete. However, the work of Frazier (1994, 2000) and Ross et al. (1996) does give some quantitative (transects) and general data on crocodile species distribution, population levels, and crocodile ecology within and around DSNP. Furthermore, the work of Walter (1996, 2000) and Sumarni and Soraya (1996) does provide some basic data on habitat, ecological requirements and distribution of fresh water turtle and tortoise species, while Walter (1996, 2000) also provides indirect quantitative data on population levels (i.e., trade volumes).

Concerning the crocodilians, both Frazier (1994, 2000) and Ross et al. (1996) note extremely low crocodile densities in the rivers (middle and lower courses) and lakes of the DSNP central lake basin. High human population density, high incidence of boat traffic, intensive fishing activity, use of poison, effective but destructive fishing gear (i.e. drowning drowning /drown·ing/ (droun´ing) suffocation and death resulting from filling of the lungs with water or other substance.
drowning,
n asphyxiation because of submersion in a liquid.
 crocodiles), hunting pressure and fires destroying nesting habitat, are all quoted as reasons why crocodiles were absent or scarce in these areas. The situation with crocodile species (both Crocodylus porosus and Tomistoma schlegelii) appears much the same as with the rarer and more threatened fish species (e.g. Scleropages formosus). Particularly in dry season, during low water and peak fishing activity, the remaining crocodiles escape to refuges in head water areas, and in holes (kerinan) in the forest and lake beds, larger pools (lubuk) in up-river locations and remote permanent lakes.

The crocodile distribution map, derived from local interview and field observations (Mr. A. Erman, I-UKTFMP, 1996, personal communication; also see Jeanes, 1997), clearly shows a pattern of crocodiles concentrating in the Tall Peat Swamp edges, permanent lake areas (Habitat H, Table 1) and more inaccessible inaccessible Surgery adjective Unreachable; referring to a lesion that unmanageable by standard surgical techniques–eg, lesions deep in the brain or adjacent to vital structures–ie, not accessible. See Accessible.  and remote forest areas (Habitat H, Table 1). The same distribution also applies to the elusive "buaya kodak" (Crocodylus raninus) said by local informants to formerly only inhabit headwaters of remote forest streams.

As to other reptiles, little information is currently available about their distribution. CITES listed monitor lizards (Varanus salvator and V bornensis) and the reticulated reticulated /re·tic·u·lat·ed/ (-lat?ed) reticular.

reticulated

reticular.
 python Python, in Greek mythology
Python, in Greek mythology, a huge serpent. In some myths the infant Apollo slew Python at the oracle of Gaea in Delphi; in others Apollo killed the serpent in order to claim the oracle for himself.
 (Python reticulatus) are known to exist in DSNP. Yet, it is not known if they prefer the central lakes basin or the peripheral swamp forests for habitat. For turtles and tortoises, Walter (1996, 2000) verified that out of the eight tortoise and three soft-shelled turtle species within and around DSNP, eight species appear to rely on relatively undisturbed un·dis·turbed  
adj.
Not disturbed; calm.


undisturbed
Adjective

1. quiet and peaceful: an undisturbed village

2.
 Tall and Stunted Swamp Forest and forest streams as habitat. They do so as they require to lay eggs next to streams or lakes in undisturbed areas. Sumarni and Soraya (1996) added that the soft-shelled turtle species, in particular, appear to rely on refuge areas A coastal area considered safe from enemy attack to which merchant ships may be ordered to proceed when the shipping movement policy is implemented. See also safe anchorage.  of permanent water to survive (e.g. permanent lakes, and streams at hill bases).

Birds

A general idea about the ecology, population and distribution of DSNP's bird species can be obtained from general data of other sites. Yet, little is known about either bird population numbers or frequencies of occurrence in DSNP, or of species distributions and habitat preferences. Hood (1993), van Balen (1993), van Balen and Jensen (1994) and van Balen and Dennis (2000) provided most data, in defining the distribution of bird species and total species numbers between habitat types. Noveriawan (1993), also added data on species differences between Dwarf Swamp, Stunted Swamp and Burnt Regrowth Re`growth´   

n. 1. The act of regrowing; a second or new growth.
The regrowth of limbs which had been cut off.
- A. B. Buckley.
 vegetation types. Table 2 summarizes the findings of various authors with respect to distribution of bird species numbers between the main habitats of DSNP and surrounds.

As can be seen, the main habitats of the central lakes basin are "low bird diversity" areas. Noveriawan (1993) recorded only 58 bird species in these habitats during intensive dry season survey. Burnt area regrowth vegetation is the poorest bird habitat with potential 30 species estimated, followed by Dwarf Swamp Forest and Stunted Swamp Forest (both 45 to 50 species). Peak flood season bird species counts are even lower as recorded by Hood (1993) (Table 2). Riparian Forests (with 50 to 60 species), and surrounding Tall (Peat) Swamp Forests (with 60 to 70 species), are relatively richer "medium value" habitats, due to their taller structure and higher plant species diversity. The remaining pockets of intact Upland and Hill Forest are by far the richest "high value" bird biodiversity habitat. More than 100 species have been found here, with at least 40 bird species exclusively restricted to this habitat (van Balen and Jensen, 1994; van Balen and Dennis, 2000).

Of the "key conservation" species (Table 3 in Jeanes and Meijaard, 2000), field observations suggest that very few of DSNP's threatened and endemic bird species inhabit the low, deeply flooded, Fresh Water Swamp Forest habitats of the central lake basin (i.e. Dwarf, Stunted or Riparian Swamp Forests). Only seven of the 33 threatened species listed (Wallace's Hawk Eagle (Zool.) an Asiatic bird of the genus Spizætus, or Limnætus, intermediate between the hawks and eagles. There are several species.

See also: Hawk
, Jerdon's Baza Jerdon's Baza (Aviceda jerdoni) is a small bird of prey found in the Eastern Himalayas, China, Sri Lanka, South-east Asia. It inhabits forests.

It can be easily mistaken for the larger Changeable Hawk Eagle, but it has a distinctive upright crest of feathers.
, Black Hornbill The Black Hornbill, Anthracoceros malayanus is a species of bird of the Bucerotidae family (hornbills).

It lives in Asia: Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand.
, Red-Crowned Barbet The Red-crowned Barbet (Megalaima rafflesii) is a species of bird in the Ramphastidae family. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Thailand. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and plantations . , White-Bellied Woodpecker The White-bellied Woodpecker or Great Black Woodpecker is found in evergreen forests. They are occur in 15 subspecies in the forests from the Western Ghats in India to China, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Korea. , Straw-Headed Bulbul bulbul, in zoology, bird
bulbul (bl`b
 and White Chested Babbler babbler, common name for some members of the large, diversified family Timaliidae, passerine birds found primarily in wooded areas of Asia, Africa, and Australia. ), or 21% of the total, would appear to overlap in habitat range into the central lakes basin habitats. The same is true with endemic species where only four out of 13 listed species appear to use central lake basin habitats. White-headed Spider Hunter (Zool.) any one of several species of East Indian sunbirds of the genus Arachnothera.

See also: Spider
 and Dusky Munia The Dusky Munia Lonchura fuscans is a species of estrildid finch found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines. It is found in subtropical/ tropical lowland shrubland, forest and grassland habitat. The status of the species is evaluated as Least Concern.  range into the central lake basin habitats, yet use Tall Swamp Forest and Hill Forests as well. The Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker The Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker (Prionochilus xanthopygius) is a species of bird in the Dicaeidae family. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.  and Bornean Blue Flycatcher flycatcher, common name for various members of the Old World family Muscicapidae, insectivorous songbirds including the kingbirds, phoebes, and pewees. Flycatchers vary in color from drab to brilliant, as in the crested monarch and paradise flycatchers of Asia and  are recorded only from dwarf swamp and riparian swamp forest respectively.

This leaves the bulk of DSNP's threatened and endemic species to be largely found in the tall (peat) swamp forest and hill forests, outside the main central lakes area. Threatened hornbills, threatened and endemic pheasants, and the endemic Whitehead's Trogon The Whitehead's Trogon (Harpactes whiteheadi) is a species of bird in the Trogonidae family. It is found in Indonesia and Malaysia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montanes. It is threatened by habitat loss.  and Golden-naped Barbet The Golden-naped Barbet (Megalaima pulcherrima) is a species of bird in the Ramphastidae family. It is found in Indonesia and Malaysia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes. , all tend to be restricted to hill forests. Tall Swamp Forest habitats (and water bodies) support, in turn, at least six endemic species (Bornean Bristlehead The Bornean Bristlehead, Pityriasis gymnocephala is a passerine bird, the only member of the family Pityriaseidae. It is a medium-sized 25 cm (10 in) species endemic to Borneo.

This is a large black bird with a red and yellow head.
 in tall swamp forest only, and five other species shared with hill forest), and 20 threatened species.

Figure 1 outlines the habitat trends for threatened water birds, showing the distribution (i.e. key habitats) of the globally endangered en·dan·ger  
tr.v. en·dan·gered, en·dan·ger·ing, en·dan·gers
1. To expose to harm or danger; imperil.

2. To threaten with extinction.
 Storm's Stork The Storm's Stork, Ciconia stormi is a large, approximately 91cm long, stork with black and white plumages, red bill, orange bare facial skin, red legs and yellow orbital skin. Both sexes are similar. The young has duller plumage and bare skin.  (Ciconia stormii) (Dennis et al. 1996; A. Erman, pers.comm.). The species appears to prefer isolated areas of Tall Swamp Forest or Riparian Forest (i.e. tall tree habitats) next to permanent dry season water bodies (rivers and lakes). In these areas it has been seen to nest between April-July. Other water birds, such as egret egret (ēgrĕt`), common name for several species of herons of the Old and New Worlds, belonging to the family Ardeidae. Before they were protected by law the birds were nearly exterminated by hunters seeking their beautiful, white, silky  species, Great-billed Heron The Great-billed Heron, Ardea sumatrana is a wading bird of the heron family Ardeidae, resident from southeast Asia to Papua New Guinea and Australia. Its habitats are largely coastal such as islands, coral reefs, mangroves, large rivers.  (Ardea sumatrana), Purple Herons The Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) is a wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, breeding in Africa, central and southern Europe, and southern and eastern Asia. The European populations are migratory, wintering in tropical Africa; the more northerly Asian populations also  (Ardea purpurea) and Lesser Adjutant The Lesser Adjutant, Leptoptilos javanicus, is a large wading bird in the stork family Ciconiidae. It is a widespread species which is resident breeder in southern Asia from India east to southern China and Java.  Stork stork, common name for members of a family of long-legged wading birds. The storks are related to the herons and ibises and are found in most of the warmer parts of the world.  (Leptoptilos javanicus), as shown in Figure 1, also have a restricted local distribution ranges. Generally their local breeding areas are only known from a few isolated swamp and lake locations south of the lakes basin; where thick reed beds This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling.
You can assist by [ editing it] now.
 and other protective vegetation grow close to the lake edges.

Mammals The class Mammalia (the Mammals) is divided into two subclasses based on reproductive techniques: egg laying mammals (the Monotremes); and mammals which give live birth. The latter subclass is divided into two infraclasses: pouched mammals (the marsupials); and the placental mammals.  

Via studies from elsewhere it has been possible to obtain a general idea of the ecology of most of DSNP's mammal species, yet very little is known of population numbers or frequencies of occurrence of all but a few species. Population data at DSNP is only available for Orangutan orangutan (ōrăng`tăn), an ape, Pongo pygmaeus, found in swampy coastal forests of Borneo and Sumatra.  (Pongo pymaeus) (Meijaard and Dennis 1995; Meijaard et al., 1996; Russon et al. 1996, 2000) and Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus) (Meijaard and Nijman, 1999: 15-24; Sebastian, 1993; Sebastian, 1994, 2000). The surveys by Russon et al. (1996) have yielded adjusted population estimates of 600-700 Orangutans from within the Park boundaries and 1600-1700 from within the Park plus buffer zone. This was, however, considered too high by Rijksen and Meijaard (1999). Based on detailed surveys, Sebastian (1993, 1994, 2000) estimated a population of 630 Proboscis monkeys for the initial 80,000 ha Wildlife Reserve and its buffer surrounds.

As to data on the distribution of mammal species in general, the work of Hood (1993), Harmaya (1996) and Erman and Sudrajat (1997) provides useful input. Furthermore, specific surveys by Sebastian (1993, 1994, 2000), supported by feeding and behavioral studies of Woods (1995) and Fadillah (1995), have provided good data on the ecology and distribution of Proboscis Monkeys. Observations and village interview data by Erman (1997) further supported knowledge on the distribution of Proboscis Monkey, Orangutan and Gibbons Famous people named Gibbons include:
  • Beth Gibbons (born 1965), British singer
  • Billy Gibbons, guitarist for ZZ Top
  • Cedric Gibbons (1893–1960), American art director
  • Christopher Gibbons (1615 - 1676), English composer, son of Orlando
 within and around DSNP.

A summary of the field survey findings of the above authors with respect to distribution of mammal species biodiversity within DSNP and surrounds is provided in Table 3. As can be seen the main habitats of the central lakes basin (Habitat E; Table 1) are again "low diversity" areas, with flood season surveys of Hood (1993) showing very low species numbers. Burnt area regrowth is the area poorest in mammal species (possibly zero species potential), followed by dwarf swamp forest (<five species) and stunted swamp forest (around five species). The taller, plant species rich, riparian forests (Habitat F; Table 1) only show a marginally higher diversity (10 to 15 species potential). Yet, it is not until reaching the surrounding tall (peat) swamp forests (Habitat D, Table 1), that mammal species biodiversity begins to sharply increase (30 to 40 species). Reaching maximum diversity in the tall, plant species rich, non-flooding, hill forest habitats (Habitat C, Table 1) (>50 species potentially).

The pattern of distribution of threatened and endemic mammal species resembles that of birds (see above). Namely, very few "key conservation species" are found in the central lakes basin dwarf, stunted and riparian forest habitats. Of the 16 threatened species, only five, the Proboscis Monkey, Otter Civet The Otter Civet, Cynogale bennettii, is an aquatic civet from South East Asia. Sometimes known as the Sunda Otter Civet, it lives in rivers and swampy areas of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and Java. , and probably two Otter species (the Hairy-nosed and Oriental Small-clawed) may be found in the central lakes basin area in the flood season. Of the 29 endemic species, only three, the Proboscis monkey, Ruddy rud·dy  
adj. rud·di·er, rud·di·est
1.
a. Having a healthy, reddish color.

b. Reddish; rosy.

2.
 Tree-shrew and Brooke's Squirrel The Brooke's Squirrel (Sundasciurus brookei) is a species of rodent in the Sciuridae family. It is found in Indonesia and Malaysia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests. It is threatened by habitat loss. Source
  • Baillie, J. 1996.
 utilize the Dwarf, Stunted and Riparian Swamp Forests of the central lakes basin, while two other species, the Black Shrew The Black Shrew (Suncus ater) is a white-toothed shrew only known from Mount Kinabalu in the Malaysian state of Sabah on the island of Borneo. It is listed as a critically endangered species due to habitat loss and a restricted range. References

1.
 and Large Pencil-tailed Tree-mouse, are found in Riparian Swamp Forests. The remaining threatened and endemic species are restricted to the Tall (Peat) Swamp Forest and Hill Forest habitats. Annex an·nex  
tr.v. an·nexed, an·nex·ing, an·nex·es
1. To append or attach, especially to a larger or more significant thing.

2.
 4 (in Jeanes and Meijaard, 2000) shows that 11 IUCN IUCN

International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
 threat-listed species and 22 endemics use the Hill Forest habitat, and 14 IUCN threat-listed species an d 16 endemics use the Tall (Peat) Swamp Forest habitat.

Only four DSNP mammal species, the Proboscis Monkey, the Orangutan and the Gibbon gibbon, small ape, genus Hyloblates, found in the forests of SE Asia. The gibbons, including the siamang, are known as the small, or lesser, apes; they are the most highly adapted of the apes to arboreal life.  species (Hylobates muelleri and H. agilis) have received any habitat mapping and population distribution effort. The general distribution of DSNP's threatened and endemic Proboscis Monkey, is described in Sebastian (1993, 1994, 2000). This indicates that the species is restricted to the central lakes basin and river-edge habitats. Observations of Sebastian (1993, 1994, 2000), Woods (1995) and Fadillah (1995) suggest the species to have a dry- and flood-season reliance on tall canopy forests (i.e. 10m above water level), along river and lake edges. Sebastian (1994) further noted that key dry season Proboscis Monkey habitats are the lake basin Riparian Forests and remaining tall Stunted Swamp Forest sites. Yet in peak flood season, due to flood heights and food availability, the Proboscis Monkeys needs to move into the peripheral Tall Swamp Forest areas out of the central lakes basin, or to key tall Stunted (Shorea belangeran) Swa mp Forests sites along the Belitung and Tawang rivers. Sebastian (1994) identified five key habitat sites. His species conservation proposal included a "strict sanctuary" (Site A), and four "core conservation zones" (Sites 1, 2, 3-4-C and 5-D), as the focus areas for Proboscis Monkey populations and habitat conservation effort.

Finally, for more detailed information on Orangutan population distribution in DSNP refer to Russon et al. (2000), while, with regards to Gibbons, surveys by A. Erman (pers.comm.) suggest that areas with undisturbed Hill Forest habitat adjacent to isolated and undisturbed Tall Peat Swamp Forests are the key (if not only) habitat for this species.

Discussion

A discussion of the relative importance of vegetation types in DSNP needs to take the considerable seasonality into account, i.e. a flood season (9 to 10 months/year; with up to 12m water level fluctuation) and a dry season. Results suggest that the peat swamp and hill forests, largely in the Park's buffer zone, represent the key habitats for terrestrial biodiversity during the flood season period. Numbers of bird and mammal species, and incidence of globally threatened and endemic species, are all much higher in these habitats than within the stunted swamp forests of the central lakes basin. The same can also be said for the majority of the threatened and endemic aquatic fauna. The majority of endemic fish species and globally threatened crocodile, tortoise, freshwater turtle, waterbird and fish species, are now found only within the more remote peat swamp forest and hill stream habitats, rather than in the populated pop·u·late  
tr.v. pop·u·lat·ed, pop·u·lat·ing, pop·u·lates
1. To supply with inhabitants, as by colonization; people.

2.
 and heavily fished central lake basin. The central lake basin, and the majority of the exist ing DSNP, is thus left only as prime habitat for those specialized terrestrial species which rely on it as critical year-round habitat (i.e. possibly only the Proboscis Monkey - Nasalis larvatus) and for the majority of freshwater fish species.

Significant evidence exists to suggest that during the dry season (two to three months/year), the majority of terrestrial wildlife (birds, mammals and reptiles) remain largely confined con·fine  
v. con·fined, con·fin·ing, con·fines

v.tr.
1. To keep within bounds; restrict: Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand. See Synonyms at limit.
 to the hills and peat swamp forests due to the high incidence of human activity (peak fishing season) in the lake basin area. A possible exception to this may be nocturnal nocturnal /noc·tur·nal/ (nok-tur´n'l) pertaining to, occurring at, or active at night.

noc·tur·nal
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or occurring in the night.

2.
 forays by larger mammals in search of drinking water drinking water

supply of water available to animals for drinking supplied via nipples, in troughs, dams, ponds and larger natural water sources; an insufficient supply leads to dehydration; it can be the source of infection, e.g. leptospirosis, salmonellosis, or of poisoning, e.g.
, and monitor lizards, whose tracks are commonly seen. Furthermore, some cat and otter species may be attracted to the relative abundance of fish in the drying out lakes basin. The same is true of aquatic species, with endemic and threatened fish, reptile and waterbird species retreating further into the isolated peat swamp forests in search of refuge and permanent water. Also, the remaining fish fauna of the lake basin follows this migration, or moves further up into the catchment or to the Kapuas river, to escape the drying out of the lake basin. Again, the dry season lake basin habitats remain only crucia l for those terrestrial species ecologically restricted to the area (i.e. Proboscis Monkey).

In terms of Park management it is important to know the value of various vegetation types in and around the protected site A facility which is protected by the use of camouflage or concealment, selective siting, construction of facilities designed to prevent damage from fragments caused by conventional weapons, or a combination of such measures. . Table 4 sums up the various management options that have been available for DSNP, in terms of boundary revisions and protected area
This article refers to protected regions of environmental or cultural value. For the protected area of a cricket pitch, see cricket pitch.


Protected areas
 extensions, and the effects that this has had or could have for the viability of DSNP's wildlife.

Thus in summing-up the wildlife data in hand, and those still needed, significant data already exists for DSNP with which to start generalized wildlife and habitat conservation programs. Yet, significant data gaps remain with respect to individual species conservation. For example, very limited knowledge exists concerning the seasonal movement, and related feeding and breeding ecology, of the vast majority of terrestrial and aquatic wildlife species of DSNP. An exception to this is the reasonable study detail on the seasonal habitat requirements and migratory migratory /mi·gra·to·ry/ (mi´grah-tor?e)
1. roving or wandering.

2. of, pertaining to, or characterized by migration; undergoing periodic migration.


migratory

emanating from or pertaining to migration.
 patterns of the Proboscis Monkey (1) and to a lesser extent for the Crocodile species (Frazier, 1994, 2000), Storm's Stork (Ciconia stormii) and Lesser Adjutant Stork (Leptoptilos javanicus). No useful knowledge at all exists concerning invertebrates, amphibians amphibians

members of the animal class Amphibia. Includes frogs, toads, newts, salamanders and cecilians all capable of living on land or in water.
, snakes and lizards. There is some basic knowledge of the freshwater turtles and tortoises. Yet, habitat and breeding requirements are still not clear. Dry season bird surveys need to be carried out to confirm the importance of lakeside habitats for migratory birds, while more detailed population ecology Population ecology

The study of spatial and temporal patterns in the abundance and distribution of organisms and of the mechanisms that produce those patterns.
 and habitat surveys are needed for the site's seven threatened and/or endemic pheasant pheasant, common name for some members of a family (Phasianidae) of henlike birds related to the grouse and including the Old World partridge, the peacock, various domestic and jungle fowls, and the true pheasants (genus Phasianus).  species. Add to this the lack of knowledge of population distributions, population numbers and ranging needs for virtually all of the site's threatened mammal species (e.g. cats, otters, otter-civet and Malayan sun bear) and endemic mammal species, the need for more detailed research is clear.

Thus in conclusion the DSNP site's importance for wildlife biodiversity conservation is clear, enough data exists to determine where the bulk of species exist for most of the time, and hence form the basis for a "blanket approach" to habitat and species conservation (i.e. exercising the assumption that habitat conservation measures will by default also conserve the fauna species shown to use these habitats). Yet much remains to be done concerning clarification of the ecological details of individual species, which would provide a firmer basis for the individual species conservation efforts. Such efforts becoming increasingly needed in DSNP and near-catchment sites to ensure that a significant proportion of the sites endemic and threatened species do not become locally extinct in near future due to habitat destruction and excessive local harvesting and trading pressures.
Table 1

Aquatic habitats and characteristics of DSWR.

CLASS  HABITAT         HYDROLOGICAL
       TYPE            DETAILS

A      Main River      Riverine; uni-directional
                       and large volume flow;
                       widely fluctuating flood
                       levels; main water
                       supply for lake basin
                       system

B      Main            Riverine; reversible flow
       Floodplain      direction; large volume
       Distributaries  flow; widely fluctuating
                       flood levels. Main routes
                       of water input and
                       drainage to lake basin
                       system.

C      Secondary       Rivers; streams, and
       Floodplain      lakes; reversible flows.
       Distributaries  Secondary input routes
                       for Kapuas as waters to
                       lake basin; low flow
                       volumes (mainly
                       overland and small
                       streams); wide to
                       medium fluctuation in
                       flood levels.

D      Main            Riverine; uni-directional
       Catchment       flow; medium to no flow
       Tributaries     volume; medium
                       fluctuation in flood
                       levels. Secondary supply
                       of water to
                       floodplain/lake system.

E      Minor           Streams; uni-directional
       Upland          flow; low to no flow
       Drainage        volume. Negligible
       Lines           water input to lakes
                       system.



F      Central Lakes   Lacustrine; widely
       (seasonal)      fluctuating flood levels;
                       main storage area for
                       floodplain waters;
                       medium to no flow.

G      Peripheral      Lacustrine; wide
       Forest Lakes    fluctuation of flood
       (seasonal)      levels; mixed storage of
                       floodplain/forest
                       drainage waters; low to
                       no flow.

H      Catchment       Lacustrine; medium to
       Lakes           low fluctuation of flood
       (permanent)     levels; mixed storage of
                       swamp
                       forest/upland/catchment
                       river drainage; no flow.

I      Swamp           Streams and forest pools;
       Forest          medium (?) to wide
       Drainage        fluctuation in flood
       Lines           levels; storage and
                       drainage of forest/swamp
                       waters; high dry season
                       flow.


CLASS  WATER QUALITY             HABITAT
                                 LOCATION

A      White water; nutrient     Kapuas river and
       rich (eutrophic)          fringing ox-bows.





B      White/black water mix     S. Tawang; S. Belitung-
       good to medium            Danau Bekuan-S.
       nutrient levels           Batang Putus





C      White/black water mix;    Danau Gandal-S.
       good to medium            Gandal-S. Sebuayak; S.
       nutrient levels           Tengkidap-Batang
                                 Sekentut-S. Mentibal;
                                 S. Telaga-S. Batang
                                 Serawak-Danau
                                 Bekuan; S. Tanjung
                                 Petak-S. Batang
                                 Sekuang-S. Belitung
                                 Hulu-Danau Sekawi.

D      White water, medium       Leboyan, Empanang,
       nutrient levels           Seriang, Sebadin,
                                 Piyam, Ensanak,
                                 Empanang.




E      White water; high         Streams/drainage of
       nutrient levels           Bukit's Tekenang,
                                 Semujuan, Meyukung
                                 ranges, Lanjak-Meliau
                                 ranges, Empaik-Seligi
                                 range, Bukit's Segerat-
                                 Setubu.

F      Black water mix;          Danau's Seriang, Turus
       medium to low nutrient    Duata, Belida,
       levels                    Pengembung, Genali,
                                 Luar and surrounds


G      Black water; low          All minor tributary
       nutrient levels           lakes within forested
       (oligotrophic)            terraces adjacent the
                                 Central Lakes zone
                                 (e.g. Pemerak, Seliban,
                                 Semangit).

H      Black and white (?)       D. Telatap; D. Lukuk-
       water lakes; probably     Kemati-Meliau Tujuh
       changing nutrient levels  complex; D. Santak and
                                 Merasu; D. Berasau.



I      Black water; low          All peat swamp forest
       nutrient levels           areas (fresh water and
       (oligotrophic)            peat) and black-water
                                 streams (e.g S. Piyam,
                                 S. Senunuk. S. Air
                                 Merah, S. Tangit)
                                 draining to the lake
                                 basin
Table 2

Bird Spectes Numbers per Habitat.

Observers     Burnt    Dwarf  Stunted  Riparian  Tall (Peat)   Hill
               Area    Swamp   Swamp    Swamp      Swamp      Forest
             Regrowth

Hood            6       15      27        53         23         47
van Balen       30     17-43    53                 50-62      85-100
Noveriawan              40      40
Wadley                  58
Estimate of     30     40-45   45-50    50-60      60-70       >100
Potential

Observers: Hood (1993)--Hood; van Balen and Jensen (1994)--Van Balen;
Noveriawan (1993)-- Noveriawan; Wedley et al. (1996)--Wadley.
Table 3

Mammal Species Numbers per Habitat.

Observers    Burnt Area  Dwarf  Stunted  Riparian  Tall (Peat)   Hill
              Regrowth   Swamp   Swamp    Swamp       Swamp     Forest

Hood             0         0       4        6           5         36
Harmaya                                                28
Erman/
Sudrajat                                               34         30
Wadley                                                            41
Estimate of     0(?)      < 5      5      10-15       30-40      >50
Potential

Observers: Hood (1993)--Hood; Pierce-Colfer et al. (1993), Wadley
et al. (1994; 1995; 1996)--Wadley; Harmaya (1996)--Harmaya; Erman and
Sudrajat (1997)--Erman/Sudrajat.
Table 4

Relative importance of past, existing, and proposed boundaries for the
Danau Sentarum conservation area.

Boundary/Options (1)  Original             DSNP
Species               Wildlife             (132,000 ha) (2)
                      Reserve
                      boundary
                      (80,000 ha)

Lakes and river       good, year-round     most likely
fish                  habitat              extension of
                                           breeding areas

Fish of hill          probably no          small
streams               habitat available    inclusion of
                                           hill stream
                                           habitat

Fish of peat          little habitat       some peat
swamp rivers          available            swamp habitat
                                           available





Crocodiles            little dry season    some dry
                      habitat available    season and
                                           refuge habitat


Water birds           good, year-round     Extension of
                      habitat              breeding and
                                           feeding areas


Hill forest birds     very little habitat  some small
                      available            areas available




Swamp forest          some habitat         small increase
birds                 available            in available
                                           habitat



Mammals               very little habitat  small increase
                      available            in available habitat







Boundary/Options (1)  DSNP-extension           Linking DSNP
Species               (197,000) (3)            with Bentuang
                                               Karimun NP (4)



Lakes and river       added protection of      probably few
fish                  migration routes to      added benefits
                      Kapuas

Fish of hill          small inclusion of hill  considerable
streams               stream habitat           inclusion of hill
                                               stream habitat


Fish of peat          considerable amount      large extension
swamp rivers          of peat swamp habitat    of the
                      available                contiguous
                                               protected area
                                               of both peat and
                                               fresh water
                                               swamp

Crocodiles            considerable amount      probably no
                      of dry season and        added benefits
                      refuge habitat
                      available

Water birds           considerable             probably few
                      extension of breeding    added benefits
                      and refuge sites for
                      Storms Stork

Hill forest birds     some small areas         a very
                      available                significant
                                               increase in
                                               available year-
                                               round habitat

Swamp forest          considerable increase    very large
birds                 in available habitat     increase of the
                                               peat and
                                               fresh water
                                               swam habitat

Mammals               considerable increase    very large
                      in available habitat     increase of the
                                               Peat and
                                               freshwater
                                               swamp habitats,
                                               and migration
                                               opportunities to
                                               hill forests

(1) For discussion on these boundaries and their locations see Russon et
al. (2000).

(2) Proposal forwarded by PHPA (1996a) to Ministry of Forestry for
formalisation of Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve boundar as based on the
earlier boundary extension recommendations of Giesen, et.al. (1994).

(3) As derived from buffer zone and boundary extension proposal of
Jeanes (1996).

(4) Unpublished 1997 proposal (Jeanes and Meijaard) suggesting reserve
extension or the establishment of a corridor that would link the Danau
Sentarum lowlands with the upland forests of the Bentuang Karimun
National Park, to allow a considerable increase in seasonal migration
possibilities within the area.


(1.) Studies of Sebastian (1993 and 1994), Woods (1995) and Fadillah (1995).

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n.
The branch of zoology that deals with the study of birds.



orni·tho·log
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tr. & intr.v. nimmed, nim·ming, nims Archaic
To steal; pilfer.



[Middle English nimen, to take, from Old English niman; see
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  • Marga (Indian Philosophy)
  • Marga, a commune in Caraş-Severin County, Romania
  • Magga, one of the Four Noble Truths, in Buddhism
  • Marga (Batak), a family name in Batak society
  • Efraín Abdiel Alveo a.k.a.
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Suryaningsih, N.

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Under initiative of prominent society members of the West Java on 11 September 1957, Universitas Padjadjaran was established through the Government Regulation No. 37 dated 24 September 1957.

When established, the University had only 4 departments.
, Bandung, Indonesia.

Vaas, K.F.

1952 Fisheries in the Lake District along the Kapuas River in West Borneo. Proc. Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council Madras Madras.

1 State and former province, India: see Tamil Nadu.

2 City, India: see Chennai.
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1994 A note on wildlife harvesting among the Iban of Wong Garai: A case from West Kalimantan (rough draft). Research Report, Indonesia-UK Tropical Forest Management Programme: Project 5-Conservation. Asian Wetlands Bureau-ODA-PHPA (Ministry of Forestry), Danau Sentarum Field Centre, Bukit Tekenang, Indonesia.

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The mammalian order to which humans belong. Primates are generally arboreal mammals with a geographic distribution largely restricted to the Tropics.
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1996 The role of sacred groves This article is about a particular sacred grove of the Latter Day Saint movement. For other uses, see Sacred grove.

In the Latter Day Saint movement, the Sacred Grove is a forested area near the border of western New York near the home of Joseph Smith, Jr.
 in hunting and conservation among the Iban of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Paper presented at the 95th. Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association American Anthropological Association was founded in 1902 and claims to be, "the world's largest professional organization of individuals interested in anthropology". , San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden .

Walter, O.

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2000 A Study of hunting and trade of freshwater turtles and tortoises (Order Chelonia) at Danau Sentarum. (this volume)

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1995 Observations on dietary habits of Proboscis Monkeys Nasalis larvatus, at Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve, Kalimantan Barat, Republic of Indonesia, Professional Practice in Resource Science Programme, University of Canberra The University of Canberra is an Australian university, located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. It is the second largest university in Canberra. The University was one of nine Australian universities recognised by the Australian government in 2006 for high achievement in , Australia-AWB, Indonesia-UK Tropical Forest Management Programme: Conservation Project. ODA ODA - Open Document Architecture (formerly Office Document Architecture). , Danau Sentarum Field Centre, Bukit Tekenang, Indonesia.
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Author:Meijaard, Erik
Publication:Borneo Research Bulletin
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Jan 1, 2000
Words:6685
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