DIVERSITY AS A PRODUCTIVE RESOURCE: EMPLOYMENT OF IMMIGRANTS FROM NON-ENGLISH-SPEAKING BACKGROUNDS IN NEW ZEALAND.Abstract
The past decade has been marked by increasing diversity in the New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. population, principally as the result of a more open immigration policy An immigration policy is any policy of a state that affects the transit of persons across its borders, but especially those that intend to work and to remain in the country. that aims to build human capital by targeting skilled, qualified immigrants, whatever their countries of origin. To what extent is effective use being made of the abilities and understandings of new settlers to help meet New Zealand's economic and social development objectives? This paper draws on the results of two studies conducted as part of Massey University's New Settlers Programme. These studies examine the employment and deployment of immigrants from countries where English is not the main language in New Zealand companies This is a list of major companies based in New Zealand.
For convenience, the word "Limited", which every company registered or reregistered under the Companies Act 1993 (with one historic exception) must have at the end of its name, is reduced to the common and universally and government organisations, and identify workplace policies and practices that appear to maximise or minimise the economic and social contributions of immigrant employees. The paper concludes with suggestions on a social policy framework that might better meet the needs of immigrants and increase their opportunities to achieve their productive potential.
In the context of moves in the past decade to increase the numbers of skilled immigrants and add to New Zealand's human capital, this paper examines the extent to which companies and government organisations make productive use of immigrant resources. The results of two recent studies of the employment and deployment of immigrants from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB NESB Non-English Speaking Background ) in New Zealand are used to identify workplace policies and practices which promote or inhibit inhibit /in·hib·it/ (in-hib´it) to retard, arrest, or restrain.
1. To hold back; restrain.
2. effective utilisation of the talents of immigrant employees. It will be argued that there are policy deficiencies in both the private and public sector that have handicapped the ability of immigrants to achieve their full potential and, hence, New Zealand's ability to benefit from immigrant resources in terms of meeting the nation's desired economic and social development objectives.
The primary aim of New Zealand's more open immigration policies during the past decade has been economic growth, coupled (since 1995) with the maintenance of the society's high level of social cohesion cohesion: see adhesion and cohesion.
The tendency of atoms or molecules to coalesce into extended condensed states. This tendency is practically universal. (Trlin 1997). Four objectives are associated with this overarching o·ver·arch·ing
1. Forming an arch overhead or above: overarching branches.
2. Extending over or throughout: "I am not sure whether the missing ingredient . . . goal: build New Zealand's human capital by increasing the skill levels in the workforce; strengthen international linkages at government, corporate, community and individual levels; encourage enterprise and innovation by bringing in people with vision and a desire to succeed; and maintain social cohesion while increasing New Zealand's diversity and vitality vi·tal·i·ty
1. The capacity to live, grow, or develop.
2. Physical or intellectual vigor; energy. (New Zealand Immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important. Service 1995b:3). These objectives are no less relevant today in the context of the drive towards the development of a knowledge-based economy, defined by Frederick et al. (1999:1) as an economy based upon "... human ingenuity and skill and a commitment to innovation through research and development".
The concept that diversity leads to economic growth and adds richness to social life also underpins Australia's immigration and settlement policies. The "productive diversity" strategy, which has been adopted to capitalise Verb 1. capitalise - supply with capital, as of a business by using a combination of capital used by investors and debt capital provided by lenders
capitalize on the inflow in·flow
1. The act or process of flowing in or into: an inflow of water; an inflow of information.
2. of people from a wide variety of countries, involves establishing programmes aimed at developing awareness amongst employers of the advantages of a multi-cultural workforce and communicating ways in which this diversity might be more effectively harnessed (Department of Immigration and Multicultural mul·ti·cul·tur·al
1. Of, relating to, or including several cultures.
2. Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. Affairs 1998a, 1999). Australian firms are encouraged to draw on the diverse language skills, cultural insights and perspectives of their employees. Through negotiation of differences, an organisation's repertoire Repertoire may mean Repertory but may also refer to:
The extent to which New Zealand firms and organisations are, in similar fashion, capitalising on immigrant diversity will be examined via two surveys that form part of the New Settlers Programme(1) (NSP (1) (Network Service Provider) An organization that provides a high-speed Internet backbone to ISPs and other service providers. Sprint, MCI and UUNET are examples of NSPs. See Internet backbones. ), a multi-disciplinary research project designed and conducted mainly by Massey University Massey University (Māori: Te Kunenga ki Purehuroa) is New Zealand's largest university with approximately 40,000 students. It has campuses in Palmerston North (sites at Turitea and Hokowhitu), Wellington (in the suburb of Mt Cook) and staff. The general aim of the NSP is to contribute to the attainment of three broad, interrelated in·ter·re·late
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.
* The development of a balanced, well integrated institutional structure of immigration (see Trlin 1993 for a definition and discussion);
* A reduction in the difficulties experienced by immigrants in the process of settlement; and
* An increase in the benefits accruing to New Zealand from its targeted immigration programmes.
The two studies investigate the ways in which immigrant resources, in particular linguistic and cultural competence cultural competence Social medicine The ability to understand, appreciate, and interact with persons from cultures and/or belief systems other than one's own , are utilised in New Zealand. Non-English language skills and an understanding of other cultures are unique features of the human capital that NESB immigrants bring to a host country. These attributes have received increasing attention for their potential to enhance international business opportunities (Crocombe et al. 1991, Kipp et al. 1995, Stanley et al. 1990, Watts 1994), and to serve growing ethnic community needs. The two surveys comprise: (a) a two-part survey of the employment and deployment of NESB immigrants in companies engaged in international business, trade and tourism; and (b) a survey of the employment and deployment of NESB immigrants in central and local government organisations and the service provision for NESB communities that these organisations make.
Four hundred and sixty New Zealand companies involved in international business dealings received a 42-item postal questionnaire in July 1998(2). One hundred and eighty-seven completed questionnaires were returned -- a 41% response rate. Follow-up interviews were held with 19 of these companies, selected on the basis of demonstrating innovative ways of using immigrant language resources, to obtain best practice data. In the second part of the study, a postal survey was carried out in September-October 1998 amongst NESB immigrants who had recently gained tertiary-level New Zealand business qualifications to ascertain their perceptions of employment policies and practices. One hundred and fifty-six graduates received questionnaires(3). Fifty-two completed questionnaires were returned by the due date, a response rate of 41%.
Government Organisations' Survey
Organisations included in this study comprised both central government (departments, ministries, Crown entities) and local government organisations (regional, city and district councils). A 46-item postal questionnaire was received by 321 of these public sector organisations in February-March 1999(4); 157 questionnaires were returned by the cut-off cut-off Anesthesiology The point at which elongation of the carbon chain of the 1-alkanol family of anesthetics results in a precipitous drop in the anesthetic potential of these agents–eg, at > 12 carbons in length, there is little anesthetic activity, date, a response rate of 49%. Follow-up interviews were conducted in April-May 1999 with 16 of the organisations that made innovative use of NESB immigrant employee resources and were delivering a range of language-related services for NESB clients.
FINDINGS ON POLICIES REGARDING IMMIGRANT EMPLOYMENT
The 187 participating companies comprised two main groups of equal size: exporting companies (88) and firms involved in tourism (88). The remaining 11 companies formed a miscellaneous group engaged in a variety of international business dealings ranging from banking to consultancy. Only 21 of the participating companies (11.2%) reported an explicit policy concerning the recruitment of NESB immigrants with the percentage varying across the categories ("tourism" 14.8%, "exporting" and "other" categories 8% and 9.1%, respectively). Policies on employing NESB immigrants included: the primary importance of appointing the best applicants; and special recruitment provision for particular positions that cannot be filled locally because the skills sought are in short supply or because the positions require a blend of work experience and linguistic or cultural competence not easily found in New Zealand.
Only 8.3% of the participating central (95) and local (62) organisations reported the existence of explicit policies regarding the employment of immigrants, the percentage being much higher among those in central (12.6%) rather than local (1.6%) government. Recruitment policy guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. emphasised the importance of getting people with the best mix of skills, qualifications and experience for positions advertised. However, some policies recognised that certain positions are more appropriately filled by people with an ability to communicate directly with particular ethnic groups. Equal Employment Opportunities (EEO EEO Equal Employment Opportunity
EEO Equal Employment Office
EEO Eastern European Outreach (Murrieta, CA)
EEO Extremely Elliptical Orbit
EEO Exotic Electro-Optics, Inc. ) provisions were expected to be followed in the appointment and deployment of staff as well as in the establishment of workplace measures to combat discrimination and harassment Ask a Lawyer
Country: United States of America
I recently moved to nev.from abut have been going back to ca. every 2 to 3 weeks for med. . A small number of organisations, notably those operating in areas with large concentrations of people with non-European backgrounds, saw a need for affirmative action affirmative action, in the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women. to bring staffing profiles more in line with the composition of the client base.
UTILISATION OF IMMIGRANT RESOURCES
Similar themes on the utilisation of immigrant resources emerged from the two surveys. The findings from the companies and from the government organisations are presented separately below.
Of the 187 participating companies, 130 (69.5%) reported having NESB immigrants in their workforce. The main languages of these immigrants were Chinese languages/dialects, Japanese, Samoan and German. Ninety-seven companies (74.6%) indicated that some use was made of such immigrant-employee native-language skills for work-related purposes. Utilisation of these skills was much more evident in the "tourism" (91.9%) than the "exporting" companies (55.2%), despite the fact that Asia and Europe featured as major trading regions for the latter group.
Use of the cultural competence of NESB immigrant employees was even less common. Only 55 companies (42.3%) signalled that they utilised the cultural knowledge of their immigrant employees -- 59.7% of "tourism" companies, compared with 25.9% in the "exporting" category.
Similarly, a mere 38 companies (29.2%) indicated use of the overseas contacts and networks of NESB immigrant employees (32.3% of those in the "tourism" category and 29.3% in the "exporting" category). This finding is somewhat surprising as many of the skilled immigrants in recent years have had considerable work experience in their countries of origin and are likely to have developed useful personal links in the business sector.
The primary aim of the second part of the study, the survey of NESB immigrants who had recently gained tertiary-level New Zealand qualifications, was to gain information on company policies and practices from the perspective of the immigrants themselves. The 52 respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were mainly males, aged less than 40 years, and of Asian ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic . Most had been resident for more than five years and all had completed New Zealand tertiary-level business qualifications (usually between 1994 and 1998), three-quarters with Masters' degrees or above. The majority also had gained business-related work experience before coming to New Zealand.
Given this work experience and their New Zealand qualifications, it could reasonably be expected that they would have little difficulty in obtaining employment in New Zealand organisations or in setting up their own businesses. This was not the case. At the time of the survey, 11 (21.2%) were unemployed and there were individual cases of underemployment un·der·em·ployed
1. Employed only part-time when one needs and desires full-time employment.
2. Inadequately employed, especially employed at a low-paying job that requires less skill or training than one possesses. -- such as a person with an overseas Bachelor of Engineering Bachelor of Engineering (commonly abbreviated as BE or BEng) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three to five years of studying engineering at an accredited university in Australia, Canada, China, Finland, Germany, India, Ireland, Korea, and a New Zealand Executive MBA MBA
Master of Business Administration
Noun 1. MBA - a master's degree in business
Master in Business, Master in Business Administration , who was managing a dairy/superette.
Forty-eight of the 52 respondents classed themselves as native speakers of one or more languages other than English LOTE or Languages Other Than English is the name given to language subjects at Australian schools. LOTEs have often historically been related to the policy of multiculturalism, and tend to reflect the predominant non-English languages spoken in a school's local area, the , with just over half speaking a Chinese language/dialect. Twenty-eight of those employed indicated that they made some use of their native-speaker skills at work, but the reported use of these skills was only up to three times a month in the majority of cases. Fourteen reported that their cultural backgrounds were useful at work, while only seven reported use of their business connections in their employment.
In answers to open-ended questions A closed-ended question is a form of question, which normally can be answered with a simple "yes/no" dichotomous question, a specific simple piece of information, or a selection from multiple choices (multiple-choice question), if one excludes such non-answer responses as dodging a the respondents made a number of criticisms of what they perceived as the wastage wastage
a loss of product or productivity; in terms of animal production includes losses due to deaths of animals, lowered production from survivors, including reproduction, and lost opportunity income.
wastage Fetal wastage, see there of NESB immigrant resources. They felt strongly that their potential to contribute was overlooked by employers. For example, one respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. was of the opinion that:
"If in the past my world view had been recognised, my employers would be far better off. Two or more language skills present opportunities, which a single language skill does not."
They also drew attention to a range of problems that impeded im·pede
tr.v. im·ped·ed, im·ped·ing, im·pedes
To retard or obstruct the progress of. See Synonyms at hinder1.
[Latin imped the utilisation of their skills. Included among these problems were an apparent reluctance by many New Zealanders This is a list of well-known people associated with New Zealand.
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. . With reference to the latter group, as a measure of the effect of the problems encountered, it may be noted that: (a) at the time of the first interview, typically within six months of taking up residence, only seven of the 36 Chinese participants (19.4%) were in either full- or part-time employment (including self-employment); and (b) a year later, although their situation had improved, only 13 (36.1%) were in some form of employment (Henderson et al. 1999:14-17).
Government Organisations' Findings
Many of the themes that emerged concerning the utilisation of NESB immigrant resources in New Zealand companies were also found in the survey of government organisations.
Of the 157 participating organisations, 101 (64.3%) reported that they had NESB immigrants in their workforce: 65 (68.4%) of the 95 central government organisations compared with 36 (58.1%) of the 62 local government organisations. As far as their native languages were concerned, Pacific Islands languages (particularly Samoan and Tongan) featured highly, along with Indian languages/dialects (Hindi, Gujarati, Punjabi etc.), and Chinese languages/dialects (Cantonese, Taiwanese, Mandarin Mandarin (măn`dərĭn) [Port. mandar=to govern, or from Malay mantri=counselor of state], a high official of imperial China. For each of the nine grades there was a different colored button worn on the dress cap. etc.). Dutch was the most prominent of the European languages. But less than half (49.5%) of the organisations reported that their NESB immigrant employees used their native languages at work in some way. Greater use of such skills was noted in central (63.1%) as compared with local (25.0%) government organisations. Furthermore, of the 101 participating organisations employing NESB immigrants, only 26 (25.7%) reported that they made use of the cultural backgrounds of their employees in some way. These were almost exclusively central government organisations, particularly those involved in the social welfare, health and justice areas.
The second part of the study was directed at determining the kinds of language-related services provided by the organisations for NESB clients and the extent to which these services involved the participation of their NESB employees. Two key findings emerged. First, 73 organisations (46.5%) reported that they provided translation or interpreting facilities for their clients. Again, this was primarily a feature of those in central (56) rather than local (17) government. In general, when interpreters or translators This is primarily a list of notable Western translators. Please feel free to add translators from other languages, cultures and areas of specialization. Large sublists have been split off to separate articles. were required, the participating organisations indicated a tendency to contract in outside personnel rather than make use of their own staff. Second, 54 organisations (34.4%) reported that they provided material for clients in languages other than English or Maori. Here also these were predominantly pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. in central (46) rather than local (eight) government. However, 12 organisations admitted that there was a demand for written information in different languages that they were unable to meet, principally because of a lack of resources.
FINDINGS ON BEST PRACTICE FEATURES
From the companies and government organisations included in the two studies, a small sub-group in each was selected for follow-up interviews. On the basis of these interviews the following best practice features were identified.
Explicit Policies and Procedures Policies and Procedures are a set of documents that describe an organization's policies for operation and the procedures necessary to fulfill the policies. They are often initiated because of some external requirement, such as environmental compliance or other governmental
Best practice in NESB immigrant recruitment and appointment involves the development of explicit policies that identify the advantages that immigrants might bring to a company or organisation. The policies also set out procedures for settling NESB immigrants effectively into the workforce. Consideration is given to the fact that some might require additional training or retraining re·train
tr. & intr.v. re·trained, re·train·ing, re·trains
To train or undergo training again.
re·train to make better use of their skills and qualities in the New Zealand work environment. Procedures are outlined in policies for providing this support.
Personal Assistance (Pre-arrival, On Arrival and Later)
Best practice in the pre-arrival period involves making personal contact with potential immigrants in their countries of origin, providing them with accurate information about employment and living conditions living conditions npl → condiciones fpl de vida
living conditions npl → conditions fpl de vie
living conditions living in New Zealand, and assisting them in completing immigration formalities for·mal·i·ty
n. pl. for·mal·i·ties
1. The quality or condition of being formal.
2. Rigorous or ceremonious adherence to established forms, rules, or customs.
3. . Effective on-arrival assistance involves greeting immigrants, placing them into suitable accommodation, helping them to choose schools for their children and facilitating their contact with community networks (including links with other members of their ethnic group). Depending on the circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or , best practice follow-up assistance could include providing access to English language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations. courses or to professional or vocational courses that could help the immigrants in their employment.
Involvement in the Company/Organisation Culture
Best practice in integrating immigrants into the company/organisation involves induction induction, in electricity and magnetism
induction, in electricity and magnetism, common name for three distinct phenomena.
Electromagnetic induction programmes that focus on their needs and which provide them with knowledge and understanding of the company/organisation culture. Recent immigrants may also be called upon to contribute to staff development programmes that aim to increase the multi-cultural and multi-lingual awareness of staff and help them become more aware of issues related to their work amongst people of different backgrounds.
Identification and Recognition of Immigrant Linguistic Skills
The competence of immigrant employees in languages other than English is identified in human resource records. This listing is used as a reference point when interpreting/translating needs arise. Abilities in languages relevant to the operations of the company/organisation are recognised through a rewards system, particularly if use of these abilities falls outside of normal duties.
Effective Use of Linguistic Skills and Cultural Knowledge
Native speakers of other languages are encouraged to maintain or extend their fluency flu·ent
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.
b. and gain qualifications as translators or interpreters. Consideration is given to training selected individuals to take up specialist positions in the company/organisation where their linguistic and cultural competence could be used to better advantage. Efforts are made to match staff who possess native speaker skills in certain languages with clients who are speakers of those languages.
Provision of Services for Immigrant Populations
Best practice shown by organisations with particular responsibilities for providing services within New Zealand includes:
* data collection on the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of clients, combined with close attention to demographic trends and changes to assist with forward planning forward planning n → planificación f por anticipado ;
* provision of competent, qualified interpreters where clients have difficulties communicating in English;
* provision of documentation in the main languages used by NESB client groups;
* consultation with NESB communities on issues which could impact on their cultural sensitivities; and
* monitoring the effectiveness of service provision via feedback from NESB clients(5).
KEY FACTORS IN THE PROMOTION OF PRODUCTIVE DIVERSITY
Current immigration policy emphasises the importance of adding to the nation's human capital by attracting skilled, well qualified people (New Zealand Immigration Service 1995a, 1995b). However, the results of the two studies reported above suggest that there are barriers to the participation of NESB immigrants that limit their ability to contribute productively. In this context, four key factors in the promotion of productive diversity in the workplace are identified and discussed below.
Recognition of the Reality of Diversity
A pre-requisite for productive diversity is the acknowledgement that diversity actually exists. It would appear, on the basis of the survey responses, that such recognition cannot be assumed as a given. While some companies and organisations recognised in their policies and practices the multi-cultural makeup makeup
In the performing arts, material used by actors for cosmetic purposes and to help create the characters they play. Not needed in Greek and Roman theatre because of the use of masks, makeup was used in the religious plays of medieval Europe, in which the angels' faces of their workforce, others appeared to view their staff as primarily homogeneous The same. Contrast with heterogeneous.
homogeneous - (Or "homogenous") Of uniform nature, similar in kind.
1. In the context of distributed systems, middleware makes heterogeneous systems appear as a homogeneous entity. For example see: interoperable network. -- embodying similar ways of thinking, feeling and acting. Furthermore, a number of companies appeared to overlook the diversity in their customer base, in respect to both the domestic and international markets. There was a tendency to perpetuate per·pet·u·ate
tr.v. per·pet·u·at·ed, per·pet·u·at·ing, per·pet·u·ates
1. To cause to continue indefinitely; make perpetual.
2. myths that all people can speak English and that they are familiar with Western values, beliefs and customs.
View of Diversity as an Advantage
The surveys also showed conflicting views on the value of diversity. Again, there were differences between those companies/organisations that considered diversity a source of valuable insights and expertise that could be drawn upon to provide competitive advantages and opportunities and others which overlooked these assets or associated diversity with dangers and threats. Furthermore, attitudes and prejudices undoubtedly play a part in determining whether or not use is made of the resources available. Regrettably, there were companies and organisations that tended to prefer native-born New Zealanders rather than people from other backgrounds in matters of recruitment or promotion. Immigrants are acutely aware of such cultural biases (see Basnayake 1999, Henderson et al. 1999).
Establishing a Workplace Culture that Fosters Productive Diversity
Productive diversity is more likely to flourish in a workplace culture that is inclusive and affirming, and that encourages the input of people from different backgrounds. A common element in the best practice features identified was a commitment at managerial level to fully involve NESB immigrant employees in company/organisation activities and to educate other staff on the value of their contributions.
Maintenance of a Social Climate Conducive con·du·cive
Tending to cause or bring about; contributive: working conditions not conducive to productivity. See Synonyms at favorable. to Productive Diversity
On the wider front, productive diversity is more likely to be attained if new immigrants have positive settlement experiences. All sectors have a major role in this: central government agencies, business, local authorities, as well as ethnic networks, family connections and voluntary groups in the local community.
SOCIAL POLICY IMPLICATIONS
A strong, knowledge-based economy depends on a citizenship that is well educated, skilled, hard-working and creative. All available human resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees. , imported as well as native, must be recognised, developed and utilised to their full potential. This cannot occur if skilled immigrants have limited opportunities to participate fully. Here, economic considerations link with issues of social justice and equity. Immigrants should not have to face social or institutional barriers that reduce their potential to contribute as residents or citizens, whether this is discrimination in employment, inequitable access to services or a lack of support to meet specific needs. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , the development and effective implementation of appropriate social policy are essential to the optimum realisation of NESB immigrant resources. In this respect, there is an urgent imperative for action in at least three policy areas.
Monitoring and Implementation of Equal Opportunities
While legislation exists with respect to the provision of equal employment opportunities, EEO must be monitored more effectively to ensure that compliance is not perfunctory per·func·to·ry
1. Done routinely and with little interest or care: The operator answered the phone with a perfunctory greeting.
2. Acting with indifference; showing little interest or care. but carried out in a positive manner. This involves large-scale, proactive programmes to educate employers and administrators on the advantages of a multi-cultural workforce. They should be encouraged: to identify positions which require particular blends of linguistic and cultural competencies not normally found in the native-born population; and to institute measures to increase the participation rate of people with these attributes.
The effective monitoring and implementation of EEO in turn suggest a closer partnership between business, government and the community to promote the value of productive diversity. A possible promotional model A Promotional Model is a person hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with consumers. A promotional model can be female or male, and typically is attractive in physical appearance, and not only provides information to the may be found in Victoria (Australia), where a concerted campaign has been mounted to draw popular attention to the advantages of diversity for increasing exports and productivity and improving client services. This is a combined effort drawing on government, business and education sectors as well as the ethnic communities themselves (see Employment Victoria 1998).
Providing a Comprehensive, Coordinated Settlement Programme
Finally, productive diversity depends on the existence of an infrastructure that assists immigrants to settle smoothly into the host society. Timely, appropriate assistance in the immediate post-arrival period is crucial; if needs are not met at this stage (including access/entry to appropriate employment), the effects may be long-lasting and detrimental det·ri·men·tal
Causing damage or harm; injurious.
detri·men to both the individual and society in general (see North et al. 1999, Trlin and Henderson 1999, Trlin et al. 1999). The sooner immigrants are helped to settle in the new environment, the sooner New Zealand will gain the benefits of their skills and abilities. But this requires coordinated planning to achieve a balanced, well integrated institutional structure of immigration (see Trlin 1993). The Race Relations race relations
the relations between members of two or more races within a single community
race relations npl → relaciones fpl raciales
v. con·cil·i·at·ed, con·cil·i·at·ing, con·cil·i·ates
1. To overcome the distrust or animosity of; appease.
2. criticises the present situation where: "... new arrivals are largely left on their own to make a transition to life in New Zealand" (Office of the Race Relations Conciliator 1998:10) and adds:
As a country we need to develop a much more comprehensive programme to assist new migrants to settle. Such a programme should make English language classes readily available. Other settlement services should be offered to new settlers as well as the communities in which they settle.
Government agencies must, then, consider carefully their policies and protocols for dealing with NESB immigrant needs. Although some public sector organisations may have developed their own codes and protocols relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc the provision of culturally responsive services (e.g. Department of Social Welfare 1996), overall there is an absence of integrated top-level policies that could provide a consistent approach to addressing the requirements of new settlers with different linguistic or cultural backgrounds. In this respect, policies and practices in New Zealand lag well behind those in Australia where considerably more attention has been paid to immigrant access and equity issues. For example, the Australian Charter of Public Service in a Culturally Diverse Society (Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs 1998b), endorsed by the Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments and the Australian Local Government Association The Australian Local Government Association is a national body representing local governments across Australia. The President of the Local Government Association also sits on the panel of the Council of Australian Governments. , is based on the seven principles of access, equity, communication, responsiveness, effectiveness, efficiency and accountability.
Urgent consideration needs to be given to a similar, comprehensive social policy framework in New Zealand. On the basis of best practice examples identified in the survey of companies and organisations reported in this paper, this framework should include guidelines on the following:
* Gathering accurate information about client groups and their particular linguistic and cultural backgrounds;
* Identifying the special needs of NESB clients;
* Developing appropriate programmes and services to meet these needs;
* Ensuring that NESB clients have equitable access to relevant information in their own languages and to interpreting and translation services;
* Training staff to deal sensitively with people from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds;
* Recruiting staff with skills in immigrant languages and contacts with ethnic communities;
* Developing databases of staff with these skills and recognising and rewarding them for use of such skills; and
* Setting in place mechanisms to monitor the appropriateness and effectiveness of the services provided for NESB clients.
This paper has discussed some of the ways in which companies and organisations have responded to New Zealand's growing cultural diversity. The argument has been made that there are deficiencies in the effective management of this diversity and wastage of the talents of many of the skilled NESB immigrants who have arrived in recent years. Needless to say, the sooner the issues identified in this paper are tackled, the sooner will New Zealand achieve: (a) a reduction in the settlement difficulties experienced by immigrants; and (b) an increase in the benefits accruing from its targeted immigration programmes.
(1) The New Settlers Programme, of which the research reported in this paper is a part, is supported by the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology with a grant from the Public Good Science Fund.
(2) The companies were targeted on the basis of information concerning their involvement in non-English speaking markets provided in the New Zealand Export Yearbook 1998 (Profile Publishing Ltd 1998), the New Zealand Trade Directory 1998-99 (Current Pacific Ltd 1998), and the Travel Industry Directory and Information Guide 1998 (T.P.L. Media 1998).
(3) Access to this group was gained through the cooperation of the Alumni Associations An alumni association is an association of graduates (alumni) or, more broadly, of former students. In the United Kingdom and the United States, alumni of universities, colleges, schools (especially independent schools), fraternities, and sororities often form groups with alumni of the University of Auckland Not to be confused with Auckland University of Technology.
The University of Auckland (Māori: Te Whare Wānanga o Tāmaki Makaurau) is New Zealand's largest university. and Massey University with some extra assistance provided by the Federation of Ethnic Councils.
(4) These included: (a) central government organisations listed in The New Zealand Government Directory 1999 (Network Communications 1999), and public health providers included in The Health and Disability Sector in New Zealand: A Directory (Ministry of Health 1998); and (b) regional, city and district councils listed in A Directory of Local Government in New Zealand (Department of Internal Affairs 1997).
(5) For further details concerning the results of the two surveys, see Watts and Trlin (1999, 2000).
Basnayake, A. (1999) Employment Experiences of Sri Lankan Migrants in New Zealand, EEO Trust, Auckland.
Boyer, T. (1996) "Problems in paradise: Taiwanese immigrants to Auckland, New Zealand" Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 37 (1):59-79.
Cope, B. and M. Kalantzis (1997) Productive Diversity: A New Australian New Australian
Austral an Australian name for a recent immigrant, esp. one from Europe Model for Work and Management, Pluto Press Pluto Press is a progressive, independent publisher based in London. It was founded in 1969 by Richard Kuper and others as an arm of International Socialism, the forerunner of the Socialist Workers Party in the UK. , Annandale, NSW NSW New South Wales
Noun 1. NSW - the agency that provides units to conduct unconventional and counter-guerilla warfare
Naval Special Warfare .
Crocombe, G., M. Enright and M. Porter (1991) Upgrading New Zealand's Competitive Advantage, Oxford University Press, Auckland.
Current Pacific Ltd (1998) New Zealand Trade Directory 1998-99, Current Pacific Ltd, Auckland.
Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (1998a) Cultural Diversity at Work, Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, Commonwealth of Australia Commonwealth of Australia: see Australia. , Canberra.
Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (1998b) Charter of Public Service in a Culturally Diverse Society, Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (1999) Productive Diversity: Australia's Competitive Advantage, DIMA DIMA Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (Australia)
DiMA Digital Media Association
DIMA Digital Imaging Marketing Association
DIMA drilling individual mobilization augmentee (US DoD) Fact Sheet 12, Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, Canberra.
Department of Internal Affairs (1996) High Hopes: A Survey of Qualifications, Training and Employment Issues for Recent Immigrants in New Zealand, Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington.
Department of Internal Affairs (1997): A Directory of Local Government in New Zealand.
Department of Social Welfare (1996) Pate Lali Nafa: Strategies for Pacific Islands Employment and Service Delivery, Department of Social Welfare, Wellington.
Employment Victoria (1998) Our Multicultural Advantage, State Government of Victoria, Melbourne.
Forsyte Research (1998) Experiences of Recent Business Migrants in New Zealand, Report prepared for the New Zealand Immigration Service, Forsyte Research, Auckland.
Frederick, H., D. Beattie and D. McIlroy (1999) The Knowledge Economy, Submission to the New Zealand Government by the Minister for Information Technology's IT Advisory Group, ITAG ITAG Iowa Talented and Gifted Association
ITAG International Trepanation Advocacy Group , Wellington.
Henderson, A., A. Trlin and N. Watts (1999) "Squandered squan·der
tr.v. squan·dered, squan·der·ing, squan·ders
1. To spend wastefully or extravagantly; dissipate. See Synonyms at waste.
2. skills? The employment problems, experiences and responses of skilled Chinese immigrants in New Zealand" Asian Nationalism nationalism, political or social philosophy in which the welfare of the nation-state as an entity is considered paramount. Nationalism is basically a collective state of mind or consciousness in which people believe their primary duty and loyalty is to the in an Age of Globalisation, NZASIA 13th International Conference, 24-27 November 1999, Dunedin.
Kipp, S., M. Clyne and A. Pauwels (1995) Immigration and Australia's Language Resources, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Lidgard, J. (1996) East Asian Migration to Aotearoa/New Zealand: Perspectives of Some New Arrivals. PSC (Public Service Commission) Same as PUC. Discussion Papers No. 12, Population Studies Centre, University of Waikato In 2002 over 14,000 students were enrolled at the university. More than a quarter of students were aged over 25, and over half were women. It has the highest proportion of Māori students on any campus in New Zealand. , Hamilton.
Ministry of Health (1998) The Health and Disability Sector in New Zealand: A Directory, Ministry of Health, Wellington.
Network Communications (1999) The New Zealand Government Directory 1999, Network Communications (New Zealand) Ltd, Wellington.
New Zealand Immigration Service (1995a) Background Paper: A Review of New Zealand's Residence Policies: The "Targeted" Immigration Streams, New Zealand Immigration Service, Wellington.
New Zealand Immigration Service (1995b) New Zealand's "Targeted" Immigration Policies: Summary of October 1995 Policy Changes, July 1995, New Zealand Immigration Service, Wellington.
North, N., A. Trlin and R. Singh (1999) "Characteristics and difficulties of unregistered immigrant doctors in New Zealand" New Zealand Population Review, 25 (1/2):135-145.
Office of the Race Relations Conciliator (1998) Annual Report of the Office of the Race Relations Conciliator for the Year Ended 30 June 1998, Office of the Race Relations Conciliator, Wellington.
Profile Publishing Ltd (1998) New Zealand Export Yearbook 1998, Profile Publishing Ltd, Auckland.
Stanley, J., D. Ingrain in·grain
tr.v. in·grained, in·grain·ing, in·grains
1. To fix deeply or indelibly, as in the mind: and G. Chittick (1990) The Relationship between International Trade and Linguistic Competence, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
T.P.L. Media (1998) Travel Industry Directory and Information Guide 1998, T.P.L. Media, Auckland.
Trlin, A. (1993) "The social effects and institutional structure of immigration in New Zealand in the 1980s" Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 2:1-25.
Trlin, A. (1997) "For the promotion of economic growth and prosperity: New Zealand's immigration policy 1991-1995" in A. Trlin and P. Spoonley (eds.) New Zealand and International Migration: A Digest and Bibliography bibliography. The listing of books is of ancient origin. Lists of clay tablets have been found at Nineveh and elsewhere; the library at Alexandria had subject lists of its books. No. 3, pp.1-27, Department of Sociology Noun 1. department of sociology - the academic department responsible for teaching and research in sociology
academic department - a division of a school that is responsible for a given subject , Massey University, Palmerston North Palmerston North, city (1996 pop. 73,095), S North Island, New Zealand. It is a transportation and farm-marketing center with diverse industries. The city's agricultural college, founded in 1926, became Massey Univ. in 1964. .
Trlin, A. and A. Henderson (1999) "The effects and implications of unemployment among new Chinese arrivals: a report from the New Settlers Programme" in J. Ng and B. Moloughney (eds.) Chinese in Australasia and the Pacific: Old and New Migrations and Cultural Change, Conference for the Study of Overseas Chinese A list of famous people with Chinese ancestry living outside of the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China. Leaders and politicians
2. in Australasia and the Pacific Islands), pp.102-116, ASCADAPI, Dunedin.
Trlin, A., A. Henderson and N. North (1999) "Effects of unemployment among skilled immigrants from India" New Zealand Population Review, 25 (1/2):99-117.
Watts, N. (1994) "The use of foreign languages in tourism: research needs" Australian Review of Applied Linguistics Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and sociology. , 17 (1):73-84.
Watts, N. and A. Trlin (1999) Utilisation of Immigrant Language Resources in International Business, Trade and Tourism in New Zealand New Zealand receives two million tourists per year, and is the country's biggest 'export' earner. New Zealand is marketed as a "clean, green" adventure playground, with typical destinations being nature areas such as Milford Sound and the Tongariro Crossing, while activities , New Settlers Programme Occasional Paper No. 1, Massey University, Palmerston North.
Watts, N. and A. Trlin (2000) Employment and Service Provision for Immigrants from Non-English Speaking Backgrounds in Central and Local Government Organisations in Nets Zealand, New Settlers Programme Occasional Paper No. 2, Massey University, Palmerston North.
Noel Watts Andrew Trlin New Settlers Programme Massey University