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[The following article by Eduardo Garcia is reprinted with the permission of Noticias Aliadas in Lima, Peru. It appeared in the March 6, 2004, edition of Latinamerica Press.]

Forensic anthropologists are digging up clandestine cemeteries and with it, thousands of human dramas.

Carlos Paz Lopez, Dolores Dolores (or Delores) was a common given name (until the 1960s in the USA); it is cognate with the English word "dolorous" (meaning sorrowful) and equivalent in meaning.  Chumes Chex, Feliza Tuyuc, Paulino Colaz, Mateo Chali are the names of some of the people who disappeared during the armed conflict in the village of Comalapa, two hours from Guatemala City Guatemala City

City (pop., 1994: city, 823,301; 1999 est.: metro area, 3,119,000), capital of Guatemala. The largest city in Central America, it lies in the central highlands at an elevation of about 4,900 ft (1,490 m).

On Feb. 25, celebrated as a national day for victims of the armed conflict, the Coordinadora Nacional de Viudas de Guatemala (CONAVIGUA CONAVIGUA Comité Nacional de Viudas de Guatemala (Guatemala) ) unveiled a monument in Comalapa with the names of the 250 local people who went missing during the war.

Most of their bodies were never found. However, since August 2003, at CONAVIGUA's request, the Fundacion Antropologia Forense de Guatemala (FAFG FAFG Fundación de Antropología Forense de Guatemala (Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Foundation) ) has been exploring the land surrounding the former military base in search of them (see NotiCen, 2002-06-27).

The numbers, say the anthropologists, are not that important. Nevertheless, armed only with spades and with the help of neighbors, the FAFG is rewriting the history of Comalapa. They have dug 721 pits in the village and have found the bodies of 119 people--117 men, a woman, and a boy.

"A great number of the bodies show clear signs of violence," said Juan Carlos Juan Car·los   Born 1938.

King of Spain (since 1975) who acceded to the throne on the death of Francisco Franco and helped restore parliamentary democracy.

Noun 1.
 Gatica, a FAFG anthropologist.

Most of the disappearances in Comalapa occurred between 1981 and 1983, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the Comision para el Esclarecimiento Historico (CEH CEH Certified Ethical Hacker
CEH Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
CEH Comisión de Esclarecimiento Histórico
CEH Centre for Environmental Health
CEH Continuing Education Hour
CEH Complex Electronic Hardware
CEH Colorado Evidentiary Hearing
), and 81% of human rights abuses during the war took place during these three years, which included the military dictatorship A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a , a state ruled directly by the military.  of Gen. Efrain Rios Montt (1982-1983)

The CEH calculated there are nearly 669 clandestine cemeteries in Guatemala (see NotiCen, 1999-04-15), although the FAFG estimates there are twice as many, around 1,300. The CEH report said 83.3% of the victims were Mayan, and 93% of human rights abuses were committed by government forces and the civil self-defense patrols.

In the last twelve years, the Years, The

the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]

See : Time
 FAFG has unearthed Unearthed is the name of a Triple J project to find and "dig up" (hence the name) hidden talent in regional Australia.

Unearthed has had three incarnations - they first visited each region of Australia where Triple J had a transmitter - 41 regions in all.
 around 3,000 corpses, some of them in individual tombs and others in mass graves.

"If we carry on at this speed, it would take us 15 years to recover all the bodies," said Alan Robinson, the FAFG's director of forensic anthropology.

However, "exhumations are not mathematics, the most important thing is the human dimension," said Jesus Hernandez of the Centro de Antropologia Forense y Ciencias Aplicada (CAFCA CAFCA Centro de Antropología Forense y Ciencias Aplicada (Centre of Forensic Anthropology and Applied Sciences) ), another association of forensic anthropologists that has been carrying out exhumations since 1999.

Carmen Carmen

throws over lover for another. [Fr. Lit.: Carmen; Fr. Opera: Bizet, Carmen, Westerman, 189–190]

See : Faithlessness


the cards repeatedly spell her death. [Fr.
 Gomez of CONAVIGUA, one of the nearly 200 people looking for Looking for

In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with.
 a relative in Comalapa, saw her husband for the last time on May 8, 1981, when two strangers burst into her house and took her husband away. "One of them said, 'One question only, we are going to ask him one question and we will let him go, sleep in peace with your children,'" said Gomez.

Her husband, Felipe Pollan Pol´lan

n. 1. (Zool.) A lake whitefish (Coregonus pollan), native of Ireland. In appearance it resembles a herring.
, at the time 24 years old, knew what was going to happen to him. Gomez said his last words to her were, "Goodbye forever, look after my children." Pollan never got to see his daughter, who was born a few months after his disappearance.

"Since we started, demand has been increasing, we are doing more and more exhumations with the passage of time, because fear is dying," Hernandez said.

The main goal of the anthropologists is to find the bodies of the disappeared and try to identify them by determining age, sex, height, and other individual features.

Robinson said that the rate of success in identifying the bodies is quite high, 56%, given that they use a very basic technique. In the case of Comalapa, identification is more difficult because many bodies were brought from regions as far away as Huehuetenango or Quiche quiche  
A rich unsweetened custard pie, often containing ingredients such as vegetables, cheese, or seafood.

[French, from German dialectal Küche, diminutive of German Kuchen, cake

However, their mission is more than technical because these organizations want the past to be remembered and justice to be done. Additionally, they also want to end the widespread fear and help families of victims to overcome the psychological trauma caused by the conflict.

Clandestine cemeteries not only epitomize victims' pain, they are also a symbol of impunity. The need for justice is one of the main motivations of the anthropologists, and all exhumations are carried out after a formal request by the attorney general's office, which is then responsible for prosecuting each case. However, prosecutions are so far the exception rather than the rule.

Hernandez said: "I think there is going to be justice, but it is wearing us out." He added, "The judiciary is very weak, but we have to carry on..., work has to be done with objectivity, always hoping that the cases are going to end in court."

The need to find the bodies of the disappeared, the most obvious proof of the brutality of the armed conflict, is evident in the light of declarations of those that deny that there was genocide in Guatemala.

Among them are powerful people, some within President Oscar Berger's new government. One is Otto Perez Molina, security and defense commissioner, whose role as a general in the department of El Quiche has been questioned--some cast him as a pacifier while others say he was a brutal officer. "There was no genocide, because there was no attempt to exterminate a race...this was a battleground for the Cold War fight between the US and Russia. We provided the bodies and they provided the ideology," Perez Molina said.

The work in the clandestine cemeteries "is not a revenge, we do it because we want them and us to have peace. As long as we do not know for a fact that they are dead it is very difficult to recover that peace and that tranquility," said Rosalina Tuyuc, founder of CONAVIGUA and one of the first congresswomen of Maya origin.
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Publication:NotiCen: Central American & Caribbean Affairs
Date:Apr 15, 2004

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