Cultural competence and master therapists: an inextricable relationship.Striving for cultural competence cultural competence Social medicine The ability to understand, appreciate, and interact with persons from cultures and/or belief systems other than one's own and developing expertise are both highly desirable objectives in the field of mental health counseling. That the two concepts have been investigated rather independently of each other is surprising. The importance of and rationale for combining two scientific knowledge bases of cultural competence and research about expertise in mental health counseling are the focus of this article. The case for a more deliberate juxtaposing of the two research areas of cultural competence and expertise in mental health counseling is made by highlighting the interrelatedness in·ter·re·late
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.
in of cultural competence and master therapist research, the diversity of mental health consumers, the requirements of ethical practice, and the need to reduce bias in how mental health research is conducted.
Skovholt and Jennings (2004) have provided a rich, insightful, and illuminating portrait of master therapists and the development of expertise in mental health counseling that is, I believe, cutting-edge. However, I am recommending that more attention be given toward investigating the role of cultural competence in the research on expertise. In an earlier report of their findings, Jennings and Skovholt (1999) were aptly self-critical about the lack of diversity in the sampling for their landmark study on the cognitive, emotional, and relational characteristics of master therapists. Jennings, Goh, Skovholt, Hanson, and Banerjee-Stevens (2003), in addressing the multiple factors that contribute to the development of expertise in counselors and therapists, also noted that the literature on expertise in mental health counseling fails to give sufficient attention to the role of cultural competence. I understand that the methodology used in the studies mentioned in Skovholt and Jennings' book did not intentionally seek to leave culture out of the equation. Other studies on expertise in counseling similarly did not fully capture or address cultural competence aspects of expertise (e.g., Goldfried, 2001: Goldfried, Raue, & Castonguay, 1998: Orlinsky et al., 1999). Methodological constraints notwithstanding, I believe that more can and needs to be done to address issues of cultural competence in studies of expertise in mental health counseling.
In this article, I will argue the case for a more deliberate juxtaposing of cultural competence with expertise in mental health counseling by outlining the following reasons: (a) Cultural competence and expertise in mental health counseling are conceptually similar and intertwined, (b) counselors and therapists need to be trained to work with the increasing cultural diversity in our communities, (c) developing cultural competence is required for ethical practice, and (d) meaningful research on expertise in mental health counseling must include and involve cultural diversity.
CONCEPTUAL SIMILARITIES BETWEEN CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MASTER THERAPISTS
Two concepts frequently used in mental health counseling that address cultural expertise are cultural competence and multicultural counseling competence. S. Sue (1998) defined cultural competence as "the belief that people should not only appreciate and recognize other cultural groups but also be able to work effectively with them" (p. 440). The term multicultural counseling competence has been defined as a counselor's beliefs/attitudes, knowledge, and skills that relate to working with culturally diverse clients (D. W. Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis. 1992: D. W. Sue et al., 1998). Another definition describes multicultural counseling as "preparation and practices that integrate multicultural and culture-specific awareness, knowledge and skills into counseling interaction" (Arredondo et al., 1996, p. 43). The most comprehensive definition of cultural competence is perhaps provided by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), an operating division of the Health and Human Services Department (HHS), was established in 1992 by the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Reorganization Act (Pub. L. No. 102-321). (1997):
A set of congruent practice skills, behaviors, attitudes, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or among professionals and enables that system, agency, or those professionals to work effectively in cross-cultural situations. It is the ability to demonstrate skills and knowledge which enable a person to work effectively across cultures: the ability to provide mental health treatment within the cultural framework of the consumer: the ability to provide effective services to people of a specific cultural background, including one different from the provider. (p. 27)
In this article, I use the term cultural competence as also representing multicultural counseling competence. It also should be noted that definitions of culture in these instances often are inclusive of inclusive of
Taking into consideration or account; including. gender, ability/disability, and sexual orientation sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces. and deal with a broader diversity than just purely race and ethnicity (D. W. Sue, 2001a).
Jennings and Skovholt (1999) stated that the term master therapist "is used frequently in the mental health lexicon to describe therapists considered to be 'the best of the best' among fellow practitioners" (p. 4). Orlinsky et al. (1999) defined mastery through their perceived mastery scale in a more traditional sense of a master craftsperson crafts·per·son
A craftsman or a craftswoman. . Orlinsky et al. defined therapeutic expertise in terms of knowing "what happens moment-by-moment during therapy sessions ... precision, subtlety sub·tle·ty
n. pl. sub·tle·ties
1. The quality or state of being subtle.
2. Something subtle, especially a nicety of thought or a fine distinction. , and finesse fi·nesse
1. Refinement and delicacy of performance, execution, or artisanship.
2. Skillful, subtle handling of a situation; tactful, diplomatic maneuvering.
3. in therapeutic work ... ability to guide the development of other therapists" (p. 211). Orlinsky (1999) elaborated on potential meanings in the use of the word master that could refer to "one who teaches or someone who practices with exemplary proficiency" (p. 13) and described mastery in practice to be "an encompassing, inventive, procedural kind of knowledge that can be modeled impressively for others or used as a basis for supervisory shaping of the practice of others" (p. 13).
Conceptually, both cultural competence and the more general expertise in counseling and therapy try to capture the essence and characteristics of high functioning counselors in therapeutic situations. Both attempt to describe competencies required to perform well in mental health counseling. In an attempt to differentiate the two concepts, expertise in master therapist research has been called general or traditional competence and the other, multicultural counseling competence. Pedersen (1991) was the first to suggest that all counseling that is effective must be responsive to the cultural nuances present in every counseling relationship. Fuertes, Bartolomeo, and Nichols (2001) believe that multicultural competence goes beyond traditional counseling, but the two are related "because one may need basic competence and even expertise in traditional counseling methods and techniques (such as the use of empathy and paraphrasing skills) to meaningfully engage and use multicultural competencies" (p. 10). Two studies have found general and multicultural competence to be highly correlated (Coleman, 1998: Fuertes & Brobst, 2002). Coleman actually questioned the assumption that general and multicultural counseling competence are separate constructs and suggested that the terms may be inseparable in·sep·a·ra·ble
1. Impossible to separate or part: inseparable pieces of rock.
2. Very closely associated; constant: inseparable companions. . More recently, it has been argued that multicultural counseling competence is a superordinate (D. W. Sue, 2001b; D. W. Sue & D. Sue, 2003) and higher order (Weaver, 2005) competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. to achieve.
Another striking similarity between expertise in counseling and multicultural counseling competency is how difficult it is to arrive at a satisfactory definition of each and how attempts to do so are fraught with challenges. Ridley, Baker, and Hill (2001) concluded that "what remains elusive is a collectively agreed upon Adj. 1. agreed upon - constituted or contracted by stipulation or agreement; "stipulatory obligations"
noncontroversial, uncontroversial - not likely to arouse controversy operationalization that comprehensively and accurately captures the quintessence quin·tes·sence
1. The pure, highly concentrated essence of a thing.
2. The purest or most typical instance: the quintessence of evil.
3. of the construct cultural competence" (p. 823). In addition, concerns about how to translate cultural competence theory into training and practice, and consequently how to measure and assess such competencies, have been raised in the literature (e.g., Constantine & Ladany, 2000, 2001: S. Sue, 1999). Orlinsky's (1999) comments and questions in his reaction article to Jennings and Skovholt (1999) echo many definitional difficulties that also are faced in defining master therapists.
The similarities between cultural competence and master therapists further extend to the way in which both concepts are theorized and modeled. For example, in comparing D. W. Sue (2001a) and Skovholt and Jennings (2004), one can observe the following similarities:
1. Capturing the essence of cultural competence and expertise is elusive.
2. Cultural competence and mastery in therapy are complex and multifaceted mul·ti·fac·et·ed
Having many facets or aspects. See Synonyms at versatile.
Adj. 1. multifaceted - having many aspects; "a many-sided subject"; "a multifaceted undertaking"; "multifarious interests"; "the multifarious .
3. Both concepts are described as developmental processes.
4. Both concepts are portrayed as developmental characteristics, and these characteristics can be taught or trained.
5. There is a positive goal orientation for both concepts in the sense that developing each set of characteristics is highly desirable.
6. Multiple diagrams of all shapes, forms, and dimensions--such as cubes, circles, layers, and radial diagrams--have been attempted to portray each concept.
7. Both concepts represent ideal or exemplary role models for maximizing effectiveness in mental health counseling.
8. Both concepts are difficult to operationalize and translate into training goals.
The apparent similarities between cultural competence and expertise, therefore, suggest that we need to do a better job, even with naturalistic nat·u·ral·is·tic
1. Imitating or producing the effect or appearance of nature.
2. Of or in accordance with the doctrines of naturalism. or phenomenological research designs, to inquire about the role of and relationship with cultural competence.
CULTURAL COMPETENCE FOR CULTURALLY DIVERSE COMMUNITIES
The rapidly growing diversification of the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. and the changing demographic complexion complexion /com·plex·ion/ (kom-plek´shun) the color and appearance of the skin of the face.
The natural color, texture, and appearance of the skin, especially of the face. in many communities (D. W. Sue & D. Sue, 2003) demand a serious review of access and efficacy issues in mental health counseling. What is unclear with many studies on expertise is the ethnic or diversity makeup of the participants who were surveyed or interviewed and whether they reflect society's growing diversity. The surgeon general's report Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Noun 1. Department of Health and Human Services - the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with health and welfare; created in 1979
Health and Human Services, HHS , 2001) noted discrepancies in the delivery of mental health services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract to ethnic minority populations in the United States. Culture, it was concluded, matters in how ethnic minorities fail to access or confront barriers when trying to obtain help. The report found that "major disparities exist in the access, utility and quality of mental health services for racial minorities" (p. 163). Training culturally competent counselors is essential in bridging this gap by making their work more relevant to diverse populations (Pedersen, Draguns, Lonner, & Trimble, 2002; Pope-Davis, Liu, Toporek, & Brittan-Powell, 2001). Even though Orlinsky, Botersman, Ronnestad, and the SPR spr Spring
SPR Strategic Petroleum Reserve
SPR Surface Plasmon Resonance
SPR Suomen Punainen Risti
SpR Specialist Registrar (UK doctor who supports a consultant)
SPR Society for Psychical Research
SPR Stop Prisoner Rape Collaborative Research Network's (2001) remarkable study of 4,000 participants has strong international representation, the findings do not necessarily translate to ethnic minority mental health issues in the United States.
It is increasingly recognized that cultural factors such as race, gender, sexual orientation, national origin, and ability/disability play some role in the therapist-client relationship and the effectiveness of therapy (Atkinson, Morten, & D. W. Sue, 1998; Pope-Davis et al., 2002; Pope-Davis & Coleman, 1997; Ridley, 1995). Ridley, Baker, and Hill (2001) considered cultural competence to be of critical consideration for all mental health professionals.
S. Sue (1998) noted that it is as yet inconclusive INCONCLUSIVE. What does not put an end to a thing. Inconclusive presumptions are those which may be overcome by opposing proof; for example, the law presumes that he who possesses personal property is the owner of it, but evidence is allowed to contradict this presumption, and show who is why ethnic minorities do not utilize mental health services in the same manner as Whites. Sue found that at least three critical variables influence cultural competence: (a) ethnic match (i.e., ethnically similar client and therapist); (b) service match (i.e., utilization of ethnic-specific services); and (c) cognitive match (i.e., when clients and therapists think in the same manner). Although ethnic match and ethnic-specific services studies reflect more favorable outcomes for ethnic minority clients, Sue concluded that the reasons why remain unclear. Cognitive match studies, however, reveal that when therapists and clients share conceptions and expectations about the therapeutic process, better outcomes emerge. Sue concluded by describing three culturally competent characteristics that mental health professionals should possess: (a) scientific mindedness, testing hypotheses when uncertain about cultural meanings; (b) the ability to "dynamic-size," a term borrowed from computer science and applied to mental health practice as knowing when to individualize in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. and generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.
2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively. about clients; and (c) the development of culture-specific expertise. It would be interesting for research on expertise to explore or test Sue's thesis.
Fourteen years ago, Ponterotto and Casas (1991) had already noted an increase in the number of publications that address cultural competence. The continuing interest in training counselors and therapists to be culturally competent is reflected in the burgeoning number of studies that investigate the processes for culturally competent practice. Examples of the increasing emphasis on the training and effect of multicultural counseling competence may be found in special issues of journals, such as the Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 26(1); The Counseling Psychologist, 26(1), 26(4), 29(6), and 30(3); and the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29(1). Two other journals, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology and the Journal of Counseling and Development, are also frequent publishers of articles related to culture and mental health practice.
Even as scientific knowledge grows and our practice evolves to more effectively address the mental health needs of the culturally diverse, it is clear that cultural competence needs to be at the forefront of discussions around expertise in mental health counseling. Training culturally competent counselors to work effectively with the increasing diversity in schools, higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. , the workplace, families, and communities is an urgent need now more than ever (D. W. Sue & D. Sue, 2003). To do any less is unethical unethical
said of conduct not conforming with professional ethics. (S. Sue, 1998), racist (Ridley, 1995), and cultural malpractice (Hall, 1997).
CULTURAL COMPETENCE FOR ETHICAL PRACTICE
Multicultural counseling competence stands for ethical practice (Arredondo, 2004). The development of cultural competence as ethical practice recently was highlighted when the American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. (APA (All Points Addressable) Refers to an array (bitmapped screen, matrix, etc.) in which all bits or cells can be individually manipulated.
APA - Application Portability Architecture , 2002) approved the Guidelines for Multicultural Education and Training, Research, and Practice for Psychologists. The APA Guidelines mirrors the codes of ethics of the American Mental Health Counselors A mental health counselor is a professional who provides counseling to individuals, couples, families, groups, or larger systems. A mental health counselor may also have training in educational and vocational counseling (MacCluskie & Ingersoll 2001). Association (2000) and the American Counseling Association The American Counseling Association (ACA) is a non-profit, professional organization that is dedicated to the counseling profession. ACA is the world's second largest association exclusively representing professional counselors. (1995) in emphasizing the need for mental health professionals to understand the diverse backgrounds and cultures of the clients with whom they work. Furthermore, the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs in its Standards (CACREP CACREP Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs , 2001) requires that all CACREP-accredited counselor education programs provide students with training and knowledge in working with culturally diverse clients.
Pack-Brown and Williams (2003) in their textbook illustrated with many cases studies and anecdotes how culturally complex situations can pose ethical dilemmas An ethical dilemma is a situation that will often involve an apparent conflict between moral imperatives, in which to obey one would result in transgressing another.
This is also called an ethical paradox for counselors and therapists. They emphasized both the importance of making ethical decisions Real life ethical decisions are studied in sociology and political science and psychology using very different methods than descriptive ethics in ethics (philosophy). Not ethics proper within the cultural framework of clients and the critical expectation that supervisors be effective in a multicultural context. In turn, the unique roles that culture and cultural competence play in supervision were addressed at length in an entire section of a book by Pope-Davis and Coleman (1997). Ridley, Liddle, Hill, and Li (2001) argued that ethical decision-making in multicultural counseling situations "requires more critical reflection and creative problem solving Creative problem solving is the mental process of creating a solution to a problem. It is a special form of problem solving in which the solution is independently created rather than learned with assistance. Creative problem solving requires more than just knowledge and thinking. than is facilitated by ethical codes Noun 1. ethical code - a system of principles governing morality and acceptable conduct
system of rules, system - a complex of methods or rules governing behavior; "they have to operate under a system they oppose"; "that language has a complex system " (p. 166).
There is almost verbatim ver·ba·tim
Using exactly the same words; corresponding word for word: a verbatim report of the conversation.
adv. consensus, in every definition of ethical practice by professional mental health associations, that culturally competent practice equals ethical practice. It is therefore incumbent that mental health researchers who study expertise in counseling reflect this basic assumption.
CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MENTAL HEALTH COUNSELING RESEARCH
S. Sue (1999) put it pointedly:
I believe that there is a lack of psychological research on ethnic minority populations; that research on ethnic minority groups is uneven, with much of it at a relatively low level; and that funding for ethnic minority research has been woefully inadequate. (p. 1070)
Sue elaborated that an overemphasis o·ver·em·pha·size
tr. & intr.v. o·ver·em·pha·sized, o·ver·em·pha·siz·ing, o·ver·em·pha·siz·es
To place too much emphasis on or employ too much emphasis. on internal validity Internal validity is a form of experimental validity . An experiment is said to possess internal validity if it properly demonstrates a causal relation between two variables  . and a lack of attention to external validity External validity is a form of experimental validity. An experiment is said to possess external validity if the experiment’s results hold across different experimental settings, procedures and participants. has led to an overgeneralization of findings based on studies that utilize only small subsets of people. S. Sue and L. Sue (2003) believe that conducting ethnic research is good science and good for science.
The APA (2002) Guidelines, mentioned earlier, were based on the premise that the United States is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. Therefore, scientists who conduct mental health research should reflect that diversity in their research sampling and methodology. Guideline 4 in the APA Guidelines encourages mental health researchers to be culture-centered and ethical when conducting research with ethnic, linguistic, and racial minorities.
Citing Heppner, Kivlighan, and Wampold's (1999) listing of five types of research validity (i.e., internal, external, construct, hypothesis, and statistical conclusion), Quintana, Troyano, and Taylor (2001) suggested that cultural validity be added to the list. The authors defined cultural validity as the following:
The authentic representation of the cultural nature of the research in terms of how constructs are operationalized, participants are recruited, hypotheses are formulated, study procedures are adapted, responses are analyzed, and results are interpreted for a particular cultural group as well as the usefulness of the research for its instructional utility in educating readers about the cultural group being investigated, its practical utility in yielding practice as well as theoretical implications about the cultural group, and its service utility in "giving back" to the community in important ways. (p. 617)
These authors went on to outline ways in which researchers can maximize cultural validity during various phases of research. Their ideal is best captured in this opening statement: "Someday some·day
At an indefinite time in the future.
Usage Note: The adverbs someday and sometime express future time indefinitely: We'll succeed someday. Come sometime. , we hope, all research will be multicultural and we will not need the qualifier qual·i·fi·er
1. One that qualifies, especially one that has or fulfills all appropriate qualifications, as for a position, office, or task.
2. 'multicultural' when referring to research" (p. 604).
Skovholt and Jennings (2004) in their qualitative study utilized a research methodology that is well suited for culture-centered studies. Ponterotto (2002) and Ponterotto, Costa, and Werner-Lin (2002) described qualitative research Qualitative research
Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections. methods as the fifth force in psychology. Ponterotto and associates noted that qualitative or multimethod approaches are ideal for understanding the complex juxtaposition juxtaposition /jux·ta·po·si·tion/ (-pah-zish´un) apposition.
The state of being placed or situated side by side. of culture and mental health counseling and that qualitative methods may be even more effective in tapping the complex interacting forces such as cultural competence and expertise in counseling. S. Sue (1999) noted the need for more qualitative studies to understand old and new constructs from different cultural perspectives. An inductive inductive
1. eliciting a reaction within an organism.
a form of radiofrequency hyperthermia that selectively heats muscle, blood and proteinaceous tissue, sparing fat and air-containing tissues. analysis allows the researcher to understand the data without imposing preexisting pre·ex·ist or pre-ex·ist
v. pre·ex·ist·ed, pre·ex·ist·ing, pre·ex·ists
To exist before (something); precede: Dinosaurs preexisted humans.
v.intr. expectations on the topic of study within cross-cultural contexts. Marsella (1998) and S. Sue (1999) claimed that cross-cultural research has not been as conclusive or useful because of the bias in value-laden assumptions and hypotheses of previous research methodologies and because of viewing results from Western lenses. S. Sue recommended a variety of research methods for our knowledge about culture's role in mental health counseling to grow substantially. Marsella believes that the increased use of qualitative research methods will expand our boundaries in understanding culture and mental health counseling as well as reduce the way research is viewed predominantly from a Western ethnocentric eth·no·cen·trism
1. Belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group.
2. Overriding concern with race.
At the time of this writing, I am pleased to note that I have secured grant funding to replicate the Jennings and Skovholt (1999) study, in collaboration with the original authors, with a focus on multicultural counseling competence. We hope that deliberate attempts to elicit cultural dimensions Cultural dimensions are the mostly psychological dimensions, or value constructs, which can be used to describe a specific culture. These are often used in Intercultural communication-/Cross-cultural communication-based research.
See also: Edward T. in expertise in our research questions and through our interviews will help to shed light on the role and relationship of cultural competence vis-a-vis general expertise in mental health counseling.
In this brief article, I have tried to paint, in very broad brush strokes Brush Strokes was an Esmonde and Larbey sitcom set in South London and depicting the (mostly) amorous adventures of a good-looking, wisecracking house painter, Jacko (Karl Howman). , what I consider to be the essential and obvious reasons why research on expertise in mental health counseling needs to be juxtaposed jux·ta·pose
tr.v. jux·ta·posed, jux·ta·pos·ing, jux·ta·pos·es
To place side by side, especially for comparison or contrast. with its conceptual twin of cultural competence. In doing so, I hope that I have not underrepresented un·der·rep·re·sent·ed
Insufficiently or inadequately represented: the underrepresented minority groups, ignored by the government. the vast body of knowledge on cultural competence and multicultural counseling nor undermined the bold positive steps that have been taken in master therapist research (Orlinsky et al., 2001: Skovholt & Jennings, 2004). I gave more attention to the two constructs" similarities because I believe the similarity forms the theoretical basis for why the two are inextricably in·ex·tri·ca·ble
a. So intricate or entangled as to make escape impossible: an inextricable maze; an inextricable web of deceit.
b. related. I then made the case for their juxtaposition based on the more pragmatic realities of the changing national demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. , clinical and ethical prudence, and, finally, research responsibility.
Research about cultural competence and expertise in mental health counseling continues to grow and will undoubtedly make significant contributions to the scientific knowledge as well as to the training, education, and practice of mental health counseling. Even as I write, I am mindful mind·ful
Attentive; heedful: always mindful of family responsibilities. See Synonyms at careful.
mind of the recent work by Earley and Ang (2003) on cultural intelligence and Sternberg's (2004) thinking about culture and intelligence that shed new light on how culture potentially manifests itself in what we consider to be expertise, indeed, cultural competence is very much a vibrant topic that is evolving every day. I am confident, therefore, that when we include it in our study of master therapists, our understanding will be enhanced, and the mental health professions will be the better for it.
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The author thanks Ling-Hsuan Tung for her assistance with this article.
Dr. Michael Goh is with the Counseling and Student Personnel Psychology Program, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Minnesota (body, education) University of Minnesota - The home of Gopher.
Address: Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. , Minneapolis. E-mail: email@example.com