Critical Success Factors in the Development of Healthcare Management Careers.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This article documents the results of a survey of healthcare executives in several western states focusing on factors influencing career satisfaction, progression progression, in mathematics, sequence of quantities, called terms, in which the relationship between consecutive terms is the same. An arithmetic progression is a sequence in which each term is derived from the preceding one by adding a given number, d, , and change. The results of our analysis suggest that, despite continuing turmoil in the healthcare industry, a majority of the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were satisfied with their careers in healthcare management. They indicate that their need to achieve results, their ability to deal with change, and their assumption of leadership responsibility early in their careers had the most influence on their management careers. Respondents who decided to change careers reported that networking was the most important strategy they used to prepare for this change.
These results suggest that managers who focus on getting the job done, seek opportunities that provide them with early leadership experience, and demonstrate an ability to manage change will have careers that are satisfying. The results also indicate that in these turbulent times, whether changing jobs or changing careers, preparation will be one of the major keys to success. Building and maintaining networks, assuming leadership responsibilities, and making things happen are controllable dynamics. How well these things are done appears to be one of the keys for success in this field.
DYNAMIC NATURE OF THE HEALTHCARE INDUSTRY AND HEALTHCARE CAREERS
The healthcare industry has been undergoing significant change and transformation over the past decade. Market forces have led to the emergence of new organizational forms and a shift in the role and function of traditional healthcare delivery organizations. Mergers and acquisitions, strategic alliances and joint ventures, and vertical and horizontal integration Horizontal Integration
When a company expands its business into different products that are similar to current lines.
For example, a hot dog vendor expanding into selling hamburgers. Compare this to vertical integration.
See also: Vertical Integration have all led to the downsizing (1) Converting mainframe and mini-based systems to client/server LANs.
(2) To reduce equipment and associated costs by switching to a less-expensive system.
(jargon) downsizing and closure of health services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract delivery organizations. Paralleling changes in other industries, these changes have affected the jobs and careers of those who work in the healthcare system.
Hirsh Hirsh may refer to:
Rhodes Rhodes (rōdz) or Ródhos (rô`thôs), island (1990 est. pop. 90,000), c.540 sq mi (1,400 sq km), SE Greece, in the Aegean Sea; largest of the Dodecanese, near Turkey. and Doering (1983) note that job changes and career changes are quite different. While a job change can lead to a career change, typically it does not. Most job changes lead to a similar job or one that is part of a normal career path. Career changes, however, lead to a new occupation that is not part of a typical career progression. Even so, individuals often perceive per·ceive
1. To become aware of directly through any of the senses, especially sight or hearing.
2. To achieve understanding of; apprehend. their own job and career changes to be unique and not necessarily in line with objective measures of job or career change. Indeed, as Hall and Isabella Isabella, 1296–1358, queen consort of Edward II of England, daughter of Philip IV of France. She married Edward in 1308. Neglected and mistreated by her husband, Isabella nourished hatred for the royal favorites, the Despensers (see Despenser, Hugh le), who (1985) indicate, changes in organizations have made individual career assessments--rather than traditional job progressions--increasingly important in understanding perceptions of career Success.
Most studies of job change suggest that job dissatisfaction plays an important role in the decision to change jobs. Well and Kimball Kimball may refer to:
In places in the US:
1. to distinguish, on the basis of differences.
2. to develop specialized form, character, or function differing from that surrounding it or from the original. between voluntary and involuntary involuntary adj. or adv. without intent, will, or choice. Participation in a crime is involuntary if forced by immediate threat to life or health of oneself or one's loved ones, and will result in dismissal or acquittal.
INVOLUNTARY. turnover when assessing the rate of change. They found that voluntary turnover was associated with higher levels of job dissatisfaction. Adler Ad·ler , Alfred 1870-1937.
Austrian psychiatrist. He rejected Sigmund Freud's emphasis on sexuality and theorized that neurotic behavior is an overcompensation for feelings of inferiority. and Aranya (1984) found that job satisfaction was also influenced by age, with older managers being more satisfied than younger managers. On the other hand, Mount (1984) found that career stage had an important moderating effect on job satisfaction. He found that managers in the establishment phases of their careers were more satisfied with their jobs than managers in the advancement A gift of money or property made by a person while alive to his or her child or other legally recognized heir, the value of which the person intends to be deducted from the child's or heir's eventual share in the estate after the giver's death. and maintenance phases of their careers.
Veiga Veiga (meaning meadow in Portuguese) may be used as a place name or surname. It may refer to: Places
Exhibiting or feeling ambivalence.
Adj. 1. about their careers than their male counterparts. Cox and Harquail (1991) found that while women did not differ from men on career satisfaction, they did experience fewer managerial promotions than men. Similarly, Walsh Walsh has several meanings: Mathematics
Judge et al. (1995) note that while motivational and organizational variables are strongly associated with job satisfaction, pay and promotions are more closely linked to career satisfaction. This view is in contrast to Kanchier and Unruh's (1989) findings that those who remained in their current careers did so because of the influence of concerns for position, power, security, family, and other situational factors. However, Cherniss (1989) found that situational factors could encourage career stability or change.
Gunz (1988) found that the structure and growth of organizations influence the career patterns of their managerial employees. Margerison (1984) found that five factors are critical to the development of British chief executive officer careers. These factors are interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. influencing skills, responsibility for a business sector, a need to achieve results, early leadership experience, and a breadth Breadth
The percentage of assets or stocks advancing relative to those unchanged or declining. Also the number of independent forecasts available per year. A stock picker forecasting returns to 100 stocks every quarter exhibits a breadth of 400, assuming each forecast is of business experience. Judge et al. (1995) would add to this list demographic See demographics. factors, particularly age, level and type of education, job tenure tenure, in education
tenure, in education, a guarantee of the permanence of a college or university teacher's position, awarded upon successful completion of a probationary period, usually seven years. , and experience.
In the present study we sought to expand our understanding of the job and career changes of healthcare executives. Given the dynamic nature of the healthcare industry and the discussions of career dynamics in the popular and scholarly journals, we focused on the factors believed to influence aspects of career satisfaction, assessed the extent to which healthcare executives changed careers, and examined influences that research in other industries affected career change and the attitudes of executives about their career progression.
FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS
Lists of the members of the American College of Healthcare Executives The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) is an international professional association of healthcare executives (high-level hospital administrators, CEOs, COOs, health system officers, etc.) Its central offices are located at 1 N. (ACHE) and Medical Group Management Association (MGMA MGMA Medical Group Management Association
MGMA Metro Global Media, Inc. (stock symbol)
MGMA Metal Gutter Manufacturers Association (UK)
MGMA Michigan Gospel Music Association ) residing in the western states were used in this study. States in this region (Arizona Arizona (âr'əzō`nə), state in the southwestern United States. It is bordered by Utah (N), New Mexico (E), Mexico (S), and, across the Colorado R., Nevada and California (W). , California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W). , Nevada Nevada (nəvăd`ə, –vä–), far western state of the United States. It is bordered by Utah (E), Arizona (SE), California (SW, W), and Oregon and Idaho (N). , Oregon Oregon, city, United States
Oregon, city (1990 pop. 18,334), Lucas co., NW Ohio, a suburb adjacent to Toledo, on Lake Erie; inc. 1958. It is a port with railroad-owned and -operated docks. The city has industries producing oil, chemicals, and metal products. , and Washington Washington, town, England
Washington, town (1991 pop. 48,856), Sunderland metropolitan district, NE England. Washington was designated one of the new towns in 1964 to alleviate overpopulation in the Tyneside-Wearside area. ) have been found to have some of the highest rates of hospital CEO turnover (Weil 1991). We mailed a survey to 850 members of ACHE and 950 members of MGMA asking them about different aspects of their career; 563 surveys were returned, for a 32 percent response rate.
Measures and Means of Analysis
The mailed survey, using measures from other research studies, covered a number of different areas about careers, including:
* Work history (including the organization they worked for, the number of years with the organization, the reason for leaving, and whether the change represented a career change) beginning with the present job and the three jobs held prior to their current job;
* Demographic and educational data (see Table 1);
* Satisfaction with different aspects of their current job. A 5-point scale ranging from very dissatisfied dis·sat·is·fied
Feeling or exhibiting a lack of contentment or satisfaction.
dis·satis·fied (1) to very satisfied (5) was used to measure the extent to which respondents were satisfied with the position's autonomy autonomy (ôtŏn`əmē) [Gr.,=self-rule], in a political sense, limited self-government, short of independence, of a political state or, more frequently, of a subdivision. , challenge, responsibility, opportunity for advancement, income and benefits, prestige, creativity, promotional opportunity, job security, educational growth, and shared values and vision;
* Career influences. A 5-point scale ranging from very little (1) to very great (5) was used to assess the extent to which a list of factors (ability to work with a wide variety of people; early, overall responsibility for important tasks; a need to achieve results; leadership experience early in career; wide experience in many functions prior to age 35; mentor Mentor, in Greek mythology
Mentor (mĕn`tər, –tôr'), in Greek mythology, friend of Odysseus and tutor of Telemachus. or role model; and ability to deal with change) were influential in their career;
* Professional organization's influence. A 5-point scale ranging from very little (1) to very great (5) was used to assess the extent to which a list of professional organizations (ACHE, MGMA, ACMGE, other[s]) may have had an influence on their career development;
* Career stage (establishment, advancement, and maintenance);
* Career alternatives. Questions included how secure they felt in their current position (a 5-point scale ranging from quite insecure in·se·cure
1. Lacking emotional stability; not well-adjusted.
2. Lacking self-confidence; plagued by anxiety.
in  to quite secure ), involuntary job changes, whether an involuntary job change led to an active search for a career change, and the extent to which a list of factors (change in geographical ge·o·graph·ic also ge·o·graph·i·cal
1. Of or relating to geography.
2. Concerning the topography of a specific region.
ge area, potential for gaining new skills and knowledge, family support--financial or psychological, personal gratification GRATIFICATION. A reward given voluntarily for some service or benefit rendered, without being requested so to do, either expressly or by implication. , and greater income potential) using a 5-point scale ranging from very little (1) to very great (5) influenced their decision to seek a career change;
* Career change preparation. Questions about educational and network activities used to prepare for a career change (obtaining an advanced degree, attending specialized spe·cial·ize
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.
2. courses, and networking with others to gain insights into a new career);
* Career progression. Questions included assessing the extent to which the respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. was satisfied with his or her career progression using a 5-point scale ranging from (1) very dissatisfied to (5) very satisfied; and compared with others how the respondent would assess his or her career progression using a 5-point scale which ranged from (1) very much worse to (5) very much better.
Table 1 Occupational and Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents Characteristics Responses(*) Percentage ACHE Members 283 51.2% MGMA Members 270 48.8 Total 553 Male 314 58.8 Female 220 41.2 Total 534 Executive 237 43.5 Management Middle Management 129 23.7 Supervisory 129 23.7 Management Other 50 9.2 Total 545 Hospital-Based 166 30.3 Organizations Ambulatory Care 260 47.5 Organizations Other Healthcare 68 12.4 Organizations Other Nonhealth- 53 9.7 care Organizations Total 547 Average Age (Range 44.4 23 to 75 years)
(*) Responses received of 1,800 surveys.
Of the 1,800 surveys sent out, 563 responses were returned. Slightly more than half (51.2 percent) were from ACHE members and the rest (48.8 percent) were from MGMA members. Male responses accounted for 58.8 percent of the responses, and 43.5 percent of the responses were from individuals who held executive-level positions.] Nearly half (47.5 percent) of the responses were from individuals who worked in ambulatory care ambulatory care
Medical care provided to outpatients.
n the health services provided on an outpatient basis to those who can visit a health care facility and return home the same day. organizations. The average age of the respondents was 44.4 years and ranged from 23 to 75 years.
When asked to what extent selected factors influenced their careers (Table 2), most respondents indicated that the need to achieve results (mean 4.37), the ability to deal with change (mean 4.35), and assuming responsibility early for important tasks (mean 4.33) received the highest ranking. Interestingly, having a mentor or role model received the lowest average score.
Table 2 Factors Influential to the Respondent's Management Career Very To what extent were the Little Little following factors influential in Extent Extent your management career: (1) (2) Ability to work with a wide variety of 6 9 people (n=560, mean=4.21, SD 0.8447) (1.1%) (1.6%) Early overall responsibility for important 2 9 tasks(n=559, mean=4.33, SD 1.9559) (0.4%) (1.6%) A need to achieve results 0 3 (n=558, mean=4.37, SD 0.6726) (0.0%) (0.5%) Leadership experience early in career 7 28 (n=557, mean=4.04, SD 0.9533) (1.3%) (5.0%) Wide experience in many functions prior 10 40 to age 35 (n=556, mean=3.99, SD 1.0090) (1.8%) (7.2%) A mentor or role model 52 95 (n=558, mean=3.28, SD 1.2207) (9.3%) (17.0%) Ability to deal with change 1 6 (n=561, mean=4.35, SD 0.7272) (0.2%) (1.1%) To what extent were the Some Great following factors influential in Extent Extent your management career: (3) (4) Ability to work with a wide variety of 89 210 people (n=560, mean=4.21, SD 0.8447) (15.9%) (37.5%) Early overall responsibility for important 64 256 tasks(n=559, mean=4.33, SD 1.9559) (11.4%) (45.8%) A need to achieve results 52 239 (n=558, mean=4.37, SD 0.6726) (9.2%) (42.8%) Leadership experience early in career 117 191 (n=557, mean=4.04, SD 0.9533) (21.0%) (34.3%) Wide experience in many functions prior 103 191 to age 35 (n=556, mean=3.99, SD 1.0090) (18.5%) (34.4%) A mentor or role model 165 138 (n=558, mean=3.28, SD 1.2207) (29.6%) (24.7%) Ability to deal with change 60 221 (n=561, mean=4.35, SD 0.7272) (10.7%) (39.4%) Very To what extent were the Great following factors influential in Extent your management career: (5) Ability to work with a wide variety of 246 people (n=560, mean=4.21, SD 0.8447) (43.9%) Early overall responsibility for important 227 tasks(n=559, mean=4.33, SD 1.9559) (40.6%) A need to achieve results 264 (n=558, mean=4.37, SD 0.6726) (47.3%) Leadership experience early in career 214 (n=557, mean=4.04, SD 0.9533) (38.4%) Wide experience in many functions prior 212 to age 35 (n=556, mean=3.99, SD 1.0090) (38.1%) A mentor or role model 108 (n=558, mean=3.28, SD 1.2207) (19.4%) Ability to deal with change 273 (n=561, mean=4.35, SD 0.7272) (48.7%)
In assessing their careers (Table 3), most respondents noted that they were satisfied with their careers and felt that they had progressed somewhat faster than others with similar backgrounds. Interestingly, most respondents felt that their career had reached the maintenance stage. They also indicated that they felt reasonably secure in their current position.
Table 3 Respondents' Assessment of Their Career Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied (1) (2) Satisfaction with Career Progression 3 34 (n=561, mean=4.08, SD 0.8087) -0.50% (6.1%) Very Much Much Worse Worse (1) (2) Speed of Career Progression 2 17 Compared to Others with Similar (0.4%) (3.1%) Backgrounds (n=555, mean=3.84, SD 0.7803) Establishment (1) Career Stage (n=549) 60 (10.9%) Quite Somewhat Insecure insecure (1) (2) Securty in Current Position 24 77 (n=556, mean=3.83, SD 1.1825) (4.3%) (13.8%) Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied (3) 42 (7.5%) About the Same (3) Speed of Career Progression 154 Compared to Others with Similar (27.7%) Backgrounds (n=555, mean=3.84, SD 0.7803) Advancement (2) Career Stage (n=549) 200 (36.5%) Neither Insecure nor Insecure (3) Securty in Current Position 58 (n=556, mean=3.83, SD 1.1825) (10.4%) Very Satisfied Satisfied (4) (5) Satisfaction with Career Progression 317 165 (n=561, mean=4.08, SD 0.8087) (56.5%) (29.4%) Very Much Much Better Better (4) (5) Speed of Career Progression 272 110 Compared to Others with Similar (49.0%) (19.8%) Backgrounds (n=555, mean=3.84, SD 0.7803) Maintenance (3) Career Stage (n=549) 286 (52.6%) Somewhat Quite Secure Secure (4) (5) Securty in Current Position 211 185 (n=556, mean=3.83, SD 1.1825) (37.9%) (33.4%)
Respondents reported that most job changes did not lead to a career change. However, nearly 40 percent (39.9 percent) of those responding said they left their last job for a career change. A slightly higher percentage (45.8 percent) reported that they left the job prior to their last for a career change. An even higher percentage (49.4 percent) reported that they left their third to the last job for a career change.
However, as suggested by Table 4, not all job changes were planned. When asked if any of the last four job changes were the result of being terminated ter·mi·nate
v. ter·mi·nat·ed, ter·mi·nat·ing, ter·mi·nates
1. To bring to an end or halt: , laid-off Adj. 1. laid-off - having lost your job
discharged, dismissed, fired, pink-slipped
unemployed - not engaged in a gainful occupation; "unemployed workers marched on the capital" , or resigning prior to accepting a new position, nearly 40 percent (38.9 percent) indicated that this was the case. One-half of those who indicated that they left their previous position prior to accepting a new position actively sought to make a career change.
Table 4 Change Career after Leaving Job Respondents Percentage Left last job for career change? Yes 198 39.9% No 298 60.1 Total 496 Left 2nd last job for career change? Yes 198 45.8 No 234 54.2 Total 432 Left 3rd last job for career change? Yes 160 49.4 No 164 50.6 Total 324 Were any of the last four job changes involuntary or unplanned? Yes 212 38.9 No 333 61.1 Total 545 Career change after an involuntary or unplanned job change? Yes 108 50.9 No 104 49.1
Those who actively sought to make a career change after leaving their job prior to securing a new position indicated that personal gratification was the most influential factor in seeking a career change (Table 5). The potential for gaining new skills and knowledge and greater income potential were also influential in this decision.
Table 5 Factors Influencing the Decision to Seek a Career Change Very To what extent did the Little Little following factors influence your Extent Extent decision to seek a career change: (1) (2) Change in geographical area 56 15 (n=127, mean=2.43, SD 1.5202) (44.1%) (11.8%) Potential to gain new skills or knowledge 9 3 (n=131, mean=3.76, SD 1.0585) (6.9%) (2.3%) Family support (financial or psychological) 31 14 (n=130, mean=2.93, SD 1.3651) (23.8%) (2.5%) Personal gratification 3 2 (n=130, mean=4.18, SD 0.8757) (2.3%) (1.5%) Greater income potential 17 14 (n=129, mean=3.40, SD 1.3141) (13.2%) (10.9%) Some Great To what extent did the Extent Extent following factors influence your (3) (4) decision to seek a career change: 20 17 Change in geographical area (15.7%) (13.4%) (n=127, mean=2.43, SD 1.5202) 29 59 Potential to gain new skills or knowledge (22.1%) (45.0%) (n=131, mean=3.76, SD 1.0585) 36 31 Family support (financial or psychological) (27.7%) (23.8%) (n=130, mean=2.93, SD 1.3651) 16 57 Personal gratification (12.3%) (43.8%) (n=130, mean=4.18, SD 0.8757) 28 40 Greater income potential (21.7%) (31.0%) (n=129, mean=3.40, SD 1.3141) Very To what extent did the Great following factors influence your Extent decision to seek a career change: (5) Change in geographical area 19 (n=127, mean=2.43, SD 1.5202) (15.0%) Potential to gain new skills or knowledge 31 (n=131, mean=3.76, SD 1.0585) (23.7%) Family support (financial or psychological) 18 (n=130, mean=2.93, SD 1.3651) (13.8%) Personal gratification 52 (n=130, mean=4.18, SD 0.8757) (40.0%) Greater income potential 30 (n=129, mean=3.40, SD 1.3141) (23.3%)
Participants were asked that if they had made a career change or were anticipating making a career change, to indicate whether they obtained an advanced degree, attended specialized courses, or networked with others to prepare for this change. Of those answering this question, 50 percent (189 respondents) indicated that they networked with others to gain new career insights. Twenty-seven percent (103 respondents) indicated that they attended specialized courses, and 23 percent obtained or were obtaining an advanced degree as preparation for their career change.
As Table 6 depicts, there were no statistically significant differences between the career changes of those employed by hospital-based organizations and those employed by ambulatory care organizations, or those who were members of ACHE and those who were members of MGMA. However, there were statistically significant differences between the average years in position of those employed by hospital-based organizations and those employed by ambulatory care organizations, or those who were members of ACHE and those who were members of MGMA. People working in ambulatory Movable; revocable; subject to change; capable of alteration.
An ambulatory court was the former name of the Court of King's Bench in England. It would convene wherever the king who presided over it could be found, moving its location as the king moved. healthcare organizations and those with memberships in MGMA remained in each job longer than those employed by hospital-based organizations or those who were members of ACHE.
Table 6 Number of Career and Job Changes Reported by Respondents from Different Organizational Settings and Membership Categories Hospital- Ambulatory Based Care Description Organization Organization Average number of years spent in each job 11.61 13.62 Average number of career changes 1.35 1.79 ACHE MGMA Description Members Members Average number of years spent in each job 11.76 14.06 Average number of career changes 1.62 1.68 Significance(*) Description P value Average number of years spent in each job 0.016 Average number of career changes ns Description Average number of years spent in each job 0.000 Average number of career changes ns
(*) Mann-Whitney U In statistics, the Mann-Whitney U test (also called the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon (MWW), Wilcoxon rank-sum test, or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test) is a non-parametric test for assessing whether two samples of observations come from the same (two-tailed test two-tailed test
a test in which both 'large' and 'small' values of the test statistic indicate that the null hypothesis is not correct. )
No statistically significant differences were found with the level of job security expressed by respondents working in hospital-based organizations and those working for ambulatory care groups. Respondents from both groups reported they felt somewhat secure in their present position.
As described in Table 7, there were statistically significant differences between the stage of the respondents' careers and their reported satisfaction with their career progression and their career progression compared to others with similar backgrounds. Participants who reported that their career was in the maintenance stage were more satisfied with the measures of career satisfaction than were those in the advancement or establishment phases. Similarly, respondents who identified their career stage as the advancement phase were more satisfied with the progression of their career than were those in the establishment phase.
Table 7 Career Stage and Satisfaction with Career Progression and Career Progression Compared to Others with Similar Backgrounds Career Satisfaction Career Standard Measure Stage N Mean Deviation Satisfaction Establishment 60 3.7667 1.0146 with Career Advancement 200 4.0050 0.7733 Progression Maintenance 286 4.1993 0.7624 NA 3 4.0000 1.0000 Total 549 4.0801 0.8088 Analysis of Sum of Mean Variance Squares df Square Satisfaction Between Groups 11.105 3 3.702 with Career Within Groups 347.368 545 0.637 Progression Total 358.474 548 Career Satisfaction Career Standard Measure Stage N Mean Deviation Speed of Establishment 60 3.5000 0.8336 Career Advancement 197 3.7563 0.7295 Progression Maintenance 284 3.9754 0.7678 NA 2 4.0000 0.0000 Total 543 3.8435 0.7752 Analysis of Sum of Mean Variance Squares df Square Speed of Between Groups 13.562 3 4.521 Career Within Groups 312.132 539 0.579 Progression Total 325.694 542 Career Satisfaction Measure Satisfaction with Career Progression Analysis of Variance F Sig. Satisfaction 5.808 0.001 with Career Progression Career Satisfaction Measure Speed of Career Progression Analysis of Variance F Sig. Speed of 7.807 0.000 Career Within Progression
No statistically significant differences were found between the responses of men and women regarding their satisfaction with their overall career progression. Nor were statistically significant differences found between the responses of men and women regarding their satisfaction with their career progression, compared to others with similar backgrounds.
As illustrated in Table 8, four measures with an adjusted [R.sup.2] = 0.114 had a statistically significant influence on the respondents' reported satisfaction with their career progression. Age, gender, and education were not found to influence the degree of satisfaction the respondents had with their career progression. Four job-related factors (the degree of security they felt with their current jobs, the higher the level of the management jobs, the extent of early leadership experience early in their careers, and their ability to work with a wide variety of people) explained slightly more than 10 percent ([R.sup.2] = 0.114) of the variation with the degree of career satisfaction reported.
Table 8 Regression of Factors Influencing Satisfaction with the Respondent's Career Progression Stand- ardized Influence B S.E. Beta Leadership experience early in career 0.122 0.035 0.147 Type of job (executive=1, middle -0.144 0.032 -0.184 management=2, supervisory management=3) Ability to work with a wide variety 9.3E-02 0.039 0.100 of people Security in current position 0.131 0.028 0.192 Constant 2.983 0.215 Adjusted [R.sup.2] = 0.114, p [is less than or equal to] 0.000 Influence t Sig. Leadership experience early in career 3.481 0.001 Type of job (executive=1, middle -4.514 0.000 management=2, supervisory management=3) Ability to work with a wide variety 2.377 0.018 of people Security in current position 4.654 0.000 Constant 13.854 0.000 Adjusted [R.sup.2] = 0.114, p [is less than or equal to] 0.000
Independent variables not in the equation (gender, age, education, ability to deal with change, early overall responsibility for important tasks, a need to achieve results, wide experience early in career, a mentor or role model).
An assessment of the respondents' satisfaction with their career progression compared to others with similar backgrounds found that five measures, with an adjusted [R.sup.2] = 0.112, had a statistically significant influence on this outcome. Age and education did not influence the reported level of satisfaction with the respondents' career progression relative to others with similar backgrounds. Gender and four job experience measures (the extent to which the respondent was able to deal with change, leadership experience early in his or her career, increasing level of management, and the availability of a mentor or role model) explained about 10 percent (adjusted [R.sup.2] = 0.112) of the variation of the satisfaction with the speed of their career progression.
While the healthcare delivery system is reported to be undergoing significant change and restructuring restructuring - The transformation from one representation form to another at the same relative abstraction level, while preserving the subject system's external behaviour (functionality and semantics). , the impact of these transformational forces does not appear to have a significant influence on the job and career satisfaction of those executives participating in this study. Most healthcare managers and executives appear to be relatively satisfied with their careers and their career progression compared to others with similar backgrounds. Based on studies conducted in other industries, it was expected that, with the downsizing and restructuring of the healthcare industry, coupled with a double digit Noun 1. double digit - a two-digit integer; from 10 to 99
integer, whole number - any of the natural numbers (positive or negative) or zero; "an integer is a number that is not a fraction" turnover rate for hospital CEOs, healthcare managers would be less satisfied with their careers or that there would be significant variations in the career satisfaction of managers employed in different segments of the delivery system. Interestingly, this was not the case for managers employed by healthcare organizations. Equally significant was the finding that hospital-based managers were no less satisfied with their careers than those employed in ambulatory care organizations.
Studies have suggested that career satisfaction is associated with differences in age, gender, and educational levels. In this study, only gender was found to be related to differences in the level of career satisfaction associated with different aspects of their careers. In contrast with other studies, we found that gender (female) was positively associated with the degree of satisfaction participants had about their career progression relative to others with similar backgrounds.
Like Margerison (1984), we found that job context factors were more frequently associated with differences in the level of career satisfaction expressed by these healthcare professionals. The type of job the respondent held, leadership experience early in the career, the ability to work with a wide variety of people, the ability to deal with change, the security in the current position, and the presence of a mentor or role model were found to be positively related to differences in career satisfaction.
One curious aspect of the factors influencing the respondents' management careers was the low weight assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. to the influence of a mentor or role model on the respondents' management careers. While the importance of a mentor is frequently emphasized em·pha·size
tr.v. em·pha·sized, em·pha·siz·ing, em·pha·siz·es
To give emphasis to; stress.
Adj. 1. as a critical factor in the development of managers (Dreher Dreher can refer to any of the following people:
British physician. He won a 1902 Nobel Prize for proving that malaria is transmitted to humans by the bite of the mosquito. (1984) suggested that mentors were particularly important to a manager's education at two different stages of their development--during the formative formative /for·ma·tive/ (for´mah-tiv) concerned in the origination and development of an organism, part, or tissue. stages of their career or when their career has reached a crossroad. Because many of our respondents were senior-level executives with well-established careers at this point in time, it was possible that this influenced the results. When we compared the responses of those at the establishment phase of their careers with those at the maintenance phase, no statistically significant difference was found.
In our study, 43 percent of our participants identified themselves as the CEO, president, or executive director of their organization. Certainly, reaching the top spot in any organization should provide an executive with a sense of achievement and some measure of career success. On the other hand, some studies have found that those who are in the establishment phase of their careers express greater satisfaction with their careers than do those who are in the advancement or maintenance phases in this development. With more than half of the respondents (50.8 percent) reporting that they were in the maintenance phase of their career, this finding may suggest that, for some occupations, the nature of the job and its intrinsic intrinsic /in·trin·sic/ (in-trin´sik) situated entirely within or pertaining exclusively to a part.
1. Of or relating to the essential nature of a thing.
2. qualities may be a more important factor affecting career satisfaction than the individual's career stage.
Many studies suggest that most job changes typically do not lead to a career change. While our findings are consistent with these studies, it is interesting to note the number of job changes that were described by our participants as a career change. In an industry that is in flux flux
In metallurgy, any substance introduced in the smelting of ores to promote fluidity and to remove objectionable impurities in the form of slag. Limestone is commonly used for this purpose in smelting iron ores. , many job changes can lead to a new job that is outside of what might typically be described as a normal career progression. In our study, it is possible that some of the job changes that were defined as career changes are a reflection of this transformation.
One of the problems in assessing whether a job change is also a career change is how the participant Participant
A party of a funding. It usually refers to the lowest rank or smallest level of funding. defines that action. To assist the participants in clarifying clar·i·fy
v. clar·i·fied, clar·i·fy·ing, clar·i·fies
1. To make clear or easier to understand; elucidate: clarified her intentions.
2. the difference between a job change and a career change, we defined career change and provided an example of a job change that did not meet the definition of a career change and an example of a job change that did. Even so, it is possible that some of the job changes that the respondents described as career changes were not consistent with the definition and examples provided.
While most of the job changes made by the participants in this study did not lead to a career change, those job changes that were not planned or were involuntarily in·vol·un·tar·y
1. Acting or done without or against one's will: an involuntary participant in what turned out to be an argument.
2. made, more likely than not, led to a career change. Slightly more than one half (50.9 percent) of the respondents who indicated their job change was not planned or was involuntarily made indicated that this led to their actively seeking a career change. Those that did change careers as a result of this event indicated that personal gratification, gaining new skills, and greater income potential were the most important influences on this decision.
One of the interesting findings of this study is the low level of influence that family support reportedly had on respondents' decision to change careers. Neither gender nor marital status marital status,
n the legal standing of a person in regard to his or her marriage state. (single, married, or divorced di·vorce
1. The legal dissolution of a marriage.
2. A complete or radical severance of closely connected things.
v. di·vorced, di·vorc·ing, di·vorc·es
1. ) appeared to be related to the level of influence that family support had on respondents' decisions to change careers. Although the number of people who made a career change because of an involuntary job change was higher than those who voluntarily left their job to change careers, the numbers who involuntarily did so were small.
For most respondents (72 percent), networking was the strategy most frequently used to prepare for changing careers. Fourteen percent of the career change strategies involved the pursuit of an advanced degree, typically one that specialized in healthcare management or business administration. Thirteen percent mentioned attending specialized courses or programs as their chosen career change method.
It has been said that these are interesting times. Certainly the transformation that is occurring in the healthcare sector supports this view. Yet, in spite of in opposition to all efforts of; in defiance or contempt of; notwithstanding.
See also: Spite these changes--or perhaps because of them--these respondents seem satisfied with their careers and their career progression. Perhaps these turbulent and unpredictable times provide additional challenges that revitalize re·vi·tal·ize
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy. jobs, stimulate stimulate /stim·u·late/ (stim´u-lat) to excite functional activity.
To arouse a body or a responsive structure to increased functional activity. thinking, or create new or unanticipated opportunities, all of which redefine Verb 1. redefine - give a new or different definition to; "She redefined his duties"
define, delimit, delimitate, delineate, specify - determine the essential quality of
2. careers and career success and the satisfaction that healthcare managers and executives derive de·rive
1. To obtain or receive from a source.
2. To produce or obtain a chemical compound from another substance by chemical reaction. from them.
Table 9 Regression of Factors Influencing Satisfaction with the Respondent's Career Progression Compared to Others with Similar Backgrounds Stand- ardized Influence B S.E. Beta Gender (male=1, female=2) 0.132 0.066 0.086 Leadership experience early in career 0.128 0.035 0.160 Ability to deal with change 0.187 0.047 0.178 Type of job (executive=1, middle -0.106 0.032 -0.142 management=2, supervisory management=3) A mentor or role model 5.6E-02 0.028 0.090 Constant 2.366 0.246 Adjusted [R.sup.2]=0.112, p=[is less than or equal to] 0.000 Influence t Sig. Gender (male=1, female=2) 2.010 0.045 Leadership experience early in career 3.658 0.000 Ability to deal with change 3.984 0.000 Type of job (executive=1, middle -3.318 0.001 management=2, supervisory management=3) A mentor or role model 2.034 0.042 Constant 9.615 0.000 Adjusted [R.sup.2]=0.112, p=[is less than or equal to] 0.000
Independent variables not in the equation (age, education, ability to work with a wide variety of people, early overall responsibility for important tasks, a need to achieve results, wide experience early in career, degree of security with present position).
(1.) Respondents were asked to provide their current job title. CEO, president, or executive director titles were designated executive-level positions.
Adler, S., and N. Aranya. 1984. "A Comparison of the Work Needs, Attitudes, and Preferences of Professional Accountants at Different Career Stages." Journal of Vocational Vocational
Relating to an occupation, career, or job.
Mentioned in: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Behavior 25 (1): 45-57.
Cherniss, C. 1989. "Career Stability in Public Service Professionals: A Longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. Investigation Based on Biographical bi·o·graph·i·cal also bi·o·graph·ic
1. Containing, consisting of, or relating to the facts or events in a person's life.
2. Of or relating to biography as a literary form. Interviews." American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of Journal of Community Psychology 17 (4): 399-422.
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1. Relying on or derived from observation or experiment.
2. Verifiable or provable by means of observation or experiment.
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Kanchier, C. J., and W. R. Unruh Unruh may refer to:
The Changers are a fictional group of anti-hero published by Wildstorm an imprint of DC Comics. Different." Journal of Career Development 15 (3): 174-87.
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FACETS Facilities Construction, Engineering and Technical Services
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Chicago (shĭkä`gō, shĭkô`gō), city (1990 pop. 2,783,726), seat of Cook co., NE Ill., on Lake Michigan; inc. 1837. : American College of Healthcare Executives.
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PRACTITIONER practitioner /prac·ti·tion·er/ (prak-tish´un-er) one who has met the requirements of and is engaged in the practice of medicine, dentistry, or nursing.
nurse practitioner see under nurse. RESPONSE
Dennis Dennis is a male first name derived from the Greco-Roman name Dionysius meaning "servant of Dionysus", the Thracian god of wine, which is ultimately derived from the Greek Dios (Διος, "of Zeus") combined with Nysos or Nysa (Νυσα), where the M. Lee, president, Methodist Hospital Methodist Hospital is the name of numerous medical institutions.
I found that this study by Fahey Fahey is a surname and may refer to:
States have required state residency for a variety of rights, including the right to vote, the right to run for public office, the or other mentor programs.
The results of the survey are not particularly surprising to me. The factors that have contributed to the current transformation in healthcare also contribute to job and career satisfaction. The fact that healthcare in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. is in a period of almost revolutionary transformation creates challenges and opportunities that make the field both fascinating and rewarding, particularly if those challenges are met successfully. The article talks about the context of the job having a positive influence on satisfaction and with career progression. I would further offer that the diverse nature of executive management in health services organizations is also a contributing factor to job and career satisfaction. Success at the executive level of a health services organization is dependent on the individual's ability to deal with matters that span the spectrum of legal, medical, financial, and strategic issues. This diverse mix of issues makes the job even more challenging and rewarding.
I have often been asked whether I would recommend this career to a prospective student in health services management. My answer has always been affirmative AFFIRMATIVE. Averring a fact to be true; that which is opposed to negative. (q.v.)
2. It is a general rule of evidence that the affirmative of the issue must be proved. Bull. N. P. 298 ; Peake, Ev. 2.
3. , for many of the reasons referenced in this article. In addition to the content of the job itself there is the added dimension that healthcare services are, by their nature, intrinsically in·trin·sic
1. Of or relating to the essential nature of a thing; inherent.
2. Anatomy Situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts. Used of certain nerves and muscles. good and beneficial to society.
The finding that the survey participants were not highly influenced by a mentor or role model with respect to job satisfaction and success in their management career was surprising. It would have been my expectation that the presence of an effective and influential mentor or role model early in a person's career would have a dramatic influence on that individual's career progression. The things we have learned from watching others throughout the development of our careers would seem to play a material role in our ultimate success.
In summary, I feel this study should be very useful to individuals early in their career, to programs in health services management in attracting and motivating prospective students, and to those individuals who are actively engaged in mentor roles in residency or internship internship /in·tern·ship/ (in´tern-ship) the position or term of service of an intern in a hospital.
n the course work or practicum conducted in a professional dental clinic. programs.
Daniel Daniel, book of the Bible
Daniel, book of the Bible. It combines "court" tales, perhaps originating from the 6th cent. B.C., and a series of apocalyptic visions arising from the time of the Maccabean emergency (167–164 B.C. F. Fahey D.P.A., FACHE FACHE Fellow American College of Healthcare Executives , Cedars-Sinai Health Associates, Los Angeles Los Angeles (lôs ăn`jələs, lŏs, ăn`jəlēz'), city (1990 pop. 3,485,398), seat of Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1850. , California; Robert Robert, Henry Martyn 1837-1923.
American army engineer and parliamentary authority. He designed the defenses for Washington, D.C., during the Civil War and later wrote Robert's Rules of Order (1876).
Noun 1. C. Myrtle, D.P.A., University of Southern California The U.S. News & World Report ranked USC 27th among all universities in the United States in its 2008 ranking of "America's Best Colleges", also designating it as one of the "most selective universities" for admitting 8,634 of the almost 34,000 who applied for freshman admission , Los Angeles, California; Jack R. Schlosser, FACILE (language) Facile - A concurrent extension of ML from ECRC.
["Facile: A Symmetric Integration of Concurrent and Functional Programming", A. Giacalone et al, Intl J Parallel Prog 18(2):121-160, Apr 1989]. , Heidrick & Struggles, Los Angeles, California
For more information on this article, you may contact Professor Myrtle at email@example.com See .edu.
(networking) edu - ("education") The top-level domain for educational establishments in the USA (and some other countries). E.g. "mit.edu". The UK equivalent is "ac.uk". .