Creative thinking in business organizations.
Creativity has not been well defined as an operational component of decision making in business organizations. It has been described as: the act of awakening new thoughts, of rearranging old learning, and of examining assumptions to form new theories, new paradigms, and new awareness. The creative act is not an "act of creation" in the sense of the Old Testament; it does not create something out of nothing . Rather, it is the process of uncovering, selecting, reshuffling, and synthesizing one's inventory of facts, ideas, and skills. The more familiar the parts, the more striking the new whole. Ackoff and Vergara defined creativity as:
... the ability of a subject in a choice situation to
modify self-imposed constraints so as to enable
him to select or produce courses of action or
produce outcomes that he would not otherwise
select or produce, and are more efficient or
valuable to him than any he would otherwise
have chosen [1, p. 9].
Creativity is any form of action that leads to results that are novel, useful, and predictable. It is seeing analogies where no one else sees them. It is a means of testing hidden assumptions and thereby opening oneself or one's organization to needed changes. Creativity and innovation are becoming extremely important to the success of all business organizations because we are facing major and rapid changes in the environment. We can foresee increases in the number of older citizens, consolidation of the European market, energy shortages, changes in workers' needs, and revolutions in fundamental technologies just to name a few. To cope effectively with change, organizations must become more innovative, developing the ability to quickly plan and implement adaptions to change in their environments. Arthur D. Little found in a survey of 1,000 Chief Executive Officers that 92 percent considered innovation to be critical to the success of their organizations .
Raudsepp proposes that a direct link exists between creativity and important organizational outcomes such as productivity and quality enhancement because creative thinking increases the quality of solutions to organizational problems, helps stimulate profitable innovations, revitalizes motivation, upgrades personal skills, and catalyzes effective team performance . Evans points to the tendency in the academic environment to overlook training in creative thinking. Due to the evaluative nature of the university system, most students work their way through the educational process without being taught some of the basic skills for stimulating their own creative solutions for the myriad problems they encounter in their jobs . That leaves such training to the Human Resource Development Departments in most corporations. If a worker's creative potential is not developed by internal training, it is unlikely to be tapped in any other source.
It is obvious that the success of businesses in the rapidly changing future will be determined by their ability to become more creative. In order to achieve this outcome, creative thinking must be designed into their human resource development programs and instilled in their planning systems. After a discussion of the creative process, the remainder of this article will focus on accomplishment of these two practices.
The Creative Process
There are five basic steps in the creative process:
* Preparation. The first step requires a thorough
investigation to ensure that all parts of a problem
are understood fully. During the preparation
stage, one observes, searches for and
collects an inventory of facts and ideas, and
thinks freely. * Concentration. In this step, personal or organizational
energies and resources are focused on
solving the problem, and a commitment is
made to find and implement a solution. * Incubation. During the incubation step, there is
an internalization and a subconscious ordering
of gathered information. This may involve a
significant struggle - a subconscious conflict
between what is currently accepted as reality
and what may be possible. The creative thinker
must relax, sometimes distancing oneself from
the problem, and allow the subconscious to
search for possible solutions. A successful
incubation can lead to a harvesting of fresh ideas
and new ways of thinking about a problem. * Illumination (or the Eureka connection). This is
the moment of discovery, the instant of solution
recognition as when Archimedes climbed into
his bath and observed the water overflowing the
tub. The mind connects a problem with a solution
through an observation or occurrence. * Verification. The last step involves testing the
solution or idea. The creator seeks corroboration
and acceptance of the new approach.
This process can lead to various types of creativity. First, there is innovation or an original approach to a problem. Innovation involves seeing the obvious before anyone else does. McDonald's entry into a new market, fast food, is an example. Second, there is synthesis or the combining of existing ideas from various sources into a new whole. A number of organizations have expanded their markets by synthesizing new services that they could offer in order to complement their existing product lines. Third, extension involves expanding an idea to another application. Fast food restaurants' success with the "drive through" concept was extended to the banking as well as other service industries. Fourth, there is the simple form of creative thought termed duplication or the copying of good ideas from others. For instance, the proliferation of fast food establishments that duplicated the McDonald's concept with a minor differentiation of products or services.
A flexible, creative mind is an invaluable tool, a highly prized and useful instrument that feeds one's beliefs in things not proven, fosters one's faith in the unseen, and provides a gateway for tapping personal potential. Previous writers have attempted to demonstrate that creative thinking, like any other skillful activity such as playing golf or sewing a dress, can be taught by stressing a few basic approaches that have been recognized as effective by successful creators and, very importantly, practiced to develop a facile talent useful for problem solving in any field, business included [2,4,7,9,10].
To explore methods of training in creative thinking for business decisions makers, a classic framework of business decision situations will be reviewed and the role of creative thinking in each situation will be discussed. Several approaches for stimulating creative thinking for each type of business decision process will be presented in an attempt to provide a modicum of guidance through the first few unsure steps of introducing a part of oneself to the resolution of encountered problems.
Thompson and Tuden proposed that decision issues involve two major dimensions: agreement on goals (what to do) and agreement on cause/effect relationships that will accomplish goals (how to do it) . Though each dimension can assume a large range of values, for simplicity each is dichotomized in their framework to distinguish between high and low agreement among the many decision makers in the organization, as shown in Figure 1 below. According to Thompson and Tuden, there are four strategies appropriate for the four types of decision issues: computation, judgment, compromise or negotiation, and inspiration.
TABLE : Figure 1
Thompson and Tuden's Organizational Decision Strategies Agreement on Goals (What to Do?) High Low Agreement on High Computation Compromise Cause/Effect Negotiation
Relationships (How to Do it?)
Low Judgment Inspiration
Computational strategy is appropriate when there is high agreement in an organization regarding both goals and cause/effect relations. In such an instance, decisions become fairly technical or mechanical matters. This is what has been termed "programmed decision making" and often is the kind of problem solving business education programs tend to emphasize, making their graduates adept at commonly necessary and useful tasks such as setting up automated systems to reorder inventoried items or to achieve the optimization of variables such as profit or output per hour.
In computational decision making, creativity takes several forms. The problem solver must be capable of recognizing a business problem, formulating or defining the problem, applying an appropriate technique to identify a solution, and finally, implementing the solution in the working organization. The concepts are illustrated in Figure 2 on page 6.
TABLE : Figure 2
Practical Approaches for Creative Thinking Agreement on Goals (What to Do?) High Low Problem Recognition Assumption High Math Skills Analysis Practices (Puzzles Agreement on and Games)
Relationships Analogy Room for New Ideas (How to Do it?) Low Brainstorming Assumption of Others' Outlooks Attribute Listing Random Words
Problem recognition calls for a creative talent frequently overlooked by business persons, the ability to differentiate the important from the mundane, and the accompanying boldness to ignore trivial problems while broader problems are searched for, investigated, and solved. Here, the creative challenge is to recognize and apply limited organizational resources toward only a few important problems and to assign lower priority to the many trivial matters. All problems are not created equal. Expanding one's view of the business as a complex system of numerous, interrelated activities and digging for the roots of the "surface" problem is a creative talent that separates the effective business person from the overwhelmed fire fighter.
Formulating computational problems is a process of translation. The decision maker must express the real world problem in another form, commonly a mathematical one, in order to develop a solution. This translation activity is enhanced by a knowledge of mathematical tools, such as diagramming, graphing, picturing, and expressing relationships in terms of known and unknown variables. Effective computational problem solving requires considerable training in mathematical principles, and the most powerful way to prepare to be a creative problem solver is to build a solid foundation in the mathematical sciences. Applications of management science and operations research techniques are well covered in business schools, possibly to the unfortunate exclusion of creative approaches of other types of decisions yet to be discussed. For an excellent discussion on the incorporation of creative thinking to management science/operations research topics, see Evans .
Problem recognition is a process of conditioning and sensitization. What appears to be a problem to one individual may not be noticed by another. To sharpen problem recognition skills, trainees can be instructed to find and describe five problems commonly encountered in their everyday work routine, write them down in a succint but descriptive manner (e.g., on a 3x5 index card), and bring them to the next training session.
Once collected, these problems can be used to sharpen another necessary skill - separating the important from the trivial. Each problem collector can arrange the five recognized problems in order of perceived importance and share problem sets with a group of three or four other participants to obtain their impressions of the proposed prioritization. Feedback to the problem originator can also include the clarity of problem definition. Often a group member's demand to restate an unclear problem can lead the originator to see a new solution (or a new problem) that had not previously been noticed.
A second stimulant to creative thinking concerning computational problems is perhaps the simplest of all - practice. Enjoyable mental exercise in the form of puzzles or games can aid a trainee in developing different approaches for problem solutions. Spending the first few minutes of a class on a short puzzle not only stimulates the receptive student, but also sharpens mental skills, such as converting a problem to a picture or diagram. Puzzles can also encourage students to learn useful shortcuts that can help them "think on their feet." The literature is replete with useful puzzles. A few examples are:
* A golfer's errant shot has landed inside a paper
bag. How can it be freed without touching the
bag or ball? (Answer: don't think about removing
the ball, consider removing the bag - burn
it.) * Consider an ordinary watermelon. Make a list
of 20 imaginative and widely disparate uses for
this fruit. This is an example of divergent
thinking, spreading out one's thought processes
to create as many alternatives to a problem as
possible - like a prism spreading out a single
beam of white light into an array of colors. * Think of two seemingly different objects (like
the North Star and a piece of chalk) and connect
them with a stream of logical relationships.
This is an example of convergent thinking, concentrating
wild ideas toward a single objective
like a magnifying glass concentrating normal
sunlight into a single intense beam.
When cause/effect relationships are uncertain but goals are clear, problems are solved based on the judgment of decision makers. Here, further data collection, experimentation, or trial-and-error approaches may enhance the decision maker's ability to judge the probability of success of various solutions and make a reasonable, if not best, choice. Marketing research concerned with identifying a saleable product design is an example of this category of decision approach.
To effectively approach decisions which require judgment, the problem solver can best become familiar with a variety of conceptual tools, which can include practical, everyday living type of knowledge gained from familiarity with hardware stores, lumber yards, sewing and craft shops, etc. as well as more formalized tools and strategies obtained from books and experienced co-workers. These can include scientific and mathematical knowledge, ideas and practices from engineering, political and military endeavors, social and economic sciences, art and music and on to less formalized, sometimes outrageous approaches including those derived from astrology, black magic, and voodoo.
Anything that is of interest to any sector of humanity can be a stimulus and a source of excitement to the curiosity of a good judgmental problem solver because, without the solid footing established by well developed cause/effect relationships, the problem solver must make his or her own way toward the desired goal.
The use of analogies can enhance a creative thinker's personal judgment by applying to current problems the knowledge gained through past experiences. Trainees may write down the three things they know best or enjoy most from their life experiences - playing basketball, going to the beach, or eating a bagel. Then, presented with a problem solving task, they apply the general principles of the familiar activity to the new problem to extract an answer.
* Task: In 50 words or less describe the
mysteries of life to a 10 year old child.
* Solution: Life is like a bagel. It is delicious
when it is fresh and warm. Often, however, it is just hard. The hole in the middle is its great mystery; what is it, and why is it there? Yet, it wouldn't be a bagel without it .
Analogies with nature are frequently useful. Take the problem of packaging potato chips. What in nature is similar to a potato chip? A leaf, for one. Have you ever taken a stroll through the woods on a pleasant autumn day? Dry leaves crumble under your feet like potato chips. That's the problem. But wet leaves don't crumble, they yield, compress, and remain whole. What if you formed still wet potato chips into a uniform shape that permitted you to stack them neatly? An entire bagful could be fit into a slender, protective canister. That, as legend has it, was the origin of Pringles.
Brainstorming techniques utilizing groups of workers are frequently useful to help introduce a variety of ideas to a given problem situation. The group is presented with a problem and each individual is asked to provide possible solutions. All criticism is suspended in the first phase of the process. Any and all ideas are encouraged, accepted, and recorded. In the second phase of the brainstorming process, all ideas are evaluated by the group for feasibility and a final choice is made.
Compromise or Negotiation
When there is agreement among organization members regarding cause/effect relationships but disagreement over goals, a compromise or negotiation decision strategy is appropriate. In this situation, the decision maker should be cognizant of the political and power relationships inherent in the business and be capable of applying interpersonal as well as analytical skills toward the development of solutions acceptable to other organizational members who may be motivated by different goals.
Examples of business negotiation scenarios are plentiful and range from formal labor/management contract talks to bargaining with the boss for an afternoon's vacation. For compromise or negotiation situations, not only the analytical skills of the decision maker play a part but also his or her interpersonal skills. The successful compromiser should be capable of applying the creative skill of seeing a situation from another's (or perhaps several others') point of view. This is not an instinctive talent, but one that can be developed by practicing "three dimensional sensitivity," which enables the bargainer to empathize with negotiating partners, appreciate their viewpoint, present personally preferred goals in a positive light from their respective, and, in the most favorable of circumstances, develop solutions that enable all negotiators to win in the bargaining process.
A useful approach to thinking more creatively in compromising or negotiating situations involves Assumptional Analysis . It involves the exposure and examination of different assumptions held by various stakeholders in a situation. The process can be effective when attempting to discover common ground among negotiating parties or at least to understand why little common ground exists.
Socialized man is not an open minded thinker. Perceptual filters develop as a result of social, religious, and cultural traditions as well as experiences accumulated through living and working. The process of learning, so helpful in most aspects of decision making, can also be detrimental because it tends to narrow our view of a situation. We develop a talent for cutting out the "unuseful" perceptions of a problem and seeing only those parts which we have learned are important to us.
In attempting to see situations from the viewpoints of others, prior learning can create empathetic barriers because a negotiator may retreat prematurely into his or her personal comfort zone without appreciating the outlook of other involved parties.
One exercise for looking at a situation from another's viewpoint is to ask trainees to sit in another family member's chair at the dinner table one night and then write a short description of how that individual views the family unit, concentrating on the assumptions that members makes about each family member's goals and role in the home. The exercise might also be extended to the work place by having the trainee assume the position of his or her boss and attempt to describe the bosses' assumptions about workers' goals and roles on the job.
Assumptional analysis is a useful creative technique for any decision maker who finds it necessary to consider how another individual or group approaches a business situation, such as negotiating a labor contract or selling a product to a particularly tough customer.
Finally, when there is low agreement concerning both goals and cause/effect relationships, there exists a need for what Thompson and Tuden termed "inspirational" decision making or what current researchers call leadership or visioning . Here, the decision maker's preferred future is envisioned and communicated to excite and unify the efforts of organizational followers. Without inspirational decision making, it is doubtful that any solution on action would be forthcoming when decision makers are groping in the dark for answers. The development of business organizations' strategic plans is probably the most familiar example of this type of decision situation.
At times, inspirational decision making may defy the safest application of logic within the comfortable bounds of today's certainty, but creative thinkers are not limited by the "rules" that others have developed and applied. By definition, they develop their own visions and create their own rules. This is the risk and reward of inspirational decision making, the peril and promise of creative thinking.
One exercise for stimulating inspirational creativity involves making room for new ideas by throwing out a few old ones that are no longer useful. A decision maker may find it helpful to envision his or her brain filled to capacity with experiences from the past and assumptions about the future. No room exists for new ideas. To make room the trainee is instructed to write down three things he or she has found to be true in the past but are no longer true because the business environment has undergone its inevitable changes. Ideas may involve such issues as the "usual" price of energy, the "normal" level of interest rates, actions that primary competitors would "never" consider, or the "proper" role for women and minorities at work. Once the ideas are committed to paper, they should be carefully read, pondered, and then torn into pieces, and the fragments should be dropped from a convenient window. Trainees should be encouraged to watch them float away and resolve never to believe them again. Now there is room in the brain for a few new ideas.
Another technique for stimulating inspiration about the unknown future is to step outside one's own limited ways of thinking and assume the creative outlook of others. When one's own creative juices are dry, borrow someone else's. Trainees may write, for example, the names of three diverse thinkers with whom they have some familiarity - Clint Eastwood, Pope John Paul II, and their favorite uncle. How do they envision the future? How would they be preparing for your business problems in the year 2000? What would they do if they were in the trainee's place today? Take the possible ideas of others and hone them for personal use. Judge them, throw out the useless material, but hang onto any new insights that might be gained.
Another possibility is attribute listing. With this technique, one assumes that most "new" ideas are simply different combinations of old elements. Attribute listing involves shifting attributes from one thing to another. For example, trainees are instructed to give the problem on which they are working, such as devising a way to increase customer satisfaction, some new characteristics borrowed from something else. How are your clients like a sports car or a six year old daughter? What do these things need that your clients may also need?
Attaching random words to a problem is another method of stimulating inspirational creativity. Matching random words or phrases with a problem can introduce free thinking and spark new ideas for problem resolution.
The Creative Planning Environment
If an organization is to reap the benefits of the creative skills of its members, one of the primary areas of application must be the planning activity of the business. The planning process is typically described as a series of steps:
* An analysis of present resources to determine
the capabilities of the organization * A forecast of potential threats and opportunities * The determination of a set of goals * The development of a set of strategies for
The traditional planning process relies heavily on the organization's ability to forecast future events. However, many forecasts are based on statistical projections of past events and the assumption that conditions will remain stable through future periods. Given today's rate of environmental change, this is not a valid assumption for most businesses. Planners must therefore become more familiar and comfortable with predicting or envisioning, rather than forecasting, the future. Envisioning is a creative process.
Unlike forecasts, visions are based on instinctive feelings sometimes termed intuition or hunches and are not covered by the defendable cloak of scientific rigor. Since so-called scientific validity is lacking, creative planning can be an uncomfortable situation for planners. Although many executives give lip service to engendering creativity within their organizations, they have a tendency to stifle creativity by implementing an operating strategy of simply "muddling-through," adopting expedient solutions to today's problems that will keep things together until tomorrow but without a long term focus of future objectives and strategies. However, muddling-through is not in the best interest of organizations, and executives are beginning to realize that the true function of leadership concerns their ability to tap the collective creativity of the organization and direct it toward accomplishment of the organization's long term goals.
Planners need to begin to apply new techniques for envisioning their company's future and this calls for the use of a number of applications of creative thinking techniques. Before these tools can be effective, however, a creative climate must be established within the organization through the leadership and support of upper management. Such a creative climate should consist of the following attributes:
* Trust so that people can try and fail without
prejudice. * An effective system of internal and external
communication so that the organization and its
members are fully aware of needs and goals * A variety of personality types within the organization
and on its planning teams * A culture that supports change * A process to ensure the survival and ultimately
the reward of potentially useful ideas * A merit system that is based, at least in part, on
the generation and implementation of innovative
Managers need to regularly assess their organization's creative climate and level of creativity. Some criteria that can be used to measure innovativeness within the business include:
* The number of new ideas being generated and
the percentage of new proposals being implemented
(this includes a reasonable number of
failures within the organization, because a
company with no failures is probably not taking
enough prudent risk) * The flexibility of the organization's structure and
financial and accounting systems to permit new
approaches to survive * The originality of approaches to old problems
and to new opportunities * The independence of judgment exercised by
members of the organization * The permissible degree of deviance from
standard operating practices (not doing things
"the way they've always been done").
If nothing new is happening in a business, executives should examine themselves to see what type of climate they are creating.
Establishing a creative climate takes time and effort and often challenges the standard management practices of controlling and maximizing the efficiency of internal operations, but payoffs can be high. Once the creative climate is established, the organization will be able to tap one of its most underutilized assets, the collective creativity of its members.
For creativity to be effective, it must be directed. This means that the organization must specify its goals in measurable terms, and this is not often easy. As Mad Magazine's Alfred E. Neuman tell us, "Most people don't know what they want, but they're pretty sure that they don't have it." Through management's communication of objectives, organization members can begin to explore innovative methods to accomplish them. Then, only by knowing well a firm's products and customers can members direct their creative efforts toward the success of the business.
Once objectives are established and communicated throughout the organization and information concerning products and customers is widely disseminated, individuals and groups within the business can begin to direct their creative thinking toward the long term success of the firm.
Organization members need to be made aware that management is instituting, by design, a more creative environment, which is intended to elicit and support innovative ideas. A formal announcement should be made followed by a series of training sessions to impart creative thinking skills to workers. Everyone should be encouraged to participate. A system for submitting new ideas should be established and follow-up for each submittal, especially those that cannot be implemented, should be guaranteed.
This article discusses the need for creativity in organizations to ensure their viability in the future. The Thompson and Tuden framework of organizational decision situations is proposed as a useful basis for structuring training sessions in creative thinking and a few techniques for improving creativity for each type of decision situation were presented. The role of creative thinking in a firm's planning process was discussed as were methods for establishing and assessing a creative climate within a business organization. A few necessary steps to institute a creative climate were also presented.
Business organizations wishing to survive and thrive in the turbulent future must begin to instill confidence in their members concerning their personal abilities to confront and make sense out of uncertain situations, specifically problems encountered at work. This confidence can be developed through the introduction of some well established techniques for improving personal creativity and through the development of upper management support for a creative process are beneficial to a of the creative process are beneficial to a enhance productivity and quality and to the individual employee through the improvement of a valuable personal skill which can lead to increased self-esteem and greater satisfaction with the work environment. References
[1.] Ackoff, R.L. and E. Vergara. "Creativity in Problem Solving and Planning: A Review." European Journal of Operations Research, Vol 7, 1981, pp. 1-13.
[2.] Arieti, S. Creativity: The Magic Synthesis. New York: Basic Books, 1976.
[3.] "Common Sense, Experiences Are Not Enough: It's Time to Get Creative." Marketing News, January 18, 1988, p. 7.
[4.] De Bono, E. The Five-Day Course in Thinking. New York: The New American Library, 1967.
[5.] Evans, J.R. "Creative Thinking and Innovative Education in the Decision Sciences." Decision Sciences, Vol 17, No. 2, 1986, pp. 250-262.
[6.] Koestler, A. The Act of Creation. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1964.
[7.] May, R. The Courage to Create. New York: W.W. Norton, 1975.
[8.] Mitroff, I.I. and R.H. Kilmann. Corporate Tragedies. New York: Praeger, 1984.
[9.] Osborn,A.F. Applied Imagination. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953.
[10.] Perkins, D.N. The Mind's Best Work. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981.
[11.] Raudsepp, E. "Establishing a Creative Climate." Training and Development Journal, April 1987, pp. 50-53.
[12.] Thompson, J.D. and A. Tuden. "Strategies, Structures and Processes of Organizational Decision." In Thompson, J.D. et al., eds. Comparative Studies in Administration. Pittsburgh: The University of Pittsburgh Press, 1959.
[13.] Von Oech, R. A Whack on the Side of the Head: How to Unlock your Mind for Innovation. New York: Warner Books, 1983.
Editor's Note: If you would like contact faculty members about any of the activities reported below, pleasee direct your inquiries to the Business Research Institute.
Thomas Chen (Economics and Finance) attended the Finance Department Chairperson's Round Table Session at the Midwest Finance Association Annual Meeting held in Chicago in March 1990.
Robert J. Mockler (Management) had three papers published: (1) "A Knowledge-Based System for Estimating Risks Inherent in a Proposed KBS Project, "Expert Systems, February 1989; (2) "An Integrative Management Approach to Developing Knowledge-Based Systems Management, Journal of Microcomputer Systems Management, Summer 1989; and (3) "Developing Effective Knowledge-Based Systems: Overcoming Cognitive, Organizational, and Individual Behavior Barries," Information Resources Management Journal, Winter 1989.
Robert J. Mockler (Management) wrote a book entitled Computer Software to Support Strategic Planning Decision Making, which is to be published in 1990 by The Strategic Planning Society/European Planning Federation, Henley-on-Thames, England.
Charles Wankel (Management) received a grant valued at $20,000 in terms of on-line database access from Dialog Information Services of Palo Alto, California. The grant is to support a series of projects in the area of management information systems technology. This is his fourth grant from Dialog.
Young Back Choi (Economics and Finance) had a paper entitled "Adam Smith's View of Human Nature: A Problem in the Interpretation of the Wealth of Nations and the Theory of Moral Sentiments" published in the Fall 1990 issue of Review of Social Economy. A book review of Helmut Schoeck's Envy: A Theory of Social Behavior appeard in the Southern Economic Journal in April 1990. A review of Alice H. Amsden's book Asia's Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization will appear in the Eastern Economic Journal soon. He served as a discussant at the History of Economics Society Conference at Lexington, Virginia in June 1990 and at the Nagoya International Symposium on the Bicentenary of the Death of Adam Smith at Nagoya, Japan in April 1990.
Justin P. Carey (Management) is th co-author with Alice T. Carey, M.D. of a chapter entitled "Therapeutic Management of Socio-Economic Conflict in a Suburban Culture," which appears in the reference textbook Cross-Cultural Research in Human Development, published by Praeger-Greenwood.
Anthony Pappas (Economics and Finance) presented a paper entitled "Competition in the Securities Markets: Trends and Challenges" at the Annual Convention of the New York State Economics Association at Ithaca, New York In October 1990.
Harry Meyer (Management) had an article entitled "Inventory Accuracy - Is it Worth It" published in the American Production and Inventory Control Society Journal in mid-1990. Another article entitled "Eight Steps to a Successful Inventory Accuracy Program - A Case Study" will be published later in the same journal.
PHOTO : Larry W. Boone is Assistant Professor of Management at St. John's University in Jamaica, New York.
PHOTO : A. Thomas Hollingsworth, formerly Director of the Business Research Institute and Professor f Management at St. John's University, New York, is now Dean of the School of Business at Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Florida.
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|Author:||Boone, Larry W.; Hollingsworth, A. Thomas|
|Publication:||Review of Business|
|Date:||Sep 22, 1990|
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