Creating a conducive learning environment for the effective integration of ICT: classroom management issues.
This article reports and discusses the findings of the collective case study of two primary schools in Singapore. It is part of a larger funded research project that examines and analyses where and how information and communication technologies (ICT) are integrated in Singapore schools to develop pupils' higher order thinking skills. The focus of this article is on classroom management issues that create a conducive environment to facilitate the effective integration of ICT in the schools. In such an environment, pupils are more likely to be task-oriented and reflective, and hence, more likely to engage in higher order thinking. Using activity theory as a framework, the following classroom management issues are discussed: availability of ICT resources, establishment of rules and procedures, support of ICT-based activities by non-ICT and ICT tools, and division of labour among participants.
Jl. of Interactive Learning Research (2003) 14(4), 405-423
The primary motivation for integrating ICT (1) (Information and Communications Technology) An umbrella term for the information technology field. See IT.
(2) (International Computers and Tabulators) See ICL.
1. (testing) ICT - In Circuit Test. in education is that it supports pupils in their own constructive thinking, allows them to transcend their cognitive limitations, and engages them in cognitive operations they may not have been capable of otherwise (Salomon Noun 1. Salomon - American financier and American Revolutionary War patriot who helped fund the army during the American Revolution (1740?-1785)
Haym Salomon , 1993). Many large-scale large-scale
1. Large in scope or extent.
2. Drawn or made large to show detail.
1. wide-ranging or extensive
2. studies have documented the positive learning outcomes of using ICT in schools (Sivin-Kachala, 1998; Wenglinsky, 1998; Mann, Shakeshaft, Becker Beck´er
n. 1. (Zool.) A European fish (Pagellus centrodontus); the sea bream or braise. , & Kottkamp, 1999). These studies claimed that ICT develops a culture of thinking; one that "engages students with challenging yet personally meaningful problems, draws on students' conceptual and cultural world of experiences, and promotes active and independent learning among students" (Fisher, Dwyer Dwyer may refer to: People with the Surname Dwyer
The simplest thinking skills are learning facts and recall, while higher order skills include critical thinking, in a conducive con·du·cive
Tending to cause or bring about; contributive: working conditions not conducive to productivity. See Synonyms at favorable. learning environment, where classroom management issues are assumed to have been addressed.
In reality, conducive learning environments do not just happen, they are the result of effective classroom management that establish and maintain work systems for pupils to engage in their learning. A conducive learning environment is one that is task-oriented and predictable, where pupils know what is expected of them and how to succeed (Sanford Sanford.
1 City (1990 pop. 32,387), seat of Seminole co., central Fla., on Lake Monroe and the St. Johns River; inc. 1877. It is an agricultural center where citrus fruit and vegetables are processed. , Emmer, & Clements Clements is a name that can refer to the following: People
British writer known chiefly for a series of stories featuring the brilliant detective Sherlock Holmes, including The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902). , 1990; Munn, Johnstone Johnstone (jŏn`stən), town (1991 pop. 42,731), Renfrewshire, W Scotland. Industries include flax and cotton mills in addition to engineering works. Chemicals, machine tools, and shoelaces are also manufactured. , & Chalmers Chalmers may refer to:
direct correlation between engaged time, appropriate academic activities, and high academic achievement, and the need to structure classrooms to promote ontask behaviours (Brophy, 1979; Good, 1982; Brophy & Good, 1986). Therefore, a conducive learning environment is a necessary condition for the effective integration of ICT to engage pupils in higher order thinking.
Based on a collective case study of two primary schools in Singapore There are various different types of schools in Singapore. In addition to the usual primary and secondary schools there are also junior colleges and centralized institutes. Singapore also has a number of polytechnics and universities. , this article discusses classroom management issues that create a conducive learning environment to support the effective integration of ICT in schools. The collective case study is part of a larger Ministry of Education (Singapore Singapore (sĭng`gəpôr, sĭng`ə–, sĭng'gəpôr`), officially Republic of Singapore, republic (2005 est. pop. 4,426,000), 240 sq mi (625 sq km). ) funded research project that examines and analyses where and how ICT is integrated in Singapore schools to develop pupils' higher order thinking skills. Using activity theory as a framework, the classroom management issues are discussed in each of the following categories: availability of ICT tools (hardware and software), establishment of rules and procedures, support of ICT-based activities by non-ICT and ICT tools, and division of labour among participants (teachers, pupils, and technical assistants) in the learning environment.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Kounin (1970, p.63) defined effective classroom management as "producing a high rate of work involvement and a low rate of deviancy deviancy Vox populi A major abnormality, usually understood to be mental. See Paraphilia, Sexual deviancy. in academic settings." It includes "the provisions and procedures necessary to establish and maintain an environment in which instruction and learning can occur and the preparation of the classroom as an effective learning environment" (Fraser Fraser, river, Canada
Fraser, chief river of British Columbia, Canada, c.850 mi (1,370 km) long. It rises in the Rocky Mts., at Yellowhead Pass, near the British Columbia–Alta. line and flows northwest through the Rocky Mt. , 1983, p.68). A well-managed classroom is then one in which pupils are consistently engaged in the learning tasks with few pupil off-task behaviours. The literature reviewed in this section discusses the classroom management issues that create a conducive environment for the effective integration of ICT in schools.
Availability of ICT Tools
Pelgrum (2001), in a worldwide survey among schools from 26 countries, found that the most frequently mentioned problem of integrating ICT in education was the insufficient number of computers. This was echoed by Williams, Coles, Wilson Wilson, city (1990 pop. 36,930), seat of Wilson co., E N.C., in a rich agricultural region; inc. 1849. It is a commercial and industrial center with a large tobacco market. Manufactures include textile goods (especially clothing), metal products, and processed foods. , Richardson Richardson, city (1990 pop. 74,840), Dallas and Collins counties, N Tex., a suburb of Dallas; founded in the 1850s, inc. as a city 1956. Richardson manufactures telecommunications equipment, medical devices, supercomputers, computer chips, and fiber optics. , and Tuson (2000) who found that a limited availability When customers of the PSTN make telephone calls, they commonly make use of a telecommunications network called a switched-circuit network. In a switched-circuit network, devices known as switches are used to connect the caller to the callee. of ICT led to problems of classroom management and organization of resources. Cheung (1997) observed that pupils tended to lose concentration when the group working on a computer was too big. Given the large number of members in the group and the limited amount of time a teacher has for each lesson, there was not enough opportunity for each pupil to have a turn at the computer.
Beside the issue of an insufficient number of computers, Pelgrum (2001) found that insufficient peripherals and learning software were in the top ten list of problems related to ICT integration in schools. When peripherals such as earphones and microphones, and copies of learning software were insufficient, teachers experienced great difficulty in planning and conducting lessons even if there were enough computers (Cheung, 1997).
Supporting Activities for ICT Tools
Using ICT in the classroom involves organising supporting activities for the ICT tool. Potter A potter is someone who makes pottery.
Potter may also refer to: People
orientating, orienting - positioning with respect to a reference system or determining your bearings physically or intellectually; "noticed the bee's momentary orienting pause before heading back themselves with the onscreen on·screen or on-screen
adj. & adv.
1. As shown on a movie, television, or display screen.
2. Within public view; in public. layout of the particular piece of software." Potter (2000) suggested that teachers could print out screens to help the pupils become familiar with the new layouts they would be encountering. Indeed, one cannot simply assume that pupils are comfortable with any ICT software or hardware that they handle. It is thus the responsibility of the teachers to conduct ICT-based activities in such a way that every pupil understands and follows whatever is going on in the lesson.
Establishment of Rules and Procedures
In any learning environment, ICT-based or non-ICT-based ones, some degree of order and regularity is essential if pupils are to work productively and consistently toward instructional objectives (Doyle, 1990; Gettinger 1988). A classroom without any guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. for appropriate behaviours is very likely to be chaotic and unproductive. Potter (2000) suggested that a bank of regular sayings, which emphasised good practices, be put on the notice board of the computer room for all pupils to see. These are the rules and procedures that state the expected pupil behaviour to create an effective and harmonious learning environment in ICT-based lessons. Evertson, Emmer, Clements, and Worsham (1997, p.20) suggested five different categories of rules and procedures for the classroom: (a) procedures for room use, (b) procedures for teacher-led instruction, (c) procedures for moving in and out of the room, (d) procedures for group work, and (e) general procedures, such as distribution of materials and fire drills.
These rules and procedures are to be integrated into a workable system by teachers and should be deliberately taught to the pupils. By making the rules and procedures "concrete, explicit, and functional," order in the learning environment and pupils' work accomplishment are achieved (Doyle, 1986, p.410). Although many of these rules and procedures are established in "regular" classrooms, they can still be applied in ICT-based learning environments (Wong, 2000).
Technical Support for Teachers
In addition to the previously mentioned issues and strategies, teachers also need certain support to effectively integrate ICT in their lessons. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Wong (2000), the most common problem a teacher faces when conducting an ICT-lesson is pupils encountering technical problems. It is therefore crucial to provide teachers with technical support, especially help in trouble-shooting ICT-related problems (Parks & Pisapia, 1994). The teachers can then concentrate on conducting the actual lessons. Technical support can come from a variety of sources, such as a computer technician See PC technician and software technician. employed by the school, and from the pupils themselves. The latter can be trained to assist other students in solving simple technical problems (Marcovitz, Hamza ham·za also ham·zah
A sign in Arabic orthography used to represent the sound of a glottal stop, transliterated in English as an apostrophe. , & Farrow farrow
see farrowing. , 2000).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
To study the classroom management issues that create a conducive environment for the effective integration of ICT in schools, the conceptual framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .
A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project. of activity theory is adopted to provide a well-developed and consistent design for the study. It focuses on the whole configuration of classroom management related activities during ICT-based lessons.
Overview of Activity Theory
Over the last decade, activity theory has been adopted and developed as a framework for researching ICT in education settings (Holland & Reeves, 1994; Verenikina & Gould, 1997; Engestrom, 1999). Activity theory draws on the Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of learning, with activity as probably the most important concept. Activity is driven by a collective object (goal) and motive motive or motif (mōtēf`), in music, a short phrase or passage of two or more notes and repeated or elaborated throughout the composition. The term is usually used synonymously with figure. , but it is realised in goal-oriented individual and group actions. The centrality of activity to psychology is reflected in Leont'ev's (1981, p.46-47) assertion:
Human psychology is concerned with the activity of concrete individuals, which takes place whether in a collective--that is, jointly with other people--or in a situation in which the subject deals directly with the surrounding world of objects--e.g. at the potter's wheel or the writer's desk ... if we removed human activity from the system of social relationships and social life, it would not exist ... the human individual's activity is a system in the system of social relations. It does not exist without these relations.
Therefore, activities are systems in the system of social relations. A human individual never acts directly on, or reacts directly to, the environment. Cultural means, tools, and signs mediate MEDIATE, POWERS. Those incident to primary powers, given by a principal to his agent. For example, the general authority given to collect, receive and pay debts due by or to the principal is a primary power. the relationship between human participants and the objects of the environment. In this sense, the study of ICT in schools is no longer restricted to the interaction between the computer and the participants, but rather how ICT is embodied em·bod·y
tr.v. em·bod·ied, em·bod·y·ing, em·bod·ies
1. To give a bodily form to; incarnate.
2. To represent in bodily or material form: within a socially constituted learning environment (Crook, 1991).
Activity System as Unit of Analysis
Cultural-historical activity theory takes a collective object-oriented activity system as its prime unit of analysis (Cole & Engestrom, 1993; Engestrom, Miettinen, & Punamaki, 1998). The unit of analysis allows one to observe the actual learning processes in context, where the context is the activity system. It integrates the subject (individual participant), the object, the tools, and the dynamic nature of human activities. Cole and Engestrom (1993) represented the idea of activity systems with an expanded version of the classical mediational triangle (Figure 1).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
The classical mediational triangle draws on Vygotsky's (1978) higher and elementary functioning
In mathematics, an elementary function : "unmediated Adj. 1. unmediated - having no intervening persons, agents, conditions; "in direct sunlight"; "in direct contact with the voters"; "direct exposure to the disease"; "a direct link"; "the direct cause of the accident"; "direct vote"
direct " (elementary) functioning occurs along the base of the triangle, and "mediated me·di·ate
v. me·di·at·ed, me·di·at·ing, me·di·ates
1. To resolve or settle (differences) by working with all the conflicting parties: " (higher) functioning is the interaction between the subject and object (task) mediated by tools at the vertex A corner point of a triangle or other geometric image. Vertices is the plural form of this term. See vertex shader. of the triangle. However, this basic mediational triangle fails to account for the collective and dynamic nature of activities. The expanded version situates the subject in a community comprising of multiple individuals and groups who share the same general object. There is division of labour in the community where the distribution of tasks, powers, and responsibilities are continuously negotiated among its participants. And there are rules that mediate the relations between the subject and its community to "specify and regulate the expected correct procedures and acceptable interactions among the participants" (Cole & Engestrom 1993, p. 7).
Adopting activity system as the unit of analysis for this study, the subject is the teacher in the ICT-based lesson and the object is the effective management of the ICT-based lesson. The outcome will then be a conducive learning environment that provides the necessary condition for the effective integration of ICT. The teacher is one of the participants of the community in the ICT-based lesson where the community consists of the teachers. pupils, and technology assistants (TA). In this community, there is division of labour among its participants to mediate the creation of the conducive learning environment. Rules and tools in the ICT-based lessons also help to mediate between the teacher and the effective management of the lesson.
The Collective Case Study
To provide an in-depth examination of the classroom management issues that create a conducive environment for the effective integration of ICT in schools, a collective case study approach is adopted. The collective case study is the study of the particularities and complexities of cases obtained by extensive descriptions and analysis of those cases taken as a whole and in their context (Stake, 1995). The "cases" for the study in this article are two primary schools in Singapore, East Primary, and North Primary School. The two schools are selected based on their high degree of ICT integration reported in a questionnaire survey of all Singapore schools.
The questionnaire survey consists of five different categories: School ICT culture, pupil use, teacher use, management of ICT resources, and staff development. Responses to the questionnaire are made on a five-point scale, where point 1 of the scale is associated with no or little integration of IT, point 3 is associated with moderate integration of IT, and point 5 is associated with high integration of IT.
To ensure accuracy of the conclusions drawn, data from the observations of ICT-based lessons, face-to-face interviews with teachers, and focus group discussions with pupils were used in the multiple strategies process. Multiple strategies involve gathering accounts of different realities that have been constructed by various groups and individuals in the school; and hence, enhance reliability and validity of the study.
Observations of ICT Lessons
Observation facilitates the collection of rich data in natural settings. Richer data means a better description and understanding of what goes on in a particular context and improves the provision of clues and pointers to other layers of reality (Silverman, 1994). It also helps to generate and refine questions during the informal and formal interviews with both pupils and teachers regarding an observed behaviour or action. A semi-structured observation was adopted to allow for a more open exploration of the learning environment. During observations of the ICT-based lessons, a record of events was kept based on the observation checklist that included layout of the room, lesson objectives, lesson sequence, types of ICT and non-ICT tools used, rules, and roles of the participants. The checklist for the observations was inextricably in·ex·tri·ca·ble
a. So intricate or entangled as to make escape impossible: an inextricable maze; an inextricable web of deceit.
b. tied to the activity theoretical framework.
Fifteen ICT-based lessons were observed in each school. The ICT-based lessons were in different subject areas: Mathematics, Science, English, Mother-tongue language (Chinese, Malay and Tamil), Art, Music, and Social Studies. Most of the lessons observed were conducted in the computer rooms, mediated by ICT tools that included CD-ROMs, Internet Internet
Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the , and open tools (word processor and presentation application). Only three of the lessons were conducted in the classroom with a data projector A device that projects computer output onto a white or silver fabric screen that is wall, ceiling or tripod mounted. Data projectors typically accept resolutions of 800x600, 1024x768 or 1280x1024 and may also support standard video from a VCR, DVD or cable box. and a computer.
Face-to-Face Interviews with Teachers
Although observation allowed collection of data through the researchers' direct contact with the learning environment, it was not always possible to have intimate, repeated, and prolonged pro·long
tr.v. pro·longed, pro·long·ing, pro·longs
1. To lengthen in duration; protract.
2. To lengthen in extent. involvement in the life and community of the participants. Moreover, it was necessary to take into account of the way the teachers interpreted and understood their worlds. It allowed for the explanation of certain behaviours or actions of the teachers that had been observed.
Three teachers were interviewed in each school after the observation of their ICT-based lessons. The 45 minutes interviews were tape-recorded. An unstructured interview Unstructured Interviews are a method of interviews where questions can be changed or adapted to meet the respondent's intelligence, understanding or belief. Unlike a structured interview they do not offer a limited, pre-set range of answers for a respondent to choose, but instead format was adopted to encourage meaning making by narrative recounting. A list of topics that the researchers wanted the teachers to talk about was generated for the interview: objectives of ICT-based lessons, reasons for using ICT and non-ICT tools, roles of the participants, rules and procedures for the ICT-based lessons, professional background of teacher.
Focus Group Discussions with Pupils
Focus groups are group interviews that rely, not on a question-and-answer format of interview but on the interaction within the group. This reliance on interaction between the participating pupils elicits more of the pupils' point of view by allowing a struggle of understanding of how others interpret key terms/ideas and a debate of issues raised (Morgan Morgan, American family of financiers and philanthropists.
Junius Spencer Morgan, 1813–90, b. West Springfield, Mass., prospered at investment banking. , 1993). Moreover, pupils may feel more at ease when they are in a group, and that may encourage more spontaneity spon·ta·ne·i·ty
n. pl. spon·ta·ne·i·ties
1. The quality or condition of being spontaneous.
2. Spontaneous behavior, impulse, or movement.
Noun 1. , especially if the pupils are classmates Classmates can refer to either:
Three groups of six pupils were chosen from each school for the focus group discussions. The groupings were done according to the levels that the pupils were from--Primary 3, 4, and 5. Each group had a 30-minute discussion conducted in the classroom or the computer lab. A list of topics and questions was used to guide the group discussions: objectives of ICT-based lessons, ICT and non-ICT tools, ICT-based lessons and learning, rules and procedures, and division of labour among participants. These topics were generated from the activity theoretical framework and the literature review. Care was taken to ensure a natural progression across topics in the list, with some overlap o·ver·lap
1. A part or portion of a structure that extends or projects over another.
2. The suturing of one layer of tissue above or under another layer to provide additional strength, often used in dental surgery.
v. between them; an artificial compartmentalisation of the discussion might defeat the purpose of using focus group discussions (Morgan, 1993).
From the various sources of data collected, units of information were identified. These units became the basis for defining categories. It was essential that the activity theoretical framework informed these units with respect to the availability of ICT tools, establishment of rules and procedures, support of ICT-based activities by non-ICT and ICT tools, and division of labour among participants (teachers, students, and TAs). These units were situated in the ecological ecological
emanating from or pertaining to ecology.
the state of balance in an ecosystem when its inhabitants have established their permanent relationships with each settings of the activity systems (ICT-based lessons in the two schools).
ECOLOGICAL SETTINGS OF THE TWO CASE STUDIES
East Primary School
The study in East Primary School, a government-aided school, was carried out from September 17, to October 2, 2001. Government-aided schools are schools managed by a board of governors, usually from clans or religious organizations, empowered to recruit staff of their own. At the time of the study, there were 2118 pupils in East Primary School, consisting of boys and girls boys and girls
mercurialisannua. with ages ranging from 7 to 12. The average class size was 40. The school had a staff strength of 80 teachers and 10 support personnel. There were two computer rooms where each had been equipped with about 40 computers, data projector, pull-down projector screen, and whiteboard The electronic equivalent of chalk and blackboard, but between remote users. Whiteboard systems allow network participants to simultaneously view one or more users drawing on an on-screen blackboard or running an application. . These computer rooms were fully air-conditioned.
A TA was available to address technical problems that might arise in the computer rooms, such as program failure and CD-ROM CD-ROM: see compact disc.
in full compact disc read-only memory
Type of computer storage medium that is read optically (e.g., by a laser). access problem. The ICT learning packages that were used included Midisaurus for Music, I-Micro and RoboLab for Science, and a wide range of CD-ROMs for other subjects, such as English, Mathematics, Social Studies, Art, Malay, Chinese, and Tamil. The school had also converted certain areas in the school into free access corners with a total of 12 computers for pupils to engage in independent learning during tea or lunch breaks.
North Primary School
The fieldwork field·work
1. A temporary military fortification erected in the field.
2. Work done or firsthand observations made in the field as opposed to that done or observed in a controlled environment.
3. in North Primary School, also a government-aided school, was carried out from August 21, 2001 to January 8, 2002. All 720 pupils were girls between 7 to 12 years old. The average class size was 40. There were 31 teaching staff and 4 support staff, including the TA. There was one fully air-conditioned computer room with about 40 computers, data projector, pull-down projector screen, whiteboard, and two printers. Some of the IT learning packages that were used in North Primary School included Midisaurus for Music, Crayola for Art, and CD-ROMs such as MathBlaster and ZARC for Mathematics. The area outside the school general office was converted to a free access area with 6 computers.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
Availability of ICT tools
Under the Singapore Masterplan for ICT in education, launched in April 1997, all schools were provided with ICT tools, both hardware and software. One of the goals of the Masterplan was to ensure that by the end of 2002, all 368 schools in Singapore would be equipped with the necessary hardware, software, and infrastructure that would support an ICT integrated learning environment. At the launch of the Masterplan on April 28, 1997, the Minister of Education in his opening speech elaborated on the rationale rationale (rash´nal´),
n the fundamental reasons used as the basis for a decision or action. for the Masterplan:
Singapore's Masterplan for Information Technology (IT) in Education lays out a comprehensive strategy for creating an IT-based teaching and learning environment in every school. It will be one of our key strategies for equipping our young with skills that are critical for the future--creative thinking, the ability to learn independently and continuously, and effective communication (Ministry of Education, 1997).
By December 1999, the teacher-computer ratio was 2:1 for all schools and pupil-computer ratio was 6.6:1 for primary schools. The schools were also given funds to purchase educational software and other peripherals annually. The schools have the autonomy to identify and purchase ICT resources that best meet the needs of their students and teachers. The music teacher in North Primary School, during the interview, recalled how she persuaded her school to purchase Midisaurus, a music software:
The school has always been supportive of the use of information technologies (IT). I came across Midisaurus in a music workshop and asked for a demo copy to explore. After evaluation, I put up a proposal to purchase 50 copies of the CD-ROMs. The school has funds for the purchase of hardware and software, so it is up to the individual teacher to propose the purchase of IT resources that are useful for their students.
All classrooms in the two primary schools were equipped with a data projector and a desktop computer. And the computer rooms were equipped with more than 40 desktop computers per room, enough for a class of 40 pupils to engage in individual work, and flexible enough to support pair and group work. In all the ICT-based lessons observed, there was no problem that was associated to a lack of computers, educational software or ICT peripherals. All the teachers, who were interviewed, stated that they have more flexibility in planning and conducting ICT-based lessons, as they were not constrained con·strain
tr.v. con·strained, con·strain·ing, con·strains
1. To compel by physical, moral, or circumstantial force; oblige: felt constrained to object. See Synonyms at force.
2. by the availability of ICT tools. Therefore, the availability of ICT tools in the computer rooms mediates between the teacher and his/her management of the ICT-based lessons that creates a conducive learning environment for the effective integration of ICT in these schools.
Establishment of Rules and Procedures
Although the rules and procedures established in a non-ICT based classroom apply in an ICT-based classroom, there are additional rules and procedures to be established in the latter. This is due to the addition of computers, printers, monitors, CD-ROMs, and other ICT resources. Moreover, pupils are often less familiar with ICT-based classrooms than non-ICT based ones. The rules and procedures include both discipline-specific ones and educational ones. The former include rules and procedures for room use, moving in and out of the room, teacher-led instruction, and general tasks such as distribution of worksheets. The latter include rules and procedures for educational activities such as group work and note-taking. This section discusses both types of rules and procedures.
In both schools, the discipline-specific rules of the computer room were clearly displayed on the wall. They included no water bottles or food in the computer room, no unauthorised installation of programs, no unauthorised change to the features of the control panel, no running about in the computer room, and no playing games unless the teacher gives permission. Besides setting rules, it is also important to establish procedures for pupils to follow when they are in the computer room. These procedures minimise the occurrences of deviant deviant /de·vi·ant/ (de´ve-int)
1. varying from a determinable standard.
2. a person with characteristics varying from what is considered standard or normal.
adj. behaviour among pupils and keep the pupils on task.
All the pupils in the focus group discussions agreed that the discipline-specific rules and procedures were reasonable and they ensured the smooth running of the ICT-based lessons. A few of them elaborated on the importance of rules and procedures during these discussions: "... if not (no rules), we're talking too much and we don't follow the teacher's instructions, we do our own things" and "if there are no rules about the computers, other people may mess up the computers. We already have something to work on for the class, and if the computer is messy mess·y
adj. mess·i·er, mess·i·est
1. Disorderly and dirty: a messy bedroom.
2. Exhibiting or demonstrating carelessness: messy reasoning. , then we've got another problem to think of and it makes it very hard for us."
Some discipline-specific procedures that were observed in both schools included the following:
* Pupils entered and exited the computer room in an orderly orderly /or·der·ly/ (or´der-le) an attendant in a hospital who works under the direction of a nurse.
An attendant in a hospital. fashion according to their class index number. Each of them knew their assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. seats and there was no rushing. The computers were indexed with the index number of the pupil. Indexing facilitated the procedure of seat assignment and the monitoring of the ICT tools. One teacher from the school elaborated during the interview:
Every computer is labelled with an index, and the pupil of that index number will use that particular computer ... even the CD-ROMs are also tagged with numbers, so that we can check any breakdown, or any mischief done to the computer. And before they [the pupils] leave, they have to turn the mouse over, so that the track ball ... you can see that the track ball is still inside.
* Some teachers grouped or paired pupils with ICT skills with those who needed more support using ICT. Such an arrangement facilitated the learning process of pupils who were weak in ICT skills as they were able to better engage in the task. It also eliminated the need for these pupils to frequently interrupt A signal that gets the attention of the CPU and is usually generated when I/O is required. For example, hardware interrupts are generated when a key is pressed or when the mouse is moved. Software interrupts are generated by a program requiring disk input or output. the teacher for help. For example, one teacher in East Primary School paired pupils who were weak in typing with those who could type well. She also made sure that no "playful play·ful
1. Full of fun and high spirits; frolicsome or sportive: a playful kitten.
2. " pupils were put together.
* Pupils turned on the computers only when the teacher gave instructions to. In both schools, some teachers would get the pupils to turn off their monitor or move to the front of the computer room (away from the computers) when they were explaining a concept or giving instructions. These procedures ensured that the pupils paid attention to the instructions and explanations.
The discipline-specific rules and procedures observed in East and North Primary School communicated the teachers' expectation of the pupils' behaviour. Of all the 30 lessons observed in both schools, there were only 2 lessons in East Primary School and 1 in North Primary School that lacked a conducive learning environment. In one of these lessons in East Primary School, there was a lack of discipline-specific rules and procedures. For example, a few pupils were working on their workstations and some were talking among themselves when the teacher was giving instructions prior to the ICT-based activity. Moreover, the pupils in this lesson have failed to enter and exit the computer room in an orderly fashion, and many of them were not seated according to their index numbers In economics, index numbers are time series summarising movements in a group of related variables. The best-known is the consumer price index which measures changes in retail prices paid by consumers. .
For the other 2 lessons that were observed to lack a conducive learning environment, the main problem appeared to stem from a lack of educational rules and procedures, especially for carrying out group work and taking notes from the ICT package. During group work in these 2 lessons, 1 or 2 pupils in each group usually dominated the discussions and tasks. The rest of the pupils displayed off-task behaviours such as daydreaming, talking among themselves, or engaging in another task other than the task at hands. Research studies have shown that simply putting pupils in groups and asking them to work together does not automatically result in cooperative learning cooperative learning Education theory A student-centered teaching strategy in which heterogeneous groups of students work to achieve a common academic goal–eg, completing a case study or a evaluating a QC problem. See Problem-based learning, Socratic method. (Sheingold, Hawkins, & Char char: see salmon.
Any of several freshwater food and game fishes (genus Salvelinus) of the salmon family, distinguished from the similar trout by light, rather than black, spots; by a boat-shaped, rather than flat, vomer (bone) on the roof of , 1984; Sharan, 1994). Sharan stated that educational rules and procedures are necessary to create a conducive environment for cooperative learning. They include ensuring individual accountability, teaching of cooperative social rules/procedures and establishing positive interdependence in·ter·de·pen·dent
Mutually dependent: "Today, the mission of one institution can be accomplished only by recognizing that it lives in an interdependent world with conflicts and overlapping interests" .
The pupils in the focus group discussion at North Primary School recalled how their teacher assigned each of them with a role, and hence ensured individual accountability: "I was the recorder and I have to record everything the group has discussed, without any mistakes, and then passed to the presenter," "The teacher only assigned us with roles during the first few lessons, after that, she said we can take care of ourselves and assign ourselves," and "There were the group leaders, the noise controller, the recorder and the presenter whenever we have group work. Everybody was responsible for something." During the interview with their teacher, she said that besides ensuring individual accountability, pupils were taught basic social rules and procedures for group work such as "one person talking at a time," "controlling the volume of talking," "paying attention Noun 1. paying attention - paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people); "his attentiveness to her wishes"; "he spends without heed to the consequences"
attentiveness, heed, regard when others talk," and "negotiating when trying to reach a consensus."
Therefore, to create a conducive learning environment, teachers have to set clear rules and procedures, both discipline-specific and educational ones, to mediate between the community of the ICT-based lesson and the object of effective management of the lesson.
Support of ICT-based Activities by Non-ICT and ICT Tools
Pupils cannot be assumed to be "expert" learners in the ICT-based learning environment. They may lack the technical skills to navigate (1) "Surfing the Web." To move from page to page on the Web.
(2) To move through the menu structure in a software application. and learn in the ICT learning packages; or/and they may lack the motivation to learn using the ICT learning package. If these assumptions are not addressed, pupils may lose task-orientation and display deviant behaviours that are disruptive disruptive /dis·rup·tive/ (-tiv)
1. bursting apart; rending.
2. causing confusion or disorder. (Lim, 2001). Therefore, teachers need to employ ICT and non-ICT tools to support the ICT-based activities such that the assumptions of the "expert" learners are addressed. Such practices were observed in both schools at various stages of the ICT-based lessons: preinstructional activities, instructional activities, and postinstructional activities.
Most of the teachers reviewed previous concepts and made links to the concepts to be covered in the ICT-based lessons. Some teachers highlighted and demonstrated the key features and the navigation buttons of the ICT learning package before allowing pupils to start using the computers. The teachers, mediated by the whiteboard, visualiser Noun 1. visualiser - one whose prevailing mental imagery is visual
beholder, observer, perceiver, percipient - a person who becomes aware (of things or events) through the senses , teacher's computer, overhead projector, and data projector, carried out these presentations and demonstrations that created a conducive environment for learning.
These activities, supported by ICT and non-ICT tools, are especially important when a new hardware and/or software are being introduced, as in the case of North Primary School. When the QX3 microscope and its accompanying program were first introduced in a Science lesson with a group of Primary three pupils, the teacher explained the features and functions of the different parts of the microscope with the use of Power Point slides. She then asked the pupils to imitate im·i·tate
tr.v. im·i·tat·ed, im·i·tat·ing, im·i·tates
1. To use or follow as a model.
a. her actions as she used the microscope and software to capture some images. This ensured that the pupils knew how to use the microscope and its accompanying program. The pupils in the focus group discussions found the introduction and demonstration of the microscope helpful as they "did not encounter any problems when using the microscope" and they were able to "concentrate on the science experiment."
Most of the instructions for the ICT-based activities were usually given to pupils as handouts or projected onto the screen by way of the teachers' computer. When pupils were clear about the tasks that they were to complete, they were more likely to be task-oriented and motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo . When instructions were confusing con·fuse
v. con·fused, con·fus·ing, con·fus·es
a. To cause to be unable to think with clarity or act with intelligence or understanding; throw off.
b. , as observed in a lesson in North Primary School, pupils were found to display more deviant behaviours. In the focus group discussion, one of the pupils who was talking to Noun 1. talking to - a lengthy rebuke; "a good lecture was my father's idea of discipline"; "the teacher gave him a talking to"
rebuke, reprehension, reprimand, reproof, reproval - an act or expression of criticism and censure; "he had to his partner during the lesson, commented that he did not know what the ICT-based task was about and he was "lost in cyberspace Coined by William Gibson in his 1984 novel "Neuromancer," it is a futuristic computer network that people use by plugging their minds into it! The term now refers to the Internet or to the online or digital world in general. See Internet and virtual reality. Contrast with meatspace. " when carrying out the task.
Scaffolding activities were present in most lessons observed in both schools. Worksheets and checklists were distributed to the pupils to guide them to complete their tasks. During a Science lesson in East Primary School, the teacher designed a worksheet to mediate knowledge construction (searching for and analysing information based on the guided questions to construct their own meaning of scientific concepts) as her pupils worked through a section of CD-ROM on Natural Habitat. Some of her pupils commented during the focus group discussion that "the worksheet helped us to think about things in the computer" and "without the worksheet, we won't know what to learn and what is important."
In another Science lesson observed in North Primary School, the teacher prepared a checklist to guide his pupils to conduct an inquiry on the water cycle mediated by the Internet. During the interview, he explained the rationale for the checklist: "If the pupils are to conduct the inquiry without a checklist, they may be overloaded o·ver·load
tr.v. o·ver·load·ed, o·ver·load·ing, o·ver·loads
To load too heavily.
An excessive load.
Adj. 1. with information. The purpose for the checklist is to provide a focus on what they need for the inquiry and thus, they won't be lost." Such scaffolding tools ensured that pupils were able to successfully engage in the tasks and complete them. Besides worksheets and checklists, the teachers in both schools also posed many guiding questions verbally. These questions served as scaffold scaffold
Temporary platform used to elevate and support workers and materials during work on a structure or machine. It consists of one or more wooden planks and is supported by either a timber or a tubular steel or aluminum frame; bamboo is used in parts of Asia. , guiding the pupils learning processes.
In East Primary School, a red cup was placed beside each computer to allow pupils to signal for help. It was known as the red alert cup. When pupils encountered a technical or instructional problem, they would place their cups on top of their monitors to request for help. The TA (if present) or teacher would then assist the pupils accordingly. As the use of such cups was absent in North Primary School, the pupils who encountered problems had to raise their hands and that disrupted dis·rupt
tr.v. dis·rupt·ed, dis·rupt·ing, dis·rupts
1. To throw into confusion or disorder: Protesters disrupted the candidate's speech.
2. or delayed the completion of their tasks. Therefore, the cup mediated between the rules and the community, and that created a more conducive environment in East Primary School than North Primary School.
All the teachers who were observed in both schools carried out postinstructional activities to round up the ICT-based lessons and linked the concepts learnt to the next lesson. They also briefed the pupils on the tasks to be completed by the next lesson. Most of the tools used to mediate these activities were similar to the ones used in the preinstructional activities. In East Primary School, one of the teachers used a concept-mapping software, Inspiration, to engage her pupils in the reflection of the ICT-based lessons. The teacher constructed the concept map on her computer, projected on the screen, together with her pupils. Another teacher in the school constructed the concept map with his class on the whiteboard.
The teachers in both schools employed both ICT and non-ICT tools to support the ICT-based activities to ensure that their pupils were task-oriented and engaged in their learning processes. These tools, employed by the teachers to create a conducive learning environment, mediate between the community and the object of managing ICT-based lessons.
Division of Labour among Participants
The responsibility of ensuring a conducive learning environment should not fall entirely on the teacher. There is a need for the division of labour among the participants in the computer room. The role of the teacher in the two schools was to plan for the ICT-based lessons, conduct and manage them, evaluate them and make necessary changes. They moved around the computer room to engage the pupils in dialogues while the pupils were working at the computers. However, it was observed that TAs and pupil helpers also played crucial roles.
Role of Teacher
There were only two lessons observed in East Primary School where more than two-thirds of the lesson was spent on direct teaching. The other ICT-based lessons were pupil-centred with very little direct teaching. Examples of such lessons included pupils working with CD-ROMs, composing com·pose
v. com·posed, com·pos·ing, com·pos·es
1. To make up the constituent parts of; constitute or form: essays with Microsoft Word A full-featured word processing program for Windows and the Macintosh from Microsoft. Included in the Microsoft application suite, it is a sophisticated program with rudimentary desktop publishing capabilities that has become the most widely used word processing application on the market. , searching for information on the Internet and presenting their findings, and carrying out experiments with ICT tools such as the QX3 microscope. Although pupil learning was mediated by ICT and non-ICT tools (worksheets, checklists, and handouts), the teachers were observed to be facilitators, helping and guiding the pupils in their work. As the pupils worked at their own pace, the teachers were able to spend more time working with the weaker pupils, and provided them with more scaffolding to complete the tasks. When pupils are able to successfully carry out and complete the tasks, they are less likely to engage in deviant behaviours that may be disruptive to the lesson.
Role of Technology Assistant
In both schools, the TAs were present in most of the ICT-based lessons observed. Most of the teachers who were interviewed acknowledged the crucial role of the TA in these lessons. The TAs helped the teachers address technical problems faced by the pupils. In reality, the TAs could not be present in the computer room for most ICT-based lessons as they might be engaged in the maintenance of ICT tools in other parts of the school. In the interviews, most teachers said that they would try to attend to the technical problems themselves or expect the pupils to help one another to solve the problems. However, they would still need the support of the TAs if all else failed. One teacher in North Primary School elaborated on this point during the interview:
I'll try to attend to it and check whether if there's any problem but if I cannot handle, my immediate response will be to get the technician to handle it. Actually, the pupils will help one another and if they cannot solve the problem, they will get me, I mean get their teachers to help and if I can't handle it, I'll get the TA to handle it.
By doing so, the TAs freed the teachers from attending to technical problems and ensured that the teachers focused their attention on the conduct and management of the ICT-based lessons. That is, the division of labour between the TA and the teacher in the ICT-based lesson mediates between the subject (teacher) and the object of managing the lesson to create a conducive learning environment.
Role of Pupil Leaders/Helpers
In both schools, group leaders and assistant group leaders were assigned to collect, distribute, and return CD-ROMs, diskettes, worksheets, and checklists. These group leaders were chosen based on their seating positions; in East Primary School, they were the ones seated at the first row of the computer room, while in North Primary School, they were seated at the extreme right hand column of the computer room. In either case, the roles of the group leaders and assistant group leaders were very clear. The group leaders were supposed to collect and distribute the CD-ROMs, worksheets, handouts, and checklists, and the assistant group leaders were supposed to collect and distribute the pupils' work (for example, printouts) and personal diskettes.
In North Primary School, two pupils were chosen from each class as pupil helpers to handle simple technical procedures and problems. These pupil helpers facilitated the smooth running of the lesson by relieving some of the burden of the teacher, so that he/she could channel more energy into conducting and managing the ICT-based lesson. A teacher in the school explained the role of the pupil helper during the interview:
The pupils will actually set up some of the things like visualiser or even laptops ... we actually have at least two girls trained in IT so that ... when it comes to lesson ... the teacher is very busy doing other things so the teacher may need them to set up the things. They [girls trained in IT] will know how to set up the things.
The division of labour among the teachers, pupils, and TAs in both schools have indeed facilitated the creation of a conducive environment that is the necessary condition for the effective integration of ICT in the classroom. By defining the roles of each participant in the ICT-based lesson, the teacher is then able to achieve the object of managing the lesson; the role definitions or division of labour mediates between the community of the ICT-based lesson and the object of a well-managed lesson.
Managing ICT-based lessons is not very different from managing non-ICT based ones. The basic classroom management principles apply for both. Taking the ICT-based lesson as an activity system, we can study how the tools, rules, community, and division of labour mediate between the subject (teacher) and the object of managing the ICT-based lesson. The findings in the collective case study have highlighted the elements of a well-managed ICT-based lesson as:
1. Availability of ICT tools: When ICT tools are available and adequate in the learning environment, they mediate between the teacher and his/her management of ICT-based lessons that creates a conducive environment for effective ICT integration.
2. Establishment of rules and procedures: Teachers have to set clear discipline-specific and educational rules and procedures to mediate between the community of participants and the object of effective management of ICT-based lessons.
3. Supporting ICT and non-ICT tools for ICT-based activities: Teachers have to employ both ICT and non-ICT tools to support ICT-based activities by mediating between the community of participants and rules of the learning environment, and/or mediating between the community and the object of effective management of ICT-based lessons.
4. Division of labour among teachers, TAs, and pupils: Every participant in the ICT-based lesson has a role to play in ensuring a conducive learning environment. The well-defined roles of participants mediate between the community and the object of a well-managed ICT-based lesson.
These elements facilitate the creation of a conducive learning environment that provides the necessary condition for the effective integration of ICT in the classroom. In such an environment, pupils are more likely to be task-oriented and reflective Refers to light hitting an opaque surface such as a printed page or mirror and bouncing back. See reflective media and reflective LCD. , and hence, more likely to engage in higher order thinking.
Bers, T.H. (1994). Exploring institutional images through focus group interviews. In N., Bennett, R., Glatter, & R., Levacic (Eds.), Improving educational management through research and consultancy (pp. 290-299). London: The Open University.
Brophy, J. (1979). Teacher behaviour and its effects. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 733-750.
Brophy, J., & Good, T.L. (1986). Teacher behaviour and student achievement. In M.C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook
This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Macmillan.
Cheung, C. K. (1997). Factors affecting the successful implementation of Information Technology (IT) in the secondary business education curriculum Hong Kong Hong Kong (hŏng kŏng), Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Guangdong prov. in the eyes of teachers. Computer Education, 97, 7-13.
Cole, M., & Engestrom, Y. (1993). A cultural-historical approach to distributed cognition Distributed cognition "focusing beyond the boundaries of the individual"
(DCog) is a theory of psychology developed in the mid 1980s by Edwin Hutchins. Using insights from sociology, cognitive science, and the psychology of Vygotsky (cf activity theory) it In G., Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: Psychological and educational considerations (pp. 1-46). New York: Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). .
Crook, C. (1991). Computers in the zone of proximal development Lev Vygotsky's notion of zone of proximal development (зона ближайшего развития), often abbreviated ZPD : Implications for evaluation Computers and Education, 17(1), 81-91.
Doyle, W. (1986). Classroom organization and management. In M.C., Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Doyle, W. (1990). Classroom management techniques. In O.C., Moles Moles Definition
A mole (nevus) is a pigmented (colored) spot on the outer layer of the skin (epidermis).
Moles can be round, oval, flat, or raised. They can occur singly or in clusters on any part of the body. (Ed.), Student discipline strategies: Research and practice. Albany: State University of New York Press The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), founded in 1966, is a university press that is part of State University of New York system. External link
Engestrom, Y. (1999). Activity theory and individual and social transformation. In Engestrom, Y., Miettinen, R., & Punamaki, R-L R-L Right to Left
R-L Republican-Liberty (Party) (Eds.), Perspectives on activity theory (pp. 19-38). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Engestrom, Y., Miettinen, R., & Punamaki, R.L. (Eds.) (1998). Perspectives on activity theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Emmer, E.T., & Evertson, C.M. (1981). Synthesis of research on classroom management. Educational Leadership, 51(8), 12-15.
Evertson, C.M., Emmer, E.T., Clements, B.S., & Worsham, M.E. (1997). Classroom management for elementary teachers (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Fisher, C., Dwyer, D.C., & Yocam, K. (1996). The APPLE classroom of tomorrow--an overview, education and technology--reflections on computing computing - computer in classrooms (pp. 1-12). San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden : Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Fraser, B.J. (1983). Managing positive classroom environments. In B.J. Fraser (Ed.), Classroom management. Western Australian Australian
pertaining to or originating in Australia.
Australian bat lyssavirus disease
see Australian bat lyssavirus disease.
Australian cattle dog
a medium-sized, compact working dog used for control of cattle. Institute of Technology: Faculty of Education.
Gettinger, M. (1988). Methods of proactive classroom management. School Psychology Review, 17, 227-242.
Good, T. (1982). Classroom research: What we know and what we need to know (R&D report no. 9018). Research and Development Center for Teacher Education, University of Texas at Austin “University of Texas” redirects here. For other system schools, see University of Texas System.
The University of Texas at Austin (often referred to as The University of Texas, UT Austin, UT, or Texas .
Holland, D., & Reeves, J.R. (1994). Activity theory and the view from somewhere: Team perspectives on the intellectual work of programming. Mind, Culture and Activity, 1, 9-24.
Kounin, J.S. (1970). Discipline and group management in classrooms. New York: Holt holt
A wood or grove; a copse.
[Middle English, from Old English.]
the lair of an otter [from , Rinehart & Winston.
Leont'ev, A.N. (1981). The problem of activity in Psychology. In J.V., Wertsch (Ed.), The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp. 41-68). New York: Sharpe.
Lim, C.P. (2001). Learner control and task-orientation in a hypermedia hypermedia: see hypertext.
The use of hyperlinks, regular text, graphics, audio and video to provide an interactive, multimedia presentation. All the various elements are linked, enabling the user to move from one to another. learning environment: A case study of two economics departments. International Journal of Instructional Media, 28(3), 271-285.
Mann, D., Shakeshaft, C., Becker, J., & Kottkamp, R. (1999). West Virginia's basic skills/computer education program: An analysis of student achievement. Santa Monica Santa Monica (săn`tə mŏn`ĭkə), city (1990 pop. 86,905), Los Angeles co., S Calif., on Santa Monica Bay; inc. 1886. Tourism and retailing are important, and the city has motion-picture, biotechnology, and software industries. , CA: Milken Family Foundation Milken Family Foundation is a charity trust established by Lowell Milken and Michael Milken in 1982. External links
Marcovitz, D.M., Hamza, M.K., & Farrow, V.R. (2000). Students and support for technology in the elementary classroom. Computers in the Schools, 16(3/4), 213-225.
Ministry of Education (1997). Launch of Masterplan for IT in Education. Press Release 015/97. [Online]. Available: http://www1.moe.edu.sg/press/1997/pr01597.htm
Morgan, D.L. (1993). Successful focus groups: Advancing the state of the art. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE sage, any species of the large genus Salvia, aromatic herbs or shrubs of the family Labiatae (mint family). The common sage of herb gardens is S. officinalis, a strongly scented shrubby perennial, native from S Europe to Asia Minor. .
Munn, P., Johnstone, M., & Chalmers, V. (1990). How do teachers talk about maintaining effective discipline in their classrooms? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association The American Educational Research Association, or AERA, was founded in 1916 as a professional organization representing educational researchers in the United States and around the world. , Boston.
Parks, A., & Pisapia, J. (1994). Developing exemplary technology-using teachers. Research Brief #8. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 411 360)
Pelgrum, W.J. (2001). Obstacles to the integration of ICT in education: Results from a worldwide educational assessment. Computers & Education, 37, 163-178.
Potter, J. (2000). First steps in organising ICT in the Primary classroom. In M. Leask & J. Meadows (Eds.), Teaching and learning with ICT in the primary school (pp. 124-143). London: Routledge.
Sanford, J.P., Emmer, E.T., & Clements, B.S. (1983). Improving classroom management. Educational Leadership, 40(7), 56-60.
Salomon, G. (1993). No distribution without individuals' cognition cognition
Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing. . In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: Psychological and educational considerations (pp. 111-138). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sharan, S. (1994). Handbook of cooperative learning methods. Westport, CT: Greenwood Greenwood.
1 City (1990 pop. 26,265), Johnson co., central Ind.; settled 1822, inc. as a city 1960. A residential suburb of Indianapolis, Greenwood is in a retail shopping area. Manufactures include motor vehicle parts and metal products. Press.
Sheingold, K., Hawkins, J., & Char, C. (1984). I'm the thinkist, you are the typist: The interaction of technology and the social life of classrooms. Journal of Social Issues, 40(3), 49-61.
Silverman, D. (1994). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analysing talk, text and interaction. London: SAGE.
Sivin-Kachala, J. (1998). Report on the effectiveness of technology in schools, 1990-1997. Washington, DC: Software Publishers Association.
Stake, R.E. (1995). The art of case study research. London: SAGE.
Verenikina, I. & Gould, E. (1997). Activity theory as a framework for interface design. ASCILITE ASCILITE Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education '97, Perth, 611-615.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. It was established on January 13, 1913. In 2005, it published 220 new titles. .
Wenglinsky, H. (1998). Does it compute To perform mathematical operations or general computer processing. For an explanation of "The 3 C's," or how the computer processes data, see computer. ? The relationship between educational technology and student achievement in mathematics. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service The Educational Testing Service (or ETS) is the world's largest private educational testing and measurement organization, operating on an annual budget of approximately $1.1 billion on a proforma basis in 2007. Policy Information Center.
Williams, D., Coles, L., Wilson, K., Richardson, A., & Tuson, J. (2000). Teachers and ICT: Current use and future needs. British Journal of Educational Technology, 31(4), 307-320.
Wong, P. (2000). Managing IT classrooms. In M.D. Williams (Ed.), Integrating technology into teaching and learning (pp. 121-139). Singapore: Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
In 1913, law professor Dr. .
CHER PING LIM, YIONG HWEE TEO TEO Technology Executive Officer
TEO Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomer
TEO Transferred Electron Oscillator
TEO Telephone Equipment Order
TEO The Endless Odyssey
TEO Training Evaluation Outline
TEO Technical Escort Officer
TEO Temporary Exclusive Occupancy , PHILIP WONG, MYINT SWE SWE Sweden
SWE Society of Women Engineers
SWE Snow Water Equivalent (snowpack measure)
SWE Software Engineer
SWE Society of Wine Educators (Washington, DC)
SWE Solar Wind Experiment KHINE, CHING For the Chinese surname Ching 程, see .
For the Chinese dynasty, see .
The ching (Thai: ฉิ่ง; sometimes romanized as chhing) are small bowl-shaped finger cymbals of thick and heavy bronze, with a broad rim commonly used in Cambodia and SING CHAI chai
A beverage made from spiced black tea, honey, and milk.
[Ultimately from Chinese (Mandarin) chá, tea.] , SHANTI
Shanti (from Sanskrit शािन्त śāntiḥ) can mean:
National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University Nanyang Technological University (Abbreviation: NTU) is a major research university in Singapore. The University's garden campus, known as the Yunnan Garden campus is in the southwestern part of Singapore. , Singapore