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Crazy weather impacts wildlife: animals big and small suffered from the bad weather of 2011.

NO QUESTION, the weather we had in 2011 was a bit crazy. January and February saw the Upper Plains states hit with some of the biggest snows in history. Northeastern Montana really got hammered as the headwaters of the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers had snowfalls 800 percent above normal. There was snow cover for 163 straight days in much of eastern Montana.

Other areas of Montana saw 108 inches of snow. Deer and antelope gathered on train tracks because it was the only escape from deep snows and hundreds were hit by trains. One train killed 270 antelope near Vandalia, Montana. Winterkill win·ter·kill  
v. win·ter·killed, win·ter·kill·ing, win·ter·kills

v.tr.
To kill (plants, for example) by exposing to extremely cold winter weather.

v.intr.
 was so bad in northeastern Montana that the game agency significantly reduced fall antelope and deer permits and quotas with some areas reducing permits by 90 percent. The Milk River area suffered a double whammy because EHD EHD

epizootic hemorrhagic disease.
 (Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) is an arthropod-borne viral (arbovirus) of White-tailed Deer in the southeastern United States.

The EHD virus is closely related to the Bluetongue virus and crossreacts with it on many blood tests.
) hit that area with heavy losses of whitetails. One guide there refunded all his fall hunters and said he could not reopen for deer for several years. To make things worse, because of the severe winter and wet spring, fawn production for deer and antelope was the lowest in 50 years. As you read this, hopefully that region has not been blanketed by snow again. Deer and antelope there just can't take another severe winter.

Other parts of that region also got tons of snow. The bear camp I bowhunt in southwestern Manitoba had record snows and reports were that the snows, combined with wolf predation, took very high numbers of deer and elk in and around Riding Mountain National Park Riding Mountain National Park, 1,148 sq mi (2,973 sq km), SW Man., Canada, W of Lake Manitoba; est. 1929. A wooded region with small glacial lakes, on the highest part of the Manitoba escarpment, it is a recreation area and big-game sanctuary. .

When the 2010-11 snows in the upper Midwest melted there was major flooding up and down Middle America that went into July. Snowmelt snow·melt  
n.
1. The runoff from melting snow.

2. A period or season when such runoff occurs: streams that flood during snowmelt. 
 flooding was exacerbated by record high May and June rainfall. The Souris River in North Dakota broke all previous flooding records. Those deep snows (again) followed by heavy rains led to a second straight year of high losses of antelope. The decline of 2011 was 30 percent more than that seen in 2010. With such losses, it's no wonder the N.D. Game and Fish Department had to close the antelope season for the second straight year.

Birds also took a hit. The cold, wet weather in South Dakota cut pheasant populations by 46 percent. Southwest Minnesota saw their pheasants drop by 82 percent compared to 2010.

Heavy rains were not the problem in Oklahoma and Texas. They suffered the worst drought in history compounded by many major fires. Wildlife recovers fairly quickly from fire, but drought is another issue. Research in South Texas shows a direct correlation between spring rains and antler growth in whitetails. I haven't seen the data on antlers from that region for this past fall, but based on history antler quality should have been substantially lower than most years.

Ducks like water, and the pothole country of North Dakota, Minnesota, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan had plenty of water last spring and summer. To top it off, a record high 46 million ducks returned there last spring to nest. In fact, only wigeons and green-winged teal were down, and interestingly they nest in the far North where 2011 spring floods had no impact. They did not benefit from the expansion of potholes that helped the other duck species.

Then there were tons of tornadoes and hurricanes throughout the Midwest, and lest we forget Lest We Forget is a phrase popularised in 1887, by Rudyard Kipling; it formed the refrain of his poem Recessional.

As a title, it may refer to any of:
  • The Ode of Remembrance
, in September the remnants of Tropical Storm Lee The name Lee has been used for one tropical cyclone in the Atlantic Ocean and three in the western Pacific.

In the Atlantic, it is on the modern six-year lists, where it replaced Lenny:
  • 2005's Tropical Storm Lee - the least notable named storm of the season.
 flooded towns and farms along the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania and many areas of New York and New England. I'm not sure how all that impacted wildlife, but those hurricanes and floods were definitely not a plus. Hopefully the weather in 2012 will calm down a bit.

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For further information on the issues discussed go to www.knowhunting.com

Conservation Editor

DR. DAVE SAMUEL
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Title Annotation:Know Hunting
Author:Samuel, Dave
Publication:Bowhunter
Date:Feb 1, 2012
Words:638
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