Counterfet countenaunce: (mis)representation and the challenge to allegory in sixteenth-century morality plays.This chapter examines the use of personification personification, figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstract ideas are endowed with human qualities, e.g., allegorical morality plays where characters include Good Deeds, Beauty, and Death. allegory in a number of sixteenth-century morality plays, focusing in particular on the vices' use of assumed names in Skelton's Magnyfycence and Udall's Respublica. It argues that these plays manifest a striking self-consciousness about the limitations of the allegorical al·le·gor·i·cal also al·le·gor·ic
Of, characteristic of, or containing allegory: an allegorical painting of Victory leading an army. mode, and that they thereby both reflect and contribute to contemporary linguistic debates. They should therefore not be thought of as a static medieval survival, but rather as making a practical and dramatic contribution to changing sixteenth-century perceptions of how language signifies.
It is tempting to think of sixteenth-century allegorical drama as a form that resists innovation. C. S. Lewis implied as much when he wrote of allegory as the dominant mode of the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries; more recently, John Watkins John Watkins could be any of the following:
adj. suc·cinct·er, suc·cinct·est
1. Characterized by clear, precise expression in few words; concise and terse: a succinct reply; a succinct style.
2. restated the case, asserting that 'the allegorical drama written in England during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries is one of literary history's most static genres'. (1) It is clear, of course, that there are significant differences between the sixteenth-century interlude interlude, development in the late 15th cent. of the English medieval morality play. Played between the acts of a long play, the interlude, treating intellectual rather than moral topics, often contained elements of satire or farce. and its predecessor, the fifteenth-century morality play. As has often been observed, moralities such as The Castle of Perseverance (c. 1400), Mankind (c. 1465-70), and Everyman (c. 1500) are concerned with the salvation of man's soul; sixteenth-century allegorical drama, by contrast, tends to focus instead on social or secular matters, addressing man's secular welfare rather than his spiritual fate. (2) Moreover, its concerns are frequently political ones. Plays such as Skelton's Magnyfycence (c. 1519), Udall's Respublica (1553), and the anonymous Wealth and Health (1557) and Impatient Poverty (1560) have as their common theme the government of the state. Even those plays that do address questions of faith are less concerned to illustrate the common lot of Catholic man than they are to present polemical po·lem·ic
1. A controversial argument, especially one refuting or attacking a specific opinion or doctrine.
2. A person engaged in or inclined to controversy, argument, or refutation.
adj. religious argument; in Lusty lust·y
adj. lust·i·er, lust·i·est
1. Full of vigor or vitality; robust.
2. Powerful; strong: a lusty cry.
4. Merry; joyous. Iuventus (1540), for example, the temptations to which the protagonist is subjected are predominantly Catholic practices, to be resisted by focusing on the word of God alone, while in Bale's King Johan King Johan was a sixteenth century English play. Written by a Carmelite monk named John Bale, it is considered a possible influence on William Shakespeare's later work King John.
The play was written by Bale sometime in the 1550s. (1538-39; 1558-60) and David Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates (1552), the true (Protestant) religion is central to good governance The terms governance and good governance are increasingly being used in development literature. Governance describes the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). . (3) In many cases, as Greg Walker
The discussion of universal values is quite unsettled (often controversial), and therefore, can start from many different places: .
However, despite the fact that the function of the morality play alters quite radically between the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, it continues to employ personification allegory. This leaves it vulnerable to a charge of stasis stasis /sta·sis/ (sta´sis)
1. a stoppage or diminution of flow, as of blood or other body fluid.
2. a state of equilibrium among opposing forces. on two separate counts. Apart from the apparently unquestioning adoption of an existing mode, personification allegory is itself frequently perceived as static: as Angus Fletcher has argued, characters that personify per·son·i·fy
tr.v. per·son·i·fied, per·son·i·fy·ing, per·son·i·fies
1. To think of or represent (an inanimate object or abstraction) as having personality or the qualities, thoughts, or movements of a living being: one or other abstract quality cannot help but go on behaving as their name states that they will. (5) Wrath must always be wrathful wrath·ful
1. Full of wrath; fiercely angry.
2. Proceeding from or expressing wrath: wrathful vengeance. See Synonyms at angry. ; Envy must always be envious en·vi·ous
1. Feeling, expressing, or characterized by envy: "At times he regarded the wounded soldiers in an envious way.... ; and conflicts between personifications must thus be endlessly renewed without hope of resolution. It could therefore be argued that sixteenth-century moralities not only hark back hark
intr.v. harked, hark·ing, harks
To listen attentively.
To return to a previous point, as in a narrative. to a means of representation with its roots in the late classical period (for example, in Prudentius's Psychomachia), but that, in doing so, they confine themselves to a mode which spectacularly 'makes nothing happen'. But is this really the case? The shift from theological to secular concerns might itself be said to mean that the morality's conflicts become less than 'eternal'; if they are played out in the context of this world rather than the next, they are necessarily finite. Yet more significantly, the drama of this period manifests a striking self-consciousness about the limitations of the mode it deploys.
Theoretically, at least, personification allegory depends on the assumption that universal, abstract qualities exist, and that these can be fully and accurately represented by the individual figures that take their names; the transparency with which a name describes a character seems to entail a close, almost magical correlation between the two. Maureen Quilligan has argued persuasively that:
Allegory always presupposes at least a potential sacralizing power in language, and it is possible to write and to read allegory intelligently only in those cultural contexts which grant to language a significance beyond that belonging to a merely arbitrary system of signs. Allegory will not exist as a viable genre without this 'suprarealist' attitude towards words; that is, its existence assumes an attitude in which abstract nouns not only name universals that are real, but in which the abstract names themselves are perceived to be as real and as powerful as the things named. Language itself must be felt to have a potency as solidly meaningful as physical fact before the allegorist can begin. (6)
Such potency is apparent in the reliance that morality characters place on a name, as when Honest Recreation in Redford's Wit and Science (c. 1540) points out to Wit that he should be able to judge how much more worthy a companion she is than Idleness simply on the grounds of their names (p. 149). (7) It appears still more clearly when the mere use of a name summons the eponymous e·pon·y·mous
Of, relating to, or constituting an eponym.
[From Greek epnumos; see eponym. character, even when the speaker has no intention of calling him. In Youth (c. 1513), for example, Riot appears the instant he is mentioned (ll. 207-11); so too do Newguise, Nought, and Nowadays in Mankind, while in Wealth and Health (in a knowing take on this convention) a reference to 'Will' summons his negative counterpart, Ill Will (p. 283). (8) In sixteenth-century moralities, however, this magical correspondence between name and character is increasingly called into question as it comes under pressure both from the contradictions inherent in staging universals, and from changing perceptions of the 'truth' value of language itself. Many of the plays bear witness to a shift from the assumption that personification allegory is an effective means of 'cloaking' abstract qualities, providing them with a local habitation HABITATION, civil law. It was the right of a person to live in the house of another without prejudice to the property.
2. It differed from a usufruct in this, that the usufructuary might have applied the house to any purpose, as, a store or manufactory; whereas and a name, to questioning the effectiveness of allegorical representation. Some do so implicitly; others (including the plays discussed here), with various degrees of explicitness. Their allegory is thus very far from static: rather, the allegorical mode is interrogated in such a way that these plays can be seen to participate not only in the political and religious debates, but in the linguistic debates of the time.
The most conspicuous means by which morality plays test allegorical assumptions is the vices' adoption of false identities in order to gain influence over the protagonist. This is a feature of the vast majority of moralities of this period, to the extent that Thomas Dekker, writing in 1608, observed: 'All Vices maske themselves with the vizards of Vertues. They borrow their names, the better and more currantly to pass without suspition.' (9) However, it would be wrong to think of the adoption of false identities as a practice that originates in the sixteenth century. Vices are found disguising their true identities as early as Prudentius's Psychomachia, where Avarice av·a·rice
Immoderate desire for wealth; cupidity.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin av disguises herself as Thrift; and the practice appears in medieval literature Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. too: for example in the fourteenth-century allegorical poem, Winner and Waster, where Coveteousness adopts the same disguise. (10) In Medwall's Nature (c. 1499) the practice is more extensively used: Pride finds it convenient to be known as Worship, and other vices similarly change their names. (11) But despite its long history, in many sixteenth-century moralities the vices' deceit becomes more than a standard stratagem STRATAGEM. A deception either by words or actions, in times of war, in order to obtain an advantage over an enemy.
2. Such stratagems, though contrary to morality, have been justified, unless they have been accompanied by perfidy, injurious to the rights of ; it also challenges the very allegorical mode on which the plays depend.
On occasion, as for example in Lindsay's Three Estates or Udall's Respublica, the vices' assumption of false identities includes elaborate physical disguise. This kind of deception inverts the idea, common in other moralities, that the physical appearance of a character accurately reflects his moral state. In Mundus et Infans (1500), for example, the World gives Manhood new clothes to mark his entry into the service of Pride, while in Mankind the protagonist's coat is cut down to a modishly mod·ish
Being in or conforming to the prevailing or current fashion; stylish. See Synonyms at fashionable.
modish·ly adv. short garment when he comes under influence of the vices. In Impatient Poverty the protagonist is given a new garment when he agrees to live according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Peace's precepts, and in Wit and Science Wit is given Ingnorancy's coat to wear after he has fallen into Idleness. (12) Since each of these instances implies that allegory is transparent, the vices' assumption of physical disguises not only abuses their victims' trust, but challenges the wider allegorical assumption that external appearance reveals, rather than conceals, character. In Quilligan's terms, it substitutes allegory that needs allegoresis (which 'assumes that meaning is not manifest and must be dug for') for 'true' personification allegory, which 'manifests the meaning as clearly as possible by naming the actor with the concept' and ensuring that his appearance accurately reflects it. (13)
However, use of physical disguises is the exception rather than the rule. In many plays, the vices' disguise consists solely of the assumption of false names. In Lusty Iuventus, for example, Satan is so confounded by Iuventus's Protestantism that he asks his son Hypocrisy to corrupt Iuventus--which Hypocrisy does by assuming the name of Friendship. In the same play, when Iuventus has fallen into lustfulness and Abhominable Living appears, Hypocrisy addresses her as 'Unknown Honesty' (p. 28). A similar regard for the power of names underlies the determination of the two vices in Wealth and Health, Ill-Will and Shrewd Wit, to suppress the first parts of their names and to be known as plain Wit and Will; while in Impatient Poverty, Envy gains the confidence of Conscience by asserting that his name is Charity (p. 327), despite having already spoken to Conscience in such a way as to betray his true nature (p. 326). (14) In Respublica the protagonist is so attuned at·tune
tr.v. at·tuned, at·tun·ing, at·tunes
1. To bring into a harmonious or responsive relationship: an industry that is not attuned to market demands.
2. to names that when she overhears Avarice muttering mut·ter
v. mut·tered, mut·ter·ing, mut·ters
1. To speak indistinctly in low tones.
2. To complain or grumble morosely.
v.tr. to himself 'Remembre nowe my name ys maister policie. | all thing I tell yowe muste nowe goe by policie' (ll. 478-79), she exclaims 'Me thinke I heare the name of Polycye', and summons him in, thus setting in train her own ruin. (15)
Each of these cases of assumed identity answers the question 'what's in a name?' with a very decisive 'everything'. The vices show that they are fully aware of the allegorical assumption that the mere use of a name guarantees that its owner embodies that quality, and they exploit it in order to gain influence over the protagonist. Yet they themselves are fully aware that the assumption is a dangerously naive one--as Envy says after he has fooled Conscience:
A, sir! This is not a jolly game That Conscience doth not know my name? Envy, in faith! I am the same: What needeth me for to lie? I hate Conscience, Peace, Love and Rest; Debate and Strife, that love I best, According to my property. (p. 329)
As characters do so often in morality plays, Envy here insists that he is wholly defined by his 'property' of envy. (16) Nonetheless, he simultaneously states that this 'property' need not necessarily be reflected in the name he assumes. On the contrary, his assumed name creates a false perception of what he is, which allows him to gain the trust of the virtuous characters. His verbal disguise thus exemplifies William Empson's perception that 'a word may become a sort of solid entity, able to direct opinion, thought of as like a person'. (17) It suggests that language may not (as allegory seems to assume) be purely mimetic mimetic /mi·met·ic/ (mi-met´ik) pertaining to or exhibiting imitation or simulation, as of one disease for another.
1. Of or exhibiting mimicry.
2. , but may instead shape the reality it purports to describe.
This raises questions about the power of naming, which are considered with a greater degree of explicitness in Magnyfycence and Respublica. Envy's speech in Impatient Poverty is almost incidental, but in Skelton's and Udall's plays the business of assuming false names becomes of thematic as well as practical importance. Skelton's Magnyfycence is the earlier of the two, composed in about 1519 as a critique of the extravagances of the first few years of Henry VIII's reign. (18) It is a very fiscal morality. We discover the prince Magnyfycence's court in a state of good governance, represented by the characters of Measure and Welthful Felycyte; as his name implies, 'Felycyte' is presented as quite literally inseparable from wealth, and Measure takes very literally the proverb proverb, short statement of wisdom or advice that has passed into general use. More homely than aphorisms, proverbs generally refer to common experience and are often expressed in metaphor, alliteration, or rhyme, e.g. that 'measure is treasure' (ll. 114-25). (19) It is significant, then, that when the first of a long line of vices appears, he presents himself under the name of 'Largesse': he is, he persuasively argues, a fitting companion for a prince, who is obliged o·blige
v. o·bliged, o·blig·ing, o·blig·es
1. To constrain by physical, legal, social, or moral means.
2. not only to govern his wealth wisely, but to make a substantial display of it for benefit of his people. His arguments are, on the face of it, impeccable; although contemporary advice to princes warns against excessive expenditure, it also warns against niggardliness nig·gard·ly
1. Grudging and petty in giving or spending.
2. Meanly small; scanty or meager: left the waiter a niggardly tip. . (20) However, even as Magnyfycence is persuaded to accept 'Largesse' in his service, a dubious figure enters behind his back and calls 'Largesse' by his true name: Fansy. Far from being a princely prince·ly
adj. prince·li·er, prince·li·est
1. Of or relating to a prince; royal.
2. Befitting a prince, as:
a. Noble: a princely bearing.
b. virtue, the figure who calls himself 'Largesse' proves to represent the fantasy, that quality of mind notorious for its poor judgement. (21)
Dire consequences follow. Fansy is only the first of a long line of vices to join Magnyfycence under assumed names; he is quickly followed by Counterfet Countenaunce, Cloked Colusyon, Courtly court·ly
adj. court·li·er, court·li·est
1. Suitable for a royal court; stately: courtly furniture and pictures.
2. Elegant; refined: courtly manners. Abusyon, and Foly. Since Magnyfycence vanishes from stage immediately after he has accepted Fansy into his service, reappearing only when he is fully corrupted, the vices' successive appearances are for a long time the only means by which the state of affairs at Magnyfycence's court can be charted. Thus the audience experiences the corruption of his court entirely on an allegorical level: as the various vices introduce themselves, they proudly describe their double dealings and boast of their prowess. We have to imagine the effect they are having on the virtuous characters; we see them only in interaction with one another, and, although they declare their intention to discredit Measure and gain control of Magnyfycence's purse, we are given no particulars of the way in which they intend to achieve their ends.
The one strategy that the vices do discuss in detail is their assumption of false names--and this becomes a recurrent, almost an obsessive, concern. Early in the play, Counterfet Countenaunce asks whether Fansy and Crafty Conveyaunce have places at court under their own names. 'Why, wenyst thou, horson, that I were so mad?', exclaims Crafty Conveyaunce (l. 517), and he and Fansy go on to explain that Fansy has taken the name Largesse lar·gess also lar·gesse
a. Liberality in bestowing gifts, especially in a lofty or condescending manner.
b. Money or gifts bestowed.
2. Generosity of spirit or attitude. , while Conveyaunce goes by the name of Sure Surveyaunce. In a later scene Crafty Conveyaunce recapitulates for the benefit of another vice, Cloked Colusyon:
I wyll passe over the cyrcumstaunce And shortly shewe you the hole substaunce. Fansy and I, we twayne, With Magnyfycence in housholde do remayne; And counterfeted our names we have Craftely all thynges upryght to save: His name Largesse, Surveyaunce myne. (ll. 637-43)
At this point, Counterfet Countenaunce and Cloked Colusyon decide to join Fansy and Conveyaunce at court. Countenaunce inquires anxiously, 'But shall I have myne olde name styll?' (ll. 647), and it is swiftly decided that he shall be named Good Demeynaunce, while Cloked Colusyon is to become 'Sober Sadnesse', specifically because Magnyfycence will have him 'in the stede of sadnesse' (ll. 680, my emphasis). Similar discussions occur yet again in the later scenes where Courtly Abusyon takes the name Lusty Pleasure, and where Foly assumes the name of Consayte, or 'wit' (ll. 958-65; 1306-9). The way in which Crafty Conveyaunce speaks of Colusyon's renaming indicates the significance of these verbal disguises, emphasizing that their purpose is to substitute the name of virtue for the thing itself. Names that truly and transparently reveal the nature of the character to which they are attached are abandoned in favour of names that deceive by pointing to the thing they are not. It is only appropriate, therefore, that when Magnfycence returns to stage in his newly corrupted state, his soliloquy soliloquy, the speech by a character in a literary composition, usually a play, delivered while the speaker is either alone addressing the audience directly or the other actors are silent. reveals that he has now thoroughly mistaken the meaning of his own name, conceiving 'magnificence' to consist exclusively in a display of wealth and tyrannical behaviour, rather than in the judicious control of the state. As Crafty Conveyaunce implies, the assumption of false names really is the 'hole substaunce' of the plot.
Skelton is not alone in paying such detailed attention to the question of naming: something very comparable occurs in Respublica, Udall's morality play of 1553.Written shortly after Mary succeeded to the throne, the play appears to identify the sufferings of England under its past two rulers, and to express the hope that the accession of a new, Catholic queen will redress the balance. (22) Yet its interest in allegory is almost as marked as its interest in England's political and religious condition. It is even possible that it inherits these concerns from Skelton; the outline of the plot with which Respublica opens refers to the vices who 'by cloked collusyon | And by counterfaicte Names [hide] theire abusion' (ll. 23-24), in lines that clearly echo the names of two of the vices in Magnyfycence. Whether or not there is a direct influence, Respublica strongly recalls Skelton's play in the prominent role it gives to discussion of the vices' new identities. Although its vices employ physical as well as verbal disguise, the adjustment of their dress is almost an afterthought; the main emphasis is on their names. In the very first scene we encounter Avarice declaring his intention to introduce himself to Respublica under the name of Policy:
What my name is, and what is my purpose Takinge youe all for frendes I feare not to disclose. My veray trewe vnchristen Name ys Avarice which I may not have openlye knowen in no wise, For though to moste men I am founde Commodius, yet to those that vse me my name is Odius. [...] Therefore to worke my feate I will my name disguise And call my Name polycie in stede of Covetise. [...] The Name of policie is of none suspected, Polycye is ner of any cryme detected, So that vnder the Name and cloke of policie Avaryce maie weorke factes and scape all Ielousie. (ll. 69-74; 79-80; 83-86)
Avarice's speech might almost serve as a gloss on Crafty Conveyaunce's less transparent observation that the vices in Magnyfycence will counterfeit 'Craftely all things upright to save' (l. 643). And the importance of false names in Respublica is emphasized in the later scene where Avarice oversees the 're-christening' of his fellow vices, Adulation ad·u·la·tion
Excessive flattery or admiration.
[Middle English adulacioun, from Old French, from Latin ad , Insolence in·so·lence
1. The quality or condition of being insolent.
2. An instance of insolent behavior, treatment, or speech.
Noun 1. , and Oppression. He begins by pointing out just why their own names will not do:
Shall Respublica here youre commendacion, by the name of Flatterie or Adulacion? or when ye Commende me to hir, will ye saie this Forsouthe his name is Avarice or Covetise? And youe that sholde have wytte yst your descretion Bluntlye to goe forth, and be called Oppression? an youe Insolence do ye thinke yt wolde well frame If ye were presented to hir vnder that name? (ll. 349-56)
Like Envy in Impatient Poverty, and Crafty Conveyaunce in Magnyfycence, Avarice spells out the 'need to lie': that is, the need for vices to break with allegorical transparency if they are to be true to their own bad characters. But although the vices are more than willing to be 'new cristened' by Avarice, they have some difficulty in making the new names stick. On learning that he is to be called Honesty, Adulation responds: 'I thanke youe, Avaryce. Honestie Honestie' (l. 390), and this leads to an ill-tempered exchange in which Avarice hopelessly tries to force Adulation to remember all the vices' new names at once:
AVARICE Avaryce ye whooresone? Policye I tell the. ADULATION I thanke youe Polycye. Honestie, Honestie. Howe saie youe Insolence? I am nowe Honestie. AVARICE We shall att length have a knave of youe Honestie. Sayde not I he sholde be called mounsier Authoritye? ADULATION Oh frende Oppression, Honestie, Honestie. AVARICE Oppression? hah? is the devyll in thye brayne? Take hede, or in faithe ye are flatterye againe. Policie, Reformacion, Authoritie. ADULATION Hipocrysie, Diffamacion, Authorytie. AVARICE Hipocrisye, hah? Hipocrisie, ye dull asse? ADULATION Thowe namedste Hipocrisie even nowe by the masse. AVARICE Polycye I saide, policye knave polycye. Nowe saye as I sayd. adulation Policie knave policie. AVARICE And what callest thowe hym here? adulation Dyffamacion. AVARICE I tolde the he shoulde be called Reformacion. ADULATION veraye well. avarice What ys he nowe? adulation Deformacion. (ll. 391-407)
On the surface, the scene is pure comedy at the expense of the dunce Adulation, but it has further resonances. Most obvious of these is the way in which Adulation fails to understand the difference between Reformation and Defamation or Deformation. This is thoroughly in keeping with the religiously conservative tone of the play: Adulation's confusion suggests that Reformation may be identified as a vice rather than as a virtue. But the exchange has allegorical as well as political or religious implications. Although Adulation remains Adulation at heart, he declares 'I am now Honestie', as if his renaming had altered his essential condition. Moreover, the way in which one word is substituted for another suggests that, far from being mimetic, names are merely sounds that need not bear any relation to reality, and are thus endlessly interchangeable. The implication of the exchange between Avarice and Adulation (and by extension the implication of the renaming of all the vices) is that names are purely a matter of convenience and 'convention': that there is no essential correlation between the thing designated and the word used to designate it. But if the vices' quarrel suggests that words are able to mean what the speaker would like them to mean, and thereby to influence our perception of the way things are, this is diametrically di·a·met·ri·cal also di·a·met·ric
1. Of, relating to, or along a diameter.
2. Exactly opposite; contrary.
di opposed to the assumption that underlies personification allegory, that there is a magical correspondence between name and character. Thus Respublica, like Magnyfycence, can be seen to undermine the very mode on which it depends.
Such a challenge to the 'sacralizing power' of language raises questions about its representational rep·re·sen·ta·tion·al
Of or relating to representation, especially to realistic graphic representation.
rep function, and this in turn connects these morality plays to the linguistic debates of the time. The vices' strategy anticipates, on a practical level, Bacon's perception in his New Organon or·ga·non or or·ga·num
n. pl. or·ga·nons or or·ga·nums or or·ga·na
1. An organ.
2. A set of principles for use in scientific investigation.
pl. organa [Gr.] organ. (1620), where his discussion of the 'idols' or false apprehensions that prevent the clear and rational apprehension of the world includes the assertion: 'Credunt enim homines, rationem suam verbis imperare; sed fit etiam vt verba vim suam super Intellectum retorqueant & reflectant.' (23) Although in this passage Bacon is writing of careless definition (that is, the slipshod slip·shod
1. Marked by carelessness; sloppy or slovenly. See Synonyms at sloppy.
2. Slovenly in appearance; shabby or seedy.
slip rather than the wilfully WILFULLY, intentionally.
2. In charging certain offences it is required that they should be stated to be wilfully done. Arch. Cr. Pl. 51, 58; Leach's Cr. L. 556.
3. misleading use of words), the wider context of his discussion, in which he asserts that such carelessness is one of the primary means by which men are prevented from coming to a clear understanding of the natural world, reveals that he too is very much concerned with the affective power of words; as he writes in an earlier chapter: 'Mala & inepta verborum impositio, miris modis intellectum obsidet. [...] Verba plane vim faciunt intellectui, & omnia turbant; & homines ad inanes, & innumeras Controuersias, & commenta, deducunt.' (24) His comments come at the end of a century in which intense attention was paid to linguistic matters. The sixteenth century is notorious for the rapid expansion of the English language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations. , brought about primarily by the widespread borrowing of foreign (especially Latin) words, and for the ensuing en·sue
intr.v. en·sued, en·su·ing, en·sues
1. To follow as a consequence or result. See Synonyms at follow.
2. To take place subsequently. debate over the usefulness of what became known as 'inkhorn' terms. (25) Although, on the face of it, the debate is perhaps not obviously connected to the use of allegory in moralities, one of the concerns that was repeatedly voiced in the course of it nonetheless demonstrates that dramatists writers with linguistic concerns were addressing comparable questions about the representational function of language. Just as the allegorists found themselves challenging the allegorical assumption that language exists in a magically mimetic relationship to the outside world, and then restoring it at the end of their plays, a number of critical writers found themselves responding to linguistic change with almost wishful wish·ful
Having or expressing a wish or longing.
wish allusions to the ancient idea that there might be an innate connection between a word and the thing it 'stands for'.
The question of whether there is such a 'natural' connection, or whether designations are purely arbitrary is, of course, not peculiar to the sixteenth century; it has its roots as far back as Plato's Cratylus, in which Socrates famously mediates between Hermogenes, who insists that names are arbitrary, and Cratylus, who prefers the idea that they in some way reflect the essential nature of the thing they name. The argument recurs in various guises throughout later antiquity and the Middle Ages, frequently with reference to Adam's naming of the animals or the story of Babel Babel (bā`bəl) [Heb.,=confused], in the Bible, place where Noah's descendants (who spoke one language) tried to build a tower reaching up to heaven to make a name for themselves. , both of which suggest that language was given by God as an absolutely transparent system of signs. (26) In the sixteenth century, vestiges of the debate informed the long-running and heated scholarly dispute over the best way to augment the English language. As Douglas Gray has demonstrated, neither the enthusiasts for borrowing new words from Latin nor their opponents wholly identify with the 'natural' position, but it is nonetheless possible to trace signs of a desire to believe that language might work in that way in the works of writers such as Sir John Cheke Sir John Cheke (16 June 1514–13 September 1557) was an English classical scholar and statesman, notable as the first Regius Professor of Greek at Cambridge University. and Richard Verstegan, both of whom tellingly deploy terms such as 'natural' in stating their views. (27) Although Cheke is not opposed to all borrowing, he does declare himself of the opinion 'that our own tung shold be written cleane and pure, unmixt and unmangeled with borowing of other tunges [...] For then doth doth
A third person singular present tense of do1. our own tung naturallie and praisablie utter her meaning, when she bouroweth no counterfeitness of other tunges to attire her self withal with·al
1. In addition; besides: "And, withal, a wider publicity was given to thought-provoking ideas" Holbrook Jackson.
2. Despite that; nevertheless. .' Verstegan similarly opposes borrowing on the grounds that 'when wee have gotten from them [i.e. other languages] as many woords as wee wil, they can neuer carry a true correspondence vnto ours, they beeing of other nature, and originall'. (28) While both Cheke and Verstegan assert that their arguments are grounded in the desire for a practical, comprehensible language, there are glimpses of an underlying assumption that English, in remaining 'true' to its roots, also remains 'transparent' or truly representational. Both writers manifest a kind of nostalgia for a perfect correspondence between sign and signified that is shared by dramatists such as Skelton and Udall.
Yet this nostalgia arises precisely from the growing realization that the theory of 'natural' correspondence was no longer tenable ten·a·ble
1. Capable of being maintained in argument; rationally defensible: a tenable theory.
2. . From the late fifteenth century onwards, English scholarship and teaching were increasingly influenced by the work of continental humanists such as Poggio, Bembo, and Valla. On the one hand, their determination to restore a classically pure Latin, with their concomitant insistence on returning to the etymologically correct meanings of words that had been 'corrupted' by long use, may well have contributed to a revival of interest in the natural theory of language. (29) Yet, on the other hand, their work revealed the inadequacy of such a theory by drawing attention to the way in which words change their meanings and develop new ones over time. Moreover, one consequence of their influence in England was a greatly increased emphasis on rhetoric in Latin teaching in schools. This, too, inevitably emphasized the shaping rather than the mimetic power of words, thus dealing a further blow to the idea of natural representation. (30) It is against this background of a heightened awareness of the contingency of meaning on the levels both of scholarship and of everyday grammar school teaching that both linguists A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies linguistics. Ambiguously, the word is sometimes also used to refer to a polyglot (one who knows more than 2 languages), or a grammarian, but these two uses of the word are distinct. and allegorists were confronted with the question of how language might work.
It is perhaps not surprising to find these questions addressed more or less explicitly in the work of writers such as Skelton and Udall, since both were involved in the debate on other levels too. Skelton's poem Speke Parrot (c. 1519-21) manifests an intense concern with the way in which language teaching affects society, and both Skelton and Udall were active as translators, contributing to the striking increase in the number of translations out of Latin into English in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. This phenomenon was in part attributable to the new emphasis on Latin as an eloquent language. Despite long traditions of devotional de·vo·tion·al
Of, relating to, expressive of, or used in devotion, especially of a religious nature.
A short religious service.
de·vo , satirical, and literary writing in the vernacular, the new focus on Latin as an eloquent rather than simply a useful language, combined with a growing awareness of the divergence between English dialects, gave rise to the suggestion that English was innately defective; and while some translations were undertaken purely for the practical purpose of making available in English information that would otherwise exist only in Latin, others were undertaken explicitly as assertions of confidence in the vernacular, or as a vehicle for the introduction of new words into the language. But whatever the professed pro·fess
v. pro·fessed, pro·fess·ing, pro·fess·es
1. To affirm openly; declare or claim: "a physics major purpose, the increased practice of translation (like the new emphasis on the teaching of rhetoric) necessarily entailed thinking about language as language; the realization that what could be said in Latin could not be said in precisely the equivalent way in English inevitably drew attention to the gap between words and things, and the potential for a language to contribute to as well as describe a world-view.
For translators such as Skelton and Udall, the inside knowledge of the process of translation contributes to their awareness that language is never purely mimetic. Skelton's translation of Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus (dīədôr`əs sĭk`yləs), d. after 21 B.C., Sicilian historian. He wrote, in Greek, a world history in 40 books, ending with Caesar's Gallic Wars. consistently stresses that a writer's choice of words Noun 1. choice of words - the manner in which something is expressed in words; "use concise military verbiage"- G.S.Patton
phraseology, wording, diction, phrasing, verbiage affects the way in which he portrays his subject, while Udall's preface to his a translation of Vermigli's A Discourse or Traictise ... Concernynge the Sacrement of the Lordes Supper (c. 1550) describes his aims in terms that reflects on the way in which words mean:
Now this boke v. t. & i. 1. To poke; to thrust. I haue laboured to make as plain as I could do, and therefore in som (1) (System Object Model) An object architecture from IBM that provides a full implementation of the CORBA standard. SOM is language independent and is supported by a variety of large compiler and application development vendors. places I haue either altered or leaft the scoole termes whych otherwise would haue made the thing more derke, and brought it as nere [as] I could to the familiar phrase of English speakyng, or els haue added suche circumstaunce of other woordes, as might declare it and make it plain. Wherfore thoughe for the cause abouesaide I mai seme in some places to haue somewhat swerued from the precise woordes of the latin booke: Yet I trust it shall to the fauourable and indifferent reader appere that I haue not any thynge degressed from the autours mynde. (31)
For both writers, the practice of translation entails thinking explicitly about how language means: whether the same 'truth' can be conveyed in terms different from the original ones, and if so, what that implies--whether it suggests a nonmimetic quality in language.
Clearly, such a background is likely to have an effect on writers of allegory; indeed, Helen Cooney has attributed a fifteenth-century English 'crisis of allegory' precisely to the emerging influence of the work of continental humanist writers such as Valla. (32) Yet it is not only in Skelton's and Udall's moralities that language becomes the subject as well as the medium; something comparable occurs across the genre. In Wealth and Health, for example, the question of language is raised through a breakdown in communication. The Fleming Hance speaks a mingle-mangle of Dutch and English that borders on the incomprehensible. 'Be Got's drowse! ic myself bin cumpt heye scon lansman; | Ic mot in ander land lopen, all is quade dan' are his first lines on entering, and he continues in this vein; trying to persuade Good Remedy that Wealth no longer dwells in England, he declares that 'Wealth is lopen in an ander contry', and when Good Remedy dismisses him as a 'drunken Fleming', he concludes: 'Mot ic net mare herebin woder sal ic gewest kiskin; | Ic wil to de kaizer gan, dar sall ic wal skinkin' (pp. 299-301). (33) In a play that is much concerned with the wealth of the English nation, Hance's impenetrable accent is clearly intended as a negative portrait of the foreign immigrants who have (in the playwright's view) depleted de·plete
tr.v. de·plet·ed, de·plet·ing, de·pletes
To decrease the fullness of; use up or empty out.
[Latin d its resources. Matters have come to such a pass that Hance is feeling the pinch himself (hence his determination to leave for another country), while Good Remedy declares outright that 'There is too many aliants in this realm; but now I, Good Remedy, have so provided that Englishmen shall live the better' (p. 300). Serving as a shorthand for difference, Hance's bastard speech is thus clearly part of the play's satirical attack on those people it portrays as a drain on the nation's resources; yet it nonetheless addresses the question of language too. Immigration and linguistic borrowing are linked by various writers on the English language, among them Richard Mulcaster Richard Mulcaster (born c. 1531, Cumberland; died April 15, 1611, Essex), one of the greatest British educational visionaries, is known best for his headmasterships and pedagogic writings. , who speaks of words borrowed from other languages as 'bond to the rules of our writing [...] as the stranger denisons be to the lawes of our cuntrie'; Samuel Daniel Samuel Daniel (1562 – October 14, 1619) was an English poet and historian. Biography
Daniel was born near Taunton in Somerset, the son of a music-master. He was the brother of John Daniel. , who refers to them as 'free-denizens in our language' who have established themselves there without seeking permission of the authorities; and George Chapman
George Chapman (ca. 1559 – May 12 1634) was an English dramatist, translator, and poet. , who declares that he will 'give pasport' to just a few new words. (34) The personification of words by each of these three writers (which is seen also in Cheke's reference to 'counterfeitness') is on the surface a long way from the use of Hance's foreign speech as a marker of difference. The connection appears to be merely a metaphorical one, as Mulcaster, Daniel, and Chapman draw on an established fear of foreigners such as Hance to fuel their attack on linguistic newcomers. However, the opposite is also the case. The way in which Hance's speech is represented shows a fear of linguistic chaos (or 'non-natural', non-mimetic language) as well as a fear of foreigners. The mangled transcription not only signals difference, but by demonstrating the breakdown of communication, it also suggests that (in a post-Babel world) language cannot be 'natural'; the clear gap between utterance and comprehension shows it to be 'conventional'. Like Magnyfycence and Respublica, then, Wealth and Health at least momentarily raises questions that challenge allegorical assumptions.
In Redford's Wit and Science, a still more striking challenge arises when Ingnorancy proves himself so ignorant that he is incapable even of learning his own name, and Idleness (who clearly has nothing better to do) determines to teach it to him syllable by syllable:
IDLENESS Go too, then; spell me that same! Where was thou born? INGNORANCY Chwas i-bore in England, mother said. [...] IDLENESS And what's half Ingland? Here's Ing; and here's land. What's 'tis? [...] INGNORANCY 'Tis my thumb. IDLENESS Thy thumb? Ing, whoreson! Ing, Ing! INGNORANCY Ing, Ing, Ing, Ing! IDLENESS Forth! Shall I beat thy narse, now? INGNORANCY Um-m-m- [...] IDLENESS Say no, fool! say no. INGNORANCY Noo, noo, noo, noo, noo! IDLENESS Go to, put together! Ing! INGNORANCY Ing. IDLENESS No! INGNORANCY Noo! IDLENESS Forth now! What saieth the dog? INGNORANCY Dog bark. IDLENESS Dog bark? Dog ran, whoreson! Dog ran! INGNORANCY Dog ran, whoreson, dog ran, dog ran! IDLENESS Put together: Ing! INGNORANCY Ing. IDLENESS No! INGNORANCY Noo. IDLENESS Ran! INGNORANCY Ran. IDLENESS Forth now; what saith the goose? INGNORANCY Lag! lag! IDLENESS His, whoreson! his! INGNORANCY His, his-s-s-s-s! IDLENESS Go to, put together: Ing. INGNORANCY Ing. IDLENESS No. INGNORANCY Noo. IDLENESS Ran. INGNORANCY Ran. IDLENESS Hys. INGNORANCY His-s-s-s-s-s-s. IDLENESS Now, who is a good boy? INGNORANCY I, I, I! I, I, I! IDLENESS Go to, put together. (pp. 152-54)
And so it goes on. Here there is no question of a satirical attack on foreigners, but the emphasis on the breakdown of representational language remains. Still more than the exchange between Avarice and Adulation in Respublica, this syllable game suggests that verbal designations are entirely arbitrary. Not only is Ingnorancy's name broken down into quite random constituent parts, which he is unable to put together except by rote rote 1
1. A memorizing process using routine or repetition, often without full attention or comprehension: learn by rote.
2. Mechanical routine. and which fail to contribute in the slightest to his understanding, but the way in which Idleness introduces the syllables ran and his (the latter of which is not even a true syllable in Ingnorancy's name) disconcertingly dis·con·cert
tr.v. dis·con·cert·ed, dis·con·cert·ing, dis·con·certs
1. To upset the self-possession of; ruffle. See Synonyms at embarrass.
2. alludes to the idea that there is a natural correspondence between words and the things they designate. Those who believed that words reflect something of the innate essence of what they describe frequently adduced onomatopoeic on·o·mat·o·poe·ia
The formation or use of words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to. words as evidence, but Idleness and Ingnorancy between them manage to undo even this very basic correspondence: Idleness arbitrarily proposes 'ran' as the noise a dog makes, while Ingnorancy's first instinct is to represent the sound of the goose as 'lag'. On one level, the spelling game is a mere interlude-within-an-interlude--a joke--just as the vices' assumption of false identities in many of the other moralities is a generic convention. Yet like the vices' adoption of false names, this exchange too addresses the question of how words mean in a way that reflects the linguistic concerns of the time and implicitly brings into question assumptions about the transparency of language, the correspondence between sign and signified on which allegory depends.
In the light of these recurrent concerns, it is unsurprising that moralities of the later sixteenth century show a decreased dependence on the allegorical mode. As Spivack has argued, the morality plays of the third quarter of the sixteenth century--those written before the final extinction of the genre--bear witness to a gradual substitution of history for allegory: 'that is, of a literal plot, real or imaginary, for a metaphorical one; and of literal personages, real or imaginary, for type figures and personified abstractions'. While it would clearly be a dramatic oversimplification o·ver·sim·pli·fy
v. o·ver·sim·pli·fied, o·ver·sim·pli·fy·ing, o·ver·sim·pli·fies
To simplify to the point of causing misrepresentation, misconception, or error.
v.intr. to claim that the challenge from within the moralities themselves to the very foundations of allegory is the only reason for this development, it is likely have formed a contributing factor. Although Spivack argues that the shift towards history 'is not a development within the nature of the morality plays themselves; rather it is the intrusion of an alien element that expands until it puts an end to the formal existence of the allegorical drama', some of the grounds for the shift are innate. (35) Plays such as Bale's King Johan and Lindsay's Satire of the Three Estates demonstrate how the use of historical figures might in part evolve from the tradition of the vices' assumption of false names--and might, too, serve in partial answer to the challenge to allegory inherent in these plays: Bale's Sedition sedition (sĭdĭ`shən), in law, acts or words tending to upset the authority of a government. The scope of the offense was broad in early common law, which even permitted prosecution for a remark insulting to the king. disguises himself not as an abstract virtue, but as Steven Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the main leader of the Church of England and by convention is also recognised as head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. The current archbishop is Rowan Williams. ; while Dissymulacyon becomes 'Simon of Swinsett'; Usurpid Power becomes The Pope; and Privat Welth, the Cardynall Pandulphus. In both plays, the disguises include actual historical figures as well as figures who are more generic, but nonetheless human, rather than abstract. The main purpose of this slight alteration to the convention of disguising is, of course, a satirical one: to present (for example) the historical Steven Langton as Sedition in drag is a way of dehumanizing him, rendering him no more than an abstract vice. The suggestion in all cases is that the Catholic Church is simply a hotbed hotbed, low, glass-covered frame structure for starting tender plants. It differs from a cold frame only in that the soil is heated—either artificially as by underground electric wiring or steampipes, or naturally with partially fermented stable manure, which of vices in disguise. Yet in addition the change neatly sidesteps the question of the truth of representation, and can therefore also be seen as a response to the acknowledgement implicit in Adj. 1. implicit in - in the nature of something though not readily apparent; "shortcomings inherent in our approach"; "an underlying meaning"
underlying, inherent so many earlier moralities that allegory is a problematic mode.
Sixteenth-century morality plays can thus be seen not merely to become increasingly secular, political, and polemical, but in doing so to reflect the multifaceted mul·ti·fac·et·ed
Having many facets or aspects. See Synonyms at versatile.
Adj. 1. multifaceted - having many aspects; "a many-sided subject"; "a multifaceted undertaking"; "multifarious interests"; "the multifarious and frequently contradictory thought about language that was current at the time. Plays such as Magnyfycence and Respublica do not quite suggest a full-blown 'crisis' of allegory; each play ends with the restoration of both political order and true resemblance, thus implying that words too can be restored to their 'true', stable meaning. Yet, at the same time, the plays' challenges to allegorical assumptions use established morality conventions to query whether the 'natural' theory of language is a possible one; the plays might be seen to function as an instance of the sixteenth century asking itself (in Foucault's words) 'how it was possible to know that a sign did in fact designate what it signified'. (36) They should therefore not be thought of merely as a static medieval survival, but rather as a means of engaging with the changing perception of the way in which language functions, responding to an awareness of the contingency of meaning fostered by continental humanist influence and by attempts to augment the vernacular so as to render it both adequate and copious. For the duration of the vices' deception, they make a practical and dramatic contribution to the theoretical sixteenth-century debate as to how language means, going so far as to challenge the mode on which they themselves depend. In this respect, then, morality plays are very far from static; rather, they are intimately engaged with some of the most persistent linguistic questions of the day.
JANE GRIFFITHS Notable people named Jane Griffiths include:
University of Bristol
(1) C. S. Lewis, The Allegory of Love: A Study in Medieval Tradition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1936), p. 232; John Watkins, 'The Allegorical Theatre: Moralities, Interludes, and Protestant Drama', in The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature English literature, literature written in English since c.1450 by the inhabitants of the British Isles; it was during the 15th cent. that the English language acquired much of its modern form. , ed. by David Wallace David Wallace or Dave Wallace can mean:
(2) See Bernard Spivack, Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil: The History of a Metaphor in Relation to his Major Villains (New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Columbia University Press Columbia University Press is an academic press based in New York City and affiliated with Columbia University. It is currently directed by James D. Jordan (2004-present) and publishes titles in the humanities and sciences, including the fields of literary and cultural studies, , 1958), pp. 61-62, 206-11; Howard B. Norland, Drama in Early Tudor Britain, 1485-1558 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995), pp. 37-47; and cf. Watkins, 'Allegorical Theatre'.
(3) For the dating of King Johan see Peter Happe, John Bale
John Bale (21 November, 1495–November, 1563) was an English churchman, historian and controversialist, and Bishop of Ossory.
He was born at Cove, near Dunwich in Suffolk. (New York: Twayne, 1996), pp. 89-91; for that of the Satire see Ane Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis, ed. by Roderick Lyall (Edinburgh: Canongate, 1989), pp. ix-xiv.
(4) Greg Walker, Plays of Persuasion: Drama and Politics at the Court of Henry VIII (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 2.
(5) Angus Fletcher, Allegory: The Theory of a Symbolic Mode (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Cornell University, mainly at Ithaca, N.Y.; with land-grant, state, and private support; coeducational; chartered 1865, opened 1868. It was named for Ezra Cornell, who donated $500,000 and a tract of land. With the help of state senator Andrew D. Press, 1964), pp. 25-69; cf. Spivack, Allegory of Evil, pp. 126-27.
(6) Maureen Quilligan, The Language of Allegory: Defining the Genre (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1979), p. 156.
(7) All citations from Wit and Science are from Recently Recovered 'Lost' Tudor Plays, ed. by John S. Farmer (London: Early English Early English
a style of architecture used in England in the 12th and 13th centuries, characterized by narrow pointed arches and ornamental intersecting stonework in windows Drama Society, 1907); the edition has no line numbers. For the dating of the play see John Redford, Wit and Science (Oxford: Malone Society, 1951).
(8) All citations from Youth are from Two Tudor Interludes: The Interlude of Youth The Interlude of Youth is one of the earliest printed moral plays that has survived to our times. Only two or three copies of any edition are known to exist. Waley's edition of the work appeared probably about the year 1554, and has a woodcut on the title-page of two figures, and Hickscorner, ed. by Ian Lancashire (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1980); all citations from Wealth and Health are from Farmer's Recently Recovered Plays. In Mankind, the lines in which Mercy mentions the vices by name are missing from the sole surviving manuscript, but Nought declares that Mercy has summoned them: 'I heard you call "Newguise, Nowadays, Nought"--all these three together'; see Mankind, in Three Late Medieval Morality Plays: Mankind, Everyman, Mundus et Infans, ed. by G. A. Lester (London: A. & C. Black, 1981), l. 111.
(9) Thomas Dekker, The Belman of London (London, 1608), sig. E2v.
(10) See Watkins, 'Allegorical Theatre', p. 770. For further examples see Spivack, Allegory of Evil, pp. 85-86, 155-61.
(11) Henry Medwall Henry Medwall (d. 1502) was the first known English vernacular dramatist. Fulgens and Lucrece (1497), whose heroine must choose between two suitors, is the earliest known secular English play. , Nature, in The Plays of Henry Medwall, ed. by Alan H. Nelson (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1980), ll. 836-38, 1200-30.
(12) See further Richard Hillman Richard Charles Hillman was a fictional character in Coronation Street played by Brian Capron. First appearance and romance
Hillman, a financial advisor, first appeared in a storyline when he attended Alma Baldwin's funeral in the summer of 2001, claiming to be , Self-Speaking in Medieval and Early Modern English Early Modern English refers to the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the latter half of the 15th century) to 1650. Thus, the first edition of the King James Bible and the works of William Shakespeare both belong to the late phase Drama: Subjectivity, Discourse and the Stage (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1997), pp. 69-73.
(13) Quilligan, Language of Allegory, p. 31.
(14) All citations from Lusty Iuventus are from The Dramatic Writings of Richard Wever and Thomas Ingelond, ed. by John S. Farmer (London: Early English Drama Society, 1905). All those from Impatient Poverty are from Farmer's Recently Recovered Plays. Neither edition has line numbers.
(15) All citations are taken from Respublica, ed. by W. W. Greg, Early English Text Society The Early English Text Society is an organization to reprint early English texts, especially those only available in manuscript. Most of its volumes are in Middle English and Old English. , o.s. 226 (London, 1952).
(16) For further examples see Spivack, Allegory of Evil, pp. 127-29. For discussion of the phenomenon see Sarah Carpenter, 'Morality Play Characters', Medieval English Theatre, 5.1 (1983), 18-28.
(17) William Empson Sir William Empson (27 September 1906 – 15 April 1984) was an English literary critic and poet, reckoned by some to be the greatest English literary critic after Samuel Johnson and William Hazlitt and fitting heir to their mode of witty, fiercely heterodox and imaginatively , The Structure of Complex Words (London: Chatto & Windus, 1952), p. 39.
(18) Both the language of Magnyfycence and its thematic concern with the (mis)use of rhetoric suggest that it was composed close in time to Speke Parrot, which is dateable to 1519-21. I am grateful to Jeanne McCarthy of Oglethorpe University History
Oglethorpe College was originally chartered in 1835 in Midway, just south of the city of Milledgeville, then the state capital. The school was built and, at that time, governed by the Presbyterian Church, making it one of the South's earliest denominational institutions. for pointing out this connection. For a dating to 1519 on historical grounds see Walker, Plays of Persuasion, pp. 61-72.
(19) All citations from Magnyfycence are from John Skelton John Skelton (c. 1460 – June 21, 1529), English poet, is variously asserted to have been born in Armathwaite, Cumberland, or to have been a native of Yorkshire.
He is said to have been educated at Oxford. : The Complete English Poems, ed. by John Scattergood (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983).
(20) See Sir Thomas Elyot Sir Thomas Elyot (c. 1490 – March 26, 1546), was an English diplomat and scholar.
Thomas was the fruit of Sir Richard Elyot's first marriage with Alice De la Mare, but neither the date nor place of his birth is accurately known. , The Boke Named the Gouernour, ed. by Henry Hubert Stephen Croft CROFT, obsolete. A little close adjoining to a dwelling-house, and enclosed for pasture or arable, or any particular use. Jacob's Law Dict. , 2 vols (London: Kegan Paul, 1880), II, 111-13; Peter de la Primaudaye, The French Academie (London, 1586), pp. 434-57; and Sir John Fortescue This article is about the early English jurist. For other uses, see John Fortescue (disambiguation).
Sir John Fortescue (c. 1394 - c. 1476) was an English lawyer, the second son of Sir John Fortescue, of an ancient Devon family. , The Governance of England, ed. by Charles Plummer This article is about the English historian. For information about the long-time sheriff of Alameda County, California, see Charles Plummer (sheriff).
Charles Plummer (1851-1927) was an English historian, best known for editing Sir John Fortescue's (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1885), pp. 118-26.
(21) The name suggests that Fansy is, in traditional morality fashion, one of Magnyfycence's own faculties, and thus that it is his own weakness that paves the way for his downfall. See further Jane Griffiths, John Skelton and Poetic Authority: Defining the Liberty to Speak (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2006), p. 66.
(22) See further Douglas F. Rutledge, 'Respublica: Rituals of Status Elevation and the Political Mythology of Mary Tudor', Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England, 5 (1991), 55-68. However, as Greg Walker has demonstrated, many of Mary's courtiers were implicated im·pli·cate
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.
2. in the abuses of Edward's reign:Walker, The Politics of Performance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 181-84.
(23) 'Men believe that their reason rules words but it also happens that words turn and bend their power back upon the intellect.' Text and translation are from The Instauratio magna, Part II: Novum Organum The Novum Organum is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon published in 1620. The title translates as "new instrument". This is a reference to Aristotle's work Organon which was his treatise on logic and syllogism. and Associated Texts, ed. by Graham Rees with Maria Wakely (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004), pp. 92-93.
(24) 'Shoddy and inept application of words lays siege to the intellect in wondrous ways. [...] Words clearly force themselves on the intellect, throw everything into turmoil, and side-track men into empty disputes, countless controversies and complete fictions' (Instauratio magna, pp. 80-81).
(25) See further Albert C. Baugh and Thomas Cable, A History of the English Language English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Northern Netherlands. , 5th edn (London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 203-08; and R. F. Jones, The Triumph of the English Language (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Stanford University, at Stanford, Calif.; coeducational; chartered 1885, opened 1891 as Leland Stanford Junior Univ. (still the legal name). The original campus was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. David Starr Jordan was its first president. Press, 1953), pp. 1-213.
(26) See further Roy Harris Roy Ellsworth Harris (February 12, 1898 in Chandler, Oklahoma, United States - October 1, 1979), was an American classical composer. He wrote much music on American subjects, becoming best known for his Symphony No. 3. , The Language-Makers (London: Duckworth, 1980), pp. 33-78; Ernst Curtius You may be looking for Ernst Robert Curtius (1886–1956).
Ernst Curtius (September 2, 1814–July 11, 1896), was a German archaeologist and historian.
He was born at Lübeck, his brother being the noted philologist, Georg Curtius. , European Literature European literature refers to the literature of Europe.
European literature includes literature in many languages; among the most important are English literature, Spanish literature, French literature, Polish literature, German literature, Italian literature, Greek and the Latin Middle Ages, trans. by Willard R. Trask (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1953), pp. 495-500; and Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: [miˈʃɛl fuˈko]) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. , The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 38-46.
(27) Douglas Gray, 'A Note on Sixteenth-Century Purism', in Words for Robert Burchfield's Sixty-Fifth Birthday, ed. by E. G. Stanley and T. Hoad (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1988), pp. 103-19.
(28) Sir John Cheke, Letter to Thomas Hoby Sir Thomas Hoby (1530 - 1566) was an English diplomat and translator.
He was probably born at Leominster in Herefordshire and educated at St John's College, Cambridge. , 5 July 1557, repr. in the introduction to Roger Ascham Roger Ascham (c. 1515 - December 23, 1568), English scholar and didactic writer, was born at Kirby Wiske, a village in the North Riding of Yorkshire, near Northallerton. , The Scholemaster (London: Arber English Reprints, 1870), p. 5; Richard Verstegan (Richard Rowlands Richard Rowlands (c. 1550 – 1640), Anglo-Dutch antiquary, whose real name was Verstegen (usually anglicized Verstegan), was the son of a cooper, whose father, Theodore Roland Verstegen, a Dutch emigrant, came from Gelderland to the Kingdom of England c. 1500. ), A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence (Antwerp: Robert Bruney, 1605), sig. Gg4v.
(29) See Gray, 'Note on Sixteenth-Century Purism'.
(30) See further Nicholas Orme Nicholas Orme is a British historian specialising in the Middle Ages and Tudor periods, with a particular interest in the history of children, and ecclesiastical history, in the South West of England.
Orme is an Emeritus Professor of history at Exeter University. , English Schools in the Middle Ages (London: Methuen, 1973), pp. 87-115; and Arthur F. Kinney, Humanist Poetics po·et·ics
n. (used with a sing. or pl. verb)
1. Literary criticism that deals with the nature, forms, and laws of poetry.
2. A treatise on or study of poetry or aesthetics.
3. : Thought, Rhetoric, and Fiction in Sixteenth-Century England (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts. External link
(31) Pietro Martire Vermigli For other people called Peter Martyr, see .
Pietro Martire Vermigli, sometimes simply Peter Martyr (September 8 1499 – 1562), was an Italian theologian of the Reformation period. , A Discourse or Traictise ... Concernynge the Sacrement of the Lordes Supper (London, 1550), sig. iv-ivv. For Skelton as translator see Griffiths, Skelton and Poetic Authority, pp. 38-55.
(32) 'Skelton's Bowge of Court and the Crisis of Allegory in Late-Medieval England', in Nation, Court and Culture: New Essays on Fifteenth-Century English Poetry The history of English poetry stretches from the middle of the 7th century to the present day. Over this period, English poets have written some of the most enduring poems in European culture, and the language and its poetry have spread around the globe. , ed. by Helen Cooney (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2001), pp. 153-67.
(33) 'By God's devil! I myself am as good as a native here; I must go to another country and things go very ill.' 'Wealth has gone to another country.' 'I am not able remain any longer where I have been comfortable. I will go to the king, I'm sure to suit there.' Hance's syntax is mangled and many of his words have been deliberately misrepresented; I have interpreted 'drowse' as 'droes' (devil or fiend); 'kiskin' as 'geschikt' (well suited, comfortable); and 'skinkin' as 'schikken' (to suit or please).
(34) Mulcaster's Elementarie (1582), ed. by E. T. Campagnac (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1925), p. 174; Daniel, Defence of Ryme (1603), in English Renaissance The English Renaissance was a cultural and artistic movement in England dating from the early 16th century to the early 17th century. It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance that many cultural historians believe originated in northern Italy in the fourteenth century. Literary Criticism, ed. by Brian Vickers Brian Lee Vickers is an American NASCAR driver, from Thomasville, North Carolina. Vickers was the 2003 Busch Series champion, and at age 20, the youngest champion in any of NASCAR's three top-tier series. He currently drives the #83 Red Bull Toyota Camry for Team Red Bull. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999), p. 453; George Chapman, Dedication to 'Achilles Shield', in Elizabethan Critical Essays, ed. by G. Gregory Smith
Gregory Edward Smith (born July 6, 1983) is a Canadian/American actor. , 2 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1904), II, 305.
(35) Spivack, Allegory of Evil, pp. 62-63.
(36) Foucault, Order of Things, p. 47.