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Correctional officers.

Issues related to correctional officers--recruitment, retention, educational levels, wages and benefits--have not been surveyed by Corrections Compendium since the year 2000 as reported in the March 2001 issue. In the interim, little has changed in the field in those categories as shown in the current survey on the topic. Recruitment and retention continue to be major problems for the various correctional agencies. Forty-seven U.S. correctional systems and five Canadian correctional systems responded to the survey questionnaire.

Officer Recruitment

While 20 U.S. reporting systems listed no one overwhelming problem affecting recruitment of potential correctional officers, the remaining systems, primarily Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio (for its female facility) and Wyoming, indicated that their prison facilities' rural locations presented an obstacle to recruitment. Two other major challenges to recruitment were the lack of comparative wages that could be earned from other employment opportunities in the local area, from private industry as well as from local law enforcement agencies and the stressful environment in which correctional officers work. The Canadian reporting systems stated that they have not experienced recruiting problems.

With the exception of the correctional officer population in Arkansas, the District of Columbia, Florida, Maryland, Mississippi and South Carolina, the majority of correctional officers in the U.S. reporting systems are white and 76 percent are male.

The reporting correctional systems have primarily used advertising to recruit people for job openings, although 13 U.S. reporting systems and three Canadian reporting systems have no formal recruitment practices in place. The correctional systems also use job fairs, college class presentations, exhibits at the state fair, Web site announcements and general mailings to aid recruitment. Several systems indicated they pay higher starting wages to their recruits than that paid to other local entry-level employees or award bonuses to current staff who provide referrals. Idaho has an agreement with the Veteran's Administration whereby the first year of on-the-job training is paid through GI Bill educational funds. Mississippi monitors plant closings and targets its recruitment efforts toward employees who are potentially being laid off. New Mexico offers employees one day off for sponsoring a new correctional officer who completes one year on the job. Washington specifically targets its recruitment practices to minorities or other underrepresented groups, while New York offers positions through its biannual civil service exams.

Kentucky, North Dakota and South Carolina do not conduct pre-employment assessments, but the rest of the other reporting systems, both U.S. and Canadian, do. Primary assessment methods include written exams, physical agility tests, interviews and extensive background checks. Massachusetts also checks character references. Applicants in New Mexico and Utah must pass a polygraph test and in the District, they must possess a valid driver's license. Psychological exams are administered in 12 U.S. reporting systems and drug screens are conducted in 11 systems. Indiana applicants must pass the state's civil service exam and those in New Hampshire are given a public safety test. A prepared correctional officer video test is used in North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma and Oregon. while a work style behavior survey is used to analyze officer applicants in Oregon, South Dakota and Washington.

Entry-Level Educational Requirements

Seventy-two percent of the U.S. reporting systems require a high school diploma before applicants may be hired as correctional officers, while an additional 13 percent will accept a GED. Michigan and North Dakota are the only two U.S. reporting systems that also require some college credits. Applicants must also have served in the military in Massachusetts; possess a driver's license in Indiana; and have a record of two years worth of work experience in Vermont. In Canada, Newfoundland not only requires at least two years of postsecondary schooling, but those courses must have been in social sciences. Seventy-two percent of the U.S. reporting systems do not waive educational requirements and none of the Canadian reporting systems do. Sixty-eight percent of U.S. reporting systems do have formalized written guidelines posted detailing promotional information for correctional officers, with the requirement for additional education indicated prominently. Fifty-seven percent of the U.S. reporting systems reimburse their officers for taking educational courses, with numerous requirements or restrictions attached.

Wages and Fringe Benefits

With the average turnover rate for correctional officers within the first year of employment being 22.5 percent, as stated by the U.S. reporting systems, wages and fringe benefits take on added importance. Michigan, which reported that it receives a large number of applicants from family and friends of current or former employees, has a turnover rate of 0.46 percent, while Kentucky's turnover rate in a one-year period was nearly 71 percent. The average turnover rate for the Canadian reporting systems was 6.77 percent.

Fifteen of the U.S. reporting systems did not have current information to offer related to the average preservice cost for training correctional officers. The average of the balance of the systems was $4,278. The highest training starting wage was Alaska at $15.72 per hour, followed by New York, which is currently renegotiating its wage scales.

For comparison purposes, the survey queried the starting wages for correctional officers at the entry level, after the first year, and for captains or the equivalent and included the top wages paid in those categories. The highest starting wage at entry level of the U.S. reporting systems is $39,358 per year in New Jersey, followed by $33,435 in Connecticut. Correctional Service Canada starts its officers at $50.000. The highest ending wage rate for that category is in Massachusetts at nearly $54,000 per year, followed by Nevada at $43,000. New Jersey again pays the highest wages to its correctional officers after the first year at $44,000, with Alaska at $37,000. After the first year, the top wages paid are by New Jersey at $61,000 and California at $59,000 with $54,000 reported by both Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. For those officers reaching the rank of captain or the equivalent, California pays $74,000 per year to start, followed by New Jersey at $66,000 and Alaska at $61,000. The top wage an officer in this category can expect to earn is $92,000 in New Jersey, $83,000 in Alaska, $81,000 in California and more than $70,000 in Idaho, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New York and Pennsylvania.

Fringe benefits vary greatly as indicated in the accompanying tables. Fifty-one percent of the U.S. reporting systems allow officers to select from a broad range of fringe benefit categories. A cost-of-living wage increase is offered by 64 percent of the U.S. reporting systems (often, only when appropriated by the state's legislature); merit increases by 53 percent; paid holidays by 100 percent; paid vacations by 96 percent; sick leave by 98 percent; personal days off by 53 percent; retirement pay by 100 percent (in Connecticut, a hazardous duty retirement plan is in place after 20 years for correctional staff who guard or instruct inmates); health insurance by 100 percent; dental insurance by 94 percent; disability pay by 77 percent and life insurance by 96 percent.

Unfortunately, as indicated by this survey, the problems of recruitment and retention persist. Perhaps what is missing from the process is expanded public relations and media exposure to enhance the image of correctional officers.
CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS--TABLE 1: RECRUITMENT

 CURRENT STAFF,
 BY PERCENTAGE

SYSTEM RECRUITMENT PROBLEMS Male Female

ALABAMA Few applicants actually show up 83.1 16.9
 for the examination

ALASKA Recruitment is conducted facility 65 35
 by facility, resulting in recruiting
 for some less desirable locations

ARIZONA While continually placing more 73.5 26.5
 than 1,000 correctional officers
 annually, the major problem is
 retention

ARKANSAS Currently analyzing problem and 61.3 38.7
 looking at advertising options

CALIFORNIA None 82.5 17.5

COLORADO From high cost-of-living areas 76 24
 and from rural areas

CONNECTICUT None 84 16

DELAWARE None 79 21

DISTRICT OF None (1) 71 29
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA No response

GEORGIA Finding qualified applicants 58.29 41.71

HAWAII Specifically on the Island of Maui 85.3 14.7
 due to inadequate availability of
 applicants

IDAHO Wages, working hours, stressful 77.9 22.1
 environment issues

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA None 72.2 27.8

IOWA None 82 18

KANSAS In large facility, urban areas, 80.65 19.35
 competition is with a federal
 prison, the petroleum industry
 and aircraft industry; small
 facility, rural areas lack available
 work force

KENTUCKY High cost of health insurance 74 26
 statewide and low wages

LOUISIANA Job locations, officer duties and 62.87 37.13
 wages

MAINE None 93 7

MARYLAND Failure to pass background 80 20
 checks

MASSACHUSETTS None 82 18

MICHIGAN None 80.3 19.7

MINNESOTA None 75 25

MISSISSIPPI Due to budget restraints, especi- 37.5 62.49
 ally in the Leakesville area

MISSOURI Primary locations in rural areas in 73.32, male;
 close proximity to each other 26.24, female;
 0.44, unknown

MONTANA None, but many fail the fitness Not available
 test and/or an interview

NEBRASKA None 79 21

NEVADA Job locations in rural areas 86 14

NEW HAMPSHIRE None, but many fail the physical 85 15
 exam

NEW JERSEY None 85 15

NEW MEXICO None Not available

NEW YORK None 90.68 9.32

NORTH CAROLINA Varies by region 70 30

NORTH DAKOTA Depends on the location 80 20

OHIO Economic variables within the 66.09 33.91
 state, lack of population diversity
 in some areas and attracting
 female applicants

OKLAHOMA Primarily due to inadequate 82 18
 salary

OREGON Continually looking for more 78 22
 diverse, better-educated staff;
 rural locations remain a problem

PENNSYLVANIA Higher starting salaries are in 91 9
 effect at only two facilities

RHODE ISLAND None 77 23

SOUTH CAROLINA Hiring rates are much lower than 61.3 38.7
 other area law enforcement
 agencies

SOUTH DAKOTA None 76.5 23.5

TENNESSEE None 70.1 29.9

TEXAS Shortage of applicants in some 61.4 38.6
 areas

UTAH Higher salaries paid by local law 81.5 18.5
 enforcement agencies

VERMONT Shortage of applicants 84 16

VIRGINIA No response

WASHINGTON Primarily due to high costs and 80 20
 isolated locations

WEST VIRGINIA No response

WISCONSIN None 79.65 20.35

WYOMING Relatively low wages, remote 76 24
 locations, a comprehensive plan
 in transition and concerns about
 spouse employment

FEDERAL BUREAU No response
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA None 77.38 22.62

NEWFOUNDLAND None 91.5 8.5

NOVA SCOTIA None 86 14

ONTARIO None 65 35

CORRECTIONAL Attempts to recruit visible 75.4 24.6
SERVICE CANADA minorities and aboriginals

 ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF CURRENT
 STAFF, BY PERCENTAGE

SYSTEM Caucasian African- Native Hispanic Other
 American American

ALABAMA 35.8 63.4 0.2 0.3 0.3

ALASKA 80 5 4 6 5

ARIZONA 59 6.4 2 31 1.6

ARKANSAS 39.9 59.2 0.2 0.6 0.1

CALIFORNIA 48.5 12.3 0.3 32.5 6.4

COLORADO 71 5 1 22 1

CONNECTICUT 64 24 <0.01 12 <0.01

DELAWARE 59 38 0.5 2 0.5

DISTRICT OF 4.5 84 0 11.5 11.5
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA

GEORGIA 39.52 59.06 0.21 0.7 >0.5

HAWAII 13.7 3.1 0 0 83.2

IDAHO 90.5 1.1 1.3 6.3 0.8

ILLINOIS

INDIANA 77.2 20.2 0.2 1.5 0.9

IOWA 95 2 0 2 1

KANSAS 89.4 6.2 1.2 2.8 0.4

KENTUCKY 94 5 0 1 0

LOUISIANA 46.72 44.42 0.14 0.12 >8.59

MAINE 97 0 0 0 3

MARYLAND 46 50 0 2 2

MASSACHUSETTS 88 8 0.3 3 0.7

MICHIGAN 81.3 13.7 2.2 2.3 0.5

MINNESOTA 92 3.4 1.7 1.8 1.1

MISSISSIPPI 16 83.85 0 0 0.15

MISSOURI 91.74 6.35 0.39 0.79 0.73

MONTANA Not available

NEBRASKA 92 4 0.4 3 0.6

NEVADA 80 10 1 6 3

NEW HAMPSHIRE 97 1 0 2 0

NEW JERSEY 55 35 1 9 0

NEW MEXICO Not available

NEW YORK 85.04 10.57 0.37 3.54 0.48

NORTH CAROLINA 54.5 42.34 0.9 2 0.26

NORTH DAKOTA 96 1 2 0 1

OHIO 72.86 17.54 0.55 1.12 7.93

OKLAHOMA 80 6.8 10.7 2.1 0.4

OREGON Not available since listing
 is voluntary

PENNSYLVANIA 88 10 <1 1 <1

RHODE ISLAND 88 7 0.4 4 0.6

SOUTH CAROLINA 31.3 67.04 0 0 1.66

SOUTH DAKOTA 94.6 1.6 2.1 0.8 0.9

TENNESSEE 75.8 21.7 0 1.1 1.4

TEXAS 51.7 28.7 0.5 18.6 0.5

UTAH 95 1 1 2 1

VERMONT Not available

VIRGINIA

WASHINGTON 82 8 2 5 3

WEST VIRGINIA

WISCONSIN 91.29 5.2 0.84 2.27 0.4

WYOMING 83 1.5 0 14 1.5

FEDERAL BUREAU
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA Not available (4)

NEWFOUNDLAND Unknown

NOVA SCOTIA 95 5 <1 0 0

ONTARIO 80 12 3 0 5

CORRECTIONAL Not available
SERVICE CANADA

SYSTEM RECRUITING PRACTICES PRE-EMPLOYMENT
 ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED

ALABAMA No incentives are offered Written exam, physical
 ability exam and a drug
 screen

ALASKA Workplace Alaska Web site; Background check,
 DOC Web site; job fair employment history,
 displays physical exam and
 psychological exam

ARIZONA Stipends up to 10 percent Background check, question
 to 15 percent are offered and answer test, medical
 at locations with high exam, physical exam,
 turnover; a bonus up to psychological test and a
 $5,160 may periodically be drug test
 implemented at certain
 locations

ARKANSAS Comprehensive plan/program Physical agility exam
 is in place without bonuses

CALIFORNIA Additional $175 per month Background check, mental
 in high-cost areas; health screening and
 additional $2,400 per year physical fitness exam
 in desert areas

COLORADO Job fairs, Internet posting Background check,
 through the state's home integrity interview and
 page and the department's physical ability test
 home page

CONNECTICUT Job fairs, Commission on Background check,
 Status of Women and major competitive exam, physical
 newspaper advertising of CO agility test, oral
 exam interview, reference
 check, final physical exam
 and drug test

DELAWARE No incentives are offered Background check and an
 oral interview

DISTRICT OF Far-reaching posting Written exam, employment
COLUMBIA efforts in advertising, history, background check,
 Internet posting, drug screening and must
 organizational periodicals, have a valid driver's
 job fairs and various license
 community outreach sources

FLORIDA

GEORGIA Job fairs and Internet Correctional officer exam
 postings

HAWAII None Written exam, physical
 ability test, aptitude
 test, oral interview and
 background check (drugs,
 medical history, physical
 ability and

IDAHO Job fairs, college Completion of an online
 classroom presentations, correctional officer test
 radio advertising and and an oral exam
 agreement with the
 Veteran's Administration
 (2)

ILLINOIS

INDIANA Job fairs, college State Civil Service system
 recruitment, online that includes evaluation
 postings and internship against established
 opportunities minimum qualifications

IOWA None A review of applicant

KANSAS Job fairs, newspaper/ A basic reading, writing
 magazine advertising, and observation test
 posters, Internet postings
 and a building exhibit at
 the state fair staffed by
 correctional officers and
 human resources personnel

KENTUCKY None No assessments

LOUISIANA Entrance rates higher than Written test and an oral
 the minimum of the Civil interview
 Service pay scale

MAINE None Physical ability test

MARYLAND None Physical ability test,
 background check and drug
 test

MASSACHUSETTS None Background check,
 employment history,
 criminal check, civil
 history and character
 references

MICHIGAN Referrals come from family Written exam or exam
 and friends of current or waiver (bachelor's degree
 former employees or military honorable
 discharge) and a physical
 ability text

MINNESOTA Job fairs, media Background checks,
 advertising, presentations physical exam, drug test
 at community events or at and a test for exposure
 colleges/universities and to or active tuberculosis
 internships

MISSISSIPPI Job fairs, media Background check, oral
 advertising, Career Day interview, drug test,
 activities, plant closure employment history and
 postings, employment available information
 services from the National Crime
 Information Center

MISSOURI Job fairs and three-stage Yes
 staff bonuses for referrals

MONTANA None Physical ability test

NEBRASKA Media advertising and Basic test for reading,
 billboards writing and counting and
 behavior-based interview

NEVADA Additional 5 percent for Background check, drug
 shifts other than days, 5 test, medical and physical
 percent for those in rural test and psychological
 locations or $7.50 per day test
 for travel in southern
 Nevada

NEW HAMPSHIRE Media advertising, state Public safety test,
 human resources postings physical exam and
 interview before a
 three-person hiring board

NEW JERSEY Strictly governed by Three-phase process (3)
 competitive exam and merit
 system rules and practices

NEW MEXICO One day off for staff Psychological test,
 sponsoring a new ability test, polygraph,
 correctional officer who psychological interview
 completes one year and background check

NEW YORK Paid media advertising, Written exam, medical
 mailings, local efforts by exam/agility test,
 facilities and referrals psychological profile
 and through the state Civil exam, employment history
 Service exam given every and background check
 two to four years

NORTH CAROLINA Continuous posting of Reading comprehension,
 availability correctional officer video
 test, psychological
 evaluation

NORTH DAKOTA None specified No assessments

OHIO Advanced step hiring, Reading, computation,
 competitive salary, problem solving and
 benefits package and communication
 excellent retirement comprehension, video test,
 physical agility exam,
 oral interview, drug test
 and back round check

OKLAHOMA Job fairs, media Two phases by the state's
 advertising, group Office of Personnel
 presentations, Management--one written
 publications, the Internet, and one video with a
 agency Web site and written test
 mailings

OREGON None Work-style behavior
 survey and correctional
 officer test

PENNSYLVANIA None Medical exam, physical
 ability exam,
 psychological test and
 drug test

RHODE ISLAND None Background check,
 cognitive situational
 judgment, formal final
 interview and drug
 screening after
 conditional offer of hire

SOUTH CAROLINA Offerings of complete No assessments
 uniforms, benefits of 12
 paid holidays, 10 days each
 of vacation and sick leave
 and free lunches at the
 facilities

SOUTH DAKOTA Job fairs, media Competency-based screening
 advertising, bonuses for program
 employee referrals and
 Internet posting

TENNESSEE Job fairs, media Advanced questionnaire and
 advertising, vacancies personal interview
 posted on departmental
 Web site

TEXAS Executive Director's Background check,
 Recruiting Award reference check, written
 Certificate and a $100 U.S. test and an oral interview
 savings bond for referring
 employees and an online
 calendar from which
 applicants can select the
 most convenient location
 and screening test date.

UTAH Pay salary and all training Background check, physical
 costs; start at higher agility test, written
 salary than entry level, aptitude test, suitability
 with an increase after six assessment and a polygraph
 months and again at one
 year

VERMONT Job fairs, media Basic skills test for
 advertising and the state's reading, spelling,
 online job applicant center grammar and math

VIRGINIA

WASHINGTON Targeted recruitment for Work-style survey in oral
 minorities and other interviews, a conditional
 traditionally job offer and
 under-represented groups psychological test

WEST VIRGINIA

WISCONSIN Media advertising Written test, oral
 interview, medical and
 physical fitness test and
 training academy

WYOMING None Not at present but under
 review to begin using a
 correctional officer video
 and an insight integrity
 test

FEDERAL BUREAU
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA None Testing, oral interview
 and tour of facilities

NEWFOUNDLAND None Challenge exam and skills
 demonstration

NOVA SCOTIA Job postings, government Short listing and
 Web site advertising interview process and
 and presentations at 80 hours of training
 educational career
 expositions

ONTARIO None Academic test, oral
 interview and personal
 evaluation

CORRECTIONAL Employment equity staffing Written test and oral
SERVICE CANADA program targeted to women, interviews
 visible with disabilities

(1) DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Previously conducted reductions-in-force
activities and compliance with applicable "displaced employee"
regulations have provided a pool of former experienced staff.

(2) IDAHO: The first year of on-the-job training is paid by
departmental monthly GI Bill education funds.

(3) NEW JERSEY: Phase 1: Application completion, fingerprinting,
initial driving and security background check, urinalysis, written
psychological exam; Phase 2: extensive background, security, driving,
employment and reference investigation, including a home visit or
on-site personal interview; and Phase 3: physical examination and
psychological evaluation.

(4) MANITOBA: The province identifies visible minorities, referring
to any ethnic group outside of Caucasian and aboriginal, but the
breakdown is not available.

CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS--TABLE 2: WAGES

 WAGE RANGE PAID TO
 CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS
 AVERAGE
 PRE-SERVICE IN TRAINING
 TRAINING
SYSTEM COST Starting $ Top $

ALABAMA Unknown 920/bi-wk.

ALASKA Varies 15.72/hr.

ARIZONA $10,063 24,954/yr.

ARKANSAS $3,632 20,981/yr. 24,480/yr.

CALIFORNIA Unknown 14/hr.

COLORADO Unknown 2,774/mo.

CONNECTICUT Unknown 30,092/yr.

DELAWARE Unknown 24,310/yr.

DISTRICT OF $4,960 32,503/yr.
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA No response

GEORGIA $5,000 23,614/yr.

HAWAII $850/mo. 2,436/mo.

IDAHO $7,213 N/A

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA $4,500 934/bi-wk.

IOWA Unknown N/A

KANSAS N/A N/A (1)

KENTUCKY $4,500 N/A

LOUISIANA $1,372 706/bi-wk.

MAINE $3,280 N/A

MARYLAND Unknown N/A

MASSACHUSETTS $982/wk. 758/wk.

MICHIGAN $14,000 13.65/hr.

MINNESOTA $5,000 12.25/hr.
MISSISSIPPI $500 8.47/hr.

 No response

MISSOURI $600 22,320/yr.

MONTANA $2,000 est. 10.52/hr.

NEBRASKA $2,200 12.06/hr.

NEVADA $4,000 N/A

NEW HAMPSHIRE $1,200 23,420/yr.

NEW JERSEY $13,563 300/wk.

NEW MEXICO $3,500 8.75/hr.

NEW YORK (6) $7,963 28,444/yr. 30,043/yr.
 after six
 months

NORTH CAROLINA $488.40, 22,894/yr.
 not
 including
 cost of
 instructors

NORTH DAKOTA $1,750 1,750/mo.

OHIO Unknown 14.26/hr.

OKLAHOMA $1,091 N/A

OREGON Unknown 12/hr.

PENNSYLVANIA Unknown N/A

RHODE ISLAND $6,500 32,831/yr.

SOUTH CAROLINA $11,780 19,272/yr.

SOUTH DAKOTA Unknown 11.20/hr.

TENNESSEE Unknown 1,725/mo.

TEXAS $371.61 20,592/yr.

UTAH $2,500 28,824/yr.

VERMONT $6,000 $491/wk.

VIRGINIA No response

WASHINGTON $5,198 2,303/mo.

WEST VIRGINIA No response

WISCONSIN $2,400 12.813/hr.

WYOMING Unknown 1,987/mo.

FEDERAL BUREAU No response
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA $3,545 N/A

NEWFOUNDLAND $4,000 N/A

NOVA SCOTIA $5,000 33,447/yr.

ONTARIO $1,500 N/A

CORRECTIONAL $5,800 Weekly allowance is being
SERVICE CANADA eliminated

 WAGE RANGE PAID TO CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS

 AT ENTRY AFTER FIRST YEAR

SYSTEM Starting $ Top $ Starting $ Top $

ALABAMA 920/bi-wk. 1,398/bi-wk. 920/bi-wk. 1,398/bi-wk.

ALASKA 15.72/hr. 17.81/hr. 23.20/hr.

ARIZONA 24,954/yr. 31,506/yr. 26,139/yr. 41,997/yr.

ARKANSAS 20,981/yr. 24,480/yr. 23,768/yr. 26,438/yr.

CALIFORNIA 2,857/mo. 4,885/mo. 3,210/mo. 4,885/mo

COLORADO 2,774/mo. 2,774/mo. 2,774/mo. 4,021/mo.

CONNECTICUT 33,435/yr. Unknown Unknown Unknown

DELAWARE 24,310/yr. 30,387/yr. 24,310/yr. 30,387/yr.

DISTRICT OF 32,503/yr. 40,243/yr. 33,362/yr. 38,182/yr.
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA

GEORGIA 23,614/yr. 41,402/yr. 23,614/yr. 41,402/yr.

HAWAII 2,436/mo. 2,979/mo. 2,436/mo. 3,232/mo.

IDAHO 11.53/hr. 11.53/hr. 11.76/hr. 11.76/hr.

ILLINOIS

INDIANA 934/bi-wk. 1,420/bi-wk. 934/bi-wk. 1,420/bi-wk.

IOWA 14.93/hr. 21.17/hr. 15.60/hr. 22.12/hr.

KANSAS 22,942/yr. 30,014/yr. 26,562/ N/A
 yr. (2)

KENTUCKY 1,723/mo. 1,723/mo. 1,817/mo. 1,817/mo.

LOUISIANA 18,366/yr. N/A (3) 20,425/yr. 36,067/yr.

MAINE 12.49/hr. 15.50/hr. 12.93/hr. 15.50/hr.

MARYLAND 26,958/yr. 41,641/yr. 28,749/hr. 44,453/yr.

MASSACHUSETTS 758/wk. 1,042/wk. 817/wk. 1,042/wk.

MICHIGAN 13.65/hr. N/A 14.15/hr. 20.32/hr.

MINNESOTA 13.61/hr. 16.16/hr. 14.85/hr. 23.32/hr.

MISSISSIPPI 17,633/yr. 30,928/yr. 20,604/yr. 36,058/yr.

 No response

MISSOURI 22,320/yr. 30,804/yr. 23,064/yr. 30,804/yr.

MONTANA 10.52/hr. 10.52/hr. N/A (4) N/A

NEBRASKA 12.06/hr. 17.46/hr. 12.30/hr. N/A

NEVADA 30,902/yr. 43,305/yr. 34,953/yr. 47,230/yr.

NEW HAMPSHIRE 25,376/yr. 33,841/yr. 26,374/yr. 33,841/yr.

NEW JERSEY 39,858/yr. 39,858/yr. 43,845/yr. 60,981/yr.

NEW MEXICO 11.50/hr. 17.11/hr. Determined by the
 Legislature

NEW YORK (6) N/A N/A 34,742/yr. 50,312/yr.
 after 20
 years

NORTH CAROLINA 22,894/yr. 34,962/yr. 24,007/yr. 34,962/yr.

NORTH DAKOTA 1,750/mo. 2,690/mo. 1,956/mo. 3,260/mo.

OHIO 14.26/hr. 14.62/hr. 14.62/hr. 15.01/hr.

OKLAHOMA 19,855/yr. N/A 20,848/yr. N/A

OREGON 2,549/mo. 3,500/mo. 2,673/mo. 3,500/mo.

PENNSYLVANIA 27,019/yr. 28,417/yr. 29,731/yr. 54,392/yr.

RHODE ISLAND 32,831/yr to 46,568/yr.; no category breakdowns
 are available

SOUTH CAROLINA 20,044/yr. 21,679/yr. (7)See note See note

SOUTH DAKOTA 11.36/hr. N/A 12.59/hr. N/A

TENNESSEE 1,725/mo. 1,725/mo. 22,500/ 35,412/yr.
 yr. (8)

TEXAS 20,592/yr. 20,592/yr. 24,432/yr. 31,068/yr.

UTAH 24,471/yr. 26,538/yr. 26,538/yr. 27,270/yr.

VERMONT 491/wk plus N/A 515/wk. plus N/A
 overtime overtime

VIRGINIA

WASHINGTON 2,303/mo. 2,911/mo. 2,413/mo. 3,059/mo.
WEST VIRGINIA

WISCONSIN 12.813/hr. N/A 12.813/hr N/A

WYOMING 1,987/mo. 2,823/mo. 1,987/mo. 2,823/mo.

FEDERAL BUREAU
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA 17.63/hr. 21.95/hr. N/A N/A

NEWFOUNDLAND 29,745/yr. 33,051/yr. 38,767/yr. 48,077/yr.

NOVA SCOTIA 33,447/yr. 39,226/yr. 34,844/yr. 39,226/yr.

ONTARIO 19.73/hr. N/A 21.41/hr. N/A

CORRECTIONAL 34,277/yr. 50,071/yr. 35,941/yr. 50,071/yr.
SERVICE CANADA

 WAGE RANGE PAID TO
 CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS

 CAPTAIN OR EQUIVALENT

SYSTEM Starting $ Top $

ALABAMA 1,267/bi-wk. 1,920/bi-wk.

ALASKA 29.47/hr. 39.93/hr.

ARIZONA 36,126/yr. 57,621/yr.

ARKANSAS 28,763/yr. 56,564/yr.

CALIFORNIA 6,135/mo. 6,763/mo.

COLORADO 3,903/mo. 5,658/mo.

CONNECTICUT Unknown 44,049/yr.

DELAWARE 41,770/yr. 52,212/yr.

DISTRICT OF 52,363/yr. 68,322/yr.
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA

GEORGIA 31,474/yr. 55,072/yr.

HAWAII 3,518/mo. 4,354/mo.

IDAHO 21.25/hr. 35.15/hr.

ILLINOIS

INDIANA 1,147/bi-wk. 1,650/bi-wk.

IOWA 19.33/hr. 28.13/hr.

KANSAS 35,568/yr. 46,509/yr.

KENTUCKY 2,501/mo. 3,519/mo.

LOUISIANA 29,494/yr. 50,107/yr.

MAINE 14.87/hr. 20.24/hr.

MARYLAND 34,908/yr. 54,147/yr.

MASSACHUSETTS 1,255/wk. 1,386/wk.

MICHIGAN 19.58/hr. 27.34/hr.

MINNESOTA 23.43/hr. 33.93/hr.

MISSISSIPPI 30,173/yr. 52,903/yr.

 No response

MISSOURI 26,076/yr. 36,612/yr.

MONTANA N/A N/A

NEBRASKA 17.39/hr. N/A

NEVADA 51,594/yr (5) 74,019/yr.

NEW HAMPSHIRE 36,816/yr. 50,107/yr.

NEW JERSEY 66,258/yr. 92,376/yr.

NEW MEXICO 14.44/hr. 25.66/hr.

NEW YORK (6) 57,406/yr. 72,756/yr.

NORTH CAROLINA 29,354/yr. 45,515/yr.

NORTH DAKOTA 2,623/mo. 4,371/mo.

OHIO 20.08/hr. 26.26/hr.

OKLAHOMA 26,426/yr. N/A

OREGON 2,921/mo. 4,099/mo.

PENNSYLVANIA 44,920/yr. 75,402/yr.

RHODE ISLAND 32,831/yr to 46,568/yr.;
 no category breakdowns
 are available

SOUTH CAROLINA See note See note

SOUTH DAKOTA 34,497/yr. 51,746/yr.

TENNESSEE 30,108/yr. 47,856/yr.

TEXAS 34,380/yr. 34,380/yr.

UTAH 33,888/yr. 53,745/yr.

VERMONT 640/wk. plus 996/wk. plus
 overtime overtime

VIRGINIA

WASHINGTON 4,393/mo. 5,370/mo.

WEST VIRGINIA

WISCONSIN 19.505/hr. 40.961/hr.

WYOMING 3,491/mo. 4,956/mo.

FEDERAL BUREAU
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA 2.65/hr. 27.02/hr.

NEWFOUNDLAND 48,485/yr. 63,160/yr.

NOVA SCOTIA 54,000/yr. 58,000/yr.

ONTARIO N/A N/A

CORRECTIONAL 43,912/yr. 57,785/yr.
SERVICE CANADA

(1) KANSAS: After the first week of orientation, officers
receive a combination of classroom and on-the-job-training.

(2) KANSAS: Wages increase after the first three years,
both for the starting wage and top wage.

(3) LUISIANA: Correctional officers enter as a cadet and are
reallocated to sergeant after six months; the top wages noted
reflect the level of sergeant.

(4) MONTANA: As determined by the Legislature, an officer may
receive a 1.5 percent increase after five years and another
1.5 percent increase after 10 years.

(5) NEVADA: The reported starting and top wages are for an
associate warden of operations or equivalent.

(6) NEW YORK: Union negotiations currently under way should
increase the reported wages.

(7) SOUTH CAROLINA: The figure represents the top wage that
can be paid to a CO-2 with 12 months experience: a CO-1 with
a six months experience can earn $20,850 per year. A CO-1 can
receive a step increase of 3 percent after six months in that
position and 2 percent each six months thereafter.

(8) TENNESSEE: The reported figure is based on a correctional
officer's passing a test to be promoted to a highter level.

CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS

TABLE 3: EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

 ENTRY-LEVEL MINIMUM

 High Some
SYSTEM School GED College Other

ALABAMA X X (1)

ALASKA X X

ARIZONA X X

ARKANSAS X X

CALIFORNIA X X

COLORADO X X

CONNECTICUT X

DELAWARE X X

DISTRICT OF Yes (3)
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA No response No response No response No response

GEORGIA X X

HAWAII X

IDAHO X

ILLINOIS No response No response No response No response

INDIANA X X Yes (4)

IOWA X X

KANSAS X X

KENTUCKY X X

LOUISIANA X

MAINE X X Yes (5)

MARYLAND X X

MASSACHUSETTS X Yes (6)

MICHIGAN X X

MINNSOTA X X Yes

MISSISSIPPI X X

MISSOURI X X

MONTANA X X

NEBRASKA X X

NEVADA X X

NEW HAMPSHIRE X X

NEW JERSEY X X

NEW MEXICO X X

NEW YORK X X

NORTH CAROLINA X X

NORTH DAKOTA X

OHIO X X

OKLAHOMA X X

OREGON X

PENNSYLVANIA X X

RHODE ISLAND X X

SOUTH CAROLINA

SOUTH DAKOTA (9)

TENNESSEE X

TEXAS X X

UTAH X X

dVERMONT X X (11)

VIRGINIA No response No response No response No response

WASHINGTON X X

WEST VIRGINIA No response No response No response No response

WISCONSIN X

WYOMING X

FEDERAL BUREAU No response No response No response No response
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA X

NEWFOUNDLAND X (13)

NOVA SCOTIA X X (14)

ONTARIO X

CORRECTIONAL X X
SERVICE CANADA

 WAIVED FOR WRITTEN
 YEARS OF PROMOTION
SYSTEM EXPERIENCE GUIDELINES

ALABAMA Yes Yes

ALASKA No Yes

ARIZONA No Yes

ARKANSAS Yes (2) Yes

CALIFORNIA No Yes

COLORADO No Yes

CONNECTICUT No Yes

DELAWARE No No

DISTRICT OF Yes Yes
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA No response No response

GEORGIA No Yes

HAWAII No Yes

IDAHO No Being
 drafted

ILLINOIS No response No response

INDIANA No Yes

IOWA No Yes

KANSAS No Yes

KENTUCKY No Yes

LOUISIANA No Yes

MAINE No Yes

MARYLAND No No

MASSACHUSETTS No Yes

MICHIGAN No Yes

MINNSOTA No Yes

MISSISSIPPI No Yes

MISSOURI No Yes

MONTANA No No

NEBRASKA No Yes

NEVADA Yes No

NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes No

NEW JERSEY Yes No

NEW MEXICO No Yes

NEW YORK Yes No

NORTH CAROLINA Yes No

NORTH DAKOTA Yes Yes (7)

OHIO Yes No

OKLAHOMA No Yes

OREGON No Yes

PENNSYLVANIA Yes (8) Being
 drafted

RHODE ISLAND No Yes

SOUTH CAROLINA No Yes

SOUTH DAKOTA (9) N/A No

TENNESSEE No No

TEXAS No Yes

UTAH No Yes (10)

VERMONT No No

VIRGINIA No response No response

WASHINGTON No Yes

WEST VIRGINIA

WISCONSIN No No

WYOMING Yes Yes

FEDERAL BUREAU No response No response
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA No Yes

NEWFOUNDLAND

NOVA SCOTIA No Yes

ONTARIO No Yes

CORRECTIONAL No Yes
SERVICE CANADA

 ADDITIONAL EDUCATIONAL
 REQUIREMENTS FOR
SYSTEM PROMOTION

ALABAMA No

ALASKA No

ARIZONA No

ARKANSAS Required level of
 education and/or
 experience if a degree is
 required

CALIFORNIA No

COLORADO No, but some college
 credits equate to years of
 experience

CONNECTICUT No

DELAWARE No

DISTRICT OF No
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA No response

GEORGIA Depends on the position
 being sought

HAWAII No, but must pass a
 written test and an oral
 interview

IDAHO Depends on the position
 being sought

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA No

IOWA No

KANSAS No

KENTUCKY No

LOUISIANA No

MAINE No

MARYLAND Yes, for high-level
 management positions
 but can be substituted for
 experience

MASSACHUSETTS No

MICHIGAN No

MINNSOTA No

MISSISSIPPI Yes, education can
 substitute for work
 experience

MISSOURI A bachelor's degree for a
 position as a warden

MONTANA No

NEBRASKA No, but must take and
 pass corporal boards

NEVADA No, but minimum quali-
 fications may include
 years of experience or a
 combination of experi-
 ence and education

NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes, but only if promotion
 is outside a security
 position

NEW JERSEY No

NEW MEXICO No

NEW YORK No, promotional
 examination require-
 ments are based on time
 in lower-grade title

NORTH CAROLINA No

NORTH DAKOTA Yes, depending on the
 qualifications of the
 position being sought

OHIO No

OKLAHOMA No

OREGON No

PENNSYLVANIA No

RHODE ISLAND No

SOUTH CAROLINA No

SOUTH DAKOTA (9) No

TENNESSEE No

TEXAS No

UTAH No

VERMONT No

VIRGINIA No response

WASHINGTON Only for promotion to
 level of captain

WEST VIRGINIA

WISCONSIN No

WYOMING No

FEDERAL BUREAU No response
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA No, but are strongly
 encouraged to be pro-
 active in continuous
 learning objectives

NEWFOUNDLAND

NOVA SCOTIA No

ONTARIO No

CORRECTIONAL No, but expected to
SERVICE CANADA demonstrate increased
 competence

 REIMBURSEMENT FOR
SYSTEM JOB-RELATED COURSES

ALABAMA Yes

ALASKA No

ARIZONA Tuition assistance for classes leading
 to a degree in specified fields of study

ARKANSAS No

CALIFORNIA No

COLORADO 50 percent for undergraduate courses
 and 40 percent for graduate courses

CONNECTICUT Available for all correctional staff
 through collective bargaining and
 managerial benefits

DELAWARE No

DISTRICT OF No, but opportunities are offered by the
COLUMBIA agency for free at the Center for Work-
 force Development, National Institute
 of Corrections, American Correctional
 Association and others

FLORIDA No response

GEORGIA No

HAWAII No

IDAHO No

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA No

IOWA No

KANSAS No

KENTUCKY Statutory authority and agency policy in
 place but no funding to implement

LOUISIANA Cash award after course verification
 through a comprehensive public
 training program or ACA

MAINE Yes

MARYLAND Yes, but funds are not available due to
 budget constraints

MASSACHUSETTS Yes, if mandatory training is involved
 for a specific job area; in-state college
 courses are reimbursed if a member of
 a bargaining unit

MICHIGAN Yes, for corrections-related courses
 only

MINNSOTA No

MISSISSIPPI Employee must complete requirements
 that exceed the level of minimum
 qualifications for education, licensure
 or certification listed for the employee's
 present job class

MISSOURI No

MONTANA No

NEBRASKA Yes, 80 percent of tuition costs

NEVADA A grant-funded program for southern
 Nevada custody officers for criminal
 justice courses

NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes, 50 percent of tuition

NEW JERSEY A variety of college-level courses that
 may include English, law enforcement,
 criminal justice, sociology, etc.

NEW MEXICO No

NEW YORK No, but a contractual agreement with a
 union provides for a bilateral training
 program under union auspices

NORTH CAROLINA Through the educational assistance
 program for job-related courses or for
 courses leading to a job-related degree

NORTH DAKOTA Criminal justice courses

OHIO Various program through the state or
 respective unions

OKLAHOMA One class per semester

OREGON No

PENNSYLVANIA Any course that directly impacts the
 employee's current position

RHODE ISLAND Criminal justice-related courses

SOUTH CAROLINA No

SOUTH DAKOTA (9) No

TENNESSEE One course per semester

TEXAS No

UTAH Law enforcement, criminal justice and
 social sciences

VERMONT All courses if matriculated as a degree-
 earning student

VIRGINIA No response

WASHINGTON Must be job-related for a 90 percent
 coverage of tuition and must have a
 3.06 GPA from an accredited college

WEST VIRGINIA

WISCONSIN When directly related to current
 position

WYOMING Employees may request reimburse-
 ment but requests are not automatic-
 ally paid

FEDERAL BUREAU No response
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA When directly related to job function-
 ality and advancement, when approved

NEWFOUNDLAND

NOVA SCOTIA Courses in corrections, sociology,
 criminology, psychology and
 computers
ONTARIO When directly related to position

CORRECTIONAL Partial reimbursement for courses
SERVICE CANADA directly related to personal career plan,
 with approval of the supervisor

(1) ALABAMA: Applicants must be at least 21 and have two years of work
experience.

(2) ARKANSAS: Applicants for promotion also must meet management-level
training requirements prior to qualifying for the position.

(3) DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: One year of specialized experience,
equivalent to an entry-level grade, may be substituted for a minimum
educational requirement and one-half academic year of college education
may be substituted for the required "one year of specialized
experience."

(4) INDIANA: Three years of full-time work experience and a valid
driver's license.

(5) MAINE: Skilled workers such as cooks, retailers or suppliers.

(6) MASSACHUSETTS: Military service is also an acceptable entry-level
minimum.

(7) NORTH DAKOTA: Two years of experience in law enforcement,
corrections, the military, police or a position where the primary focus
was performing security-related functions.

(8) PENNSYLVANIA: Waivers apply after graduation from high school or
any equivalent combination of experience and training.

(9) SOUTH DAKOTA: No minimum requirements are established;
consideration is given to knowledge, skills and abilities.

(10) UTAH: The written guidelines apply to some promotional levels but
not all.

(11) VERMONT: Two years of work experience is also required.

(12) WYOMING: One full year of work experience may be substituted for
a GED.

(13) NEWFOUNDLAND: Two years of postsecondary school in social
sciences.

(14) NOVA SCOTIA: Applicants also take a correctional worker course.

CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS--TABLE 4: FRINGE BENEFITS

 BENEFITS OFFERED

 TURNOVER
 RATE Cost of
SYSTEM WITHIN Living Merit Paid Paid
 FIRST Increase Increase Holidays Vacation
 YEAR

ALABAMA 30% avg. X X

ALASKA 12% X X X

ARIZONA 26.5% X X X X

ARKANSAS 32.9% X X X

CALIFORNIA 1.5% avg. X X X X

COLORADO 10% * * X X

CONNECTICUT 0.8% X X X X

DELAWARE Unknown X X

DISTRICT OF 2.2% X X X X
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA No response

GEORGIA 20.2% X X X

HAWAII 1% X X

IDAHO 19.35% X X X

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA 17.7% * X X X

IOWA 4.2% X X X X

KANSAS Unknown * X X X

KENTUCKY 70.79% x X X

LOUISIANA 55% X X X

MAINE 50% X X X X

MARYLAND 13.5% X X X X

MASSACHUSETTS 33% X X X X

MICHIGAN 0.46% X X X X

MINNESOTA 2.6% * X X

MISSISSIPPI 20%, est. X

MISSOURI Unknown X X X X

MONTANA Unknown X X X

NEBRASKA 28% X X X

NEVADA 12.13% * X X X

NEW HAMPSHIRE 15% X X X

NEW JERSEY 3.7% X X X X

NEW MEXICO 9% X X X

NEW YORK 13.76% X X X X

NORTH CAROLINA 24.33% X X

NORTH DAKOTA 5% X X

OHIO Unknown X X X

OKLAHOMA 28.5% X X X

OREGON Unknown X X

PENNSYLVANIA 13.7% X X X

RHODE ISLAND 3% X X X

SOUTH CAROLINA 50% (1) * * X X

SOUTH DAKOTA 25% X X X

TENNESSEE 27.9% (2) X X X

TEXAS 58.3% X X

UTAH 3.8% X X X X

VERMONT >25% X X X X

VIRGINIA No response

WASHINGTON Unknown X X X

WEST VIRGINIA No response

WISCONSIN Unknown X X

WYOMING Unknown X X X

FEDERAL BUREAU No response
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA 10% X X X X

NEWFOUNDLAND Unknown X X

NOVA SCOTIA 2% X X X

ONTARIO 10% X X X

CORRECTIONAL 5.06% X X X
SERVICE
CANADA

 BENEFITS OFFERED

 Paid Paid
SYSTEM Sick Personal Retirement Health Dental
 Days Days Pay Insurance Insurance

ALABAMA X X X *

ALASKA X X X X

ARIZONA X X X X

ARKANSAS X X X X X

CALIFORNIA X X X X X

COLORADO X X X X

CONNECTICUT X X * X X

DELAWARE X X X X

DISTRICT OF X X X X X
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA

GEORGIA X X X X X

HAWAII X X X X

IDAHO X X X X

ILLINOIS

INDIANA X X X X X

IOWA X X X X

KANSAS X X X X X

KENTUCKY X X X X

LOUISIANA X X X X

MAINE X X X X

MARYLAND X X X X X

MASSACHUSETTS X X X X X

MICHIGAN X X X X X

MINNESOTA X X X X

MISSISSIPPI X X X X *

MISSOURI X X X X X

MONTANA X X X X

NEBRASKA X X X

NEVADA X X X X

NEW HAMPSHIRE X X X X

NEW JERSEY X X X X X

NEW MEXICO X X X X X

NEW YORK X X X X X

NORTH CAROLINA X X X *

NORTH DAKOTA X X X

OHIO X X X X X

OKLAHOMA X X X

OREGON X X X X X

PENNSYLVANIA X X X X

RHODE ISLAND X X X X X

SOUTH CAROLINA X X X X X

SOUTH DAKOTA X X X X X

TENNESSEE X X X X

TEXAS X X X X *

UTAH X X X X

VERMONT X X X X X

VIRGINIA

WASHINGTON X X X X X

WEST VIRGINIA

WISCONSIN X X X X X

WYOMING X X X X

FEDERAL BUREAU
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA X X X X X

NEWFOUNDLAND X X X X

NOVA SCOTIA X X X X

ONTARIO X X X

CORRECTIONAL X X X X X
SERVICE
CANADA

 BENEFITS OFFERED

SYSTEM Disability Life
 Pay Insurance

ALABAMA *

ALASKA X X

ARIZONA X X

ARKANSAS X X

CALIFORNIA X X

COLORADO X X

CONNECTICUT X X

DELAWARE X X

DISTRICT OF X X
COLUMBIA

FLORIDA

GEORGIA X X

HAWAII X X

IDAHO X X

ILLINOIS

INDIANA X X

IOWA X X

KANSAS X X

KENTUCKY X X

LOUISIANA X X

MAINE X

MARYLAND X *

MASSACHUSETTS X X

MICHIGAN X X

MINNESOTA X X

MISSISSIPPI * *

MISSOURI

MONTANA X

NEBRASKA X

NEVADA X

NEW HAMPSHIRE X X

NEW JERSEY X X

NEW MEXICO X

NEW YORK X X

NORTH CAROLINA * *

NORTH DAKOTA *

OHIO X X

OKLAHOMA X X

OREGON X X

PENNSYLVANIA X X

RHODE ISLAND X X

SOUTH CAROLINA X X

SOUTH DAKOTA X X

TENNESSEE X

TEXAS * X

UTAH X X

VERMONT X X

VIRGINIA

WASHINGTON

WEST VIRGINIA

WISCONSIN X X

WYOMING X

FEDERAL BUREAU
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA X X

NEWFOUNDLAND X X

NOVA SCOTIA X X

ONTARIO X

CORRECTIONAL X X
SERVICE
CANADA

 BENEFITS OFFERED

 ABLE TO
SYSTEM Other/Comments SELECT
 BENEFITS?

ALABAMA * Dental and life insurance are optional Yes

ALASKA Week on/week off schedule, 20-year Yes
 retirement at any age, supplemental benefit
 system in lieu of social security and
 medical at retirement

ARIZONA Normally, either cost of living or merit No
 increases are provided, depending on state's
 budget

ARKANSAS Yes

CALIFORNIA Physical fitness pay, bilingual bonus, Yes
 uniform allowance

COLORADO * Cost of living and merit increases were No
 suspended for FY'03 due to budget
 constraints

CONNECTICUT * Hazardous duty retirement plan after 20 No
 years for correctional staff who guard or
 instruct inmates

DELAWARE Salary increases are approved by the state No
 Legislature

DISTRICT OF Short/long-term insurance programs, deferred Yes
COLUMBIA compensation, credit union and employee
 leave bank

FLORIDA

GEORGIA Paid training Yes

HAWAII Yes

IDAHO No

ILLINOIS

INDIANA * Cost of living increases are provided when No
 appropriated by the state Legislature

IOWA No

KANSAS * Cost of living increases are provided when No
 appropriated by the state Legislature,
 longevity bonus after 10 years, funeral or
 bereavement leave, paid court leave, job
 injury leave, administrative leave, uniforms
 and cash awards for making suggestions for
 improving operations

KENTUCKY Professional leave, longevity bonus, Yes
 reimbursement accounts

LOUISIANA Yes

MAINE No

MARYLAND * Medical/dental/prescription drugs are Yes
 paid; employees pay for life insurance

MASSACHUSETTS Shift differential, roll call, longevity No
 bonus and education

MICHIGAN Yes

MINNESOTA * Cost of living increases are contingent No
 upon negotiations; early retirement
 incentive

MISSISSIPPI * Dental insurance, disability pay and life Yes
 insurance are offered

MISSOURI Longevity benefits Yes

MONTANA No

NEBRASKA No

NEVADA * Cost of living increases are provided when No
 appropriated by the state Legislature

NEW HAMPSHIRE Annual $1,500 hazardous duty pay; other No
 benefits may be provided through a
 collective bargaining agreement

NEW JERSEY Uniform allowance Yes

NEW MEXICO Yes

NEW YORK Turnover rate varies each year based on the No
 number of training classes conducted for new
 officers; life insurance benefits are based
 on a contractual agreement

NORTH CAROLINA * Three days of community service leave per Yes
 calendar year; dental, disability, life or
 other forms of insurance are available at
 group rates paid by the employees

NORTH DAKOTA * Employee assistance program; basic life No
 insurance

OHIO Yes

OKLAHOMA Deferred com ensation Yes

OREGON Yes

PENNSYLVANIA Pay increases are in accordance with No
 collective bargaining agreements

RHODE ISLAND Clothing allowance, shift differential and No
 overtime pay

SOUTH CAROLINA * Cost of living and merit increases are Yes
 provided when approved by the state
 Legislature

SOUTH DAKOTA Yes

TENNESSEE Yes

TEXAS * Uniforms and equipment, uniform laundry Yes
 service, free meals while on duty; dental
 insurance and disability pay are available

UTAH Uniform allowance Yes

VERMONT Training stipend of $35 for 40 hours No
 in-service training per year; contract
 benefits for special training assignments
 such as CERT and part-time certified
 trainers

VIRGINIA

WASHINGTON No

WEST VIRGINIA

WISCONSIN Longevity bonus and uniform allowance Yes

WYOMING No

FEDERAL BUREAU
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA Yes

NEWFOUNDLAND Length of service pay Yes

NOVA SCOTIA No

ONTARIO No

CORRECTIONAL One volunteer leave day, excluding executive No
SERVICE group staff, and up to five days for
CANADA family-related responsibility days

(1) SOUTH CAROLINA: The turnover rate is based on a five-year period
from 1997 through 2001.

(2) TENNESSEE: The turnover rate is reported for fiscal year 2001-2002.

CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS--TABLE 5: RETENTION

SYSTEM FORMALIZED RETENTION EFFORTS

ALABAMA Mentoring, an employee assistance program, personnel
 club activities, employee-of-the-month recognition,
 awards program, basic training and an employee
 orientation

ALASKA None reported

ARIZONA No formal policy at this time that specifically
 addresses staff retention programs

ARKANSAS Increased salaries, requirement of management-level
 training, tiered pay plans, revised basic
 correctional officer training, revised field training
 officer program, revised exit survey procedures,
 improved hiring practice (i.e, quality of applicants
 and expediency of processing applications) and
 numerous other efforts

CALIFORNIA Ongoing formal recruitment and retention; training
 throughout career, collective bargaining, salary
 increases and promotional opportunities

COLORADO None reported

CONNECTICUT None reported

DELAWARE Currently working jointly with the union on various
 issues that may lead to increased retention

DISTRICT OF Monthly and quarterly employee recognition (with
COLUMBIA monetary and nonmonetary benefits), annual awards
 program (with commemorative insignia pins), superior
 performance acknowledgement (quality step increases,
 bonuses and nonmonetary benefits); correctional
 officers also can be nominated for citywide and
 national awards programs

FLORIDA No response

GEORGIA Officers are asked to complete an exit questionnaire
 prior to leaving; results are studied and efforts are
 made to alleviate problems

HAWAII After a satisfactory nine-month probation period for
 recruits and a one-year period for officers with
 experience, the supervisor may approve a change to
 the next level; promotional opportunities are
 continually offered

IDAHO Creation of a mentoring program, development of a new
 correctional specialist classification and
 consideration of skill-based pay

ILLINOIS No response

INDIANA None reported

IOWA None reported

KANSAS New officers are assigned to an experienced,
 nonsupervisory officer for discussing problems,
 adjustment issues, etc., in confidence; a second
 level of the corrections officer 1 class was created
 in an effort to retain officers past the third year
 whereby ever officer receives an automatic promotion
 and an additional salary increase

KENTUCKY Exit surveys, employee aptitude surveys and value of
 benefits statement are provided to employees; formal
 recognition program; and an educational partnership
 with the Redlands Community College in which
 employees receive college credit for agency training

LOUISIANA Special entrance pay and base supplements allow the
 agency to pay 9 percent above the maximum of the
 Civil Service pay scale; security officers benefit
 from a higher accrual rate for retirement than that
 of other state employees

MAINE Paid benefits and displays of camaraderie

MARYLAND None reported

MASSACHUSETTS Extensive training within the areas of their jobs
 along with interpersonal training

MICHIGAN Good wages and benefits; updated training and
 advancement opportunities

MINNESOTA Competitive benefits package and an enriched early
 retirement plan with medical insurance to age 65

MISSISSIPPI Automatic reclassification based on years of service
 and education, from cadet to CO-4

MISSOURI Yearly in-house training and professional development
 opportunities

MONTANA None reported

NEBRASKA None reported

NEVADA None reported

NEW HAMPSHIRE Frequent training opportunities are provided and
 transfers to other units within the system; medals of
 honor given to selected officers during formal
 recognition ceremonies; and an employee appreciation
 event is held annually

NEW JERSEY A pre-employment and training process designed to
 ensure a cadre of officers who are aware of and
 capable of withstanding the requirements and
 difficulties of the job

NEW MEXICO A retention/mentoring program

NEW YORK None reported

NORTH CAROLINA Funding has been authorized to provide an increase in
 the hiring rate and minimum salaries; this year,
 funding also was authorized to allow for within-grade
 salary adjustments for veteran officers

NORTH DAKOTA Reviewed/increased entry-level salaries and lowered
 the probationary period for temporary employees

OHIO None at the present time but the department is
 working on this

OKLAHOMA Expanded recruitment program and attendance at job
 fairs; exit interview program

OREGON In-service training program and developing more
 sophisticated intervention strategies for eliminating
 resignations and turnover

PENNSYLVANIA Annual salary increases are provided at 4 percent of
 base pay for first 11 years of service; after five
 years, an additional 1 percent annual longevity
 begins and progresses to 27 percent of base pay after
 28 years of service; leave accruals also increase by
 5 percent from the first to the second year of
 employment, another 5 percent from the seventh to
 15th year, an additional 5 percent from the 16th to
 the 24th year and 5 percent from the 26th year to
 retirement

RHODE ISLAND None at present but being developed

SOUTH CAROLINA Step increase at six-month intervals, not to exceed a
 total of 5 percent after meeting experience
 requirements

SOUTH DAKOTA Salary increases after the first six months, at one
 year and at two years of employment; an employee
 recognition program; selective recruitment efforts

TENNESSEE Conduct and analyze regular exit surveys but
 budgetary and training restraints hinder some efforts
 for change

TEXAS Pre-service training was expanded to include field
 training officers during the on-the-job phase and a
 mentoring program; principles of supervision and
 human resources topics for supervisors are provided
 in training of newly promoted supervisors; a standard
 overtime policy was implemented; the waiting period
 for a transfer was reduced from one year to six
 months; an employee wellness program was implemented;
 a salary adjustment system for correctional career
 ladders was automated; and exit surveys are requested
 to identify separation trends

UTAH An excellent educational assistance program and
 retirement at 20 years; an officer who leaves within
 the first two years must pay back a prorated amount
 to the department

VERMONT Development of a high quality field training officer
 program

VIRGINIA No response

WASHINGTON None reported

WEST VIRGINIA No response

WISCONSIN None reported

WYOMING No response

FEDERAL BUREAU No response
OF PRISONS

CANADIAN SYSTEMS

MANITOBA Planning and renewal strategy geared to sustaining
 knowledge and skills for line-level through
 management staff

NEWFOUNDLAND None reported

NOVA SCOTIA Continuous training and education, opportunity for
 advancement, quarterly assessments, benefits and
 upgrading facilities

ONTARIO None at present but being developed

CORRECTIONAL Specific staff instructors are assigned as counselors
SERVICE CANADA to each recruit


For information on monthly surveys featured in this or past issues of Corrections Compendium, contact Cece Hill, CEGA Services Inc., P.O. Box 81826, Lincoln, NE 68501; (402) 420-0602.
COPYRIGHT 2004 American Correctional Association, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2004 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Title Annotation:Survey Summary
Publication:Corrections Compendium
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jul 1, 2004
Words:8803
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