While 20 U.S. reporting systems listed no one overwhelming problem affecting recruitment of potential correctional officers, the remaining systems, primarily Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio (for its female facility) and Wyoming, indicated that their prison facilities' rural locations presented an obstacle to recruitment. Two other major challenges to recruitment were the lack of comparative wages that could be earned from other employment opportunities in the local area, from private industry as well as from local law enforcement agencies and the stressful environment in which correctional officers work. The Canadian reporting systems stated that they have not experienced recruiting problems.
With the exception of the correctional officer population in Arkansas, the District of Columbia, Florida, Maryland, Mississippi and South Carolina, the majority of correctional officers in the U.S. reporting systems are white and 76 percent are male.
The reporting correctional systems have primarily used advertising to recruit people for job openings, although 13 U.S. reporting systems and three Canadian reporting systems have no formal recruitment practices in place. The correctional systems also use job fairs, college class presentations, exhibits at the state fair, Web site announcements and general mailings to aid recruitment. Several systems indicated they pay higher starting wages to their recruits than that paid to other local entry-level employees or award bonuses to current staff who provide referrals. Idaho has an agreement with the Veteran's Administration whereby the first year of on-the-job training is paid through GI Bill educational funds. Mississippi monitors plant closings and targets its recruitment efforts toward employees who are potentially being laid off. New Mexico offers employees one day off for sponsoring a new correctional officer who completes one year on the job. Washington specifically targets its recruitment practices to minorities or other underrepresented groups, while New York offers positions through its biannual civil service exams.
Kentucky, North Dakota and South Carolina do not conduct pre-employment assessments, but the rest of the other reporting systems, both U.S. and Canadian, do. Primary assessment methods include written exams, physical agility tests, interviews and extensive background checks. Massachusetts also checks character references. Applicants in New Mexico and Utah must pass a polygraph test and in the District, they must possess a valid driver's license. Psychological exams are administered in 12 U.S. reporting systems and drug screens are conducted in 11 systems. Indiana applicants must pass the state's civil service exam and those in New Hampshire are given a public safety test. A prepared correctional officer video test is used in North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma and Oregon. while a work style behavior survey is used to analyze officer applicants in Oregon, South Dakota and Washington.
Entry-Level Educational Requirements
Seventy-two percent of the U.S. reporting systems require a high school diploma before applicants may be hired as correctional officers, while an additional 13 percent will accept a GED. Michigan and North Dakota are the only two U.S. reporting systems that also require some college credits. Applicants must also have served in the military in Massachusetts; possess a driver's license in Indiana; and have a record of two years worth of work experience in Vermont. In Canada, Newfoundland not only requires at least two years of postsecondary schooling, but those courses must have been in social sciences. Seventy-two percent of the U.S. reporting systems do not waive educational requirements and none of the Canadian reporting systems do. Sixty-eight percent of U.S. reporting systems do have formalized written guidelines posted detailing promotional information for correctional officers, with the requirement for additional education indicated prominently. Fifty-seven percent of the U.S. reporting systems reimburse their officers for taking educational courses, with numerous requirements or restrictions attached.
Wages and Fringe Benefits
With the average turnover rate for correctional officers within the first year of employment being 22.5 percent, as stated by the U.S. reporting systems, wages and fringe benefits take on added importance. Michigan, which reported that it receives a large number of applicants from family and friends of current or former employees, has a turnover rate of 0.46 percent, while Kentucky's turnover rate in a one-year period was nearly 71 percent. The average turnover rate for the Canadian reporting systems was 6.77 percent.
Fifteen of the U.S. reporting systems did not have current information to offer related to the average preservice cost for training correctional officers. The average of the balance of the systems was $4,278. The highest training starting wage was Alaska at $15.72 per hour, followed by New York, which is currently renegotiating its wage scales.
For comparison purposes, the survey queried the starting wages for correctional officers at the entry level, after the first year, and for captains or the equivalent and included the top wages paid in those categories. The highest starting wage at entry level of the U.S. reporting systems is $39,358 per year in New Jersey, followed by $33,435 in Connecticut. Correctional Service Canada starts its officers at $50.000. The highest ending wage rate for that category is in Massachusetts at nearly $54,000 per year, followed by Nevada at $43,000. New Jersey again pays the highest wages to its correctional officers after the first year at $44,000, with Alaska at $37,000. After the first year, the top wages paid are by New Jersey at $61,000 and California at $59,000 with $54,000 reported by both Massachusetts and Pennsylvania. For those officers reaching the rank of captain or the equivalent, California pays $74,000 per year to start, followed by New Jersey at $66,000 and Alaska at $61,000. The top wage an officer in this category can expect to earn is $92,000 in New Jersey, $83,000 in Alaska, $81,000 in California and more than $70,000 in Idaho, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New York and Pennsylvania.
Fringe benefits vary greatly as indicated in the accompanying tables. Fifty-one percent of the U.S. reporting systems allow officers to select from a broad range of fringe benefit categories. A cost-of-living wage increase is offered by 64 percent of the U.S. reporting systems (often, only when appropriated by the state's legislature); merit increases by 53 percent; paid holidays by 100 percent; paid vacations by 96 percent; sick leave by 98 percent; personal days off by 53 percent; retirement pay by 100 percent (in Connecticut, a hazardous duty retirement plan is in place after 20 years for correctional staff who guard or instruct inmates); health insurance by 100 percent; dental insurance by 94 percent; disability pay by 77 percent and life insurance by 96 percent.
Unfortunately, as indicated by this survey, the problems of recruitment and retention persist. Perhaps what is missing from the process is expanded public relations and media exposure to enhance the image of correctional officers.
CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS--TABLE 1: RECRUITMENT CURRENT STAFF, BY PERCENTAGE SYSTEM RECRUITMENT PROBLEMS Male Female ALABAMA Few applicants actually show up 83.1 16.9 for the examination ALASKA Recruitment is conducted facility 65 35 by facility, resulting in recruiting for some less desirable locations ARIZONA While continually placing more 73.5 26.5 than 1,000 correctional officers annually, the major problem is retention ARKANSAS Currently analyzing problem and 61.3 38.7 looking at advertising options CALIFORNIA None 82.5 17.5 COLORADO From high cost-of-living areas 76 24 and from rural areas CONNECTICUT None 84 16 DELAWARE None 79 21 DISTRICT OF None (1) 71 29 COLUMBIA FLORIDA No response GEORGIA Finding qualified applicants 58.29 41.71 HAWAII Specifically on the Island of Maui 85.3 14.7 due to inadequate availability of applicants IDAHO Wages, working hours, stressful 77.9 22.1 environment issues ILLINOIS No response INDIANA None 72.2 27.8 IOWA None 82 18 KANSAS In large facility, urban areas, 80.65 19.35 competition is with a federal prison, the petroleum industry and aircraft industry; small facility, rural areas lack available work force KENTUCKY High cost of health insurance 74 26 statewide and low wages LOUISIANA Job locations, officer duties and 62.87 37.13 wages MAINE None 93 7 MARYLAND Failure to pass background 80 20 checks MASSACHUSETTS None 82 18 MICHIGAN None 80.3 19.7 MINNESOTA None 75 25 MISSISSIPPI Due to budget restraints, especi- 37.5 62.49 ally in the Leakesville area MISSOURI Primary locations in rural areas in 73.32, male; close proximity to each other 26.24, female; 0.44, unknown MONTANA None, but many fail the fitness Not available test and/or an interview NEBRASKA None 79 21 NEVADA Job locations in rural areas 86 14 NEW HAMPSHIRE None, but many fail the physical 85 15 exam NEW JERSEY None 85 15 NEW MEXICO None Not available NEW YORK None 90.68 9.32 NORTH CAROLINA Varies by region 70 30 NORTH DAKOTA Depends on the location 80 20 OHIO Economic variables within the 66.09 33.91 state, lack of population diversity in some areas and attracting female applicants OKLAHOMA Primarily due to inadequate 82 18 salary OREGON Continually looking for more 78 22 diverse, better-educated staff; rural locations remain a problem PENNSYLVANIA Higher starting salaries are in 91 9 effect at only two facilities RHODE ISLAND None 77 23 SOUTH CAROLINA Hiring rates are much lower than 61.3 38.7 other area law enforcement agencies SOUTH DAKOTA None 76.5 23.5 TENNESSEE None 70.1 29.9 TEXAS Shortage of applicants in some 61.4 38.6 areas UTAH Higher salaries paid by local law 81.5 18.5 enforcement agencies VERMONT Shortage of applicants 84 16 VIRGINIA No response WASHINGTON Primarily due to high costs and 80 20 isolated locations WEST VIRGINIA No response WISCONSIN None 79.65 20.35 WYOMING Relatively low wages, remote 76 24 locations, a comprehensive plan in transition and concerns about spouse employment FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA None 77.38 22.62 NEWFOUNDLAND None 91.5 8.5 NOVA SCOTIA None 86 14 ONTARIO None 65 35 CORRECTIONAL Attempts to recruit visible 75.4 24.6 SERVICE CANADA minorities and aboriginals ETHNIC BACKGROUND OF CURRENT STAFF, BY PERCENTAGE SYSTEM Caucasian African- Native Hispanic Other American American ALABAMA 35.8 63.4 0.2 0.3 0.3 ALASKA 80 5 4 6 5 ARIZONA 59 6.4 2 31 1.6 ARKANSAS 39.9 59.2 0.2 0.6 0.1 CALIFORNIA 48.5 12.3 0.3 32.5 6.4 COLORADO 71 5 1 22 1 CONNECTICUT 64 24 <0.01 12 <0.01 DELAWARE 59 38 0.5 2 0.5 DISTRICT OF 4.5 84 0 11.5 11.5 COLUMBIA FLORIDA GEORGIA 39.52 59.06 0.21 0.7 >0.5 HAWAII 13.7 3.1 0 0 83.2 IDAHO 90.5 1.1 1.3 6.3 0.8 ILLINOIS INDIANA 77.2 20.2 0.2 1.5 0.9 IOWA 95 2 0 2 1 KANSAS 89.4 6.2 1.2 2.8 0.4 KENTUCKY 94 5 0 1 0 LOUISIANA 46.72 44.42 0.14 0.12 >8.59 MAINE 97 0 0 0 3 MARYLAND 46 50 0 2 2 MASSACHUSETTS 88 8 0.3 3 0.7 MICHIGAN 81.3 13.7 2.2 2.3 0.5 MINNESOTA 92 3.4 1.7 1.8 1.1 MISSISSIPPI 16 83.85 0 0 0.15 MISSOURI 91.74 6.35 0.39 0.79 0.73 MONTANA Not available NEBRASKA 92 4 0.4 3 0.6 NEVADA 80 10 1 6 3 NEW HAMPSHIRE 97 1 0 2 0 NEW JERSEY 55 35 1 9 0 NEW MEXICO Not available NEW YORK 85.04 10.57 0.37 3.54 0.48 NORTH CAROLINA 54.5 42.34 0.9 2 0.26 NORTH DAKOTA 96 1 2 0 1 OHIO 72.86 17.54 0.55 1.12 7.93 OKLAHOMA 80 6.8 10.7 2.1 0.4 OREGON Not available since listing is voluntary PENNSYLVANIA 88 10 <1 1 <1 RHODE ISLAND 88 7 0.4 4 0.6 SOUTH CAROLINA 31.3 67.04 0 0 1.66 SOUTH DAKOTA 94.6 1.6 2.1 0.8 0.9 TENNESSEE 75.8 21.7 0 1.1 1.4 TEXAS 51.7 28.7 0.5 18.6 0.5 UTAH 95 1 1 2 1 VERMONT Not available VIRGINIA WASHINGTON 82 8 2 5 3 WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN 91.29 5.2 0.84 2.27 0.4 WYOMING 83 1.5 0 14 1.5 FEDERAL BUREAU OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA Not available (4) NEWFOUNDLAND Unknown NOVA SCOTIA 95 5 <1 0 0 ONTARIO 80 12 3 0 5 CORRECTIONAL Not available SERVICE CANADA SYSTEM RECRUITING PRACTICES PRE-EMPLOYMENT ASSESSMENTS CONDUCTED ALABAMA No incentives are offered Written exam, physical ability exam and a drug screen ALASKA Workplace Alaska Web site; Background check, DOC Web site; job fair employment history, displays physical exam and psychological exam ARIZONA Stipends up to 10 percent Background check, question to 15 percent are offered and answer test, medical at locations with high exam, physical exam, turnover; a bonus up to psychological test and a $5,160 may periodically be drug test implemented at certain locations ARKANSAS Comprehensive plan/program Physical agility exam is in place without bonuses CALIFORNIA Additional $175 per month Background check, mental in high-cost areas; health screening and additional $2,400 per year physical fitness exam in desert areas COLORADO Job fairs, Internet posting Background check, through the state's home integrity interview and page and the department's physical ability test home page CONNECTICUT Job fairs, Commission on Background check, Status of Women and major competitive exam, physical newspaper advertising of CO agility test, oral exam interview, reference check, final physical exam and drug test DELAWARE No incentives are offered Background check and an oral interview DISTRICT OF Far-reaching posting Written exam, employment COLUMBIA efforts in advertising, history, background check, Internet posting, drug screening and must organizational periodicals, have a valid driver's job fairs and various license community outreach sources FLORIDA GEORGIA Job fairs and Internet Correctional officer exam postings HAWAII None Written exam, physical ability test, aptitude test, oral interview and background check (drugs, medical history, physical ability and IDAHO Job fairs, college Completion of an online classroom presentations, correctional officer test radio advertising and and an oral exam agreement with the Veteran's Administration (2) ILLINOIS INDIANA Job fairs, college State Civil Service system recruitment, online that includes evaluation postings and internship against established opportunities minimum qualifications IOWA None A review of applicant KANSAS Job fairs, newspaper/ A basic reading, writing magazine advertising, and observation test posters, Internet postings and a building exhibit at the state fair staffed by correctional officers and human resources personnel KENTUCKY None No assessments LOUISIANA Entrance rates higher than Written test and an oral the minimum of the Civil interview Service pay scale MAINE None Physical ability test MARYLAND None Physical ability test, background check and drug test MASSACHUSETTS None Background check, employment history, criminal check, civil history and character references MICHIGAN Referrals come from family Written exam or exam and friends of current or waiver (bachelor's degree former employees or military honorable discharge) and a physical ability text MINNESOTA Job fairs, media Background checks, advertising, presentations physical exam, drug test at community events or at and a test for exposure colleges/universities and to or active tuberculosis internships MISSISSIPPI Job fairs, media Background check, oral advertising, Career Day interview, drug test, activities, plant closure employment history and postings, employment available information services from the National Crime Information Center MISSOURI Job fairs and three-stage Yes staff bonuses for referrals MONTANA None Physical ability test NEBRASKA Media advertising and Basic test for reading, billboards writing and counting and behavior-based interview NEVADA Additional 5 percent for Background check, drug shifts other than days, 5 test, medical and physical percent for those in rural test and psychological locations or $7.50 per day test for travel in southern Nevada NEW HAMPSHIRE Media advertising, state Public safety test, human resources postings physical exam and interview before a three-person hiring board NEW JERSEY Strictly governed by Three-phase process (3) competitive exam and merit system rules and practices NEW MEXICO One day off for staff Psychological test, sponsoring a new ability test, polygraph, correctional officer who psychological interview completes one year and background check NEW YORK Paid media advertising, Written exam, medical mailings, local efforts by exam/agility test, facilities and referrals psychological profile and through the state Civil exam, employment history Service exam given every and background check two to four years NORTH CAROLINA Continuous posting of Reading comprehension, availability correctional officer video test, psychological evaluation NORTH DAKOTA None specified No assessments OHIO Advanced step hiring, Reading, computation, competitive salary, problem solving and benefits package and communication excellent retirement comprehension, video test, physical agility exam, oral interview, drug test and back round check OKLAHOMA Job fairs, media Two phases by the state's advertising, group Office of Personnel presentations, Management--one written publications, the Internet, and one video with a agency Web site and written test mailings OREGON None Work-style behavior survey and correctional officer test PENNSYLVANIA None Medical exam, physical ability exam, psychological test and drug test RHODE ISLAND None Background check, cognitive situational judgment, formal final interview and drug screening after conditional offer of hire SOUTH CAROLINA Offerings of complete No assessments uniforms, benefits of 12 paid holidays, 10 days each of vacation and sick leave and free lunches at the facilities SOUTH DAKOTA Job fairs, media Competency-based screening advertising, bonuses for program employee referrals and Internet posting TENNESSEE Job fairs, media Advanced questionnaire and advertising, vacancies personal interview posted on departmental Web site TEXAS Executive Director's Background check, Recruiting Award reference check, written Certificate and a $100 U.S. test and an oral interview savings bond for referring employees and an online calendar from which applicants can select the most convenient location and screening test date. UTAH Pay salary and all training Background check, physical costs; start at higher agility test, written salary than entry level, aptitude test, suitability with an increase after six assessment and a polygraph months and again at one year VERMONT Job fairs, media Basic skills test for advertising and the state's reading, spelling, online job applicant center grammar and math VIRGINIA WASHINGTON Targeted recruitment for Work-style survey in oral minorities and other interviews, a conditional traditionally job offer and under-represented groups psychological test WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN Media advertising Written test, oral interview, medical and physical fitness test and training academy WYOMING None Not at present but under review to begin using a correctional officer video and an insight integrity test FEDERAL BUREAU OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA None Testing, oral interview and tour of facilities NEWFOUNDLAND None Challenge exam and skills demonstration NOVA SCOTIA Job postings, government Short listing and Web site advertising interview process and and presentations at 80 hours of training educational career expositions ONTARIO None Academic test, oral interview and personal evaluation CORRECTIONAL Employment equity staffing Written test and oral SERVICE CANADA program targeted to women, interviews visible with disabilities (1) DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: Previously conducted reductions-in-force activities and compliance with applicable "displaced employee" regulations have provided a pool of former experienced staff. (2) IDAHO: The first year of on-the-job training is paid by departmental monthly GI Bill education funds. (3) NEW JERSEY: Phase 1: Application completion, fingerprinting, initial driving and security background check, urinalysis, written psychological exam; Phase 2: extensive background, security, driving, employment and reference investigation, including a home visit or on-site personal interview; and Phase 3: physical examination and psychological evaluation. (4) MANITOBA: The province identifies visible minorities, referring to any ethnic group outside of Caucasian and aboriginal, but the breakdown is not available. CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS--TABLE 2: WAGES WAGE RANGE PAID TO CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS AVERAGE PRE-SERVICE IN TRAINING TRAINING SYSTEM COST Starting $ Top $ ALABAMA Unknown 920/bi-wk. ALASKA Varies 15.72/hr. ARIZONA $10,063 24,954/yr. ARKANSAS $3,632 20,981/yr. 24,480/yr. CALIFORNIA Unknown 14/hr. COLORADO Unknown 2,774/mo. CONNECTICUT Unknown 30,092/yr. DELAWARE Unknown 24,310/yr. DISTRICT OF $4,960 32,503/yr. COLUMBIA FLORIDA No response GEORGIA $5,000 23,614/yr. HAWAII $850/mo. 2,436/mo. IDAHO $7,213 N/A ILLINOIS No response INDIANA $4,500 934/bi-wk. IOWA Unknown N/A KANSAS N/A N/A (1) KENTUCKY $4,500 N/A LOUISIANA $1,372 706/bi-wk. MAINE $3,280 N/A MARYLAND Unknown N/A MASSACHUSETTS $982/wk. 758/wk. MICHIGAN $14,000 13.65/hr. MINNESOTA $5,000 12.25/hr. MISSISSIPPI $500 8.47/hr. No response MISSOURI $600 22,320/yr. MONTANA $2,000 est. 10.52/hr. NEBRASKA $2,200 12.06/hr. NEVADA $4,000 N/A NEW HAMPSHIRE $1,200 23,420/yr. NEW JERSEY $13,563 300/wk. NEW MEXICO $3,500 8.75/hr. NEW YORK (6) $7,963 28,444/yr. 30,043/yr. after six months NORTH CAROLINA $488.40, 22,894/yr. not including cost of instructors NORTH DAKOTA $1,750 1,750/mo. OHIO Unknown 14.26/hr. OKLAHOMA $1,091 N/A OREGON Unknown 12/hr. PENNSYLVANIA Unknown N/A RHODE ISLAND $6,500 32,831/yr. SOUTH CAROLINA $11,780 19,272/yr. SOUTH DAKOTA Unknown 11.20/hr. TENNESSEE Unknown 1,725/mo. TEXAS $371.61 20,592/yr. UTAH $2,500 28,824/yr. VERMONT $6,000 $491/wk. VIRGINIA No response WASHINGTON $5,198 2,303/mo. WEST VIRGINIA No response WISCONSIN $2,400 12.813/hr. WYOMING Unknown 1,987/mo. FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA $3,545 N/A NEWFOUNDLAND $4,000 N/A NOVA SCOTIA $5,000 33,447/yr. ONTARIO $1,500 N/A CORRECTIONAL $5,800 Weekly allowance is being SERVICE CANADA eliminated WAGE RANGE PAID TO CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS AT ENTRY AFTER FIRST YEAR SYSTEM Starting $ Top $ Starting $ Top $ ALABAMA 920/bi-wk. 1,398/bi-wk. 920/bi-wk. 1,398/bi-wk. ALASKA 15.72/hr. 17.81/hr. 23.20/hr. ARIZONA 24,954/yr. 31,506/yr. 26,139/yr. 41,997/yr. ARKANSAS 20,981/yr. 24,480/yr. 23,768/yr. 26,438/yr. CALIFORNIA 2,857/mo. 4,885/mo. 3,210/mo. 4,885/mo COLORADO 2,774/mo. 2,774/mo. 2,774/mo. 4,021/mo. CONNECTICUT 33,435/yr. Unknown Unknown Unknown DELAWARE 24,310/yr. 30,387/yr. 24,310/yr. 30,387/yr. DISTRICT OF 32,503/yr. 40,243/yr. 33,362/yr. 38,182/yr. COLUMBIA FLORIDA GEORGIA 23,614/yr. 41,402/yr. 23,614/yr. 41,402/yr. HAWAII 2,436/mo. 2,979/mo. 2,436/mo. 3,232/mo. IDAHO 11.53/hr. 11.53/hr. 11.76/hr. 11.76/hr. ILLINOIS INDIANA 934/bi-wk. 1,420/bi-wk. 934/bi-wk. 1,420/bi-wk. IOWA 14.93/hr. 21.17/hr. 15.60/hr. 22.12/hr. KANSAS 22,942/yr. 30,014/yr. 26,562/ N/A yr. (2) KENTUCKY 1,723/mo. 1,723/mo. 1,817/mo. 1,817/mo. LOUISIANA 18,366/yr. N/A (3) 20,425/yr. 36,067/yr. MAINE 12.49/hr. 15.50/hr. 12.93/hr. 15.50/hr. MARYLAND 26,958/yr. 41,641/yr. 28,749/hr. 44,453/yr. MASSACHUSETTS 758/wk. 1,042/wk. 817/wk. 1,042/wk. MICHIGAN 13.65/hr. N/A 14.15/hr. 20.32/hr. MINNESOTA 13.61/hr. 16.16/hr. 14.85/hr. 23.32/hr. MISSISSIPPI 17,633/yr. 30,928/yr. 20,604/yr. 36,058/yr. No response MISSOURI 22,320/yr. 30,804/yr. 23,064/yr. 30,804/yr. MONTANA 10.52/hr. 10.52/hr. N/A (4) N/A NEBRASKA 12.06/hr. 17.46/hr. 12.30/hr. N/A NEVADA 30,902/yr. 43,305/yr. 34,953/yr. 47,230/yr. NEW HAMPSHIRE 25,376/yr. 33,841/yr. 26,374/yr. 33,841/yr. NEW JERSEY 39,858/yr. 39,858/yr. 43,845/yr. 60,981/yr. NEW MEXICO 11.50/hr. 17.11/hr. Determined by the Legislature NEW YORK (6) N/A N/A 34,742/yr. 50,312/yr. after 20 years NORTH CAROLINA 22,894/yr. 34,962/yr. 24,007/yr. 34,962/yr. NORTH DAKOTA 1,750/mo. 2,690/mo. 1,956/mo. 3,260/mo. OHIO 14.26/hr. 14.62/hr. 14.62/hr. 15.01/hr. OKLAHOMA 19,855/yr. N/A 20,848/yr. N/A OREGON 2,549/mo. 3,500/mo. 2,673/mo. 3,500/mo. PENNSYLVANIA 27,019/yr. 28,417/yr. 29,731/yr. 54,392/yr. RHODE ISLAND 32,831/yr to 46,568/yr.; no category breakdowns are available SOUTH CAROLINA 20,044/yr. 21,679/yr. (7)See note See note SOUTH DAKOTA 11.36/hr. N/A 12.59/hr. N/A TENNESSEE 1,725/mo. 1,725/mo. 22,500/ 35,412/yr. yr. (8) TEXAS 20,592/yr. 20,592/yr. 24,432/yr. 31,068/yr. UTAH 24,471/yr. 26,538/yr. 26,538/yr. 27,270/yr. VERMONT 491/wk plus N/A 515/wk. plus N/A overtime overtime VIRGINIA WASHINGTON 2,303/mo. 2,911/mo. 2,413/mo. 3,059/mo. WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN 12.813/hr. N/A 12.813/hr N/A WYOMING 1,987/mo. 2,823/mo. 1,987/mo. 2,823/mo. FEDERAL BUREAU OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA 17.63/hr. 21.95/hr. N/A N/A NEWFOUNDLAND 29,745/yr. 33,051/yr. 38,767/yr. 48,077/yr. NOVA SCOTIA 33,447/yr. 39,226/yr. 34,844/yr. 39,226/yr. ONTARIO 19.73/hr. N/A 21.41/hr. N/A CORRECTIONAL 34,277/yr. 50,071/yr. 35,941/yr. 50,071/yr. SERVICE CANADA WAGE RANGE PAID TO CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS CAPTAIN OR EQUIVALENT SYSTEM Starting $ Top $ ALABAMA 1,267/bi-wk. 1,920/bi-wk. ALASKA 29.47/hr. 39.93/hr. ARIZONA 36,126/yr. 57,621/yr. ARKANSAS 28,763/yr. 56,564/yr. CALIFORNIA 6,135/mo. 6,763/mo. COLORADO 3,903/mo. 5,658/mo. CONNECTICUT Unknown 44,049/yr. DELAWARE 41,770/yr. 52,212/yr. DISTRICT OF 52,363/yr. 68,322/yr. COLUMBIA FLORIDA GEORGIA 31,474/yr. 55,072/yr. HAWAII 3,518/mo. 4,354/mo. IDAHO 21.25/hr. 35.15/hr. ILLINOIS INDIANA 1,147/bi-wk. 1,650/bi-wk. IOWA 19.33/hr. 28.13/hr. KANSAS 35,568/yr. 46,509/yr. KENTUCKY 2,501/mo. 3,519/mo. LOUISIANA 29,494/yr. 50,107/yr. MAINE 14.87/hr. 20.24/hr. MARYLAND 34,908/yr. 54,147/yr. MASSACHUSETTS 1,255/wk. 1,386/wk. MICHIGAN 19.58/hr. 27.34/hr. MINNESOTA 23.43/hr. 33.93/hr. MISSISSIPPI 30,173/yr. 52,903/yr. No response MISSOURI 26,076/yr. 36,612/yr. MONTANA N/A N/A NEBRASKA 17.39/hr. N/A NEVADA 51,594/yr (5) 74,019/yr. NEW HAMPSHIRE 36,816/yr. 50,107/yr. NEW JERSEY 66,258/yr. 92,376/yr. NEW MEXICO 14.44/hr. 25.66/hr. NEW YORK (6) 57,406/yr. 72,756/yr. NORTH CAROLINA 29,354/yr. 45,515/yr. NORTH DAKOTA 2,623/mo. 4,371/mo. OHIO 20.08/hr. 26.26/hr. OKLAHOMA 26,426/yr. N/A OREGON 2,921/mo. 4,099/mo. PENNSYLVANIA 44,920/yr. 75,402/yr. RHODE ISLAND 32,831/yr to 46,568/yr.; no category breakdowns are available SOUTH CAROLINA See note See note SOUTH DAKOTA 34,497/yr. 51,746/yr. TENNESSEE 30,108/yr. 47,856/yr. TEXAS 34,380/yr. 34,380/yr. UTAH 33,888/yr. 53,745/yr. VERMONT 640/wk. plus 996/wk. plus overtime overtime VIRGINIA WASHINGTON 4,393/mo. 5,370/mo. WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN 19.505/hr. 40.961/hr. WYOMING 3,491/mo. 4,956/mo. FEDERAL BUREAU OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA 2.65/hr. 27.02/hr. NEWFOUNDLAND 48,485/yr. 63,160/yr. NOVA SCOTIA 54,000/yr. 58,000/yr. ONTARIO N/A N/A CORRECTIONAL 43,912/yr. 57,785/yr. SERVICE CANADA (1) KANSAS: After the first week of orientation, officers receive a combination of classroom and on-the-job-training. (2) KANSAS: Wages increase after the first three years, both for the starting wage and top wage. (3) LUISIANA: Correctional officers enter as a cadet and are reallocated to sergeant after six months; the top wages noted reflect the level of sergeant. (4) MONTANA: As determined by the Legislature, an officer may receive a 1.5 percent increase after five years and another 1.5 percent increase after 10 years. (5) NEVADA: The reported starting and top wages are for an associate warden of operations or equivalent. (6) NEW YORK: Union negotiations currently under way should increase the reported wages. (7) SOUTH CAROLINA: The figure represents the top wage that can be paid to a CO-2 with 12 months experience: a CO-1 with a six months experience can earn $20,850 per year. A CO-1 can receive a step increase of 3 percent after six months in that position and 2 percent each six months thereafter. (8) TENNESSEE: The reported figure is based on a correctional officer's passing a test to be promoted to a highter level. CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS TABLE 3: EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS ENTRY-LEVEL MINIMUM High Some SYSTEM School GED College Other ALABAMA X X (1) ALASKA X X ARIZONA X X ARKANSAS X X CALIFORNIA X X COLORADO X X CONNECTICUT X DELAWARE X X DISTRICT OF Yes (3) COLUMBIA FLORIDA No response No response No response No response GEORGIA X X HAWAII X IDAHO X ILLINOIS No response No response No response No response INDIANA X X Yes (4) IOWA X X KANSAS X X KENTUCKY X X LOUISIANA X MAINE X X Yes (5) MARYLAND X X MASSACHUSETTS X Yes (6) MICHIGAN X X MINNSOTA X X Yes MISSISSIPPI X X MISSOURI X X MONTANA X X NEBRASKA X X NEVADA X X NEW HAMPSHIRE X X NEW JERSEY X X NEW MEXICO X X NEW YORK X X NORTH CAROLINA X X NORTH DAKOTA X OHIO X X OKLAHOMA X X OREGON X PENNSYLVANIA X X RHODE ISLAND X X SOUTH CAROLINA SOUTH DAKOTA (9) TENNESSEE X TEXAS X X UTAH X X dVERMONT X X (11) VIRGINIA No response No response No response No response WASHINGTON X X WEST VIRGINIA No response No response No response No response WISCONSIN X WYOMING X FEDERAL BUREAU No response No response No response No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA X NEWFOUNDLAND X (13) NOVA SCOTIA X X (14) ONTARIO X CORRECTIONAL X X SERVICE CANADA WAIVED FOR WRITTEN YEARS OF PROMOTION SYSTEM EXPERIENCE GUIDELINES ALABAMA Yes Yes ALASKA No Yes ARIZONA No Yes ARKANSAS Yes (2) Yes CALIFORNIA No Yes COLORADO No Yes CONNECTICUT No Yes DELAWARE No No DISTRICT OF Yes Yes COLUMBIA FLORIDA No response No response GEORGIA No Yes HAWAII No Yes IDAHO No Being drafted ILLINOIS No response No response INDIANA No Yes IOWA No Yes KANSAS No Yes KENTUCKY No Yes LOUISIANA No Yes MAINE No Yes MARYLAND No No MASSACHUSETTS No Yes MICHIGAN No Yes MINNSOTA No Yes MISSISSIPPI No Yes MISSOURI No Yes MONTANA No No NEBRASKA No Yes NEVADA Yes No NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes No NEW JERSEY Yes No NEW MEXICO No Yes NEW YORK Yes No NORTH CAROLINA Yes No NORTH DAKOTA Yes Yes (7) OHIO Yes No OKLAHOMA No Yes OREGON No Yes PENNSYLVANIA Yes (8) Being drafted RHODE ISLAND No Yes SOUTH CAROLINA No Yes SOUTH DAKOTA (9) N/A No TENNESSEE No No TEXAS No Yes UTAH No Yes (10) VERMONT No No VIRGINIA No response No response WASHINGTON No Yes WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN No No WYOMING Yes Yes FEDERAL BUREAU No response No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA No Yes NEWFOUNDLAND NOVA SCOTIA No Yes ONTARIO No Yes CORRECTIONAL No Yes SERVICE CANADA ADDITIONAL EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEM PROMOTION ALABAMA No ALASKA No ARIZONA No ARKANSAS Required level of education and/or experience if a degree is required CALIFORNIA No COLORADO No, but some college credits equate to years of experience CONNECTICUT No DELAWARE No DISTRICT OF No COLUMBIA FLORIDA No response GEORGIA Depends on the position being sought HAWAII No, but must pass a written test and an oral interview IDAHO Depends on the position being sought ILLINOIS No response INDIANA No IOWA No KANSAS No KENTUCKY No LOUISIANA No MAINE No MARYLAND Yes, for high-level management positions but can be substituted for experience MASSACHUSETTS No MICHIGAN No MINNSOTA No MISSISSIPPI Yes, education can substitute for work experience MISSOURI A bachelor's degree for a position as a warden MONTANA No NEBRASKA No, but must take and pass corporal boards NEVADA No, but minimum quali- fications may include years of experience or a combination of experi- ence and education NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes, but only if promotion is outside a security position NEW JERSEY No NEW MEXICO No NEW YORK No, promotional examination require- ments are based on time in lower-grade title NORTH CAROLINA No NORTH DAKOTA Yes, depending on the qualifications of the position being sought OHIO No OKLAHOMA No OREGON No PENNSYLVANIA No RHODE ISLAND No SOUTH CAROLINA No SOUTH DAKOTA (9) No TENNESSEE No TEXAS No UTAH No VERMONT No VIRGINIA No response WASHINGTON Only for promotion to level of captain WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN No WYOMING No FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA No, but are strongly encouraged to be pro- active in continuous learning objectives NEWFOUNDLAND NOVA SCOTIA No ONTARIO No CORRECTIONAL No, but expected to SERVICE CANADA demonstrate increased competence REIMBURSEMENT FOR SYSTEM JOB-RELATED COURSES ALABAMA Yes ALASKA No ARIZONA Tuition assistance for classes leading to a degree in specified fields of study ARKANSAS No CALIFORNIA No COLORADO 50 percent for undergraduate courses and 40 percent for graduate courses CONNECTICUT Available for all correctional staff through collective bargaining and managerial benefits DELAWARE No DISTRICT OF No, but opportunities are offered by the COLUMBIA agency for free at the Center for Work- force Development, National Institute of Corrections, American Correctional Association and others FLORIDA No response GEORGIA No HAWAII No IDAHO No ILLINOIS No response INDIANA No IOWA No KANSAS No KENTUCKY Statutory authority and agency policy in place but no funding to implement LOUISIANA Cash award after course verification through a comprehensive public training program or ACA MAINE Yes MARYLAND Yes, but funds are not available due to budget constraints MASSACHUSETTS Yes, if mandatory training is involved for a specific job area; in-state college courses are reimbursed if a member of a bargaining unit MICHIGAN Yes, for corrections-related courses only MINNSOTA No MISSISSIPPI Employee must complete requirements that exceed the level of minimum qualifications for education, licensure or certification listed for the employee's present job class MISSOURI No MONTANA No NEBRASKA Yes, 80 percent of tuition costs NEVADA A grant-funded program for southern Nevada custody officers for criminal justice courses NEW HAMPSHIRE Yes, 50 percent of tuition NEW JERSEY A variety of college-level courses that may include English, law enforcement, criminal justice, sociology, etc. NEW MEXICO No NEW YORK No, but a contractual agreement with a union provides for a bilateral training program under union auspices NORTH CAROLINA Through the educational assistance program for job-related courses or for courses leading to a job-related degree NORTH DAKOTA Criminal justice courses OHIO Various program through the state or respective unions OKLAHOMA One class per semester OREGON No PENNSYLVANIA Any course that directly impacts the employee's current position RHODE ISLAND Criminal justice-related courses SOUTH CAROLINA No SOUTH DAKOTA (9) No TENNESSEE One course per semester TEXAS No UTAH Law enforcement, criminal justice and social sciences VERMONT All courses if matriculated as a degree- earning student VIRGINIA No response WASHINGTON Must be job-related for a 90 percent coverage of tuition and must have a 3.06 GPA from an accredited college WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN When directly related to current position WYOMING Employees may request reimburse- ment but requests are not automatic- ally paid FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA When directly related to job function- ality and advancement, when approved NEWFOUNDLAND NOVA SCOTIA Courses in corrections, sociology, criminology, psychology and computers ONTARIO When directly related to position CORRECTIONAL Partial reimbursement for courses SERVICE CANADA directly related to personal career plan, with approval of the supervisor (1) ALABAMA: Applicants must be at least 21 and have two years of work experience. (2) ARKANSAS: Applicants for promotion also must meet management-level training requirements prior to qualifying for the position. (3) DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: One year of specialized experience, equivalent to an entry-level grade, may be substituted for a minimum educational requirement and one-half academic year of college education may be substituted for the required "one year of specialized experience." (4) INDIANA: Three years of full-time work experience and a valid driver's license. (5) MAINE: Skilled workers such as cooks, retailers or suppliers. (6) MASSACHUSETTS: Military service is also an acceptable entry-level minimum. (7) NORTH DAKOTA: Two years of experience in law enforcement, corrections, the military, police or a position where the primary focus was performing security-related functions. (8) PENNSYLVANIA: Waivers apply after graduation from high school or any equivalent combination of experience and training. (9) SOUTH DAKOTA: No minimum requirements are established; consideration is given to knowledge, skills and abilities. (10) UTAH: The written guidelines apply to some promotional levels but not all. (11) VERMONT: Two years of work experience is also required. (12) WYOMING: One full year of work experience may be substituted for a GED. (13) NEWFOUNDLAND: Two years of postsecondary school in social sciences. (14) NOVA SCOTIA: Applicants also take a correctional worker course. CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS--TABLE 4: FRINGE BENEFITS BENEFITS OFFERED TURNOVER RATE Cost of SYSTEM WITHIN Living Merit Paid Paid FIRST Increase Increase Holidays Vacation YEAR ALABAMA 30% avg. X X ALASKA 12% X X X ARIZONA 26.5% X X X X ARKANSAS 32.9% X X X CALIFORNIA 1.5% avg. X X X X COLORADO 10% * * X X CONNECTICUT 0.8% X X X X DELAWARE Unknown X X DISTRICT OF 2.2% X X X X COLUMBIA FLORIDA No response GEORGIA 20.2% X X X HAWAII 1% X X IDAHO 19.35% X X X ILLINOIS No response INDIANA 17.7% * X X X IOWA 4.2% X X X X KANSAS Unknown * X X X KENTUCKY 70.79% x X X LOUISIANA 55% X X X MAINE 50% X X X X MARYLAND 13.5% X X X X MASSACHUSETTS 33% X X X X MICHIGAN 0.46% X X X X MINNESOTA 2.6% * X X MISSISSIPPI 20%, est. X MISSOURI Unknown X X X X MONTANA Unknown X X X NEBRASKA 28% X X X NEVADA 12.13% * X X X NEW HAMPSHIRE 15% X X X NEW JERSEY 3.7% X X X X NEW MEXICO 9% X X X NEW YORK 13.76% X X X X NORTH CAROLINA 24.33% X X NORTH DAKOTA 5% X X OHIO Unknown X X X OKLAHOMA 28.5% X X X OREGON Unknown X X PENNSYLVANIA 13.7% X X X RHODE ISLAND 3% X X X SOUTH CAROLINA 50% (1) * * X X SOUTH DAKOTA 25% X X X TENNESSEE 27.9% (2) X X X TEXAS 58.3% X X UTAH 3.8% X X X X VERMONT >25% X X X X VIRGINIA No response WASHINGTON Unknown X X X WEST VIRGINIA No response WISCONSIN Unknown X X WYOMING Unknown X X X FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA 10% X X X X NEWFOUNDLAND Unknown X X NOVA SCOTIA 2% X X X ONTARIO 10% X X X CORRECTIONAL 5.06% X X X SERVICE CANADA BENEFITS OFFERED Paid Paid SYSTEM Sick Personal Retirement Health Dental Days Days Pay Insurance Insurance ALABAMA X X X * ALASKA X X X X ARIZONA X X X X ARKANSAS X X X X X CALIFORNIA X X X X X COLORADO X X X X CONNECTICUT X X * X X DELAWARE X X X X DISTRICT OF X X X X X COLUMBIA FLORIDA GEORGIA X X X X X HAWAII X X X X IDAHO X X X X ILLINOIS INDIANA X X X X X IOWA X X X X KANSAS X X X X X KENTUCKY X X X X LOUISIANA X X X X MAINE X X X X MARYLAND X X X X X MASSACHUSETTS X X X X X MICHIGAN X X X X X MINNESOTA X X X X MISSISSIPPI X X X X * MISSOURI X X X X X MONTANA X X X X NEBRASKA X X X NEVADA X X X X NEW HAMPSHIRE X X X X NEW JERSEY X X X X X NEW MEXICO X X X X X NEW YORK X X X X X NORTH CAROLINA X X X * NORTH DAKOTA X X X OHIO X X X X X OKLAHOMA X X X OREGON X X X X X PENNSYLVANIA X X X X RHODE ISLAND X X X X X SOUTH CAROLINA X X X X X SOUTH DAKOTA X X X X X TENNESSEE X X X X TEXAS X X X X * UTAH X X X X VERMONT X X X X X VIRGINIA WASHINGTON X X X X X WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN X X X X X WYOMING X X X X FEDERAL BUREAU OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA X X X X X NEWFOUNDLAND X X X X NOVA SCOTIA X X X X ONTARIO X X X CORRECTIONAL X X X X X SERVICE CANADA BENEFITS OFFERED SYSTEM Disability Life Pay Insurance ALABAMA * ALASKA X X ARIZONA X X ARKANSAS X X CALIFORNIA X X COLORADO X X CONNECTICUT X X DELAWARE X X DISTRICT OF X X COLUMBIA FLORIDA GEORGIA X X HAWAII X X IDAHO X X ILLINOIS INDIANA X X IOWA X X KANSAS X X KENTUCKY X X LOUISIANA X X MAINE X MARYLAND X * MASSACHUSETTS X X MICHIGAN X X MINNESOTA X X MISSISSIPPI * * MISSOURI MONTANA X NEBRASKA X NEVADA X NEW HAMPSHIRE X X NEW JERSEY X X NEW MEXICO X NEW YORK X X NORTH CAROLINA * * NORTH DAKOTA * OHIO X X OKLAHOMA X X OREGON X X PENNSYLVANIA X X RHODE ISLAND X X SOUTH CAROLINA X X SOUTH DAKOTA X X TENNESSEE X TEXAS * X UTAH X X VERMONT X X VIRGINIA WASHINGTON WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN X X WYOMING X FEDERAL BUREAU OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA X X NEWFOUNDLAND X X NOVA SCOTIA X X ONTARIO X CORRECTIONAL X X SERVICE CANADA BENEFITS OFFERED ABLE TO SYSTEM Other/Comments SELECT BENEFITS? ALABAMA * Dental and life insurance are optional Yes ALASKA Week on/week off schedule, 20-year Yes retirement at any age, supplemental benefit system in lieu of social security and medical at retirement ARIZONA Normally, either cost of living or merit No increases are provided, depending on state's budget ARKANSAS Yes CALIFORNIA Physical fitness pay, bilingual bonus, Yes uniform allowance COLORADO * Cost of living and merit increases were No suspended for FY'03 due to budget constraints CONNECTICUT * Hazardous duty retirement plan after 20 No years for correctional staff who guard or instruct inmates DELAWARE Salary increases are approved by the state No Legislature DISTRICT OF Short/long-term insurance programs, deferred Yes COLUMBIA compensation, credit union and employee leave bank FLORIDA GEORGIA Paid training Yes HAWAII Yes IDAHO No ILLINOIS INDIANA * Cost of living increases are provided when No appropriated by the state Legislature IOWA No KANSAS * Cost of living increases are provided when No appropriated by the state Legislature, longevity bonus after 10 years, funeral or bereavement leave, paid court leave, job injury leave, administrative leave, uniforms and cash awards for making suggestions for improving operations KENTUCKY Professional leave, longevity bonus, Yes reimbursement accounts LOUISIANA Yes MAINE No MARYLAND * Medical/dental/prescription drugs are Yes paid; employees pay for life insurance MASSACHUSETTS Shift differential, roll call, longevity No bonus and education MICHIGAN Yes MINNESOTA * Cost of living increases are contingent No upon negotiations; early retirement incentive MISSISSIPPI * Dental insurance, disability pay and life Yes insurance are offered MISSOURI Longevity benefits Yes MONTANA No NEBRASKA No NEVADA * Cost of living increases are provided when No appropriated by the state Legislature NEW HAMPSHIRE Annual $1,500 hazardous duty pay; other No benefits may be provided through a collective bargaining agreement NEW JERSEY Uniform allowance Yes NEW MEXICO Yes NEW YORK Turnover rate varies each year based on the No number of training classes conducted for new officers; life insurance benefits are based on a contractual agreement NORTH CAROLINA * Three days of community service leave per Yes calendar year; dental, disability, life or other forms of insurance are available at group rates paid by the employees NORTH DAKOTA * Employee assistance program; basic life No insurance OHIO Yes OKLAHOMA Deferred com ensation Yes OREGON Yes PENNSYLVANIA Pay increases are in accordance with No collective bargaining agreements RHODE ISLAND Clothing allowance, shift differential and No overtime pay SOUTH CAROLINA * Cost of living and merit increases are Yes provided when approved by the state Legislature SOUTH DAKOTA Yes TENNESSEE Yes TEXAS * Uniforms and equipment, uniform laundry Yes service, free meals while on duty; dental insurance and disability pay are available UTAH Uniform allowance Yes VERMONT Training stipend of $35 for 40 hours No in-service training per year; contract benefits for special training assignments such as CERT and part-time certified trainers VIRGINIA WASHINGTON No WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN Longevity bonus and uniform allowance Yes WYOMING No FEDERAL BUREAU OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA Yes NEWFOUNDLAND Length of service pay Yes NOVA SCOTIA No ONTARIO No CORRECTIONAL One volunteer leave day, excluding executive No SERVICE group staff, and up to five days for CANADA family-related responsibility days (1) SOUTH CAROLINA: The turnover rate is based on a five-year period from 1997 through 2001. (2) TENNESSEE: The turnover rate is reported for fiscal year 2001-2002. CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS--TABLE 5: RETENTION SYSTEM FORMALIZED RETENTION EFFORTS ALABAMA Mentoring, an employee assistance program, personnel club activities, employee-of-the-month recognition, awards program, basic training and an employee orientation ALASKA None reported ARIZONA No formal policy at this time that specifically addresses staff retention programs ARKANSAS Increased salaries, requirement of management-level training, tiered pay plans, revised basic correctional officer training, revised field training officer program, revised exit survey procedures, improved hiring practice (i.e, quality of applicants and expediency of processing applications) and numerous other efforts CALIFORNIA Ongoing formal recruitment and retention; training throughout career, collective bargaining, salary increases and promotional opportunities COLORADO None reported CONNECTICUT None reported DELAWARE Currently working jointly with the union on various issues that may lead to increased retention DISTRICT OF Monthly and quarterly employee recognition (with COLUMBIA monetary and nonmonetary benefits), annual awards program (with commemorative insignia pins), superior performance acknowledgement (quality step increases, bonuses and nonmonetary benefits); correctional officers also can be nominated for citywide and national awards programs FLORIDA No response GEORGIA Officers are asked to complete an exit questionnaire prior to leaving; results are studied and efforts are made to alleviate problems HAWAII After a satisfactory nine-month probation period for recruits and a one-year period for officers with experience, the supervisor may approve a change to the next level; promotional opportunities are continually offered IDAHO Creation of a mentoring program, development of a new correctional specialist classification and consideration of skill-based pay ILLINOIS No response INDIANA None reported IOWA None reported KANSAS New officers are assigned to an experienced, nonsupervisory officer for discussing problems, adjustment issues, etc., in confidence; a second level of the corrections officer 1 class was created in an effort to retain officers past the third year whereby ever officer receives an automatic promotion and an additional salary increase KENTUCKY Exit surveys, employee aptitude surveys and value of benefits statement are provided to employees; formal recognition program; and an educational partnership with the Redlands Community College in which employees receive college credit for agency training LOUISIANA Special entrance pay and base supplements allow the agency to pay 9 percent above the maximum of the Civil Service pay scale; security officers benefit from a higher accrual rate for retirement than that of other state employees MAINE Paid benefits and displays of camaraderie MARYLAND None reported MASSACHUSETTS Extensive training within the areas of their jobs along with interpersonal training MICHIGAN Good wages and benefits; updated training and advancement opportunities MINNESOTA Competitive benefits package and an enriched early retirement plan with medical insurance to age 65 MISSISSIPPI Automatic reclassification based on years of service and education, from cadet to CO-4 MISSOURI Yearly in-house training and professional development opportunities MONTANA None reported NEBRASKA None reported NEVADA None reported NEW HAMPSHIRE Frequent training opportunities are provided and transfers to other units within the system; medals of honor given to selected officers during formal recognition ceremonies; and an employee appreciation event is held annually NEW JERSEY A pre-employment and training process designed to ensure a cadre of officers who are aware of and capable of withstanding the requirements and difficulties of the job NEW MEXICO A retention/mentoring program NEW YORK None reported NORTH CAROLINA Funding has been authorized to provide an increase in the hiring rate and minimum salaries; this year, funding also was authorized to allow for within-grade salary adjustments for veteran officers NORTH DAKOTA Reviewed/increased entry-level salaries and lowered the probationary period for temporary employees OHIO None at the present time but the department is working on this OKLAHOMA Expanded recruitment program and attendance at job fairs; exit interview program OREGON In-service training program and developing more sophisticated intervention strategies for eliminating resignations and turnover PENNSYLVANIA Annual salary increases are provided at 4 percent of base pay for first 11 years of service; after five years, an additional 1 percent annual longevity begins and progresses to 27 percent of base pay after 28 years of service; leave accruals also increase by 5 percent from the first to the second year of employment, another 5 percent from the seventh to 15th year, an additional 5 percent from the 16th to the 24th year and 5 percent from the 26th year to retirement RHODE ISLAND None at present but being developed SOUTH CAROLINA Step increase at six-month intervals, not to exceed a total of 5 percent after meeting experience requirements SOUTH DAKOTA Salary increases after the first six months, at one year and at two years of employment; an employee recognition program; selective recruitment efforts TENNESSEE Conduct and analyze regular exit surveys but budgetary and training restraints hinder some efforts for change TEXAS Pre-service training was expanded to include field training officers during the on-the-job phase and a mentoring program; principles of supervision and human resources topics for supervisors are provided in training of newly promoted supervisors; a standard overtime policy was implemented; the waiting period for a transfer was reduced from one year to six months; an employee wellness program was implemented; a salary adjustment system for correctional career ladders was automated; and exit surveys are requested to identify separation trends UTAH An excellent educational assistance program and retirement at 20 years; an officer who leaves within the first two years must pay back a prorated amount to the department VERMONT Development of a high quality field training officer program VIRGINIA No response WASHINGTON None reported WEST VIRGINIA No response WISCONSIN None reported WYOMING No response FEDERAL BUREAU No response OF PRISONS CANADIAN SYSTEMS MANITOBA Planning and renewal strategy geared to sustaining knowledge and skills for line-level through management staff NEWFOUNDLAND None reported NOVA SCOTIA Continuous training and education, opportunity for advancement, quarterly assessments, benefits and upgrading facilities ONTARIO None at present but being developed CORRECTIONAL Specific staff instructors are assigned as counselors SERVICE CANADA to each recruit
For information on monthly surveys featured in this or past issues of Corrections Compendium, contact Cece Hill, CEGA Services Inc., P.O. Box 81826, Lincoln, NE 68501; (402) 420-0602.