Cooking up carbon doughnuts.
First, there were buckyballs-molecules made up of carbon atoms arranged into closed spheres. Then came buckytubes-buckyballs with elongated e·lon·gate
tr. & intr.v. e·lon·gat·ed, e·lon·gat·ing, e·lon·gates
To make or grow longer.
adj. or elongated
1. Made longer; extended.
2. Having more length than width; slender. waists forming cylindrical carbon tubes sealed at both ends. Buckytubes, in turn, could line up side by side to form bundles, or ropes.
Daniel T. Colbert of Rice University in Houston and his coworkers have now found, amid the tangled mass of buckytubes and ropes typically produced from carbon vapor, doughnut-shaped rings of carbon atoms. Such rings apparently result when the ends of a growing nanotube A carbon molecule that resembles a cylinder made out of chicken wire one to two nanometers in diameter by any number of millimeters in length. Accidentally discovered by a Japanese researcher at NEC in 1990 while making Buckyballs, they have potential use in many applications. meet and fuse.
Carbon doughnuts show up regularly in electron micrographs and scanning force microscope scanning force microscope
See atomic force microscope. images of laser-grown carbon nanotube material. "We see these perfect circles nearly every time we look," says Rice's Richard E. Smalley Noun 1. Richard E. Smalley - American chemist who with Robert Curl and Harold Kroto discovered fullerenes and opened a new branch of chemistry (born in 1943)
Richard Errett Smalley, Richard Smalley, Smalley . Ring diameters typically range from 300 to 500 nanometers.