Contentious issues in research on trafficked women working in the sex industry: study design, ethics, and methodology.Trafficking of women and children for work outside their countries of origin in an increasingly globalized sex industry is a significant issue for public health professionals, international law enforcement and human rights agencies, international labor monitors, and groups concerned with women's and children's welfare (Coalition Against Trafficking Woman [CATW CATW Coalition Against Trafficking in Women
CATW Canadian Aerospace and Transportation Workers ], 2003; Human Rights Watch, 2002; Levenkron & Dahan, 2003; Vanderberg, 1997; Watts & Zimmerman, 2002; Zimmerman & Watts, 2003). There are huge profits gained from women trafficked for sex work (WTSW WTSW White-Throated Swift (bird species Aeronautes saxatalis) ): the turnover, estimated at between $7-10 billion a year, is seen as the best cost/risk-benefit ratio of all criminal activity (Levenkron & Dahan; USAID USAID United States Agency for International Development
USAID Agencia de los Estados Unidos para el Desarrollo Internacional (Spanish) Office of Women in Development, 1999; U.S. Department of State, 2003). However, the revenues from trafficking reported are "guestimates," because they are based on estimates of the number of transactions between WTSW, clients, and traffickers. Furthermore, Interpol calls trafficking the fastest-growing crime category today (Sulavik, 2003). The profit from trafficked women is vast compared with the $54 million over two years that the U.S. government invested worldwide to try to stop trafficking (U.S. Department of State).
Moving women between countries for the purposes of work in prostitution dates back to Roman and Biblical times and was a major concern among social reformers of the late 19th century who fought against the "White slave trade slave trade
Capturing, selling, and buying of slaves. Slavery has existed throughout the world from ancient times, and trading in slaves has been equally universal. Slaves were taken from the Slavs and Iranians from antiquity to the 19th century, from the sub-Saharan ." However, the nature of contemporary trafficking enterprises has changed both in volume and method. Growth of the internet has provided new methods of recruiting, procuring, and supporting this clandestine CLANDESTINE. That which is done in secret and contrary to law.
2.Generally a clandestine act in case of the limitation of actions will prevent the act from running. movement of people and expanding the demand for exotic or foreign women for sexual services (von Struensee, 2000). Furthermore, 21st century paraphernalia PARAPHERNALIA. The name given to all such things as a woman has a right to retain as her own property, after her husband's death; they consist generally of her clothing, jewels, and ornaments suitable to her condition, which she used personally during his life. such as the internet and cell phones facilitate communication and organization between source and destination along the trafficking routes. Like fast food, name-brand soft drinks, and sporting goods Noun 1. sporting goods - sports equipment sold as a commodity
commodity, trade good, good - articles of commerce
sports equipment - equipment needed to participate in a particular sport , "fast sex" has taken full advantage of the nature of our cyber-world to market women's and children's sexual services by generating a supply of women, generally from economically disadvantaged countries, who work illegally in foreign countries to meet this demand. Thus, the former "White slave trade" today has a wide variety of trafficking routes from diverse source countries and to many destinations, and with various modes of transportation (plane, boat, foot, etc.).
The scope of human trafficking is hard to measure, but it is estimated that from 700,000 to 2 million women (United Nations [UN], 2000), with some estimates as high as 4 million women and children, are trafficked across borders to work in the sex industry each year (Estes & Weiner, 2001; Raymond, 2001; U.S. Department of State, 2002). Estimating the numbers of WTSW is difficult since not all of those trafficked for prostitution were recruited for this occupation. Although most of the women and children are recruited for work in prostitution, sex tourism, or the mail-order-bride business (Watts & Zimmerman, 2002), many are trafficked to work in the garment industry, to join family members, or to work in domestic services; but they may find themselves pressured to provide sexual services as part of their duties (Richard, 1999). At the destination, some women are duped into sex work, and others voluntarily leave low-paying, dead-end jobs for the lure of higher-paying opportunities in prostitution.
Despite the disparities of these estimates, no data source gives details on how these "guestimates" were derived (Kelly, 2002). Accurate estimates are difficult to obtain because the movement of people occurs almost completely in secret. For each person who comes to the attention of border police, immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important. , or health or welfare services, there are probably 10 to 20 persons who do not; thus, they remain an invisible labor force. WTSW lack citizens' rights, often do not have passports, and are wary of authorities for fear of deportation deportation, expulsion of an alien from a country by an act of its government. The term is not applied ordinarily to sending a national into exile or to committing one convicted of crime to an overseas penal colony (historically called transportation). (Feingold, 2003). Even when trafficked women are identified, often brothel owners will move them between brothels BROTHELS, crim. law. Bawdy-houses, the common habitations of prostitutes; such places have always been deemed common nuisances in the United States, and the keepers of them may be fined and imprisoned.
2. in order to avoid police intervention and to meet the demand for new and exotic women among the other prostitution outlets under their control. Thus, the determination of the numbers of women and children who are trafficked depends on the definition of trafficking that is used by agencies; problematic access to a mobile population; the data source; and which types of trafficked women are included in the estimates (i.e., only those who know before being trafficked that they are going to work in prostitution, or all illegal residents who work in sex work in destination countries).
The UN Trafficking Protocol defines a trafficked person as someone who is transferred or transported across national and international borders, by means of threat or coercion, for the purposes of economic exploitation in prostitution, forced labor, slavery, or the removal of organs (UN, 2000). Whether or not the trafficked person consented to the transfer is irrelevant if there was any pressure, financial or otherwise, applied to the person or her guardian. The transfer of a child under 18 years for economic exploitation is considered trafficking even in the absence of coercion. All women transported across borders to provide sexual services share experiences such as falling victim to deception and economic indebtedness during the trafficking process. Deceptive tactics may range from outright abduction Abduction
expecting inheritance, kidnapped by uncle. [Br. Lit.: Kidnapped]
kidnapped at age five; taken from Scotland. [Br. Lit. and kidnapping kidnapping, in law, the taking away of a person by force, threat, or deceit, with intent to cause him to be detained against his will. Kidnapping may be done for ransom or for political or other purposes. to enticement through the representation of apparently favorable conditions to deceptive offers of marriage or legitimate employment. It is common for women to enter a "work contract" of six months or a year, and then work without pay for several months or never receive any remuneration if they are resold to new owners or bosses. These contracts are usually verbal accords and often do not articulate the type of work or conditions the women will find at destination. Often the recruiter is someone known or trusted, such as a neighbor, friend, or family member (Raymond, 2001). Although the majority of Soviet women in a study conducted by one of the authors reported knowing in advance that they were going to work in the sex industry, most of them were unaware of the conditions, obligations, and work demands of their prospective employers (Chudakov, Ilan, Belmaker, & Cwikel, 2002).
Even when trafficked women are identified, few request help or cooperate with humanitarian aid Humanitarian aid is material or logistical assistance provided for humanitarian purposes, typically in response to humanitarian crises. The primary objective of humanitarian aid is to save lives, alleviate suffering, and maintain human dignity. or welfare agencies. For example, in 2001 and 2002, a UN Mission on Special Trafficking Operations Program (STOP) conducted 720 "raids" in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina (bŏz`nēə, hĕrtsəgōvē`nə), Serbo-Croatian Bosna i Hercegovina, country (2005 est. pop. 4,025,000), 19,741 sq mi (51,129 sq km), on the Balkan peninsula, S Europe. , where they interviewed 2,120 women and girls working in clubs. They reported that 25% (530) of interviewees were trafficked, but only 230 requested assistance from the STOP mission. However, non-government organization (NGO NGO
Noun 1. NGO - an organization that is not part of the local or state or federal government
nongovernmental organization ) experts working with the UN mission concluded that the statistics collected on these women were "woefully woe·ful also wo·ful
1. Affected by or full of woe; mournful.
2. Causing or involving woe.
3. Deplorably bad or wretched: unreliable" (Human Rights Watch, 2002).
A study of trafficked women conducted in five countries--Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela, and the United States--found nine factors responsible for the worldwide increase in human trafficking (Raymond, 2001):
* Under economic policies of globalization globalization
Process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. Factors that have contributed to globalization include increasingly sophisticated communications and transportation , many services that used to be state-supported, such as education, health care, and social welfare, are now being transferred to private hands, increasing the economic burden on families who must pay for these services. This is particularly true in the countries of the Former Soviet Bloc, where basic health and educational services were provided under Soviet rule, but now need to be financed out-of-pocket in free-market economies free-market economy n → economía de libre mercado
free-market economy n → économie f de marché
free-market economy n . Often, the women and children are sent abroad to earn foreign currency to pay for these essential services. For example, women we interviewed reported entering a trafficking contract to finance expensive health care for family members or their own university education, items that had once been provided by the state (Cwikel, Chudakov, Paikin, Agmon, & Belmaker, 2004).
* The sex industry is becoming more globalized, with recruitment and transport being conducted in larger and more sophisticated trafficking networks. Sex industry advertising is accomplished over the internet, offering further opportunities to provide international sex business (Hughes, 2000, 2001, 2004; Jeffreys, 2002; von Struensee, 2000).
* The male demand for sex services is a hard market to saturate sat·u·rate
v. Abbr. sat.
1. To imbue or impregnate thoroughly.
2. To soak, fill, or load to capacity.
3. To cause a substance to unite with the greatest possible amount of another substance. , suggesting that "the way in which sex has been tolerated as a male right in a commodity culture is all part of this demand" (Raymond, 2001, p. 2; Batros, 2004; Yea, 2004).
* The social structure in most of the world is built on women's inequality and economic dependence on fathers and husbands and male relatives. This inequality has allowed an almost endless supply of women who are desperate to earn money, particularly in developing countries and emerging industrialized in·dus·tri·al·ize
v. in·dus·tri·al·ized, in·dus·tri·al·iz·ing, in·dus·tri·al·iz·es
1. To develop industry in (a country or society, for example).
2. countries such as the former Soviet Union.
* The commodification Commodification (or commoditization) is the transformation of what is normally a non-commodity into a commodity, or, in other words, to assign value. As the word commodity has distinct meanings in business and in Marxist theory, commodification of women's bodies as sexual objects, and therefore for sale, is common (Long, 2004).
* Child sexual abuse Child sexual abuse is an umbrella term describing criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor or exploits a minor for the purpose of sexual gratification. , in particular, puts young women in a vulnerable state that may be exploited in order to pressure women to work in prostitution (United Nations Children's Fund United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), an affiliated agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1946 as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. [UNICEF UNICEF (y`nĭsĕf'), the United Nations Children's Fund, an affiliated agency of the United Nations. ] 2003; Widom & Kuhns, 1996).
* The stereotype that "the exotic is the erotic" has fueled the demand for foreign women to enter prostitution, further inflating the demand for trafficked women (Batros, 2004). This has been a traditional marketing angle in the sex industry, dating back to Roman times when the hetaerae, or foreign women, commanded the highest prices for sexual services. Today, there is an even broader selection of source countries for recruitment.
* War or a military conflict has fueled the demand for women to be brought to places of conflict so they can provide sexual services for troops. Where a permanent military presence is established, there are always brothels and prostitutes in the vicinity and places for the troops to rest, relax, and be entertained (Mirkinson, 1997).
* Restrictive immigration policies An immigration policy is any policy of a state that affects the transit of persons across its borders, but especially those that intend to work and to remain in the country. do not offer working opportunities with legitimate travel documents for those who want to work in non-professional jobs. (Harcourt, 2004; Raymond, 2001).
Countries such as Australia, New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. , the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , and European Union European Union (EU), name given since the ratification (Nov., 1993) of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, to the
European Community member nations have tried to formulate international and national policy responses to the burgeoning movement of people across borders (Galiana, 2000; Jeffreys, 2003; Kantola & Squires, 2002; Maxim Institute The Maxim Institute is a research and public policy think tank based in Auckland, New Zealand. The Institute's work is oriented toward a conservative perspective on its issues of primary concern. , 2003; Outshoorn, 2002). In 2000, the UN Trafficking Protocol focused on preventing and combating trafficking and developing ways to deal with the problem at the national and international levels by providing housing, training, legal aid, information, and psychological and medical aid to WTSW (UN, 2000).
The definition of WTSW used in this article is consistent with the UN Trafficking Protocol definition. It acknowledges that when deception, threats, violence, and fraud are used, even in cases where women have consented to entering a work contract, the abrogation The destruction or annulling of a former law by an act of the legislative power, by constitutional authority, or by usage. It stands opposed to rogation; and is distinguished from derogation, which implies the taking away of only some part of a law; from Subrogation, of their human rights constitutes trafficking. In addition, it includes indentured labor, forcing women to repay debt through sex work, and withholding information about work conditions, wages, medical care, or legal documents. Policy debates often get bogged down attempting to achieve consensus of the definition and absolute conditions for trafficking status. Unfortunately, this can result in stagnation Stagnation
A period of little or no growth in the economy. Economic growth of less than 2-3% is considered stagnation. Sometimes used to describe low trading volume or inactive trading in securities.
A good example of stagnation was the U.S. economy in the 1970s. and inaction in·ac·tion
Lack or absence of action.
lack of action; inertia
Noun 1. when proactive strategies are urgently needed (Kelly, 2002). We consider the minimal conditions for trafficking to be illegal working status when a third party has been involved either in transport or setting of work conditions in any branch of the sex industry (including a range of venues and sexual services; e.g., bars, dancing clubs, hotels, brothels, street work, and work in pornography). In accordance with the UN Trafficking Protocol, these conditions obviate ob·vi·ate
tr.v. ob·vi·at·ed, ob·vi·at·ing, ob·vi·ates
To anticipate and dispose of effectively; render unnecessary. See Synonyms at prevent. the question of whether the person entered the trafficking condition voluntarily or involuntarily.
Zimmerman and colleagues (2003), in their European Union study of the health effects of trafficked women, outlined the stages in the trafficking journey--from pre-departure, transit, working in the destination country, possible deportation to the country of origin, and re-integration. Not all women follow these five stages, since some may become illegal sex workers without ever being trafficked (e.g., visit as a tourist and then decide to work in the sex industry in order to stay in the destination country) or come as a WTSW but attain legal residence in the destination country. Furthermore, any research project is likely to interview women at only one or two of the five stages. The bulk of our data were drawn from observations and interviews with women at the working or deportation stages.
Zimmerman and colleagues formulated the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical and safety guidelines to sensitize sen·si·tize
To make hypersensitive or reactive to an antigen, such as pollen, especially by repeated exposure. those working and researching with trafficked women, particularly with regard to the safety risks that may threaten a trafficked woman if she participates in an interview with authorities or researchers (Zimmerman & Watts, 2003; Zimmerman et al., 2003). Most of the principles outlined in the WHO guidelines are recommended in all research settings (e.g., ensure anonymity, prepare referrals in case of distress, obtain informed consent, use research materials to promote the health and safety of the subjects). However, some principles recommended by Zimmerman et al. are specific to working with trafficked women, including (a) knowing the risks associated with trafficking, (b) adequately preparing interpreters, interviewers, and researchers for secondary traumatization that may occur following exposure to stories of abuse and human rights violations, and (c) avoiding re-traumatizing women with invasive questions about traumatic events (Zimmerman & Watts).
In this article, we outline a series of methodological and ethical issues to be considered when conducting research in the area of human trafficking. We draw on our experiences in the field while collecting data from WTSW and traffickers and on our interactions with immigration and law enforcement officials in Australia and Israel (Cwikel, Ilan, & Chudakov, 2003; Hoban, Gordan, & Maltzahn, 2003). We believe that most current data are compromised by methodological problems and that an open discussion of these issues will generate better data in the future. First we present issues that should be considered in the design of research on WTSW; then we outline a series of ethical and methodological problems in the conduct of such research. With the presentation of each issue, we present our suggestions or solutions.
STUDY DESIGN ISSUES
Sources of Research Funding Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both "hard" science and technology and social science. The term often connotes funding obtained through a competitive process, in which potential research projects are evaluated and
We encourage the development of coalitions to fund and support research that addresses the problems of WTSW. Funding for research on WTSW on a country-by-country or regional basis is problematic because many governments do not consider trafficking a priority area for action or, consequently, for funding (Galiana, 2000). Often, governments are unwilling to fund research that reaches out into the world of trafficked women in the sex industry and establishes non-threatening contacts with women who are frightened of authorities and what they represent (i.e., law enforcement, deportation, loss of income and earning status). Herein lies the problem: without dedicated, multi-focus outreach programs that provide health and support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services for WTSW and research that is anonymous, confidential, and impartial, we will never be able to draw adequate samples with reliable or proxy indicators that can give data on which to base policy decisions. The organizations that are best situated to access and conduct research with WTSW are pro-women's rights or anti-violence groups, but funding sources may not see them as appropriate partners for research. However, without the data to show the number of WTSW and the impact of interventions, it is almost impossible to argue for further research funding.
Furthermore, funding obligations that exclude "illegal non-citizens" often block government programs that might encompass applied research that includes WTSW. Thus, opportunities for documenting the health and welfare of WTSW are missed. For example, Reproductive Health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene and Education in the Sex Industry (RHED) in Victoria, Australia, which provides health education, counseling, and support for women working in the sex industry, receives considerable funding from Department of Health Services Department of Health Services may refer to:
Notable international reports include the report drafted by International Organization for Migration (IOM IOM
See: Index and Option Market ) on trafficking in Southern Africa
Development of a Critical Research Stance
Most researchers enter a WTSW study with preconceived notions about the type of people they will encounter. Researchers may be unaware that these ideas have been fueled by sensationalist sen·sa·tion·al·ism
a. The use of sensational matter or methods, especially in writing, journalism, or politics.
b. Sensational subject matter.
c. Interest in or the effect of such subject matter. media coverage of exceptional cases of murder or abuse, as well as the framing of WTSW as victims. Although there are cases of horrendous abuse, including the murder of WTSW (Galiana, 2000; Levenkron & Dahan, 2003; Zimmerman et al., 2003), this stereotype may not fit the profile of many women who have been trafficked and are subject to more mundane pressure, control, and veiled threats (Kelly, 2003). As Zimmerman and Watts (2003) stated, "It should not be assumed, however, that all women who have been trafficked are traumatized, consider themselves victims, detest de·test
tr.v. de·test·ed, de·test·ing, de·tests
To dislike intensely; abhor.
[French détester, from Latin d their captors, or wish to escape or go home" (p. 3). Furthermore, we concur CONCUR - ["CONCUR, A Language for Continuous Concurrent Processes", R.M. Salter et al, Comp Langs 5(3):163-189 (1981)]. with Kelly's stance that the difference between being forced or voluntarily entering the trafficking world is irrelevant when considered against the weight of the human rights and worker's rights violations that occur among these women.
Many researchers may feel pressure from colleagues and activists to declare "whose side" they take in relation to prostitution and trafficking. Many positions and approaches relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc discourse on trafficking exist, including moralist mor·al·ist
1. A teacher or student of morals and moral problems.
2. One who follows a system of moral principles.
3. One who is unduly concerned with the morals of others. , crime and border control, labor and occupational, public health, migration, human rights, and feminist (Global Alliance against Trafficking in Women [GAATW GAATW Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women ], 2001; Kelly, 2002; Levenkron & Dahan, 2003).
Many of these positions have become polarized A one-way direction of a signal or the molecules within a material pointing in one direction. , making it more difficult to engage parties in public discussions about WTSW. For example, prostitution abolitionists such as the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women Coalition Against Trafficking in Women (CATW) was founded 1988 as the outcome of a conference titled "Trafficking in Women" organized by several American feminist groups including Women Against Pornography and WHISPER. (CATW), the most influential anti-trafficking organization, equate human trafficking to "forced prostitution" and consider it a form of violence against women and "sexual exploitation." In contrast, GAATW, another feminist organization influenced by the sex workers' rights movement, makes a distinction between "trafficking in women" or "forced prostitution" and "voluntary prostitution" (CATW, 2003; Doezema, 2000). A third position comes from sex workers' rights groups, who differentiate between women forced to work as prostitutes by a third party (i.e., a pimp), particularly where violence or deceit is used, and women forced or pressured to make that decision based on economic reality (Alexander, 1998).
These disparate and highly politicized positions on prostitution and human trafficking make it difficult for researchers to gather data and engage parties in discussions about WTSW. Sometimes the researcher's position is assumed a priori a priori
In epistemology, knowledge that is independent of all particular experiences, as opposed to a posteriori (or empirical) knowledge, which derives from experience. by the funding source, but regardless, any stance will limit the ability of the researcher to explore and collect data using other paradigms. Our recommendation as researchers is to avoid alignment with any organization in order to retain neutrality and critical awareness in the discourse and the research design. It may seem easier, cheaper, and more convenient to access WTSW through established movements such as GAATW or sex workers' organizations, but researchers need to avoid the politics of all groups and seek out the quiet or silenced voices.
Use of Multiple Research Paradigms and Methods
As in other research, the approach or research paradigm of WTSW studies will influence findings. If the paradigm guiding the work stems from trauma theory, human rights, migration, sexology sexology /sex·ol·o·gy/ (sek-sol´ah-je) the scientific study of sex and sexual relations.
The study of human sexual behavior. , or legal aid, this will influence the type of questions asked and how the respondents will perceive them. For example, several of the major reports on human trafficking were written by female lawyers who represent the legal view and their connections with police, crimes, courts, witness protection, and human rights groups (Galiana, 2000; Levenkron & Dahan, 2003; von Struensee, 2000). On the other hand, some feminist scholars have conducted clinical work with victims of rape, domestic violence, incest, and abuse and have drawn on these frameworks in collecting and analyzing data (Kelly, 2002; Raymond, 2001; Watts & Zimmerman, 2002; Zimmerman et al., 2003). If researchers expect that the experiences of WTSW include abuse, torture, and trauma, their findings may be biased. However, if the goal is a more balanced and objective picture, this will be reflected in the design, instruments, and methodology selected. Thus, we recommend using multiple theoretical perspectives in developing the research design.
Capturing an accurate and comprehensive picture of the ways in which trafficked women enter the sex industry requires the understanding that in addition to being recruited in their home countries, women sometimes choose to engage in sex work after illegal entry into a country or when they are in breach of their visa conditions. These women may have a variety of motivations, personal and family histories, and personalities. This finding reflects work done by other researchers on women in the sex industry in diverse settings, such as in Uganda (Gysels, 2002), the republics of the former Soviet Union (Aral & St. Lawrence, 2002; Aral et al., 2003), and Utrecht and Bangkok (Wijers & Lap-Chew, 1997).
We recommend using creative research and investigative methods and accessing unlikely key informants, including brothel workers, managers, and traffickers or their representatives. One of the authors utilized a multi-method approach and incorporated research instruments such as historical timelines conducted during interviews with the WTSW and her family and friends (when possible), multiple data sources including information from family and friends, brothel management and workers, and, when possible, accessed official migration documents under the Freedom of Information Act. This process allowed the researcher to develop a portrait of the trafficking experience and created an opportunity to increase validity and reliability of the data.
Identification of the Uses for Data
Researchers need to consider the intended use of the data that is being collected and to be wary of a hidden agenda (e.g., of law enforcement, labor courts, women's rights The effort to secure equal rights for women and to remove gender discrimination from laws, institutions, and behavioral patterns.
The women's rights movement began in the nineteenth century with the demand by some women reformers for the right to vote, known as suffrage, and organizations, pro-prostitution, anti-prostitution, or abolitionist groups) for gathering the information. An honest and ethical approach to WTSW requires researchers to state the purpose of their study and what they intend to do with the data. WTSW, like most vulnerable populations, are wary of the way information may be used for fear they could be identified and deported. This leads to the use of pseudonyms This article gives a list of pseudonyms, in various categories. Pseudonyms are similar to, but distinct from, secret identities. Artists, sculptors, architects
Therefore, we suggest stating the purpose of the study in plain language and providing a clear, frank statement of why the study, and WTSW's input, is necessary. This sounds like standard practice. However, to recruit WTSW into studies, researchers often feel pressure to give informants extra information in order to gain their trust. WTSW may be reluctant to be interviewed unless the researchers can show what the women can gain, who will read and take notice of the information, and which government agencies, welfare and support groups, and feminist organizations are involved. Researchers need to show impartiality by providing information about the organization conducting the research and their interest in the research subject. The researcher should not disclose any personal affiliations with feminist, welfare, or human rights groups if they are not relevant to the study.
Protection of Respondent Identity
We recommend the creation of mechanisms at the design stage to protect the identities of informants during interviews or observations. In general, we do not suggest recording interviews by tape or video since this compromises the interviewee's identity. In lieu of electronic recording, we recommend conducting interviews using two interviewers, one conducting the interview and the other recording information. However, in some situations, taped interviews with informed consent procedures may be appropriate. If so, researchers should provide the WTSW with transcripts of the interviews for feedback and editing as soon as possible after the encounter. This practice will improve the reliability of the data, assure interviewees that their identities are protected, empower WTSW to give voice to their experiences, and develop trust between WTSW and researchers.
Despite the difficulties associated with in-depth interviews of women with illegal status, we found that many women were grateful for the opportunity to tell their stories to concerned, neutral listeners. After being trafficked as purely sexual commodities, many women found interviews with researchers cathartic cathartic (kəthär`tĭk): see laxative. and helpful for gaining perspective. As researchers, we utilized the contacts with women to inform them of services that they could access to help them with health and legal issues.
There are four basic moral principles in public decision-making, whether it be in medical practice or in research: (a) respect for an individual's capacity for autonomy and independent decision-making; (b) nonmaleficence, or the Hippocratic dictum [Latin, A remark.] A statement, comment, or opinion. An abbreviated version of obiter dictum, "a remark by the way," which is a collateral opinion stated by a judge in the decision of a case concerning legal matters that do not directly involve the facts or affect the in medicine of "above all, do no harm" (primum non nocere primum non nocere (prēˈ·mum nōnˈ n ); (c) beneficence beneficence (b·neˑ·fi·s , or the pursuit of benefit from actions in balance between risks and costs; and (d) pursuit of distributive justice DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE. That virtue, whose object it is to distribute rewards and punishments to every one according to his merits or demerits. Tr. of Eq. 3; Lepage, El. du Dr. ch. 1, art. 3, Sec. 2 1 Toull. n. 7, note. See Justice. that ensures the greatest benefit will accrue to the largest number of persons (Beauchamp & Childress, 2001). The perilous and tentative legal status of most trafficked women puts these ethical principles to the test. Below we provide specific examples of these problems with suggestions on how to resolve them.
Complications in Informed Consent Procedures
Informed consent implies that the person is able and capable of giving consent, consent is voluntary, and the full information as to the benefits, risks, and uses of the research are provided. Our experience has shown that informed consent procedures for WTSW require modifications for a number of reasons: (a) women are reluctant to sign documents and thus verbal informed consent may need to be the standard procedure, (b) generally women do not use their real names for fear of reprisals REPRISALS, war. The forcibly taking a thing by one nation which belonged to another, in return or satisfaction for a injury committed by the latter on the former. Vatt. B., 2, ch. 18, s. 342; 1 Bl. Com. ch. 7.
2. or being deported, so they may use their work pseudonyms instead, and (c) most women are unfamiliar with concepts like informed consent and research protocols and they may not fully understand the process that is explained to them, even if they are being interviewed in their native language. Thus, the ability to match any interview to a particular woman who is in need of medical, legal, or psychological advice may be seriously compromised.
We suggest either having women sign informed consent procedures using their pseudonyms or allowing for verbal, not written, informed consent. Furthermore, it is necessary to explain in their language why the project is being conducted, for what the data will be used, and who will have access to it. Also helpful is leaving the respondents with access information such as the name and phone numbers of researchers and NGOs that have counselors who speak their language. In order to match interviews for follow-up, we suggest keeping password-protected double lists of their real names and dates of birth together with the pseudonyms recorded on the questionnaire or the questionnaire number. We used this procedure in a substudy of sexually transmitted infections among trafficked sex workers (Cwikel, Latzer, Latzer, & Press, 2005). We explained to the women that we needed to re-contact them in order to supply them with medical test results. Other strategies to ensure data confidentiality are also pertinent: coding the names and access phone numbers, training all interviewers and data entry personnel on the importance of the confidentiality of the data, and allowing only authorized research personnel to access the data once collected. If tape recorders are used for interviews, researchers should delete interviews once they have been transcribed.
Problematic Access to WTSW
Access to women during the various stages of trafficking is severely limited for researchers. To the best of our knowledge, no data has been collected on women before they enter into the trafficking process in their countries of origin. Since trafficking involves the illegal migration of women, access may be through a third party, such as the traffickers, brothel owners, agents, madams, or voluntary workers such as the chaplain or human rights advocates. Anonymous sexual health clinics or agencies that provide services to women in the sex industry are in an ideal position to collect reliable data, but they rarely use this opportunity to do so. Women may be interviewed once they have left the sex industry or are detained de·tain
tr.v. de·tained, de·tain·ing, de·tains
1. To keep from proceeding; delay or retard.
2. To keep in custody or temporary confinement: awaiting deportation, while they are being primed to testify against traffickers, or during trials. Access to women in the latter circumstances is problematic since contact may be possible only through prisons, immigration authorities immigration authorities npl → servicio sg de inmigración
immigration authorities npl → service m de l'immigration
, or lawyers.
We suggest trying to gain access to women in the most representative settings with a clear understanding of the limits and biases of the sample. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , if women are accessed through the traffickers or brothel owners, it is necessary both to develop a sense of reciprocal utility and trust and to acknowledge that such informants may have an alternative motive for assisting the researcher, such as gaining legitimacy with legal authorities. We understood that some brothel owners were interested in widening access to health care for the women working for them, and thus, in some cases we provided medical examinations and referrals to health care when needed. At the same time, we understood that the brothel owners might be screening the women that they were allowing us to access, and we tried to cross-validate our findings using alternative samples (e.g., women in detention or women waiting to testify).
Loss of Respondents for Follow-Up
Aside from the ethical problems of loss to follow-up in the short-term, lack of real identification, such as the absence of personal identification documents, hampers researchers' understanding of the range of women's experiences. A comprehensive view of the cycle of trafficking is possible only if women are followed over the various stages of the trafficking cycle, possibly using in-depth ethnographic eth·nog·ra·phy
The branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of specific human cultures.
eth·nog techniques, such as social and network mapping Network mapping or Internet mapping is the study of the physical connectivity of the Internet. It is not to be confused with the remote discovery of which operating system a computer is running, an activity more akin to hacking. and life histories (Long, 2004). Women are understandably reluctant to be identified as formerly trafficked people or sex workers if they have migrated to other areas or have reintegrated into their home countries following completion of their contracts or deportation. However, we will be able to understand the full impact of their trafficking experiences only once such longitudinal research has been conducted.
Recent initiatives in source countries have led to the establishment of projects to reach out to women who have been trafficked and returned to their home countries or are at risk of trafficking. For example, the Angel Coalition, a consortium of 43 Russian and Former Soviet Union NGOs that was founded in 1999, has been active in helping women reintegrate re·in·te·grate
tr.v. re·in·te·grat·ed, re·in·te·grat·ing, re·in·te·grates
To restore to a condition of integration or unity.
re into their home countries, providing them with education, vocational retraining re·train
tr. & intr.v. re·trained, re·train·ing, re·trains
To train or undergo training again.
re·train , and loans in a micro-enterprise lending program (The Angel Coalition, 2003). Other regional projects include the Kvinnoforum (Women's Forum) in Stockholm, Sweden, which has been active in training and creating networks in Scandinavia (Kvinnoforum, 1999). Similar networks have been formed by GAATW from Bangkok, Thailand, and across the Asian-Pacific region (GAATW, 2001). We suggest that researchers conducting longitudinal and follow-up research can collaborate with these NGOs in source, transit, and receiving countries.
Inability to Intervene in Illegal Acts
Due to the sometimes precarious situations in which trafficked women are interviewed, researchers may find themselves present during illegal events. The perpetrators of these crimes may be brothel owners or law enforcement officials, immigration officers, or other government authorities. Researchers sometimes witness violent or illegal acts or find themselves in illegal brothels during police raids, but choose not to intervene (Bailey, 2002). On these occasions, researchers may prefer to maintain their autonomy and independence and choose to be an observer. In addition, interviewing women who have clearly been trafficked but are still in the sex industry presents a dilemma, because women's trafficked state means that someone has facilitated their entry into the country and the women are working without legal residence. In some countries, such as in Australia and Israel, the women, their traffickers, and brothel operators are in breach of law and all parties are subject to arrest.
When researchers are collecting data with the consent of brothel owners on their premises, there is no recourse other than to record the woman's status without intervening. Thus, we can offer no workable suggestions to this conundrum conundrum A problem with no satisfactory solution; a dilemma other than for researchers to develop awareness of the limits of their ability to intervene and to act accordingly. Any intervention may result in the deportation of a trafficked woman who is working illegally; on such occasions, the researchers may do more harm than good. Subjective reports from brothel-based WTSW and women awaiting deportation suggest that the psychological state as measured by depression scales was far worse for women awaiting deportation than for women who were working (Cwikel et al., 2004); thus, incarceration Confinement in a jail or prison; imprisonment.
Police officers and other law enforcement officers are authorized by federal, state, and local lawmakers to arrest and confine persons suspected of crimes. The judicial system is authorized to confine persons convicted of crimes. and imminent deportation may be more threatening and psychologically disturbing than the most severe working conditions.
Although it is rare for researchers to witness physical violence, we often heard stories of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. We also observed women suffering from the shock and distress associated with finding themselves in trafficked situations beyond their control. As researchers, we noticed women who looked under 18 years old, but reported that they were over age 18. Therefore, sex work by minors was not directly observed in a way that could be validated. In situations where researchers note the appearance of abuse, such as visible injuries to the body, with the woman's consent it may be possible to alert the brothel proprietors to the woman's situation and provide first aid themselves, or if the condition is more serious, offer to seek the assistance of confidential health services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract for sex workers.
Researchers who venture into brothels may observe unsafe working environments. For example, we observed women who were providing sexual services despite reporting severe pain and symptoms of reproductive tract infections Reproductive tract infection (RTI) is a broad statement that refers to three general types of infections that affect the reproductive tract, which is part of the Reproductive System. that required treatment (Cwikel et al., 2003; Hoban et al., 2003). In one case, a group of WTSW who had been interviewed at one brothel by researchers in Israel insisted that the brothel owner give them direct access to health care for their symptoms.
WTSW often have limited rights to refuse clients who are violent, demand unprotected sex Unprotected sex refers to any act of sexual intercourse in which the participants use no form of barrier contraception. Sexually transmitted infections
Specifically, unprotected sex , or put their safety at risk. For example, licensed brothels in Victoria, Australia, are required by law to provide safety measures safety measures,
n.pl actions (e.g., use of glasses, face masks) taken to protect patients and office personnel from such known hazards as particles and aerosols from high-speed rotary instruments, mercury vapor, radiation exposure, anesthetic and such as emergency call buzzers in the rooms. However, these occupational health and safety standards Safety standards are standards designed to ensure the safety of products, activities or processes, etc. They may be advisory or compulsory and are normally laid down by an advisory or regulatory body that may be either voluntary or statutory. do not always exist in brothels where trafficked women provide sexual services. Women who provide sexual services outside brothels are at particular risk of violence when they are either working or being transported. Again, the researchers may be in a position to facilitate women's access to confidential health services for treatment of illnesses. However, they are rarely able to intervene in situations outside the research domain, such as promoting condom use or reporting occupational health and safety violations. To do so could place the researcher in an unsafe position.
Preservation of Research Credibility
We emphasize that researchers should make no promises as to how the information will be used, outside what has been stated in the informed consent procedures. This is important because WTSW and their supporters often see research as a means of pursuing their own agenda, and this may lead researchers into situations outside their realm of expertise or in violation of ethical research practices. Key documents and interviews with WTSW should use the woman's first language to ensure accuracy of data and context of the experiences. If the researcher does not speak the WTSW's native language, it is essential that a trained translator is used. Poor interpreting and translation of official documents will lead to false information that may be detrimental to the woman's welfare in the future (Hoban, 2005). Both being consistent about how data will be used and allowing WTSW to understand interviews and documents in their own language will help researchers to maintain credibility.
Constructing Representative Samples
Due to the hidden and illicit nature of the migration of people for sex work, many researchers have noted the difficulties associated with accessing WTSW for their studies (Galiana, 2000; Kelly, 2002; Raymond, 2001). However, studies of WTSW that rely on one data source may be biased. There will never be an accurate census of trafficked persons, because of the ramifications ramifications npl → Auswirkungen pl of their illegal status: they are mobile, may have illegal papers or lack documents such as national identity cards or social security numbers, and will not answer phones or mail. In general, it is safer for them to keep a low profile. However, using multiple data sources and methods to triangulate See triangulation. data, it is feasible to "guestimate Noun 1. guestimate - an estimate that combines reasoning with guessing
approximation, estimate, estimation, idea - an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth; "an estimate of what it would cost"; "a rough idea how long it would take" " the number of trafficked women in a locale (programming) locale - A geopolitical place or area, especially in the context of configuring an operating system or application program with its character sets, date and time formats, currency formats etc.
Locales are significant for internationalisation and localisation. . Keeping in mind that any source probably represents only a fraction of the actual population, we suggest the following methods:
* Collect data using government statistics (e.g., immigration data such as refugee and migration review tribunal applications, airport, harbour, and cross-border statistics, immigration detention Immigration detention is the policy of holding certain groups of unauthorised arrivals in detention until a decision is made by immigration authorities to grant a visa and release them into the community, or to repatriate them to their country of departure. centre and deportation data). These data are often ignored and could be disaggregated Broken up into parts. by gender, age, education, ethnicity, country of origin, and visa status.
* Incorporate epidemiological data obtained from programs that provide services (e.g., STI STI systolic time intervals. clinics) to women in the sex industry.
* Examine the classified advertisements in newspapers for travel, leisure, and sex services, and include phone-sex providers, dancing restaurants, immigration and travel agents who arrange international marriages and education visa assistance, and travel guides for male sex tourists.
We have learned from our fieldwork that diverse advertisements offering different sex services (with different business names, phone numbers, and registration numbers) may belong to the same agency that has learned to respond to client demand for different "tastes." The advertisement may explicitly say "new women just arrived from X foreign country," or "student on short-term holiday from X country" that is a known origin country for trafficked women (e.g., new girls directly from Asia, as in the reproduced advertisement in Figure 1).
Figure 1. An Advertisement for "Exotic" Sex Workers (The Chinese Melbourne Times, 2002). "BLOSSOMING FLOWERS" 18-25 years Ethabell, 18 years from Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China JoJo, 18 years. Her first time in Australia. She is a student and new to the business BiBi, 19. Slim body All women available at weekends.
Foreign language advertisements may be more explicit about the fact that foreign women are working in the sex industry than they are in advertisements in the English newspapers. Batros (2004) found this to be true for many licensed brothels in Victoria, Australia, where owners and managers were aware of the Prostitution Control Act (1994) regulations regarding sex industry advertising. However, they chose to ignore the regulations because they were aware that the designated government authorities were not monitoring sex industry advertisements.
* Samples drawn from telephone interviews or surveys with representative samples will be unlikely to include trafficked women who do not have a listed phone number (Grulich, de Visser, Smith, Rissel, & Richters, 2003; Rissel, Richters, Grulich, de Visser, & Smith, 2003). However, telephone surveys, such as the report on Sex in Australia by Rissel and colleagues (2003) on the use of commercial sex workers, could easily have included a nested question for those who have paid for sex services in the past year, to ask whether the sex worker appeared to be a citizen (e.g., did she appear foreign or have trouble communicating in the local language?). When national or large-scale surveys are being planned, such as Rissel et al.'s (2003) survey in Australia and the Global Sex Survey 2004 in 41 countries with 350,000 participants (Durex, 2004), this is an ideal opportunity to include such questions that obtain consumer or sex worker prevalence data.
* Organizations that help migrant workers or victims of violence are often in contact with WTSW who have been subject to abusive or exploitative situations (e.g., a woman who works for six months without any pay), and thus could collect data on their clients. If their data is collected systematically and analyzed over time, this might give an indication of the numbers of WTSW in a locale, keeping in mind that these are generally the extreme cases (Zimmerman et al., 2003).
Thus, it is possible to aggregate across data sources as a way of developing more reliable estimates of the numbers of WTSW in any country. We would give priority to representative survey data and data collected directly from WTSW themselves who are able to report how many other women were working at their work site. In the latter case, we caution researchers from using secondary sources of information (e.g., WTSW asking other women in the sex industry to provide information about WTSW; drawing on secondary informants such as legal representatives, chaplains, and immigration detention center and deportation center staff), since these sources are unreliable and there is no way of validating the data. These numbers can be weighted by the number of women approaching NGOs for help (considering that these are usually a small fraction of the population) to give more reliable estimates. We chose to replicate our study of women working in brothels (and approached through brothel owners) with a sample drawn from the detention center A detention center or a detention centre is any location used for detention. Specifically, it can mean:
Handling Media Interest
One of the disconcerting dis·con·cert
tr.v. dis·con·cert·ed, dis·con·cert·ing, dis·con·certs
1. To upset the self-possession of; ruffle. See Synonyms at embarrass.
2. forces in the trafficking discourse is the need to find sensational stories that grab the attention of readers and legislators. Thus, horrifying stories of abuse, torture, and exploitation are sought after by journalists and the media. The more complicated and ambiguous realities of many trafficked women's lives and the context of their trafficking experience do not make good stories. Investigative reporting is a specialized skill, often reserved for experienced journalists. Most copy reporters do not have the experience, time, or support from their editorial boards to invest in researching politicized or dangerous issues. For example, the media has not highlighted the nature of political or law enforcement involvement in trafficking operations or the extent to which women and their families are cognizant that they are entering a trafficking situation for the purpose of sex work.
From our experience (both authors have had news stories published about their research), we know it is difficult to manage the media and prevent research findings from turning into a "hot story" that trivializes human experiences and the complicated aspects of the trafficking experience. We suggest that there are ways to work more effectively with reporters while recognizing the work constraints that they face: (a) choose a senior reporter whose reputation is known and who has displayed journalistic integrity and responsibility, (b) prefer reporters who work for national, not local, newspapers, (c) prepare a press release that summarizes the research findings in a comprehensive but succinct suc·cinct
adj. suc·cinct·er, suc·cinct·est
1. Characterized by clear, precise expression in few words; concise and terse: a succinct reply; a succinct style.
2. fashion that will improve the accuracy of reporting, and (d) insist on editorial rights prior to publication.
Some journalists are fond of staging rescue operations that make great copy for newspapers. This behavior may do more harm than good and violate ethical principles (e.g., above all, do no harm). For example, Zimmerman et al. (2003) described a journalist who staged a rescue without understanding the trafficked woman's circumstances and without protecting her identity (p. 23). A more recent example was a rescue operation of three underage prostitutes in Bali that was engineered by a welfare worker in association with journalists (O'Brien, 2004). The girls were returned to their families in rural Bali. Despite the well-meaning intentions of the rescuers, it is not clear whether these girls will return to the sex industry or what consequences will follow.
Handling Risky Information
Those who gather information on the mechanisms that WTSW use to enter and work in a destination country have evidence, sometimes from primary sources, that may put the researcher, WTSW, and their families in danger. In our research, we learned about the various ways that traffickers ensure their ability to work with impunity IMPUNITY. Not being punished for a crime or misdemeanor committed. The impunity of crimes is one of the most prolific sources whence they arise. lmpunitas continuum affectum tribuit delinquenti. 4 Co. 45, a; 5 Co. 109, a. through reciprocal ties with government agencies, such as police and immigration officials.
Our aim is to collect reliable data, but we must be aware that source material may be fed to outsiders, possibly by the traffickers, for strategic and manipulative reasons. Collaboration with researchers by those engaged in trafficking should raise questions about the ulterior motives of those informants. On the other hand, our experience showed that sometimes informants act as advocates for WTSW. While working outside the law, traffickers and key informants occasionally take advantage of their contacts with researchers to access health care or legal aid in situations where trafficked women have been victimized, are ill, or are in danger. On other occasions, sex industry informants provide researchers with information about WTSW or business' associations with government authorities such as immigration officials because they want to implicate im·pli·cate
tr.v. im·pli·cat·ed, im·pli·cat·ing, im·pli·cates
1. To involve or connect intimately or incriminatingly: evidence that implicates others in the plot.
2. their business competitors in the trafficking network. There are no set solutions to many of these issues, but there still may be value in the information derived from such sources. We encourage researchers to be aware of the myriad of reasons that informants participate in studies on human trafficking.
Public debate is pushing for empirical evidence on the magnitude of the problem of WTSW. We believe the time has come to start collecting data on the clients of trafficked women and their owners/bosses. This side of the equation remains obscure. Do men who pay for sex recognize that the women providing sexual services may be working illegally, under indentured conditions that often are no better than slavery, often with woefully inadequate working protection (Kelly, 2002)? Men, who make up the bulk of the consumers of WTSW, deserve a voice in the public discourse but may be put off by strident anti-prostitution forces, sex workers' unions, or the highly publicized pub·li·cize
tr.v. pub·li·cized, pub·li·ciz·ing, pub·li·ciz·es
To give publicity to.
Adj. 1. publicized - made known; especially made widely known
publicised political and criminal nature of the problem. In a general population telephone survey in Australia, one in six men (15.6%) had ever paid for sex and 1.9% had done so in the past year. This payment overwhelmingly (97%) went to women (Rissel et al., 2003). One in 10 men who had paid for sex had done so overseas, which could be a factor fueling the import of foreign women for the sex industry.
Despite our research contacts with pimps, agents, and brothel owners, we are not aware of any published research on their motivations, attitudes, and behaviors. However, like trafficked women who are working outside the law, this group can and should be studied. This would offer us a better understanding of other factors fueling the trafficking deluge Deluge (dĕl`yj), in the Bible, the overwhelming flood that covered the earth and destroyed every living thing except the family of Noah and the creatures in his ark. and would assist efforts to describe the characteristics and magnitude of human trafficking. For example, Shelley (2003) analyzed six different models of business that provide the infrastructure for the global trafficking industry, giving insight to how the businesses use different types of network structures. Batros's (2004) study of the licensed sex industry in the city of Yarra The City of Yarra is a Local Government Area in Victoria, Australia. It is located in the inner eastern and northern suburbs of Melbourne. It has an area of 20.0 square kilometres. In 2001 it had a population of 68,000. in Victoria, Australia, explored the business operations Business operations are those activities involved in the running of a business for the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders. Compare business processes. The outcome of business operations is the harvesting of value from assets and marketing strategies used by brothel operators to provide a variety of new and "exotic" women to meet the demand by male clients of the sex industry. Kotnik's (2004) study, also in Yarra, used qualitative and quantitative methodologies to explore community perceptions of foreign women in the licensed and unlicensed sex industry in Australia, in particular their attitude towards WTSW. Similar research can illuminate the supply-and-demand side of human trafficking.
One way to estimate the scope of the trafficking industry is to monitor classified advertisements and distribution of promotional handouts in casinos, bars and night clubs, billboards, and in phone boxes and underground entertainment venues, that reflect the money available for advertising and the businesses utilizing the media to promote their services. From these estimates, it is relatively simple to gauge the amount of profit generated in the industry and to identify the major money-makers on the scene. Information can also be gathered from applications for brothel and escort service licenses in areas where the industry is decriminalized. Size estimates can be derived from reports made by women in the sex industry on their work conditions: how many clients they see in a 24-hour period, the number of days they work per month, and the average charge per client.
In Australia, for example, in 1999 a brothel owner provided insight into human trafficking in Australia. This case revealed the trafficking of between 20 and 40 Thai women, and the informant informant Historian Medtalk A person who provides a medical history made at least $1.2 million from the services of the 40 women (Ford, 2001). One newspaper reported that Victorian brothels earned around $1 million a week from the sex slave trade (Forbes, 1999) in an environment where the sex industry is licensed. The inadequacy of law enforcement against traffickers also ensures that fear of punishment is outweighed by the motivation for profit. The U.S. State A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of the United States, although four states use the official title "commonwealth". The separate state governments and the federal government share sovereignty, in that an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and Department noted that "penalties for trafficking of humans for sexual exploitation are often relatively minor compared to those for criminal activities like drug and gun trafficking" (U.S. Department of State, 2000, p.4).
In conclusion, we have outlined the most important problems in the conduct of high-quality research on trafficked women. We believe that the only recourse for those interested in mapping the extent of the problem is to fund inter-sectoral studies that take advantage of different access points and data sources. The situation is reminiscent of the story of five blind men trying to describe an elephant. Each one touches the animal in a different place: the flexible trunk, the smooth tusks, the huge, rough flank, the stocky stock·y
adj. stock·i·er, stock·i·est
1. Solidly built; sturdy.
2. Chubby; plump.
stocki·ly adv. legs, and the spiky spik·y
adj. spik·i·er, spik·i·est
1. Having one or more projecting sharp points.
2. Grouchy or cross in temperament.
spik tail. Each provides a completely different verbal report of what they feel, and yet no one alone can adequately describe what the elephant is really like. Combine the stories, the descriptions, the numbers, and the calculations, and the real picture of trafficking will emerge.
Note. This paper was written while the first author was a visiting scholar A visiting scholar, in the world of academia, is a scholar from an institution who visits a receiving university that hosts him where he or she is projected to teach (visiting professor), lecture (visiting lecturer), or perform research (visiting researcher at the Key Centre for Women's Health Women's Health Definition
Women's health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues. in Society, The University of Melbourne
In 2006, Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne 22nd in the world. Because of the drop in ranking, University of Melbourne is currently behind four Asian universities - Beijing University, , and we are grateful to our colleagues for their encouragement and support. Furthermore, the authors acknowledge the helpful suggestions of anonymous reviewers.
Manuscript accepted June 15, 2005
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Hoban, E. (2005). Club 417: A case study of sexual slavery Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices:
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Hughes, D. M. (2001). The impact of the use of new communications and information technologies on trafficking in human beings for sexual exploitation. A study of the users. The Group of Specialists on the Impact of the Use of New Information Technologies on Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation (EG-S-NT) Committee for Equality between Women and Men (CDEG) Council of Europe Council of Europe, international organization founded in 1949 to promote greater unity within Europe and to safeguard its political and cultural heritage by promoting human rights and democracy. The council is headquartered in Strasbourg, France. .
Hughes, M. (2004). The use of new communications and information technologies for sexual exploitation of women and children. In C. Stark & R. Whisnant (Eds.), Not for sale: Feminists resisting prostitution and pornography, pp. 38-56. Melbourne: Spinifex spi·ni·fex
Any of various clump-forming, perennial Australian grasses, chiefly of the genus Triodia, growing in arid regions and having awl-shaped, pointed leaves. .
Human Rights Watch. (2002). Hopes betrayed: Trafficking of women and girls to post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina for forced prostitution. Human Rights Watch, 14, 1-36.
Jeffreys, S. (2002, April-May). Women trafficking and the Australian connection: Do legalized sex industries encourage the trafficking of women and children? Are they partly to blame for the explosion in this trade over the last decade? Whose needs are being served by the legitimization of sex work? Arena Magazine, 44-47.
Jeffreys, S. (2003). The legalisation n. 1. the act of legalizing; same as legalization.
Noun 1. legalisation - the act of making lawful
group action - action taken by a group of people of prostitution: A failed social experiment. Retrieved May 11, 2004, from the World Wide Web: www.sisyphe.org.
Kantola, J., & Squires, J. (2002). Discourses surrounding prostitution policies in the UK. Paper presented at PSA (Professional Services Automation) An information system designed to organize, track and manage all opportunities, work, resources, costs, revenues and invoices to improve the productivity and efficiency of the workforce. Annual Conference, Aberdeen.
Kelly, E. (2002). Journeys of jeopardy: A review of research on trafficking in women and children in Europe. London: Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit, University of North London The University of North London is the name of a former university in the United Kingdom, one of the former Polytechnics. As of 1 August 2002, it became part of the new London Metropolitan University, along with London Guildhall University. , International Organization for Migration.
Kelly, L. (2003). The wrong debate: Reflections on force is not the key issue with respect to trafficking in women for sexual exploitation. Feminist Review: Exile and Asylum--Women Seeking Refuge in "Fortress Europe," 73, 139-144.
Kotnik, E. (2004). Breaking into Australia under false pretenses False representations of material past or present facts, known by the wrongdoer to be false, and made with the intent to defraud a victim into passing title in property to the wrongdoer. : Community attitudes and perceptions towards trafficked women in the sex industry in Australia. Honours Thesis. School of Health & Social Development. Melbourne, Deakin University.
Kvinnoforum. (1999). Crossing borders against trafficking in women and girls: A resource book for working against trafficking in the Baltic Sea Baltic Sea, arm of the Atlantic Ocean, c.163,000 sq mi (422,170 sq km), including the Kattegat strait, its northwestern extension. The Øresund, Store Bælt, and Lille Bælt connect the Baltic Sea with the Kattegat and Skagerrak straits, which lead to the Region. 2nd edition. Sweden: Kvinnoforum.
Levenkron, N., & Dahan, Y. (2003). Women as commodities." Trafficking in women in Israel 2003. Haifa: Hotline for Migrant Workers, Isha L'Isha--Haifa Feminist Center, and Adva Center Adva Center is a non-partisan, action-oriented Israeli policy analysis center.
Adva is the Hebrew word for ripple. It was founded in 1991 by activists from three social movements: the movement for equality for Mizrahi Jews, the feminist movement, and the movement for equal .
Long, L. D. (2004). Anthropological perspectives on the trafficking of women for sexual exploitation. International Migration, 42, 5-31.
Martens, J., Pieczkowski. M., & van Vuuren-Smyth, B. (2003). Seduction Seduction
See also Flirtatiousness.
Selfishness (See CONCEIT, STINGINESS.)
modern Circe; sorceress who seduces Rinaldo. [Ital. Lit.: Jerusalem Delivered]
nobleminded would-be seducer. , sale and slavery: Trafficking in women & children for sexual exploitation in Southern Africa. IOM--International Organization for Migration, Regional Office for Southern Africa, Pretoria, South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. .
Maxim Institute. (2003). Prostitution Reform Bill (2003)--Summary report on the effects of prostitution legalisation in Victoria, Australia. Auckland, New Zealand.
Mirkinson, J. (1997). The global trade in women. Earth Island Journal, 13, 30-31.
O'Brien, N. (2004, Feb 21-22). Bali child sex slaves rescued. The Weekend Australian, pp. 7, 19.
Outshoorn, J. (2002). Legalizing prostitution as sexual service: The case of the Netherlands. Copenhagen: EPCR EPCR Endothelial Protein C Receptor
EPCR Electronic Patient Care Report
EPCR Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know (Act) .
Raymond, J. G. (2001). A comparative study of women trafficked in the migration process: Patterns, profiles and health consequences of sexual exploitation in five countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and the United States). MINCAVA MINCAVA Minnesota Center Against Violence and Abuse . Retrieved April 22, 2003, from the World Wide Web: www.mincava.umn.edu/traffick.asp.
Richard, A. O. (1999). International trafficking in women to the United States: A contemporary, manifestation of slavery, and organized crime. Washington, DC: Center for the Study of Intelligence (CSI CSI Crime Scene Investigator
CSI CompuServe, Inc.
CSI Commodity Systems, Inc.
CSI Commodity Systems Inc. (Boca Raton, FL)
CSI Crime Scene Investigation (CBS TV show)
CSI Christian Schools International ).
Rissel, C. E., Richters, J., Grulich, A. E., de Visser, R. O., & Smith, A. M. (2003). Sex in Australia: Experiences of commercial sex in a representative sample of adults. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 27, 191-197.
Shelley, L. (2003). Trafficking in women: The business model approach. Brown Journal of World Affairs The Brown Journal of World Affairs is an American journal of international relations, published bi-annually at Brown University. It was founded in 1993 as the Brown Journal of Foreign Affairs, in response to the emergence of the post-cold war world order. , 10, 119-131.
Sulavik, C. (2003). Facing down traffickers: Europe takes on its fastest-growing criminal enterprise. Newsweek, Aug 25/Sept. 1, International Edition, 27-28.
United Nations. (2000). Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children supplementing the United Nations Convention against transnational organized crime In 2000 the United Nations adopted the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, also called the Palermo Convention, and the two Palermo Protocols thereto:
United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF]. (2003). Trafficking in human beings, especially women and children, in Africa. Florence: United Nations Children's Fund Innocenti Research Centre.
U.S. Department of State. (2002). Victims of trafficking and violence Protection Act 2000: Trafficking in persons report. Washington, DC: Department of State.
U.S. Department of State. (2003). Trafficking in persons report, June 2003. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: www.state/gov/g./tip/rls/tiprpt/2003.
USAID Office of Women in Development. (1999). Women as chattel chattel (chăt`əl), in law, any property other than a freehold estate in land (see tenure). A chattel is treated as personal property rather than real property regardless of whether it is movable or immovable (see property). : The emerging global market in trafficking. Gender Matters Quarterly, 1, 1-8.
Vanderberg, M. (1997). Trafficking of women to Israel and forced prostitution. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Women's Network.
von Struensee, V. (2000). Globalized, wired, sex trafficking in women and children. Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, 7, 1-10.
Watts, C., & Zimmerman, C. (2002). Violence against women: Global scope and magnitude. Lancet, 359, 1,232-1,237.
Widom, C. S., & Kuhns, J. B. (1996). Childhood victimization victimization Social medicine The abuse of the disenfranchised–eg, those underage, elderly, ♀, mentally retarded, illegal aliens, or other, by coercing them into illegal activities–eg, drug trade, pornography, prostitution. and subsequent risk for promiscuity Promiscuity
See also Profligacy.
constantly flits from one girl to another. [Aust. Drama: Schnitzler Anatol in Benét, 33]
promiscuous goddess of sensual love. [Gk. Myth. , prostitution, and teenage pregnancy teenage pregnancy Adolescent pregnancy, teen pregnancy Social medicine Pregnancy by a ♀, age 13 to 19; TP is usually understood to occur in a ♀ who has not completed her core education–secondary school, has few or no marketable skills, is : A prospective study. American Journal of Public Health The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) is a peer reviewed monthly journal of the American Public Health Association (APHA). The Journal also regularly publishes authoritative editorials and commentaries and serves as a forum for the analysis of health policy. , 86, 1,607-1,612.
Wijers, M., & Lap-Chew, L. (1997). Trafficking in women, forced labour and slavery-like practices in marriage, domestic labour and prostitution. Utrecht and Bangkok: Foundation Against Trafficking in Women (STV STV Single Transferable Vote
STV Star Trek: Voyager
STV Samanyolu TV (Turkey)
STV Satellite Television
STV Scottish Television
STV Stranglethorn Vale (World of Warcraft computer game) ), The Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women.
Yea, S. (2004). Push and pull factors Push factors or pull factors are factors in which would make one individual want to move out of certain areas (called push factors) and factors that would make one person attracted to another area (called pull factors). in trafficking of women: Case studies. Paper presented at the People Trafficking, Human Security and Development Conference. Australian National University Australian National University, located in Canberra and state-sponsored, founded 1946 as Australia's only completely research-oriented university. Originally limited to graduate studies, it expanded in 1960, merging with Canberra University College (est. 1929). . Development Studies Network: Canberra. 1-2 September 2004.
Zimmerman, C., & Watts, C. (2003). WHO ethical and safety recommendations for interviewing trafficked women. Geneva Geneva, canton and city, Switzerland
Geneva (jənē`və), Fr. Genève, canton (1990 pop. 373,019), 109 sq mi (282 sq km), SW Switzerland, surrounding the southwest tip of the Lake of Geneva. Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Zimmerman, C., Yun, K., Shvab, I., Watts, C., Trappolin, L., Treppete, M., et al. (2003). The health risks and consequences of trafficking in women and adolescents. Findings from a European Study. London: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine tropical medicine, study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of certain diseases prevalent in the tropics. The warmth and humidity of the tropics and the often unsanitary conditions under which so many people in those areas live contribute to the development and .
Ben Gurion Ben Gur·i·on , David Originally David Grün. 1886-1973.
Polish-born Israeli political leader. Active in the Zionist movement, he founded the Mapai Party in 1930 and organized the resistance against the British after World War II. University of the Negev, Israel
Deakin University, Australia
Address correspondence to Prof. Julie Cwikel, Director of Ben Gurion University's Center for Women's Health Studies and Promotion, POB PoB - Prisoner of Bill 653, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva Sheva (shē`və), in the Bible.
1 Son of Caleb.
2 David's scribe: see Shavsha. , 84105, Israel; e-mail: jcwikel@ bgumail.bgu.ac.il.