Consumer preference of apples grown in northern Mississippi.
Apples of cultivar/rootstock combination 'Earligold'/EMLA 7, 'Jonagold'/EMLA 111, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA 7, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA 111, 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA 7, 'Jonafree'/Mark, 'Macspur'/M7A, 'Royal Gala'/MM111, and 'William's Pride'/M7A were evaluated by an untrained consumer panel at harvest, 30 days, and 60 days after harvest. Changes in apple appearance, flavor, sweetness, tartness, and firmness were rated. All combinations except 'Jonafree'/Mark and 'Macspur'/M7A had a high acceptance rating by the panelists during the study. Fruit of 'Earligold'/EMLA 7 and 'William's Pride'/M7A had a moderate acceptance by the panelists at harvest. Results indicated that fruit of medium and late cultivars such as 'Improved Golden'/EMLA 7, and 'Royal Gala'/MM111 were preferred by panelists compared to fruit of the early harvested cultivars 'Earligold'/EMLA 7 and 'William's Pride'/M7A.
The consumer traditionally plays a major role in determining fruit acceptability for marketing of fresh and stored fruit (Wills et al., 1998). Consumers' perception of apple quality include such factors as appearance, texture, firmness, sweetness, and flavor with preference and taste being key factors affecting consumer purchase decisions. Growers can improve product attributes, competitiveness, and marketability by using knowledge of consumers demand (Brumfield et al., 1993). Watkins et al. (1993) indicated that in 'York Imperial,' apple fruit firmness and soluble soluble /sol·u·ble/ (sol´u-b'l) susceptible of being dissolved.
Capable of being dissolved, especially easily dissolved. solid contents (SSC SSC Secondary School Certificate
SSC Standard Systems Center (USAF)
SSC State Services Commission (New Zealand)
SSC Swedish Space Corporation
SSC Salem State College (Massachusetts) ) were the best indicators of fruit maturity and quality. Optimal quality for Washington apples was obtained for fruit harvested 173 to 180 days after full bloom full bloom
the stage of a crop when two-thirds of the plants are in flower; the crop is mature. (Plotto et al., 1995). In addition to maintaining high quality standards, good storage life is essential in successful marketing and selling of fruit to consumers (Patte, 1985). Researchers have found that apples can be stored from -1 [degrees]C and 4 [degrees]C for 90 days while maintaining quality (Westwood, 1993). Johnson and Ertan (1983) reported that 'Idared' apples stored at 1 [degrees]C were firmer than those kept at 0 [degrees]C or 4 [degrees]C. Shelf life after storage is also an important aspect of cultivar cultivar
Any variety of a plant, originating through cloning or hybridization (see clone, hybrid), known only in cultivation. In asexually propagated plants, a cultivar is a clone considered valuable enough to have its own name; in sexually propagated plants, a evaluations (Moore and Ballington, 1990). It is important to evaluate apple cultivar acceptance both at harvest and after storage. Many scientists have used taste panels to determine quality of apples and most studies are concerned with preferences or differences among cultivars (Watada et al., 1980). Plotto et al. (1997) and Williams and Langron (1983) have used sensory science such as hedonic he·don·ic
1. Of, relating to, or marked by pleasure.
2. Of or relating to hedonism or hedonists.
[Greek h scales or intensity scales to describe apple cultivars Over 7,500 cultivars of the apple are known. The following is a list of the more common and important cultivars, with the year and place of origin (where documented), and whether each produces cooking apples or dessert apples. . Since the taste evaluations of Janson (1972), little has been published in North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. on taste ratings of apples, especially the newer cultivars. In addition, there is little information on which parameters to use in measuring consumer preference of apples. Apples have many divergent di·ver·gent
1. Drawing apart from a common point; diverging.
2. Departing from convention.
3. Differing from another: a divergent opinion.
4. attributes that are associated with acceptability and/or desirability (Watada et al., 1980). Williams and Langron (1983) conducted a study of attributes that panelists recognized in 'Cox's Orange Pippin' apples and concluded that quality of apples can be characterized best by identifying the significant attributes, and then determining the intensity of such attributes. The purpose of this study was to determine consumer preference for apples based on appearance, flavor, sweetness, tartness, and firmness of fruit at harvest, and after harvest storage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Trees producing fruit for the experiment were seven years old and grown in Atwood silt loam loam, soil composed of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter in evenly mixed particles of various sizes. More fertile than sandy soils, loam is not stiff and tenacious like clay soils. Its porosity allows high moisture retention and air circulation. soil at the Pontotoc Ridge-Flatwoods Research and Extension Center (38[degrees]08 N, 89[degrees]00'W), located seven miles south of Pontotoc, MS. The average annual maximum temperature of this area is 30 [degrees]C (86 [degrees]F) and minimum temperature is -1 [degrees]C (30 [degrees]F), with annual rainfall of 81.23 cm (32 inches). Research trees were planted in 1993 at a spacing of 2.5 m in rows and 3.7 m between rows. Trees were pruned to a modified central leader system. The soil pH was 5.6. In May 1999, a 5-20-20 fertilizer fertilizer, organic or inorganic material containing one or more of the nutrients—mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and other essential elements required for plant growth. was applied at a rate of 450 g per tree, and ammonium nitrate ammonium nitrate, chemical compound, NH4NO3, that exists as colorless, rhombohedral crystals at room temperature but changes to monoclinic crystals when heated above 32°C;. (34-0-0) at a rate of 230 g per tree. No irrigation irrigation, in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice. was applied. Weeds were controlled in the row by application of Round-up[R] herbicide herbicide (hr`bəsīd'), chemical compound that kills plants or inhibits their normal growth. A herbicide in a particular formulation and application can be described as selective or nonselective. in a one meter strip, and a mowed strip was maintained between rows. Insects and diseases were controlled through a spray program as recommended by Mississippi State University Mississippi State University, at Mississippi State, near Starkville; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1878 as an agricultural and mechanical college, opened 1880. From 1932 to 1958 it was known as Mississippi State College. Extension Service.
Fruit from cultivar/rootstock combinations 'Earligold'/EMLA 7, 'Jonagold'/EMLA 111, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA 7, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA 111, 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA 7, 'Jonafree'/Mark, 'Macspur'/M7A, 'Royal Gala'/MM111, and 'Williams Pride'/M7A were included in this study. The experiment consisted of four single tree replications. Fruit quality and sensory evaluations were conducted immediately after harvest, 30 days, and 60 days after storage at 2 [degrees]C and 71% relative humidity relative humidity
The ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air at a specific temperature to the maximum amount that the air could hold at that temperature, expressed as a percentage. (RH). Parameters evaluated were fruit size, expressed as fruit length and diameter, soluble solids content (SSC), juice pH, and firmness. Fruit size was measured using a vernier vernier (vûr`nēr), auxiliary scale, either straight or an arc of a circle, designed to slide along a fixed scale. Its unit divisions, usually smaller than those on the fixed scale, permit a far more precise reading. caliper caliper
Instrument that consists of two adjustable legs or jaws for measuring the dimensions of material parts. Spring calipers have an adjusting screw and nut; firm-joint calipers use friction at the joint to hold the legs unmoving. and fruit firmness was measured using a penetrometer penetrometer /pen·e·trom·e·ter/ (pen?e-trom´e-ter) an instrument for measuring the penetrating power of x-rays.
pen·e·trom·e·ter or pen·e·tram·e·ter
1. (Instron Universal Machine, Model 1011, Canton Canton, cities, United States
1 City (1990 pop. 13,922), Fulton co., W central Ill., in the corn belt; inc. 1849. It is a trade and industrial center for a coal and farm area.
2 Town (1990 pop. 18,530), Norfolk co. , MA) and measured in Newtons. Juice soluble solids content was measured in Brix with a Bausch & Lomb Abbe 3 L refractometer refractometer /re·frac·tom·e·ter/ (re?frak-tom´e-ter)
1. an instrument for measuring the refractive power of the eye.
2. , and juice pH was measured using an Accumet pH meter 925 (Fisher Scientific Fisher Scientific, formally Fisher Scientific International, Inc. and colloquially Fisher was a biotechnology company that provided products and services to the global scientific research and United States clinical laboratory markets. , Pittsburgh, PA).
Five apples from each tree were washed and cut longitudinally and placed on paper plates for panelists to evaluate. A whole apple was also placed on the plate to be evaluated. Twenty-four people among students and staff were chosen at random from Dorman Hall, Plant and Soil Science Department, at Mississippi State University to participate in the test. Each panelist pan·el·ist
A member of a panel.
Noun 1. panelist - a member of a panel
panel - a group of people gathered for a special purpose as to plan or discuss an issue or judge a contest etc rated the apples for appearance, flavor, sweetness, tartness, and firmness using a ten point scale, where 1 = dislike extremely (very low), 5 = neither like or dislike (moderate), and 10 = like extremely (very high).
A completely randomized ran·dom·ize
tr.v. ran·dom·ized, ran·dom·iz·ing, ran·dom·iz·es
To make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment. design with repeated measures was used in the experiment. Data were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. using PROC (language) PROC - The job control language used in the Pick operating system.
["Exploring the Pick Operating System", J.E. Sisk et al, Hayden 1986]. GLM GLM Global Language Monitor
GLM Global Marine (stock symbol)
GLM Graduated Length Method (ski instruction)
GLM Good Looking Mom (used in pediatric practices)
GLM God Loves Me (SAS (1) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, www.sas.com) A software company that specializes in data warehousing and decision support software based on the SAS System. Founded in 1976, SAS is one of the world's largest privately held software companies. See SAS System. Statistical Software, SAS Institute SAS Institute Inc., headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, USA, has been a major producer of software since it was founded in 1976 by Anthony Barr, James Goodnight, John Sall and Jane Helwig. , Gary, N.C.). Treatment means were separated by LSD LSD or lysergic acid diethylamide (lī'sûr`jĭk, dī'ĕth`ələmĭd, dī'ĕthəlăm`ĭd), alkaloid synthesized from lysergic acid, which is found in the fungus ergot ( , 5% significance level.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
At harvest, consumer preference based on fruit appearance did not vary among cultivar/rootstock combinations, except for 'Macspur'/M7A which was least preferred (Table 1). Thirty days after storage, consumer preference for 'Earligold'/EMLA7 and 'Macspur'/M7A, was least. Fruit appearance among the remaining cultivar/rootstock combinations did not differ (Table 2). Sixty days after storage, 'Jonafree'/Mark and 'Macspur'/M7A were least preferred and 'Earligold'/EMLA7 and 'William's Pride'/M7A had completely deteriorated, hence the sensorial sensorial /sen·so·ri·al/ (sen-sor´e-al) pertaining to the sensorium.
Of or relating to sensations or sensory impressions. test for appearance of these cultivars was not possible. Consumer preference based on appearance among the remaining cultivars did not differ and ranged from 6.6 to 7.3 (Table 3). Similarities in preference among most of the cultivars suggest that panelists were consistent in rating the apples. Kappel et al. (1992) reported that in a sensory evaluation, only the visual attributes were found to be significantly different among the strains of 'Gala' and 'Jonagold.' Fruit appearance will be influenced by the intended market and this should be considered when selecting a cultivar for commercial production. Brumfield et al. (1993) reported similar conclusions when looking at consumer tastes and preferences in purchasing fresh tomatoes.
At harvest, consumer preference based on flavor indicated a high preference for 'Jonagold'/EMLA111, and 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7. These combinations were harvested mid and late season. The least preferred by the panelists were 'Jonafree'/Mark and 'Macspur'/M7A. Flavor did not differ among the remaining cultivar/rootstock combinations (Table 1). Thirty days after storage, 'Jonagold'/EMLA111 and 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7 maintained the highest preference rating by the panelists and 'Jonafree'/Mark and 'Macspur'/M7A, the lowest rating (Table 2). Sixty days after storage, 'Earligold'/EMLA7 and 'William's Pride'/M7A could not be tested due to fruit deterioration de·te·ri·o·ra·tion
The process or condition of becoming worse. (Table 3). Similar results were reported by Plotto et al. (1997) where distribution of sensory scores suggested that early harvested fruit had not developed full flavor and that high values for tartness and firmness did not necessarily imply quality and consumer acceptance.
At harvest, consumer preference based on sweetness indicated that 'Earligold'/EMLA7, 'Jonafree'/Mark and 'Macspur'/M7A were the least preferred by the panelists (Table 1). Thirty days after storage, 'Earligold'/EMLA7, 'Jonafree'/Mark, 'Macspur'/M7A, and 'William's Pride'/M7A were least preferred (Table 2). Sixty days after storage, the highest preference rating were for 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7 followed by 'Jonafree'/Mark, 'Jonagold'/EMLA111, 'Royal Gala'/MM111 and 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7, while 'Improved Golden'/EMLA111, 'Jonafree'/Mark, and 'Macspur'/M7A were least preferred. 'Earligold'/EMLA7 and 'William's Pride'/M7A were not tested due to fruit deterioration (Table 3).
At harvest, consumer preference based on tartness showed that 'Jonagold'/EMLA111, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7, 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7, and 'Royal Gala'/MM111 had the highest rating, while 'Jonafree'/Mark had the lowest rating or least preferred (Table 1). Thirty days after storage, preference based on tartness showed that 'Jonagold'/EMLA111, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7 and 'Royal Gala'/MM111 did not differ. The remaining cultivars were least preferred (Table 2). Sixty days after storage, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7 were most preferred, followed by the remaining cultivars, except 'Jonafree'/Mark which was least preferred. Tartness ratings for 'Earligold'/EMLA7 and 'William's Pride'/M7A decreased considerably in storage for 60 days and samples were not evaluated due to fruit deterioration.
At harvest, consumer preference based on firmness showed that 'Jonagold'/EMLA111, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA 111, 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7, 'Royal Gala'/MM111 and 'William's Pride'/M7A did not differ and were preferred compared to 'Jonafree'/Mark and 'Macspur'/M7A. 'Earligold'/EMLA7 was the least preferred (Table 3). Thirty days after storage, 'Jonagold'/EMLA111, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA111, 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7 and 'Royal Gala'/MM111 were most preferred and did not differ, followed by 'Jonafree'/Mark and 'Macspur'/M7A. 'Earligold'/EMLA7 was least preferred. Sixty days after storage, all cultivars were equally rated, except 'Jonafree'/Mark and 'Macspur'/M7A which were least preferred. 'Earligold'/EMLA7 and 'William's Pride'/M7A were not tested due to fruit deterioration. In Canada, it is assumed that consumers find apples with a firmness of less than 44.5 N too soft (Prange et al., 1993). A sensory evaluation of 'McIntosh' in New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of found crispiness crisp·y
adj. crisp·i·er, crisp·i·est
1. Firm but easily broken or crumbled; crisp.
2. Having small curls, waves, or ripples. to be directly related to firmness. Apples with pressure test values of 85.5 N were rated as "crisp, neither too hard nor too soft" by consumers, while those with firmness of 31.5 to 36 N were rated too soft (Lin and King, 1978).
In general, changes in apple preference with time in storage differed among the cultivar/rootstock combinations tested. Such differences are mainly due to differences in the physiological age of fruit at harvest and losses in fruit quality with time in storage (Wang, 1999).
Relating the sensory evaluation to the analytical data of maturity indices at harvest (Table 4), it was found that the highest preference in appearance coincided with greater fruit length (r = 0.77, n = 24) and greater fruit diameter (r = 0.70, n = 24). The least preferred cultivar/rootstock combination, 'Macspur'/M7A, had small fruit. Cultivars intermediate in fruit size, also, maintained a high preference. Factors such as color, fruit shape, and cosmetic appearance were not included in this study, since appearance was based on an overall rating of like or dislike. Such factors must be included considering that most consumers use color as an indicator of ripeness while others look for uniformity of fruit (Brumfield et al., 1993).
Soluble solid content (SSC) and juice pH are commonly used to evaluate fruit flavor. In this study, fruits that had high SSC and high juice pH were not necessarily rated high in flavor, sweetness, and tartness. However, using destructive techniques such as SSC, pH values, and titratable acidity acidity /acid·i·ty/ (-i-te) the quality of being acid; the power to unite with positively charged ions or with basic substances.
The state, quality, or degree of being acid. , insures a minimum of quality acceptability for the consumer (Kader, 1999). In comparing firmness at harvest using a penetrometer and firmness by the panelists, it was evident that the more acceptable cultivars by the panelists were firmer at harvest. Two months after harvest, the most preferred cultivars in the sensory test (all the parameters considered) had the highest SSC, juice pH, and firmness values (Table 4). In addition, fruit deterioration of 'Earligold'/EMLA7 and 'William's Pride'/M7A two months after harvest, coincided with the lowest SSC, juice pH, and firmness values of these cultivars which reflected loss of fruit quality due to senescence senescence /se·nes·cence/ (se-nes´ens) the process of growing old, especially the condition resulting from the transitions and accumulations of the deleterious aging processes.
In general, this study identified 'Royal Gala'/MM111, 'Jonagold'/EMLA111, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7, 'Improved Golden'/EMLA111, and 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7, as the most preferred cultivars both at harvest and after storage. 'Jonafree'/Mark and 'Macspur'/M7A were the least acceptable cultivars for fresh fruit consumption. 'Jonafree' and 'Macspur' are progenies of cultivars traditionally used for baking, therefore, such findings are not surprising. Early harvested cultivars 'Earligold'/EMLA7 and 'William's Pride'/M7A were identified as having poor keeping quality in storage and may be more suitable for the immediate fresh market or short time storage. The consistency in panelists' preference as measured by appearance, flavor, sweetness, tartness, and firmness indicates that such parameters are adequate to determine consumer acceptance.
Table 1. Panelists' ratings of various sensory parameters as influenced by cultivar at harvest, 1999. Parameter (y) Cultivar Appearance Flavor Sweetness Tartness Firmness 'Earligold'/EMLA7 7.8 a (x) 6.0 c 5.2 bc 5.6 bcd 4.0 c 'Jonagold'/EMLA111 8.0 a 8.0 a 7.1 a 7.2 a 7.5 a 'Improved Golden'/ 8.0 a 8.0 a 7.5 a 7.3 a 8.0 a EMLA7 'Improved Golden'/ 8.0 a 7.0 b 6.9 a 5.9 bc 7.5 a EMLA111 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7 8.0 a 7.0 b 5.9 a 6.4 ab 7.5 a 'Jonafree'/Mark 8.0 a 5.5 d 5.3 bc 5.1 d 5.1 b 'Macspur'/M7A 6.8 b 5.6 d 5.5 b 5.3 b 5.3 b 'Royal Gala'/MM111 8.0 a 7.5 ab 6.8 a 6.8 ab 8.0 a 'William's Pride'/M7A 8.0 a 6.5 bc 6.7 a 6.0 bc 7.0 a (x) Means in columns separated by Duncan's Multiple Range Test, P < 0.05. Means with the same letter do not differ (y) Parameters were rated on a 10 point scale, where 1 = dislike extremely, and 10 = like extremely Table 2. Panelists' ratings of various sensory parameters as influenced by cultivar at 30 days storage time, 1999. Parameter (y) Cultivar Appearance Flavor Sweetness Tartness Firmness 'Earligold'/EMLA7 5.5 b (x) 5.9 b 4.4 c 4.5 c 4.5 c 'Jonagold'/EMLA111 7.5 a 7.6 a 6.7 a 6.8 a 6.8 a 'Improved Golden'/ 7.5 a 7.8 a 7.3 a 7.1 a 7.1 a EMLA7 'Improved Golden'/ 6.6 a 6.9 b 6.8 a 5.9 bc 6.9 a EMLA111 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7 7.5 a 6.7 b 6.5 a 6.0 ab 6.0 ab 'Jonafree'/Mark 7.0 a 5.0 c 5.0 b 4.4 c 5.4 b 'Macspur'/M7A 5.5 a 5.2 c 5.0 b 4.8 cd 5.0 b 'Royal Gala'/MM111 7.0 a 7.0 ab 6.7 a 6.2 ab 7.2 a 'William's Pride'/M7A 6.6 a 5.9 b 5.4 b 4.8 c 4.8 c (x) Means in columns separated by Duncan's Multiple Range Test, P < 0.05. Means with the same letter do not differ (y) Parameters were rated on a ten point scale, where 1 = dislike extremely, and 10 = like extremely Table 3. Panelists' ratings of various sensory parameters as influenced by cultivars at 60 days storage time, 1999. Parameter (y) Cultivar Appearance Flavor Sweetness Tartness Firmness 'Earligold'/EMLA7 -- (z) -- -- -- -- 'Jonagold'/EMLA111 7.1 a (x) 6.8 a 6.3 a 5.8 b 6.8 a 'Improved Golden'/ 6.6 a 7.2 a 6.8 a 6.9 a 7.3 a EMLA7 'Improved Golden'/ 6.6 a 6.6 a 5.4 b 5.9 b 7.0 a EMLA111 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7 6.9 a 6.5 a 6.1 a 5.8 b 6.6 a 'Jonafree'/Mark 5.3 b 4.5 b 6.5 a 4.0 c 4.5 b 'Macspur'/M7A 5.5 b 5.1 b 4.4 c 4.5 b 4.8 b 'Royal Gala'/MM111 7.3 a 6.7 a 6.5 a 6.2 ab 6.8 a 'Williams Pride'/M7A -- (z) -- -- -- -- (x) Means in columns separated by Duncan's Mulitple Range Test, P < 0.05. Means with the same letter do not differ (y) Parameters were rated on a 10 point scale, where 1 = dislike extremely, and 10 = like extremely (z) No data presented due to fruit deterioration Table 4. Maturity indices of apple cultivars measured at harvest time, 1999. Cultivar Diameter (cm) Length (cm) 'Earligold'/EMLA7 67.8 b 59.7 bc 'Jonagold'/EMLA111 75.5 a 63.3 a 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7 67.4 b 62.5 ab 'Improved Golden'/EMLA111 63.3 b 56.8 c 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7 64.6 b 58.2 c 'Jonafree'/Mark 56.3 c 45.7 d 'Macspur'/MM111 57.5 c 46.2 d 'Royal Gala'/MM111 65.6 b 59.1 c 'William's Pride'/M7A 74.1 a 60.3 abc Cultivar SSC ([degrees]Brix) pH Firm (N) 'Earligold'/EMLA7 12.8 c 3.63 bc 84.8 d 'Jonagold'/EMLA111 13.9 ab 3.6 c 113.7 c 'Improved Golden'/EMLA7 14.1 a 3.7 b 132.9 bc 'Improved Golden'/EMLA111 14.1 a 3.7 b 145.5 b 'Scarlet Gala'/EMLA7 13.9 ab 3.75 b 151.2 ab 'Jonafree'/Mark 14.4 a 3.45 d 156.0 a 'Macspur'/MM111 13.4 b 3.4 d 134.3 bc 'Royal Gala'/MM111 13.5 b 3.86 a 133.5 bc 'William's Pride'/M7A 13.9 ab 3.84 ab 98.5 d Means separated (by letters) in columns by Duncan's multiple range test, P > 0.05
Thanks to Dr. Clarence Watson for his time and assistance with the statistical analysis of data, and to the panelists for their support in the sensory evaluations in this study.
Brumfield, R.G., A.O. Adelaja, and K. Lininger. 1993. Consumer tastes, preferences, and behavior in purchasing fresh tomatoes. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 118(3):433-438.
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Frequency of breathing, expressed as the number of breaths per minute. of storage quality of 'Idared' apples. J. Hort. Sci. 58:527-533.
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said of meat. See curing. , and quality relationships. Prov. Inst. Symp. on effect of pre- and postharvest factors on storage of fruit. Acta Hort. 485:203-208.
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Moore, J.N., and J.R. Ballington Jr. 1990. Genetic resources of temperate temperate /tem·per·ate/ (tem´per-at) restrained; characterized by moderation; as a temperate bacteriophage, which infects but does not lyse its host.
adj. fruit and nut Fruit and Nut some times known as Cadbury Fruit And Nut Bars are bars of milk chocolate with raisins and almonds which are made by Cadbury and based on their solid Dairy Milk bar, but containing nuts and raisins. crops I, International Society for Horticultural hor·ti·cul·ture
1. The science or art of cultivating fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental plants.
2. The cultivation of a garden. Science. Wageningen, The Netherlands. 980 pp.
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Watkins, C.B., P.L. Brookfiel, and F.R. Harker. 1993. Development of maturity indices for the 'Fuji' apple cultivar in relation to watercore incidence. Acta Hort. 326:267-275.
Westwood, M.N. 1993. Temperate-Zone Pomology po·mol·o·gy
The scientific study and cultivation of fruit.
[Latin pmum, fruit + -logy. 3rd ed. Timber Press. Portland, Oregon. 523 pp.
Williams, A.A., and S.P. Langron. 1983. Influence of different controlled atmospheres A controlled atmosphere is an agricultural storage method. An atmosphere in which oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations are regulated, as well as temperature and humidity.
Two major classes of commodity can be stored in controlled atmosphere.
1. and poststorage temperatures on the acceptability of Cox's Orange Pippin and Suntan apples. J. Sci. Food. Agr. 34:1375-1382.
Wills, R.B.H., T.H. Lee, D. Graham, W.B. McGlasson, and E.G E.G For Example . Hall. 1998. Postharvest. An introduction to the physiology physiology (fĭzēŏl`əjē), study of the normal functioning of animals and plants during life and of the activities by which life is maintained and transmitted. It is based fundamentally on the activities of protoplasm. and handling of fruits and vegetables. New South Wales New South Wales, state (1991 pop. 5,164,549), 309,443 sq mi (801,457 sq km), SE Australia. It is bounded on the E by the Pacific Ocean. Sydney is the capital. The other principal urban centers are Newcastle, Wagga Wagga, Lismore, Wollongong, and Broken Hill. University Press. The AVI Publishing Company Inc., Westport, Conn. 262 pp.
Maria J. Sindoni (2), Frank B. Matta (3,4), and Juan L. Silva sil·va also syl·va
n. pl. sil·vas or sil·vae
1. The trees or forests of a region.
2. A written work on the trees or forests of a region. (5)
(2) Instituto National de Investigacion Agropecuaria (INIA)- Anzoategui, Venezuela; (3) Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762; and (5) Department of Food Science and Technology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762
(1) Approved for publication as Journal Article No. 10569 of the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State University.
(4) Author for Correspondence: Box 9555, 117 Dorman Hall; Fmatta@pss.msstate.edu