Construction Ahead for PRW Industry As Business Booms -- or Doesn't.North American North American
named after North America.
North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.
North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus. operators eager to build new facilities, even though they report inventories and turnover relatively flat. Asians even more eager, despite slow turnover and inventories. European European
emanating from or pertaining to Europe.
European bat lyssavirus
European beech tree
see cryptococcosis. construction needs to catch up to demand.
Build we must. That's what refrigerated re·frig·er·ate
tr.v. re·frig·er·at·ed, re·frig·er·at·ing, re·frig·er·ates
1. To cool or chill (a substance).
2. To preserve (food) by chilling. warehouse operators are saying around the globe. Even in Europe Europe (yr`əp), 6th largest continent, c.4,000,000 sq mi (10,360,000 sq km) including adjacent islands (1992 est. pop. 512,000,000). , where construction plans are the most modest, operators representing half the survey sample plan to build new facilities for -29 [degrees] C storage.
In North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. , operators representing 22% of the sample plan to build new -29 [degrees] C warehouses, and 51% new -18 [degrees] facilities. Rates are 23% and 42% in the same categories for planned additions, and this despite the fact that 72.8% of the weighted sample sees turnover remaining the same and 44.4% projects the same for inventories.
Projected construction for 2001 is running far ahead of that a year ago, when only six percent of the North American sample planned new -29 [degrees] and 15% new -18 [degrees] facilities. The rate of planned new construction is also up in Asia and the Pacific Rim Pacific Rim, term used to describe the nations bordering the Pacific Ocean and the island countries situated in it. In the post–World War II era, the Pacific Rim has become an increasingly important and interconnected economic region. , at 34% for -29 [degrees] C and 62% for -18 [degrees] C projects, compared to 25% each in last year's survey returns.
In Asia and the Pacific Rim, PRW "Parents are watching." See digispeak. operators are busy with construction plans (34% for -29 [degrees] units, 62% for -18 [degrees] C), even though only 38% of the weighted sample there reported turnover and inventories on the upswing Upswing
An upward turn in a security's price after a period of falling prices. . In Europe, where some warehouses are bulging bulge
1. A protruding part; an outward curve or swelling.
2. Nautical A bilge.
3. A sudden, usually temporary increase in number or quantity: at the seams (71% of the weighted sample reports upward trends in inventories and turnover), 50% of the weighted sample plans new construction of -29 [degrees] C facilities -- but there is little interest in construction or additions in higher-temperature units.
IARW IARW International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses Likes What It Sees
In North America, there were also increases in purchasing plan rates for any number of staple 1. (language) STAPLE - A programming language written at Manchester (University?) and used at ICL in the early 1970s for writing the test suites. STAPLE was based on Algol 68 and had a very advanced optimising compiler.
2. equipment items. Some 89% of the weighted sample plans to buy standard racks this year, for example, compared to 59% last year. Ammonia ammonia, chemical compound, NH3, colorless gas that is about one half as dense as air at ordinary temperatures and pressures. It has a characteristic pungent, penetrating odor. compressors are being eyed by 85% of the sample, versus 24% last year, and polyurethane polyurethane
Any of a class of very versatile polymers that are made into flexible and rigid foams, fibres, elastomers (elastic polymers), surface coatings, and adhesives. panel insulation insulation (ĭn'səlā`shən, ĭn'sy–), use of materials or devices to inhibit or prevent the conduction of heat or of electricity. by 36% versus 20%.
"In almost all categories of the survey, we see continued expansion of the PRW industry," said William William, crown prince of Germany
William or Frederick William, 1882–1951, crown prince of Germany, son of William II. In World War I he commanded (1914) an army on the Western Front and was nominal commander in the German attack T. Gee, chairman of the International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses The International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses(IARW) came into existence in 1891 when a number of conventional warehouse men took on the demands of storing perishable food and soon realized the increased challenge and complexity of operating temperature controlled storage (IARW), which co-sponsors the Global Frozen Foods Refrigerated Services Trade Survey with Quick Frozen Foods International. "It is evident that the strong reliance on the PRW industry by the food companies continues to grow. It is encouraging to see that the industry continues to add value to the food distribution chain."
"As chairman of the IARW Trends Committee, I am very interested in these figures and what they imply for the future of the PRW industry," commented Gregory P. Hanson Hanson may refer to:
Although the returns from Europe were fragmentary frag·men·tar·y
Consisting of small, disconnected parts: a picture that emerges from fragmentary information.
frag compared to those from the two other regions, Theo W.M. van Sambeeck, the IARW's European Division director, thought that at least some of the responses confirmed significant trends. Automatic rack purchases are planned by 54% of the sample, for example, and European PRWs need them because they are moving more into distribution -- which means getting the goods in and out as quickly as possible.
As for construction plans being limited almost entirely to -29 [degrees] C warehouses, he said, this reflects a trend to deep-frozen as opposed to refrigerated storage -- bananas ba·nan·as
Crazy: "That's the horrible thing when you're bananas don't rule the racks any more. Van Sambeeck also considered it significant that one of the applications of computers showing the greatest increase is energy management. Only 17% of the warehouses in the weighted sample had implemented computerized computerized
adapted for analysis, storage and retrieval on a computer.
computerized axial tomography
see computed tomography. energy management at the time of the survey, but the projected rate for the near future was 71%. A number of European countries are mandating energy management, he said, and PRWs have to get with the program.
Some anomalies in the 2001 survey surely reflect changes in the sample base, especially for Asia and the Pacific Rim, where some statistics -- especially for computer utilization -- show a steep drop from last year. That was because China, which has a lot more warehouses than Japan, weighed in this year. Chinese warehouses are smaller than average, and not as well equipped -- yet, as construction plans attest To solemnly declare verbally or in writing that a particular document or testimony about an event is a true and accurate representation of the facts; to bear witness to. To formally certify by a signature that the signer has been present at the execution of a particular writing so as , the Chinese PRW industry is optimistic op·ti·mist
1. One who usually expects a favorable outcome.
2. A believer in philosophical optimism.
op about the future even if current inventories are off.
The Asia-Pacific Rim response this year included PRW operators from Australia and India as well as China and Japan, while one operator from South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. was thrown in with Europe because there was no other place to put it. Most European respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were small companies with one to four warehouses, and that may have biased the results. Van Sambeeck doubted, for example, that cross docking is actually as prevalent in Europe as shown in the sample. On the other hand, the 71% weighted response for growing inventories and turnover finds support elsewhere.
Vacant space is hard to find in European coldstores these days, at least in the Netherlands, which is a port of entry for the entire continent. Eurofrigo, a Dutch unit of Japan's Nichirei, reported last winter (QFFI QFFI Quick Frozen Foods International , January 2001) that its facilities were so full that it just couldn't take any more meat, fish or french fries French fry
A thin strip of potato fried in deep fat. Often used in the plural. . Part of the reason was that it had to turn over one of its coldstores to sister company HIWA, which didn't have enough room for all the orange juice concentrate coming in from Brazil.
Kloosterboer, another Dutch cold storage company, expanded one of its Rotterdam facilities by 60,000 meters last year for a total of 285,000 -- but it too is finding it hard to keep up with demand and is putting another 60,000-cubic meter addition onto its 925,000-cubic meter warehouse at Vlissingen to better compete for the frozen orange juice Noun 1. frozen orange juice - orange juice that has been concentrated and frozen
concentrate - a concentrated form of a foodstuff; the bulk is reduced by removing water
orange juice - bottled or freshly squeezed juice of oranges business. The company also runs a 70,000-cubic meter juice blending operation. Indications are that the Dutch situation parallels that elsewhere in Europe, where major PRW chains are reportedly expanding their operations.
There are a number of areas in which purchasing plans by PRWs in Europe are running ahead of last year's. For example, 71% plan to buy polyurethane insulation panels this year compared to 60% last year, and 54% are looking for Looking for
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. screw screw, simple machine consisting essentially of a solid cylinder, usually of metal, around which an inclined plane winds spirally, either clockwise or counterclockwise. compressors (none last year)and 58% for condensers (50% last year). Air curtain
Planned purchases in North America for ammonia (85%) and screw (82%)compressors are way ahead of those for 2000 (24% and 19%), and there is also more interest in standard items like condensers (77% versus 34%), coils (76% vs. 49%) and fans and blowers (77% vs 36%). North Americans also want more lift trucks and doors of all kinds.
When it comes to computer usage, North American figures are probably more reliable than others because so many more companies responded than from those other regions. Even so, some of the changes may reflect changes in the sample as much as actual trends.
For example, 80% reported that they have bar coding technology now, compared to just 23% last year. The fact that 20% now report using desktop computers compared to 45% last year might indicate a big rush into networking, but the percentage for networked desktops this year is 74%, only a little ahead of 71% last year.
Still, the across the board gains for computer utilization in areas that were previously neglected like management information systems (97% versus 52%), traffic and routing (73% versus 23%) and energy management (85% versus 48%) must surely have a basis in reality. Moreover, 75% of the North American sample now reports having logistics software packages, compared to 33% a year ago.
Public refrigerated warehouses need to talk to their customers and suppliers, and increasingly they do it through computer connections like EDS (Electronic Data Systems, Plano, TX, www.eds.com) Founded in 1962 by H. Ross Perot (independent candidate for the President of the U.S. in 1992), EDS is the largest outsourcing and data processing services organization in the country. and WINS. The percentage for North Ameriac is 96% this year compared to 83% a year ago, although fax usage has also increased from 93% to 97%. Direct links with both customers and suppliers are way up as well.
Remember telexes? They're still listed on the survey form, but few use them any more. And more and more refrigerated warehouses are on the Internet Internet
Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the , which they use for everything from e-mail, advertising and marketing, and posting e-brochures to logistics management Logistics Management is that part of Supply Chain Management that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective, forward, and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet , market research, checking out prices on hardware they want to buy, and even services like customer access to inventories.
Service is more and more important to the PRW industry. More and more refrigerated warehouses around the world are offering on-site freezing: 89% in North America, 92% in Europe and 97% in Asia and the Pacific Rim. On-site repacking is also on the upswing, with 96%in Asia and the Pacific Rim, 74%in North America and 75% in Europe now engaged.
On the other hand, rental of processing space (78%)shows up only among North American facilities this year. Moreover, there has been little or no increase -- except in North America -- in the number of warehouses renting office space to customers or others. Rates went from 41% to 86% and from 34% to 72%, respectively, for those services in North America.
Cross docking is almost universal among PRW operators, and that didn't change this year. Direct sales, never a popular option, didn't gain any popularity this year. But a few operators mentioned additional services, such as weight verification, meat inspection, sampling, pick-and-pack, customs and export services, etc.
Everybody wants to have some proof of quality and performance, but once-touted programs like ECR ECR Efficient Consumer Response
ECR European Congress of Radiology
ECR Electron Cyclotron Resonance
ECR El Camino Real (Kings Highway; California)
ECR Electronic Cash Register
ECR East Coast Radio (South Africa) and TQM (Total Quality Management) An organizational undertaking to improve the quality of manufacturing and service. It focuses on obtaining continuous feedback for making improvements and refining existing processes over the long term. See ISO 9000. seem to have fallen by the wayside. HACCP HACCP
hazard analysis critical control points. (Hazard Analysis A hazard analysis is a process used to characterize the elements of risk. The results of a hazard analysis is the identification of unacceptable risks and the selection of means of controlling or eliminating them. , Critical Control Points) is by far the favorite, especially in the USA -- where it has government sanction sanction, in law and ethics, any inducement to individuals or groups to follow or refrain from following a particular course of conduct. All societies impose sanctions on their members in order to encourage approved behavior. . ISO (1) See ISO speed.
(2) (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, www.iso.ch) An organization that sets international standards, founded in 1946. The U.S. member body is ANSI. programs get a lot of support in Europe and Asia and the Pacific Rim, but rated a lowly low·ly
adj. low·li·er, low·li·est
1. Having or suited for a low rank or position.
2. Humble or meek in manner.
3. Plain or prosaic in nature.
1. 11% participation in North America for the second year in a row.
Back to School in Leuven
European coldstore operators honed their skills last month at the annual Education Day and Strategy Day in Leuven, Belgium, sponsored by the IARW's sister group, the World Food Logistics Organization (WFLO WFLO World Food Logistics Organization (Alexandria, Virginia) ). Marketing of logistics services, which is far more advanced in North America than in Europe -- Van Sambeeck estimated that three quarters of European operations are still strictly in the storage business -- was a prime topic.
Other subjects covered at the two-day affair included the burgeoning of the foodservice (catering) market, applied technologies like automated au·to·mate
v. au·to·mat·ed, au·to·mat·ing, au·to·mates
1. To convert to automatic operation: automate a factory.
2. order picking on a layer-by-layer basis, an update on the Internet and e-logistics, and the possible threat to the PRW industry of multinational transportation companies setting up their own warehouses. There were workshops on everything from warehouse construction to blast freezing blast freezing
a method of freezing poultry in which the carcasses are subjected to temperatures of -40°F in a blast tunnel for 2 to 3 hours. techniques and energy management.
There was at least one fringe Fringe (optics)
One of the light or dark bands produced by interference or diffraction of light. Distances between fringes are usually very small, because of the short wavelength of light. idea floated at the get-together: Frank van Dijk van Dijk can refer to:
RBK Rosenborg Ballklub (Football Team In Norway)
RBK Russell Brennan Keane (chartered accountants) Group argued the case for using carbon dioxide carbon dioxide, chemical compound, CO2, a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is about one and one-half times as dense as air under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure. as a refrigerant re·frig·er·ant
1. Cooling or freezing; refrigerating.
2. Reducing fever.
1. A substance, such as air, ammonia, water, or carbon dioxide, used to provide cooling either as the working substance of in place of ammonia as well as freon Freon (frē`ŏn) [trade name], any one of a special class of chemical compounds that are used as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, and solvents. These compounds are haloalkanes, i.e., halogen derivatives of saturated hydrocarbons (see alkane). . It would be cheaper, he said, as well as safer and better for the environment.
One of the guest speakers was Thomas (language) Thomas - A language compatible with the language Dylan(TM). Thomas is NOT Dylan(TM).
The first public release of a translator to Scheme by Matt Birkholz, Jim Miller, and Ron Weiss, written at Digital Equipment Corporation's Cambridge Research Laboratory runs Schachner, McDonald's Europe director of distribution and logistics, who explained how the fast food chain maintains the cold chain even in Third World countries -- but may have had other things on his mind (See Mad Cow disease mad cow disease: see prion.
mad cow disease
or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)
Fatal neurodegenerative disease of cattle. Symptoms include behavioral changes (e.g. coverage elsewhere this issue). Besides the educational programs, there was a trade show that gave PRW operators a chance to meet suppliers of products and services to the industry.
WAREHOUSE CONSTRUCTION PLANS, 2001 By Percentage of Regional Facilities Asia/ North Pacific America Europe Grand Activity Rim Total & Africa Total New Construction Warehouse -29 [degrees] C 34% 22% 50% 35% Warehouse -18 [degrees] C 62% 51% 4% 39% Warehouse 0 [degrees] C 50% 13% 4% 22% Office -- 9% -- 3% Other -- -- 4% 1% Additions Warehouse -29 [degrees] C -- 23% 17% 13% Warehouse -18 [degrees] C 3% 42% -- 15% Warehouse 0 [degrees] C -- 4% 4% 3% Office -- 4% 4% 3% Other -- -- -- -- Renovations Warehouse -29 [degrees] C -- -- -- -- Warehouse -18 [degrees] C -- 8% -- 3% Warehouse 0 [degrees] C -- 4% -- 1% Office -- -- -- -- Other -- -- -- -- Net Freezer Space Gain 65% 59% 4% 43% Source: Quick Frozen Foods International; * Responses insufficient to draw meaningful conclusion MATERIALS HANDLING PURCHASING PLANS, 2000 By Percentage of Regional Facilities Asia/ Europe Grand Pacific North & Item Rim America Africa Total Racks Standard 3% 89% 21% 38% Gravity -- 18% -- 6% Automatic 34% 2% 54% 30% Other -- 1% -- .3% Conveyor Systems 34% -- 54% 29% Conveyor Belts -- -- 4% 1% Cranes 62% 1% 4% 22% Pallets 96% 42% 58% 65% Slip Sheets -- 35% -- 12% Metal Dock Boards 34% 26% 54% 38% Lift Trucks 37% 95% 63% 65% Lift Truck Batteries 34% 53% 63% 50% Battery Rechargers 34% 46% 63% 48% Doors Automatic 3% 72% 29% 35% Mechanical 96% 54% 46% 65% Manual 62% 68% 4% 45% Air Curtains 96% 82% 46% 75% Plastic Strip Curtains 99% 73% 75% 82% Dock Locks 35% 77% 54% 55% Source: Quick Frozen Foods International Turnover Trends Down Up Same Combined 1% 44% 48% Europe/Africa 71% 8% 0% USA 1% 23% 73% Asia/Pacific Rim 0% 38% 62% Note: Table made from a bar graph. Inventory Trends Down Up Same Combined 37% 19% 16% Europe/Africa 8% 71% 4% USA 42% 14% 44% Asia/Pacific Rim 0% 38% 62% Note: Table made from a bar graph. INSULATION PURCHASING PLANS, 2001 Percentage of Regional Facilities Asia/ North Europe Grand Item Pacific Rim America & Africa Total Polyurethane Panels 99% 36% 71% 69% Polyurethane Sheets -- 18% 33% 17% Polyurethane Foam 34% 15% -- 16% Styrene Panels 34% 3% 42% 26% Styrene Sheets -- 18% -- 6% Styrene Misc. -- 12%(*) -- 4% Glass Fiber Sheet 34% 2% 42% 16% Glass Fiber Misc. -- 12%(*) -- 4% (*) pipe Source: Quick Frozen Foods International REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT, 2001 By Percentage of Regional Facilities Asia/ Pacific North Europe Grand Item Rim America & Africa Total Compressors Ammonia 34% 85% 63% 61% Fluorocarbon 65% 1% 8% 25% Screw 34% 82% 54% 57% Reciprocating 99% 6% 50% 52% Packaged -- 12% 17% 10% Central -- 13% 33% 15% Condensers 34% 77% 58% 56% Coils 34% 76% 50% 60% Fans/Blowers 99% 77% 50% 75% Source: Quick Frozen Foods International COMPUTER FACILITIES, 2001 By Percentage of Regional Facilities Asia/ North Europe Grand Pacific Rim America & Africa Total Status: Own Mainframe 34% 75% 71% 60% Shared Mainframe -- 14% 4% 6% Mini Computer 34% 20% 63% 39% Desktops 37% 20% 41% 33% Networked Desktops 34% 74% 58% 55% Bar Coding Technology 35% 80% 58% 58% Plans: Upgrade System 4% 41% 29% 25% Replace System -- 5% 4% 3% Add Terminals 1% 13% 29% 14% Get Hardware 1% 9% -- 3% Get Software 1% 21% 13% 24% Utilization: Mgt. Info. Systems (MIS) 37% 97% 71% 68% Traffic Routing 37% 73% 88% 66% Energy Management 37% 85% 67% 63% Payroll 99% 97% 79% 72% Analysis Modeling 37% 92% 92% 74% Logistics Package 37% 75% 50% 54% Source: Quick Frozen Foods International SERVICES/QUALITY CONTROL, 2001 By Percentage of Regional Facilities Asia/ North Europe Grand Asia/Pacific Rim Pacific Rim America & Africa Total Freezing 97% 89% 92% 94% Repacking 96% 74% 75% 82% Rent Processing Space -- 78% -- 26% Rent Offices (customers) 97% 86% 17% 67% Rent Offices (other) 96% 72% 8% 59% Direct Sales -- 2% -- 1% ECR/TQM Programs -- 13% -- 4% Cross-Docking 97% 77% 75% 83% ISO 100% 11% 83% 65% HACCP 100% 83% 75% 86% Other -- 9% -- 3% Source: Quick Frozen Foods International COMMUNICATIONS, 2001 Percentage of Regional Facilities Asia/ North Europe & Grand Systems Pacific Rim America Africa Total Computer/Modem 37% 96% 75% 69% Fax 98% 97% 63% 67% Direct Suppliers 37% 63% 71% 86% Direct Customers 37% 92% 87% 72% Source: Quick Frozen Foods International Worldwide Top 20 Refrigerated IARW Refrigerated Warehouse Operations Member/Facility Country Subtotal (cubic feet) AmeriCold Logistics USA CS Integrated/Frigoscandia CS Integrated USA 175,958,000 Frigoscandia Europe 191,337,360 Total CS Integrated/Frigoscandia Millard Refrigerated Services USA Nichirei Corporation Nichirei Japan 123,110,000 Eurofrigo/Hiwa Europe 31,856,000 Total Nichirei Corporation John Swire & Sons Ltd. United States Cold Storage USA 105,000,000 Frigomobile Australia 9,326,000 Woodmason Australia 14,773,000 South Australian Cold Storage Australia 8,223,350 Swire Pacific cold Storage Vietnam 1,059,441 Total John Swire & Sons Atlas Cold Storage Atlas Cold Storage USA 66,544,491 Atlas Cold Storage Canada 50,562,239 Total Atlas Cold Storage P&O Cold Logistics P&O Cold Logistics Australia 32,900,000 P&O Cold Logistics New Zealand 6,200,000 P&O Cold Logistics Argentina 6,600,000 P&O Cold Logistics USA 50,000,000 Total P&O Cold Logistics Christian Salvesen United Kingdom MUK Logistics Germany Versacold USA 3,544,568 Versacold Canada 54,455,432 Total Versacold Nordic Refrigerated Services USA ColumbiaColstor, Inc. USA Interstate Warehousing USA Burris Refrigerated Logistics USA Total Logistic Control USA Henningsen Cold Storage USA Zero Mountain USA Gruppo Marconi Italy Hanson Cold Storage USA Cloverleaf Cold Storage USA TOTAL TOP 20 Member/Facility World Totals cubic feet meters AmeriCold Logistics 479,182,000 13,568,997 CS Integrated/Frigoscandia CS Integrated Frigoscandia Total CS Integrated/Frigoscandia 367,295,360 10,400,703 Millard Refrigerated Services 191,840,000 5,432,333 Nichirei Corporation Nichirei Eurofrigo/Hiwa Total Nichirei Corporation 154,966,000 4,387,900 John Swire & Sons Ltd. United States Cold Storage Frigomobile Woodmason South Australian Cold Storage Swire Pacific cold Storage Total John Swire & Sons 138,381,791 3,918,557 Atlas Cold Storage Atlas Cold Storage Atlas Cold Storage Total Atlas Cold Storage 117,106,730 3,316,111 P&O Cold Logistics P&O Cold Logistics P&O Cold Logistics P&O Cold Logistics P&O Cold Logistics Total P&O Cold Logistics 96,200,000 2,726,046 Christian Salvesen 84,592,964 2,395,419 MUK Logistics 68,774,940 1,947,500 Versacold Versacold Total Versacold 58,000,000 1,642,386 Nordic Refrigerated Services 47,730,000 1,351,570 ColumbiaColstor, Inc. 44,480,375 1,259,684 Interstate Warehousing 39,300,232 1,112,865 Burris Refrigerated Logistics 34,235,472 969,446 Total Logistic Control 33,736,703 955,443 Henningsen Cold Storage 32,839,637 929,920 Zero Mountain 30,444,000 862,083 Gruppo Marconi 28,251,580 800,000 Hanson Cold Storage 26,608,150 753,463 Cloverleaf Cold Storage 23,431,660 663,514 TOTAL TOP 20 2,097,397,594 59,393,940
About This Survey
This article is based on 39 responses to Quick Frozen Foods International's Annual Global Refrigerated Services Survey of members of the International Association of Refrigerated Warehouses and other coldstore operators around the world. The editors wish to thank IARW President J. William Hudson People named William Hudson include: