Conceptual model of leadership.Introduction
Life structure involving human beings in running their life needs the present of a leader because human being, with various characteristic, need a condusive situation in running their live and living. It needs, of course, a leader who can lead groups of human beings. A leader is like a head of all body organs. He or she a strategic role and design regulation, and movement. His or her skill in leading can direct human being to the achievable goal.
Leadership concept based on power has descended an interesting attention to be discussed as long as developmental evolution of managerial thinking. The concept of power is very close to the leadership concept. The power is a facility for the leader to affect the behaviors of his or her follower. The leader should not only measure his or her leadership in order to understand how he or her affects other people but also observe his or her position and how he or she uses his or her power. Every organization, whatever form and name it is, is a system which enables everyone to develop his or her power to do something or do not do anything. Every leader is someone who is supposed to conduct some kinds of powers inside or over an organization.
In a perspective, a leader is something fundamental. He or she placed at the top of the people's buildings. In the collective life and people's building, the leader has determined position towards the journey of his or her followers. This article reveals the leadership conceptual model based of thinking framework started by leadership definition, elements, styles, human's interest, good leadership, situational leadership, authority/ power, the leader's personal characteristics, how to motivate subordination, and how to choose the leader.
Proposition submitted is that an organization can be successful or Unsuccessful, most of it, is determined by the leadership. The leader who is responsible for the failure of the job application. It explicitly places the position of the leader in an organization in the most important position.
The leadership in this article is meant as authority's application and decision making. The other say that is an initiative to act which produce a consistent pattern in the framework to search how to solve the problem together. Furthermore, It can be formulated that the leaders ship is an activity to influence people who are directed to reach the organization's goal.
Conceptual framework of this article is about relation and affect between the leader and the subordination or those who are led. The leadership appears and develops as a result of interaction between the leader and the individuals who are led (interpersonal relationship). Generally, the leadership functions based on the leader's authority to invite, affect, and move other people to do something to reach a specific goal.
The leadership conceptual model in this article is formulated in the connected relationship as show in figure 1.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
The Leadership is a process to affect other people to reach fixed goal. The Leadership is as a process of social effect where a person can ask for help or support from other people in performing general task, the leadership, finally, is about creations of the way how someone contributes to make something extraordinary. But the effective leadership is the ability to integrated successfully and maximizes available resources in the internal and external environment for the organizations and people's achievable goals.
The function of leadership is to guide, conduct, instruct, develop, motivate work, make good communication network, supervise efficiently, and carry his/her followers towards achievable goal by time determination has been planned.
Assumption developed an the leadership concept about a process of social effect which is voluntarily performed by someone toward other people to structuring activities and relation in a group or organization. In this case, the leadership performed qualifies situational leadership which met norms (1) flexible towards changes of internal dynamics, and (2) adaptive towards external environment.
The situational leadership includes flexible power and adaptive towards leadership elements, leadership styles, and human need fulfillment.
The Leadership Elements:
The leadership elements needed to be owned by the leader are as follows:
1. A leader who has authority to lead and delegate the task
2. Subordination members who assist, based on each task
3. Mission, goal, and target are realized based on cultural foundation and organization philosophy.
The Leadership Styles:
The leader must have high adaptive power towards organization's dynamics, and for every leader must understand the condition and implement the leadership style proportionally parallel to the need developed as follows:
1. Autocrative/otoriter, the leader makes decision, and the members must obeyit. It is applied when it is needed to treat new member who are not discipline, the prestige worsens, to make a new effort in the critical situation.
2. Democratic/consultative, the leader and members work together to solve the problem; the members express their ideas, and the leader direct them.
3. Laize paire/participative, the members are free to develop their creation; for the members who have high skill, motivation, and smart.
Human's Will (Need):
Organizations consist of people who have various needs. The leader must be able to accommodate them in the organization. The human's needs are categorized based on the following classification:
a) Need of Power
b) Need of Affiliation
c) Need of Achievement
The Leadership Criteria:
The criteria to choose a good leader is important factor in life. If the leader is wise, good, smart, and reliable, He or She will be able to make the organization run well to reach the target.
A leader must be fair. A fair leader can be indicated on how He or She enforces law supremacy, sees and treats all humans the same before the law without any differences.
The other tends to think on the opinion which says that the leader is someone whose function as formal or non-formal leader. Even all people are leaders as the connectors or tasks substitutes form the previous generation. The leader(s) must have the following criteria below:
The leader's affectivity depends on His or Her characteristics. Characteristics which, among of them, personality, physical excellences, and social ability. The characteristics which must be owned by a leader according to Judith R. Gordon (en.wikipedia.org. August 2011) include special ability in.
1. Intellectual Ability
2. Personal Maturity
4. Social and Economical Status
5. Public Relation/ Human Relation
6. Intrinsic Motivation
7. Support to move forward
The Leader's Orientation:
All people have potency as qualified leader, and the characteristics of the qualified leaders, they must have orientation to
--People Oriented: He or She cares to the people He or She leads. He or She is reliable support people to be prestige.
--Production Oriented: He or She cares to the results achievement by empowering His or Her subordinates well
--Dream Oriented: He or She has future vision and can share vision with the people He or She leads.
The Leader Personal Characteristics:
As the important parts of the leader's criteria is the leader's personal characteristics based on the following criteria. He or She must have:
1. Sufficient high smartness
2. Communicative ability
3. Educating ability
4. Emotional Control
5. Prestige motivation
Behaviors Towards Subordinates:
In order to make the leader's authority runs well, the leader must create behaviors in the following conditions:
1. Warn Him or Her kindly
2. Sensitive toward people
3. Wise towards the following sensitive matters:
a) Do not underestimate a subordinates.
b) Do not criticize the subordinates before other person(s).
c) Sometimes pay attention fully towards the subordinates.
d) Do not be egoistic and the subordinates think about it.
e) Do not create gold kids.
f) Always make efforts to develop the subordinates
g) Understand small things but very touchy towards the subordinates, and do not be proud of yourself before the subordinates.
h) Do not poison the work climate which has run well because there is a subordinate who has less prestige.
i) Do not drift in making decision.
Authority and Power Utilities:
The authority coverage can be used to direct and reveal one's role and responsibility. Conceptually, the leader's authority includes other authorities as follows:
1. Structural authority because of one's position in the organization.
2. Wise Authority (charismatically) because of one's positive attitudes and behaviors, knowledge, skill, and experience.
3. Morale authority because of one's integrity, good morale, and the present among the members in trouble.
4. Reputation authority because of one's previous prestige.
5. Body authority because of one's physical shape and appearance both real and impression reflected from it.
The more authority owned by a leader is the better. the good leader uses authority smartly and sensitively that he or she can be fully authorized but not a tyran. To become a leader does not mean to have the right to command, but he or she must be a qualified model that other people can conduct his or her commands without being undermined. Related to the leader's authority, the leadership is arts, not positions.
In the organizational and social building, the leader is in determined position towards the followers' journey. If a community has a prime productive, and skillful leader to develop and support fighting power and service creativity, he or she will succeed in leading their journey. Therefore, the author thinks that the leadership has a very strategic position in the realization of community in normative principle to support the dreams built by the community it self.
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Prof. Dr. H. Achmad Sudja'i
Faculty of Letter and Humanities, State Islamic University of Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
Corresponding Author: Prof. Dr. H. Achmad Sudjai, Faculty of Letter and Humanities, UIN Sunan Gunung Djati, Jl. A.H. Nasution No. 105, Bandung 40216, Indonesia