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Comparisons of handling practices of culled sheep meat for production of mutton curry.

ABSTRACT: In most developing countries consumers purchase retail cuts from hot carcasses and prepare traditional meat products as per their convenience and requirements. In this study, effects of different post mortem [Latin, After death.] Pertaining to matters occurring after death. A term generally applied to an autopsy or examination of a corpse in order to ascertain the cause of death or to the inquisition for that purpose by the Coroner .  handling practices on quality of meat curry from culled sheep meat have been studied. After slaughter, leg cuts were subjected to nine commonly prevalent handling conditions in India viz. deboning (boning out) and cooking within 2-3 h (1), deboning immediately and cooking after 5-6 h (2), deboning after 5-6 h and cooking (3), deboning immediately, storage at 4[degrees]C for 24 h and cooking (4), chilling for 24 h at 4[degrees]C, deboning and cooking (5), deboning after 5-6 h, storage for 24 h at 4[degrees]C, and cooking (6), deboning after 5-6 h, storage for 48 h at 4[degrees]C and cooking (7), deboning after 5-6 h, freezing and cooking (8), deboning after 5-6 h, storage for 24 h at 4[degrees]C, freezing and cooking (9). Significant differences were observed in pH, water-holding capacity, cooking loss and shear force shear force

Force acting on a substance in a direction perpendicular to the extension of the substance, as for example the pressure of air along the front of an airplane wing. Shear forces often result in shear strain.
 values. Sensory scores were significantly higher in conditions (1), (5) and (9), and significantly lower in conditions (4) and (6). From the results, it was concluded that, to have the best quality product, meat should be cooked either immediately after slaughter or should be deboned deboned

carcass meat from which the bone has been removed.
 just before cooking. Storage of deboned meat at refrigerated re·frig·er·ate  
tr.v. re·frig·er·at·ed, re·frig·er·at·ing, re·frig·er·ates
1. To cool or chill (a substance).

2. To preserve (food) by chilling.
 temperature must be avoided. (Key Words : Sheep Meat, Mutton mutton, flesh of mature sheep prepared as food (as opposed to the flesh of young sheep, which is known as lamb). Mutton is deep red with firm, white fat. In Middle Eastern countries it is a staple meat, but in the West, with the exception of Great Britain, Australia,  Curry, Handling Practices, Hot Boning, Tenderness, Sensory Qualities)


India is the richest country in the world in livestock wealth. However, meat production is largely a by-product system of livestock production. More than 40% of the total meat is produced from spent (culled) animals at the end of their productive economic life. Sheep are also usually reared for wool and are slaughtered at the end of their productive economic life. Meat from such aged sheep is usually tough and fibrous fibrous /fi·brous/ (fi´brus) composed of or containing fibers.

Composed of or characterized by fibroblasts, fibrils, or connective tissue fibers.
 and is not liked by the consumers. Improper post-mortem handling conditions further deteriorate the quality of product prepared from such low quality meat.

Meat retailers in India slaughter their animals in nearby slaughter house or procure dressed carcasses for their daily requirements. These retailers hang the hot carcasses and sold retail cuts to the consumers. Consumers bring meat cuts to their home and cook these chunks immediately or store in refrigerator and cook as per their requirements. Thus, from slaughter of animal till preparation of meat curry, cuts are subjected to different handling and processing conditions.

Meat curry is a traditional, one of the most popular and most relished meat preparations in India. For preparation of meat curry, meat chunks are first partially fried and then cooked under pressure in pressure cooker. Although the pressure cooking “Pressure cooker” redirects here. For other uses, see Pressure cooker (disambiguation).

Pressure cooking is a method of cooking in a sealed vessel that does not permit air or liquids to escape below a preset pressure.
 improve tenderness in comparison to normal cooking (Raj raj also Raj  
Dominion or rule, especially the British rule over India (1757-1947).

[Hindi r
 et al., 2000), but the products from tough meat have very low sensory attributes even after cooking under pressure for long time. Greater tenderization ten·der·ize  
tr.v. ten·der·ized, ten·der·iz·ing, ten·der·iz·es
To make (meat) tender, as by marinating, pounding, or applying a tenderizer.

 of pressure-cooked muscle occurs due to thermal shrinkage Shrinkage

The amount by which inventory on hand is shorter than the amount of inventory recorded.

The missing inventory could be due to theft, damage, or book keeping errors.
 of muscle and greater solubilization of collagen collagen (kŏl`əjən), any of a group of proteins found in skin, ligaments, tendons, bone and cartilage, and other connective tissue. Cells called fibroblasts form the various fibers in connective tissue in the body.  at higher temperature (Mahendrakar et al., 1989).

Several biochemical processes and structural changes take place during first 24 h after slaughter. Post mortem factors such as holding time and temperature after slaughter, time of boning, chilling before cooking, time and temperature of cooking play very important role in determining quality of meat products. Dransfield and Rhodes (1975) studied effect of heating beef M. semitendinosus muscle semitendinosus muscle

see Table 13.4.
 before, during and after development of rigor mortis rigor mortis (rĭ`gər môr`tĭs), rigidity of the body that occurs after death. The onset may vary from about 10 min to several hours or more after death, depending on the condition of the body at death and on factors in the  and reported that rapid heating soon after slaughter produced normal shear values for cooked meat but slow heating gave very tough meat. At later times, shear values were unaffected by heating rate and decreased with increasing time after slaughter. Loucks et al. (1984) indicated that cold boned beef roasts were superior in tenderness than hot boned products. Sharma et al. (1988) reported that tenderness of goat meat was adversely affected by hot boning, this trait was further exacerbated by freezing. Raj et al. (2000) have indicated definite improvement in the textural quality of buffalo muscles subjected to delayed chilling (keeping carcass carcass, carcase

1. the body of an animal killed for meat. The head, the legs below the knees and hocks, the tail, the skin and most of the viscera are removed. The kidneys are left in and in most instances the body is split down the middle through the sternum and the vertebral
 at 26 [+ or -] 2[degrees]C for 6 h followed by chilling at 2-3[degrees]C for 18 h) in comparison to direct chilling (keeping carcass at 2-3[degrees]C for 24 h). Mahendrakar et al. (1990) also reported greater shear value of sheep muscles subjected to direct chilling. Generally rapid chilling of meat produce cold shortening, but if meat is boned out then shortening can occur both due to rapid chilling or elevated temperature conditions and affect tenderness. Devine et al. (2002) showed that at rigor rigor /rig·or/ (rig´er) [L.] chill; rigidity.

rigor mor´tis  the stiffening of a dead body accompanying depletion of adenosine triphosphate in the muscle fibers.
 temperature of 18[degrees]C, lamb meat that has been excised pre-rigor, will be as tender as meat remaining on the carcass. Wrapping was shown to mimic meat left intact on the carcass, as it prevented significant prerigor shortening. Scheffler and Gerrard (2007) reported that the rate and extend of pH decline during the conversion of muscle to meat had significant impact on development of fresh meat quality attributes. Park et al. (2007) revealed that chilling temperature during the first 90 minutes had a significant effect on PSE PSE

1. pale soft exudative pork.

2. portosystemic encephalopathy.

Cooking of tender meats do not require precise conditions, however, improper post mortem handling conditions further deteriorate the quality of products from spent animals meat. In spite of most popular meat preparation in India, meat curry has not received required attention of meat researchers. Considering all these, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different handling practices on quality of meat curry from adult sheep meat.


Meat source

Adult sheep (about 2 and half years old) of non-descript breeds were slaughtered at an ambient temperature Outside temperature at any given altitude, preferably expressed in degrees centigrade.  of 20-25[degrees]C. Hind hind

1. emanating from or pertaining to hindlimb.

2. adult female deer, especially red and other large species.

blue hind
a hind which has not borne young.
 leg cut was separated from the carcass immediately after slaughter and subjected to different handling conditions commonly prevalent in Indian market. A total of 27 animals (54 hind leg cuts) were used in this study. Thus each handling condition was evaluated six times. Generally, at one time 4 hind leg cuts were randomly subjected to different handling conditions and evaluated.

The post-mortem conditions evaluated were: deboning (boning out) and cooking of meat within 2-3 h of slaughter (1), deboning immediately after slaughter, storage of muscle pieces at 20-25[degrees]C and cooking after 5-6 h of storage (2), holding of hind leg cuts at 20-25[degrees]C for 5-6 h, deboning and cooking (3), deboning immediately after slaughter, storage of muscle pieces at 4[degrees]C for 24 h and cooking (4), chilling of hind leg cut for 24 h at 4[degrees]C, deboning and cooking (5), holding of hind leg cuts at 20-25[degrees]C for 5-6 h, deboning, storage of muscle pieces for 24 h at 4[degrees]C and cooking (6), holding of hind leg cuts at 20-25[degrees]C for 5-6 h, deboning, storage of muscle pieces for 48 h at 4[degrees]C and cooking (7), holding of hind leg cuts at 20-25[degrees]C for 5-6 h, deboning, freezing of muscle pieces at -18[degrees]C for 24 h, thawing at 2025[degrees]C and cooking (8), holding of hind leg cuts at 20-25[degrees]C for 5-6 h, deboning, storage of muscle pieces for 24 h at 4[degrees]C, freezing at -18[degrees]C for 24 h, thawing at 20-25[degrees]C and cooking (9).

During deboning (boning out) care was taken to remove muscle pieces as large as possible. These muscle pieces were aerobically packed in polyethylene bags and treated as per requirement of experiments.

Preparation of mutton curry

Meat collected after different handling conditions was cut into chunk size of approximately 2.5 cmx2.5 cmx2.5 cm in size and used for preparation of meat curry.

Series of preliminary trials were conducted to standardize chunks size, spice, oil and water levels, time of cooking etc. for preparation of meat curry from spent sheep meat. For preparation of meat curry, first gravy mixture was prepared by frying condiments (fine paste of onion and garlic) in refined vegetable oil. Salt, red pepper red pepper: see pepper. , turmeric turmeric: see ginger.

Perennial herbaceous plant (Curcuma longa; family Zingiberaceae), native to southern India and Indonesia. Its tuberous rhizomes have been used from antiquity as a condiment, as a textile dye, and medically as an
, coriander coriander (kōr'ēăn`dər), strong-smelling Old World annual herb (Coriandrum sativum) of the family Umbelliferae (parsley family), cultivated for its fruits.  powder were added during frying as per details given in Table 1. After about 5 minutes, meat chunks were added in the gravy mix and mixture was again fried for about 10 minutes. After frying, dried spice mix Spice mixes are blended spices or herbs. When a certain combination of herbs or spices is called for in many different recipes (or in one recipe that is used frequently), it is convenient to blend these ingredients beforehand.  and water was added and fried chunks were cooked under pressure (1 kg/[cm.sup.2] steam pressure) in kitchen pressure cooker (Hawkings make) of 6 L capacity for 20 min. After cooking, pressure cooker was removed from the flame and steam was released. Content (meat chunks and slurry slurry,
n a thin mixture of insoluble material floating in liquid.


solids in suspension. Used as a method of feeding pigs—slurry is pumped through fixed lines and delivered to troughs by hoses equipped with gasoline pump fittings.
) was transferred to glass jar, cooled at room temperature and kept at refrigerated temperature (4[degrees]C) till evaluation.


The pH of raw (just before cooking) and cooked chunks was determined by homogenizing ten gram of sample with 50 ml distilled water Noun 1. distilled water - water that has been purified by distillation
H2O, water - binary compound that occurs at room temperature as a clear colorless odorless tasteless liquid; freezes into ice below 0 degrees centigrade and boils above 100 degrees centigrade;
 with the help of Ultra Turrex T25 tissue homogenizer A laboratory equipment for the homogenization of various types of material, such as tissue, plant, food, soil, and many others. Many different models have been developed using various physical technologies for the disruption.  (IKA labor Technik, Germany) for 1 min. The pH of the suspension was recorded by immersing combined glass electrode Glass electrode is potentiometric sensor made from glass of a specific composition. Almost all commercial electrodes related to ion-selective sensors with electrode function for single charged ions, like H+, Na+, Ag+.  of digital pH meter (Model CP901, Century Instruments Ltd., India).

Water holding capacity (WHC WHC World Heritage Centre
WHC World Heritage Committee
WHC World Heritage Convention
WHC Washington Hospital Center
WHC Wildlife Habitat Council (Silver Spring, MD)
WHC Wildlife Habitat Canada

WHC of raw meat (just before cooking) was estimated by following the method of Hamm and Honikel (1994). About 0.3 g of minced meat was placed on a piece of Whatman filter paper No. 42. The filter paper containing meat was then pressed between plaxi-plates (by tightening the screws fixed in plates) for 5 minutes. After pressing, the piece of filter paper along with pressed meat was taken out of plaxi-plates and area of meat film and total area (including area of released juice) were calculated by measuring diameters at two places. WHC was calculated as:

WHC = Area of meat film (AmxBm)/Total area (AtxBt)

Am and Bm = Diameters of meat film At and Bt = Total diameters (meat film+juice released)

Cooking yield

The weight of chunks before and after cooking was noted and percent-cooking yield was calculated.

Cooking yield (%) = Weight of cooked chunks/Weight of raw chunks x 100

Moisture content

The moisture content of raw and cooked mutton chunks was estimated by following gravimetrically procedure (AOAC, 1995).

Shear force value

The cooked chunks were allowed to set by keeping at refrigerated temperature for overnight. After setting, chunks were cut into size of 1 [cm.sup.3] and then sheared sheared  
Shaped or finished by shearing, especially cut or trimmed to a uniform length: a sheared fur coat.

Adj. 1.
 in a Warner-Bratzler Shear Press (Model: 81031307, G.R. Elect. Mfg. Co., USA) with the fibres parallel to the longitudinal axis.

The results were expressed in kg/[cm.sup.2].

Sensory evaluation

A sensory panel consisting of seven meat scientists evaluated the products for appearance and colour, flavour, juiciness, tenderness and the overall acceptability by using 8 point scales (Keeton, 1983; Baker and Scottkline, 1988; Okumura et al., 2007), where 8 denoted extremely desirable and 1 denoted extremely poor. Samples stored at refrigerated temperature were warmed in microwave oven just before serving.

Statistical analysis

Each experiment was replicated six times. Thus a minimum of six observations was recorded for parameters like cooking yield. Minimum 12 observations were recorded for moisture, pH, WHC and 30 for shear force. 21 observations were recorded for different sensory attributes for each condition/treatment. The data obtained was analyzed by SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago ( that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance.  statistical software package using standard procedures (Snedecor and Cochran, 1989). Duncan's multiple range tests was used to determine significant differences among means for different treatments. The results of the storage studies were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA anova

see analysis of variance.

ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there
) to determine the effect of treatment and storage period.


Physico-chemical characteristics

Results related to physico-chemical characteristics of raw and cooked meat curry prepared from tough sheep meat is presented in Table 2 and 3.

pH, WHC and moisture content of raw meat

pH values of raw meat decreased with increasing storage period after slaughter. Highest values were observed immediately after slaughter in condition 1 and lowest values were observed after 48 h of slaughter i.e. in conditions 7 and 9. Significant difference in pH values after 5 to 6 h of slaughter in conditions 2 and 3 indicate that faster decline in pH occurred when meat was deboned immediately after slaughter. However, non-significant difference in conditions 4, 5 and 6 revealed that time of deboning did not affect pH values after 24 h of slaughter. Significant differences between conditions 8 and 6 revealed that freezing delayed the development of ultimate pH value. These results indicated significant affect of deboning time and storage temperature on rate of pH fall. Kovacs (1996) also observed significant interaction of pH, temperature and storage time. Raj et al. (2000) also reported that delayed chilling of buffalo muscle resulted in faster fall in pH. In the present study, deboning time seems to have more affected the rate of pH fall than temperature of storage after slaughter.

Water Holding Capacity (WHC) values were significantly higher in meat samples evaluated after 5-6 h of slaughter (in conditions 1, 2 and 3) and significantly lower in frozen and thawed thaw  
v. thawed, thaw·ing, thaws

1. To change from a frozen solid to a liquid by gradual warming.

 samples (in conditions 8 and 9). Higher WHC in hot meat samples could be due to higher pH values and larger space between the myofilaments and less denaturation denaturation, term used to describe the loss of native, higher-order structure of protein molecules in solution. Most globular proteins exhibit complicated three-dimensional folding described as secondary, tertiary, and quarternary structures.  of the meat proteins (Louck et al., 1984). The differences in WHC in pre-rigor and rigor stage could also be due to difference in swelling of myofibrils (Kovacs, 1996) and denaturation of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins (Scheffler and Gerrard, 2007). Raj et al. (2000) also reported that initial (2 h post mortem) values of WHC of buffalo loin loin (loin) the part of the back between the thorax and pelvis.

The part of the body on either side of the spinal column between the ribs and the pelvis.
 muscles gradually decreased during chilling. They further reported that direct or delayed chilling of muscle did not influence WHC markedly.

Moisture contents of raw meat did not differ significantly in most of the conditions. Moisture content value in condition 9 was significantly lower than conditions 1, 5 and 8. This could be due to loss of fluid during thawing of frozen samples.

Cooking yield, pH and moisture content of cooked meat

Cooking yield was significantly higher when meat was cooked within 2 to 3 h of slaughter (condition 1). Values of yield were significantly lower in frozen and thawed samples (in conditions 8 and 9). Non-significant differences were noticed in cooking yields of other conditions. Higher and lower cooking yield values could be related to pH and WHC. Higher cooking loss for post rigor than pre rigor beef roasts was also reported by Loucks et al. (1984). Similarly, Sharma et al. (1988) reported less cooking loss in goat meat chunks cooked after hot boning than cold deboned cuts and the trends was reversed after freezing. Reduction in drip loss was also reported in pork after hot-boning (Schwegele et al., 1991).

Devine et al. (2002) reported almost similar cook loss in sheep muscles subjected to different conditions like restraining, deboning, electrical stimulation and wrapping. The cook loss during cooking upon internal temperature of 75[degrees]C ranged from 21 to 25 per cent. However, value decreased with longer ageing duration. In contrast to these, Bekhit et al. (2007) showed no clearly established trends of the effect of rigor temperature and time on the cooking and drip losses of venison venison (vĕn`ĭzən) [O.Fr.,=hunting], term formerly applied to the flesh of any wild beast or game hunted and used for food but now restricted to the flesh of members of the deer family.  muscles.

pH values of cooked samples were significantly higher in conditions 1 and 3. The results also revealed that pH decreased during cooking when initial pH values were higher (in conditions 1, 2 and 3). However, in all other conditions, pH values increased during cooking. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently
, pH values decreased when meat was cooked within 5-6 h of slaughter, but increased when meat was cooked after 24 h of slaughter.

Almost same trend was noticed for moisture content of cooked meat as that for raw meat i.e. significantly higher values were observed in meat chunks cooked immediately after slaughter (condition 1) and lower values in frozen and thawed samples (conditions 8 and 9).

Shear force value

Shear force values (SFV SFV San Fernando Valley (California)
SFV Schweizerischer Fussballverband (Swiss Soccer Association)
SFV Simple File Verification
SFV Semliki Forest Virus
SFV Straight-Fixed-Variable
) results revealed significant effects of time of deboning, duration of chilling and freezing. Values were significantly higher in conditions 2, 4 and 6, and significantly lower in conditions 5 and 9. These Significant higher values in conditions 2 than 3, and in conditions 4 than 5, suggests that meat should always be cooked immediately after deboning. Storage of deboned meat at refrigeration refrigeration, process for drawing heat from substances to lower their temperature, often for purposes of preservation. Refrigeration in its modern, portable form also depends on insulating materials that are thin yet effective.  temperature may lead to toughening. Significant lower SFV in conditions 1 and 2 indicate start or setting of rigor stage within 5-6 h of slaughter. Significant lower SFV in condition 9 than 8 also indicate that chilling before freezing further decreased the SFV.

Dransfield and Rhodes (1975) showed that variation in shear values of meat heated within 18 h after slaughter was largely due to combined influences of shortening and of muscle and pH after heating. Higher shear values were also observed for directly chilled sheep muscles by Mahendrakar et al. (1990). Scwaegele et al. (1991) also compared qualities of hot and cold boned pork and reported that hot boned cuts cooled more rapidly than intact carcass side and hot boning need not result in cold shortening. Koohmaraie et al. (1996) experimentally proved that the shear force values do not increase during rigor development when lamb muscles were prevented from shortening. Thus the toughening that occurs during 24 h of slaughter is most likely due to sarcomere sarcomere /sar·co·mere/ (sahr´ko-mer) the contractile unit of a myofibril; sarcomeres are repeating units, delimited by the Z bands, along the length of the myofibril.

 shortening. Savell et al. (2005) also demonstrated that minimizing cold shortening is of greatest importance in lamb and can be best addressed by ensuring that muscle temperatures are not below 10[degrees]C before pH reaches to 6.2. Devine et al. (2002) reported significant effect of temperature during rigor on shear force values of sheep meat. Although shear force value for 18 and 35[degrees]C rigor were similar at zero ageing, but as ageing progressed, the 18[degrees]C rigor meat aged faster and become more tender than meat that went into rigor at 35[degrees]C.

Sensory characteristics

Results related to sensory evaluation of meat curry prepared from tough sheep meat are presented in Table 4.

Appearance and flavour scores

Only marginal differences were observed in appearance scores of different samples. Score in condition 1 was significantly higher than condition 2. Flavor scores were significantly higher in samples that were chilled for 48 h before cooking (condition 7) and in samples that were chilled for 24 h and then frozen and thawed (condition 9). This improvement in flavour score could be due to development or release of flavouring components during ageing or chilling of meat. Significantly lower score in condition 4 could be due to shortening of muscles occurred due to storage of hot deboned meat.

Juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores

Juiciness scores were significantly higher for samples that were cooked immediately after slaughter (condition 1) or chilled/frozen for 48 h (conditions 7 and 9). Juiciness score was lowest in samples that were deboned immediately after slaughter and stored for 24 h before cooking.

Tenderness scores were significantly higher in samples that were cooked immediately after slaughter (condition 1), chilled for 24 h and then deboned (condition 5) or frozen after chilling (condition 9). Scores were significantly lower in samples that were deboned immediately or after 5-6 h of slaughter and chilled for 24 h before cooking (conditions 4 and 6). Almost same trend was observed for overall acceptability as that for tenderness i.e. scores were significantly higher in conditions 1, 5 and 9, and significantly lower in condition 4 and 6.

Loucks et al. (1984) evaluated pre-rigor (hot-boned and cooked 1h post exsanguinations) and post-rigor (cold-boned and cooked 48 h post exsanguinations) bovine semimembranous muscles and reported that although cold boned roasts were superior to hot boned in tenderness but juiciness was consistently higher in hot boned roasts. The relative superiority of deboning just before cooking in terms of tenderness could be due to formation of limited number of rigor bonds, in contrast to large number of rigor bonds and complete overlap of myofilaments during storage of deboned meat (Kovacs, 1996).

Jaime et al. (1992) studies the effect of rapid drop of post mortem temperature to 0, 4, 10, 15, 20 or 36[degrees]C during rigor followed by ageing at 4[degrees]C and reported high sensory scores after rigor at 0[degrees]C possibly due to higher pH and rapid increase of sarcoplasmic Ca++ level. Significant differences between sensory scores of conditions 4 and 5, could also be due to rapid increase of sarcoplasmic Ca++ level during chilling of hot deboned meat than intact meat cuts (with bone). However, Ali et al. (2007) showed no significant effects of chilling temperature on ultimate pH, protein solubility solubility

Degree to which a substance dissolves in a solvent to make a solution (usually expressed as grams of solute per litre of solvent). Solubility of one fluid (liquid or gas) in another may be complete (totally miscible; e.g.
 and shear force value for duck breast and leg meat.

Freezing of hot carcasses was also not recommended by Toohey and Hopkins (2006). They studied the eating quality of electrically stimulated, hot boned (within 2 h) and frozen sheep meat and showed that all samples exceeded the recommended threshold value of 49 N for shear force. Thus even effective electrical stimulation was not found to be sufficient to ensure freezing of hot boned sheep meat as table meat. The differences in quality attributes of different handling conditions could also be due to difference in rate and extend of pH fall (Scheffler and Gerrard, 2007).


In the present study cooking of tough mutton within 2-3 h of slaughter produced good quality of meat curry in comparison to cooking after 5-6 h of slaughter. Deboning after 24 h of chilling also produced good quality meat curry then deboning immediately after slaughter and storage at 4[degrees]C before cooking. Chilling for 48 h or freezing after chilling also improved the sensory qualities of meat curry from tough sheep meat. Thus, it can be concluded that to have best quality product, meat should be cooked either immediately after slaughter or should be deboned just before cooking. Hot deboned meat chunks should not be subjected to freezing or storage at refrigerated temperature.

The present study shows that how different handling conditions affect the quality of meat curry. Although the development of rigor mortis and cold shortening were not evaluated but the differences observed in pH, WHC, shear force value and sensory characteristics clearly correlates these changes with the rigor stage. However, more detailed studies are required to evaluate the sequences of changes that are taking place due to different handling conditions.

Received September 7, 2007; Accepted December 23, 2007


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1. The white of an egg, which consists mainly of albumin dissolved in water.

2. Albumin.


the white of the egg; typically comprising 60% of a bird egg.
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a young turkey.
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TNO Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek
TNO Trans-Neptunian Object
TNO The New Order (paramilitary street gang)
TNO Trust No One
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Relating to or occurring during the period after death.

See autopsy.
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pertaining to pig. See also hog (1), swine.

porcine circovirus 1
a nonpathogenic virus.
 Biceps femoris biceps fem·or·is
A muscle whose long head has origin from the tuberosity of the ischium and whose short head has origin from the lower half of the lateral lip of the linea aspera, with insertion into the head of the fibula, with nerve supply from
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S. K. Mendiratta *, N. Kondaiah, A. S. R. Anjaneyulu and B. D. Sharma

Division of Livestock Products Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar 243 122, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradesh (`tär prä`dĭsh), state (2001 provisional pop. 166,052,859), 92,804 sq mi (240,363 sq km), N central India. The capital is Lucknow. , India

* Corresponding Author: S. K. Mendiratta. Tel: +91-581-2315 497, Fax: +91-581-2303284, E-mail:
Table 1. Ingredients used for preparation of meat curry

Sl. No   Ingredients                                        Level

1        Meat chunks                                       1,000 g
2        Refined vegetable oil                               100 g
3        Condiment paste (onion and garlic in 3:1 ratio)     200 g
4        Table salt                                           25 g
5        Coriander powder                                     10 g
6        Red pepper powder                                     5 g
7        Dried spices (mixture of common spices)              10 g
8        Water                                               700 ml

Table 2. Effect of different handling conditions on
physico-chemical characteristics of raw sheep meat

Conditions *              pH                Water holding capacity

1                6.83 [+ or -] 0.02 (f)    0.361 [+ or -] 0.007 (d)
2                6.37 [+ or -] 0.02 (d)    0.383 [+ or -] 0.007 (e)
3                6.47 [+ or -] 0.02 (e)    0.369 [+ or -] 0.008 (de)
4                5.60 [+ or -] 0.03 (b)    0.278 [+ or -] 0.003 (bc)
5                5.65 [+ or -] 0.02 (b)    0.260 [+ or -] 0.007 (b)
6                5.60 [+ or -] 0.03 (b)    0.295 [+ or -] 0.005 (c)
7                5.48 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)    0.289 [+ or -] 0.007 (c)
8                5.80 [+ or -] 0.03 (c)    0.230 [+ or -] 0.007 (a)
9                5.48 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)    0.228 [+ or -] 0.002 (a)
F value        366.21                     66.71

Conditions *     Moisture content (%)

1              75.55 [+ or -] 0.48 (b)
2              74.98 [+ or -] 0.59 (ab)
3              74.99 [+ or -] 0.51 (ab)
4              75.45 [+ or -] 0.52 (ab)
5              75.83 [+ or -] 0.63 (b)
6              74.88 [+ or -] 0.49 (ab)
7              74.68 [+ or -] 0.39 (ab)
8              75.94 [+ or -] 0.51 (b)
9              74.08 [+ or -] 0.30 (a)
F value         1.42

Means values bearing same superscripts column-wise do not differ
significantly (p<0.05).

* Conditions :
1: deboning and cooking of meat within 2-3 h of slaughter;
2: deboning immediately after slaughter and cooking after 5-6 h
of storage; 3: deboning after 5-6 h of slaughter and cooking;
4: deboning immediately after slaughter, storage at 4[degrees]C
for 24 h and cooking; 5: chilling for 24 h at 4[degrees]C,
deboning and cooking; 6: deboning after 5-6 h of slaughter,
storage for 24 h at 4[degrees]C, and cooking; 7: deboning after
5-6 h of slaughter, storage for 48 h at 4[degrees]C and cooking;
8: deboning after 5-6 h of slaughter, freezing and cooking; 9:
deboning after 5-6 h of slaughter, storage for 24 h at 4[degrees]C,
freezing and cooking.

Table 3. Effect of different handling conditions on
physico-chemical characteristics of cooked sheep meat

Conditions *       Cooking yield (%)                    pH

1              70.12 [+ or -] 0.50 (e)       6.32 [+ or -] 0.03 (d)
2              65.85 [+ or -] 0.60 (cd)      6.15 [+ or -] 0.03 (c)
3              65.43 [+ or -] 0.82 (cd)      6.25 [+ or -] 0.04 (d)
4              65.83 [+ or -] 0.78 (cd)      5.79 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)
5              63.74 [+ or -] 0.77 (bc)      5.75 [+ or -] 0.02 (a)
6              63.52 [+ or -] 0.99 (bc)      5.83 [+ or -] 0.03 (a)
7              65.07 [+ or -] 0.54 (cd)      5.87 [+ or -] 0.02 (b)
8              62.04 [+ or -] 0.57 (ab)      6.10 [+ or -] 0.02 (c)
9              61.25 [+ or -] 0.48 (a)       5.81 [+ or -] 0.01 (a)
F value        14.06                        66.97

                                                Shear force value
Conditions *      Moisture content (%)           (kg/[cm.sup.2])

1              54.78 [+ or -] 0.32 (e)       2.83 [+ or -] 0.12 (bc)
2              53.65 [+ or -] 0.47 (de)      3.66 [+ or -] 0.12 (d)
3              53.50 [+ or -] 0.39 (cd)      2.79 [+ or -] 0.11 (b)
4              52.73 [+ or -] 0.40 (abcd)    3.69 [+ or -] 0.08 (d)
5              52.78 [+ or -] 0.40 (bcd)     2.40 [+ or -] 0.08 (a)
6              52.45 [+ or -] 0.41 (abc)     3.48 [+ or -] 0.09 (d)
7              52.20 [+ or -] 0.46 (ab)      3.10 [+ or -] 0.13 (c)
8              51.60 [+ or -] 0.38 (a)       3.04 [+ or -] 0.10 (bc)
9              51.66 [+ or -] 0.34 (a)       2.27 [+ or -] 0.08 (a)
F value         6.60                        25.65

* Same as given in Table 2.

Means values bearing same superscripts column-wise do not differ
significantly (p<0.05).

Table 4. Effect of different handling conditions * on
sensory scores ** of cooked sheep meat curry chunks

Conditions *          Appearance                  Flavour

1              7.07 [+ or -] 0.07 (c)     6.98 [+ or -] 0.07 (de)
2              6.83 [+ or -] 0.07 (a)     6.87 [+ or -] 0.07 (bcd)
3              6.87 [+ or -] 0.08 (ab)    6.92 [+ or -] 0.07 (bcde)
4              7.00 [+ or -] 0.05 (ab)    6.65 [+ or -] 0.07 (a)
5              6.93 [+ or -] 0.07 (abc)   6.77 [+ or -] 0.07 (abc)
6              6.91 [+ or -] 0.05 (abc)   6.73 [+ or -] 0.07 (ab)
7              7.03 [+ or -] 0.03 (bc)    7.07 [+ or -] 0.07 (e)
8              6.98 [+ or -] 0.06 (abc)   6.93 [+ or -] 0.07 (cde)
9              7.01 [+ or -] 0.04 (bc)    7.10 [+ or -] 0.07 (e)
F value        1.74                       5.09

Conditions *          Juiciness                  Tenderness

1              7.17 [+ or -] 0.06 (e)      7.21 [+ or -] 0.06 (c)
2              6.75 [+ or -] 0.07 (bc)     6.73 [+ or -] 0.07 (b)
3              6.72 [+ or -] 0.07 (b)      6.77 [+ or -] 0.07 (b)
4              6.53 [+ or -] 0.07 (a)      6.37 [+ or -] 0.08 (a)
5              6.88 [+ or -] 0.05 (bcd)    7.10 [+ or -] 0.08 (c)
6              6.72 [+ or -] 0.07 (b)      6.48 [+ or -] 0.08 (a)
7              7.00 [+ or -] 0.03 (de)     6.73 [+ or -] 0.06 (b)
8              6.92 [+ or -] 0.07 (cd)     6.78 [+ or -] 0.07 (b)
9              7.03 [+ or -] 0.06 (de)     7.05 [+ or -] 0.09 (c)
F value        9.24                       14.1

Conditions *    Overall acceptability

1               7.32 [+ or -] 0.05 (e)
2               6.82 [+ or -] 0.08 (c)
3               6.75 [+ or -] 0.07 (c)
4               6.21 [+ or -] 0.06 (a)
5               7.08 [+ or -] 0.01 (d)
6               6.43 [+ or -] 0.07 (b)
7               6.65 [+ or -] 0.07 (c)
8               6.70 [+ or -] 0.07 (c)
9               7.07 [+ or -] 0.09 (d)
F value        23.85

* Same as given in Table 2.

** Sensory scores, 1 = Extremely undesirable,
8 = Extremely desirable.

Means values bearing same superscripts column-wise
do not differ significantly (p<0.05).
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Author:Mendiratta, S.K.; Kondaiah, N.; Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Sharma, B.D.
Publication:Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:May 1, 2008
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