Comparison of Health Education and Basic Public Health Professional Competencies.Abstract: The National Health Education Competencies (National Commission for Health Education Credentialing Credentialing is the administrative process for validating the qualifications of licensed professionals, organizational members or organizations, and assessing their background and legitimacy. ) and the Public Health Core Competencies A core competency is something that a firm can do well and that meets the following three conditions specified by Hamel and Prahalad (1990):
1. A part or portion of a structure that extends or projects over another.
2. The suturing of one layer of tissue above or under another layer to provide additional strength, often used in dental surgery.
v. existed between the two. Results showed that a significant number of competencies were similar (33%). Results have implications for pre- pre- word element [L.], before (in time or space).
1. Earlier; before; prior to: prenatal.
2. and in-service in-service In-service training adjective Referring to any form of on-the-job training noun In-service training of an employee training for public health professionals including health educators, hiring practices in public health, and marketing of health education graduates.
The current public health work force consists of an estimated 500,000 professionals, including nursing, environmental heath heath, tract of open land
heath, tract of open land characterized by a few scattered trees, abundant moss cover, and numerous low shrubs, principally of the heath family (see heath, in botany). specialist, physicians, health educators, laboratorians, epidemiologists, and managers (Lichtveld, Cioffi, Baker, Bailey, Gebbie, & Henderson Henderson.
1 City (1990 pop. 25,945), seat of Henderson co., NW Ky., on the Ohio River, in an oil, coal, tobacco, corn, and livestock area; founded 1797, inc. as a city 1867. , 2001). Health education professionals have become a vital component of the public health workforce in many states. Health educators have been called upon to deal with biological threats in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. in recent years (Perez, Pinzon- Perez, & Sowby, 2002) and their specific duties have included helping to network and organize various public health workers, developing easy to understand educational and prevention strategies, becoming aware of chemical or biological weapons, and attempting to decrease panic in events by promoting accurate and timely information to the public (Perez, et al.).
The Council on Linkages for Public Health Practice released the first complete draft of the Public Health Core Competencies in 2001--the culmination of a ten year effort by numerous organizations and individuals (Council on Linkages, 2005). These competencies are comprised of eight main domains and 68 competencies and are intended to guide the public health workforce. Health education as a separate discipline also has its own unique set of professional competencies. The health education competencies began to evolve during the 1970's and the final draft was completed and disseminated disseminated /dis·sem·i·nat·ed/ (-sem´i-nat?ed) scattered; distributed over a considerable area.
Spread over a large area of a body, a tissue, or an organ. in 1985. Since 1985, several editions of this document have been distributed (National Commission for Health Education Credentialing [NCHEC NCHEC National Commission for Health Education Credentialing
NCHEC National Center for Home Equity Conversion Mortgage ], 1996). Health education entry-level en·try-lev·el
Appropriate for or accessible to one who is inexperienced in a field or new to a market: an entry-level job in advertising; an entry-level computer. competencies include seven main responsibilities, 27 competencies, and 79 sub-competencies. Both are considered competencies for public health workers (Institute of Medicine, 2003).
Competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. has been defined as "an ability to apply a certain specified skill in dealing with some defined amount of meaningful subject matter" (NCHEC, 1996, p. 81). Competencies are important in both health education and pubic pubic /pu·bic/ (pu´bik) pertaining to or situated near the pubes, the pubic bone, or the pubic region.
1. health because of the complex, constantly changing, demands for critical services placed on these professionals (Wright Rowitz, Merkle Merkle can refer to any of the following:
This page or section lists people with the surname Merkle. , & Reid, 2000). Theoretically, using competencies to provide a framework for professional development will strengthen professional preparation practice (NCHEC, 2005). However, because health educators work within public health, there is a potential for overlap between public health core competencies and health education professional competencies. The identification of the potential overlaps between the two sets of competencies is important for three main reasons. First, the identification of health education related competencies will ultimately help guide curriculum and content development of public health education and training programs for preparation of practitioners, including health educators, and for the ongoing development of practitioners in the field (Council on Linkages, 2005). Second, increased awareness of the discipline-specific skills that health educators possess can be beneficial to the public health profession by potentially increasing the demand for health educators (O'Rourke The O'Rourkes were the historic rulers of Breifne.
O'Rourke may refer to several different people: People
v to move the teeth into their proper positions to conform to the line of occlusion. personnel with their formal training and experience, based on these competencies. A modification of and more appropriate placement of public health professionals, including health educators, could lead to positive and productive outcomes relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc hiring practices and evaluation of staff (Council on Linkages). The purpose of this study was to examine the similarities between professional health education and public health core competencies.
To determine similarities between public health core competencies and health education competencies a qualitative content analysis was conducted. A content analysis is a systematic descriptive analysis of written material and research techniques used for quantitative or qualitative data (Worthen et al., 1997). Written materials that can be used for a content analysis include: (a) data from focus groups, (b) interviews, (c) minutes from meetings, (d) publications, (e) annual reports, and (f) other written documents. The methods specific for this content analysis include the use of public health and health education professional competencies. A content analysis using quantitative data required the researcher to code data. The researcher identified words, themes, and paragraphs and placed them into categories. The researcher then counted the coding units and interprets findings (Worthen et al.). Qualitative content analysis provides summaries of documents. "Qualitative content analysis seeks to quantify Quantify - A performance analysis tool from Pure Software. content objectively, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. explicitly formulated for·mu·late
tr.v. for·mu·lat·ed, for·mu·lat·ing, for·mu·lates
a. To state as or reduce to a formula.
b. To express in systematic terms or concepts.
c. rules and mutually exclusive Adj. 1. mutually exclusive - unable to be both true at the same time
incompatible - not compatible; "incompatible personalities"; "incompatible colors" and exhaustive categories" (Worthen et al., 1997, p.384). Borg A type of cyborg in Star Trek that devours everything in its path. Companies that dominate their field are called Borgs, and Borging is the verb. See cyborg. and Gall (1963) state that "content analyses are aimed at answering questions directly relating to the material analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. " (p. 254).
The first task was to identify themes in both the public health core competencies and health education competencies. The first set of competencies investigated was the Public Health Core Competencies. The second set of competencies investigated was the Health Education Competencies. Each set of competencies are unique to their respected field. In order to compare them, one must first understand the comparison level.
The public health core competencies are organized in two levels: domain and competency. There are eight domains with varying amounts of competencies. The domain is used to separate and organize the competencies by task. The competencies under each domain define the specific tasks to be proficient pro·fi·cient
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.
An expert; an adept. .
The health education competencies are organized into three levels: first by health education responsibilities, which represent broad tasks, second by competencies that provides more detail, and third by sub-competencies, which defines specific tasks to be proficient. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , the most specific tasks in each set of professional competencies were compared. The public health core competencies were analyzed at competency level, where as the health education competencies were analyzed at sub-competency level. This allowed the researchers to identify the similarities by specific task.
As a researcher it is important to accumulate Accumulate
Broker/analyst recommendation that could mean slightly different things depending on the broker/analyst. In general, it means to increase the number of shares of a particular security over the near term, but not to liquidate other parts of the portfolio to buy a security and provide credible research. In the qualitative phase of this investigation three methods were completed to maintain credibility: (a) an audit trail, (b) reflective Refers to light hitting an opaque surface such as a printed page or mirror and bouncing back. See reflective media and reflective LCD. journal, and (c) a mode of triangulation triangulation: see geodesy.
The use of two known coordinates to determine the location of a third. Used by ship captains for centuries to navigate on the high seas, triangulation is employed in GPS receivers to pinpoint their current location on earth. using multiple research partners (Lincoln Lincoln, city and district, England
Lincoln, city (1991 pop. 79,980) and district, Lincolnshire, E England, in the Parts of Kesteven, on the Witham River. & Guba GUBA Gigantic Usenet Binaries Archive , 1985).
The first method used in this investigation was an "audit trail" (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). An audit trail is designed to allow an external reviewer re·view·er
One who reviews, especially one who writes critical reviews, as for a newspaper or magazine.
a person who writes reviews of books, films, etc.
Noun 1. to view and inquire in·quire also en·quire
v. in·quired, in·quir·ing, in·quires
1. To seek information by asking a question: inquired about prices.
2. the process to determine whether the evaluation procedure was dependable and confirmable (Worthen et al., 1997). An audit trail follows the six Halpern This page or section lists people with the surname Halpern. If an internal link for a specific person referred you to this page, you may wish to add the given name(s) to that wikilink. audit trail categories (Lincoln & Guba) including: (a) raw data, (b) data reduction and analysis products, (c) data reconstruction and synthesis products, (d) process notes, (e) materials relating to intentions and dispositions, (f) and instrument development information (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Not all six categories need to be included in the audit trail; however one who follows Halpern notation notation: see arithmetic and musical notation.
How a system of numbers, phrases, words or quantities is written or expressed. Positional notation is the location and value of digits in a numbering system, such as the decimal or binary system. will have greater ease at reporting any problems. For this investigation the audit trail consisted of process notes, which "includes using methodological notes (procedures, design, strategies, rationale rationale (rash´nal´),
n the fundamental reasons used as the basis for a decision or action. ) trustworthiness trustworthiness Ethics A principle in which a person both deserves the trust of others and does not violate that trust notes, and audit trail notes" (Lincoln & Guba, 1985, p.319). The data used during this phase were saved in an organized manner to allow the researchers or outside members to replicate rep·li·cate
1. To duplicate, copy, reproduce, or repeat.
2. To reproduce or make an exact copy or copies of genetic material, a cell, or an organism.
A repetition of an experiment or a procedure. the study if desired. The audit trail was coupled with reflexive (theory) reflexive - A relation R is reflexive if, for all x, x R x.
Equivalence relations, pre-orders, partial orders and total orders are all reflexive. journaling (Lincoln & Guba). The primary researcher in this investigation kept a reflexive journal (Lincoln & Guba) to record progress, difficulties, evolving themes, hunches, personal insight, thoughts, progress, methods, and daily activities as well as concerns that come along the way. The secondary researcher also wrote in a journal making notes, comments, and questions. Keeping a journal helped organize thoughts, as well as identify specific examples for the results section. Examples of when reflexive journaling occurred during this investigation include after or during meetings with the research partner, committee meetings, and any other time that is necessary. This task of reflexive journaling also contributed in the audit trail.
Triangulation is the third method used in this investigation to establish credibility. The purpose of using triangulation is to establish consistency among the data (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Triangulation of data can come from four different sources including: theories, methods, sources, and investigator (Lincoln & Guba). For this investigation the investigators were the focus. When two researchers cannot come to conclusions on the placement of competencies and sub-competencies, the third researcher was consulted.
The research began by identifying two research partners. The criteria for additional researchers included being familiar with health education or public health core competencies, as well as agreeing to time commitments to complete expected tasks. The use of different investigators added to the credibility of the investigation (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). For this study, two research partners were co-authors and one research partner was independent to the current study. Phase one required specific guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. to ensure that credibility and validity is maintained. To simplify this process, the steps are listed in order of completion. Following this list are detailed steps of this process.
1. Find two research partners.
2. Look at both data sets of sub-competencies-independently.
3. Open code data- independently.
4. Meet to discuss themes found during open coding and placement of sub competencies under themes.
5. Triangulation with third researcher partner.
6. Separate and match health education to public health competencies.
7. Meet to discuss and share placement of sub-competencies from both sets of competencies.
8. Triangulation with third research partner.
9. Meeting to discuss third researcher's comments.
10. Examine remaining competencies and sub-competencies to see if any additional similarities could be made.
11. Discuss similarities with third researcher.
12. Examine similarities to make sure the public health and health education competencies and sub-competencies were a true match.
13. Consult with third research partner.
14. Write up results.
The first step, once a research partner had been chosen, was done independently and includes reading and becoming familiar with the two sets of competencies. Once this task was completed, each researcher open coded the data. Open coding included breaking down data into discrete parts, closely examining them, and comparing for similarities (Straus Straus (strous), family of American merchants, public officials, and philanthropists.
Isidor Straus, 1845–1912, b. Rhenish Bavaria, emigrated (1854) with his brothers to the United States in order to join their father, Lazarus & Corbin Corbin or Corben may refer to:
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. similar themes that were apparent in both sets of competencies. After open coding was completed a meeting was set up to compare and discuss findings. When conclusions were finalized See finalization. about themes, the third research partner was called in and triangulation of data began. The third research resolved any discrepancies, reviewed themes, and made comments on placement.
The next step included literally cutting apart both sets of competencies and sub-competencies and identifying similar tasks. This step was done independently. A meeting was arranged to discuss and identify the similar sub-competencies and the placement of the competencies and sub-competencies under the chosen themes. It is important to understand that the themes identified were only important during this first phase of this investigation. The themes were only used to help identify the similar competencies and sub-competencies. After phase one was complete, the Health Education Responsibilities replaced the themes and the health education related Public Health Core Competencies were organized under Health Education Responsibilities. The researchers shared what themes were identified with corresponding rationale. This process was called inter-rater reliability Inter-rater reliability, Inter-rater agreement, or Concordance is the degree of agreement among raters. It gives a score of how much , or consensus, there is in the ratings given by judges. and insured consistency between researchers (Borg & Gall, 1963). If disagreements or discrepancies occurred, they were discussed with the third research partner during the triangulation. When discrepancies did occur, each researcher discussed and explained their rationale. The goal of this activity was to identify the similar competencies and sub-competencies between The Public Health Core Competencies and The National Health Education Competencies.
The themes that were identified out of both sets of professional competencies included: (a) Professional Development, (b) Promoting and Supporting Diversity, (c) General Operations, (d) Communication, (e) Partnership and Collaboration Working together on a project. See collaborative software. , (f) Leadership and Decision Making, (g) Evaluation, (h) Assessment, (i) Research and Analytic an·a·lyt·ic or an·a·lyt·i·cal
1. Of or relating to analysis or analytics.
2. Expert in or using analysis, especially one who thinks in a logical manner.
3. Psychoanalytic. Skills, and (k) Program Planning and Delivery of Services. The health education related Public Health Core Competencies were broken down and placed into the Seven Areas of Health Education Responsibility. The Public Health Core Competencies were placed under the Health Education Responsibility according to the placement of the health education match.
A total of 23-health education related Public Health Core Competencies were identified out of the 79 health education sub-competencies and 68 public health core competencies (Table 1). The remaining 44 public health and 42 health education competencies were found to be unique to each field and therefore could not be matched. Many of the public health competencies that could not be matched with health education competencies had a financial or budgetary focus.
Multiple health education competencies were often matched to one public health competency due mainly to breadth and lack of specificity of the public health competencies. Under Health Education Responsibility II, one public health competency, "developing a plan to implement the policy, including goals, outcomes, process objectives and implementation steps," was found to match six health education sub-competencies due to the multifaceted mul·ti·fac·et·ed
Having many facets or aspects. See Synonyms at versatile.
Adj. 1. multifaceted - having many aspects; "a many-sided subject"; "a multifaceted undertaking"; "multifarious interests"; "the multifarious nature of the Public Health Core Competency wording. The six health education sub-competencies include: (a) Plan a sequence of learning opportunities building upon and reinforcing mastery of preceding objectives, (b) Select strategies best suited to the implementation of educational objectives in a given setting, (c) Match proposed learning activities with those who implicit in Adj. 1. implicit in - in the nature of something though not readily apparent; "shortcomings inherent in our approach"; "an underlying meaning"
underlying, inherent the states objectives, (d) Develop a framework of broadly stated, operational objectives relevant to a proposed health education program, (e) Determine the range of health information requisite to a given program of instruction, (f) Incorporate feasible ideas and recommendations into the planning process.
Some public health core competencies and the health education sub-competencies were used multiple times. For example, the Public Health Core Competency, "developing mechanisms to monitor and evaluate programs for effectiveness and quality" was used three times and can be found under Health Education Responsibility III, IV, and V.
Several limitations were inherent with this study and the reader should be aware of these when considering the findings. First, many Public Health Core Competencies attempt to cover multiple tasks within one competency making matching with similar health education competencies difficult. This also has implications for assessing competency in and training on the public health core competencies. Second, as stated previously, the health education competencies used to match to the public health core competencies were the "entry level" competencies. If the graduate level health education competencies were to be used in a future replication In database management, the ability to keep distributed databases synchronized by routinely copying the entire database or subsets of the database to other servers in the network.
There are various replication methods. of this study, there would likely be even more overlap between the two sets of competencies. This is because the graduate-level health education competencies also include financial and budgetary skills.
Approximately one out of three (23/68) public health core competencies were identified as very similar to one or more health education competencies. These twenty-three similarities demonstrate that there is overlap between expectations for workers in the two professional disciplines.
Results of this study have the potential to impact hiring practices in public health, as well as in-service and pre-service training of current and future public health professionals, including health educators. A primary implication associated with the results of this study is that the public health setting could benefit from the hiring of health educators, depending on specific job descriptions (roughly a third of the core public health competencies are directly associated with the health education competencies). This suggestion is echoed by Montes mon·tes
Plural of mons. and Johnston Johnston, town (1990 pop. 26,542), Providence co., N central R.I., a suburb of Providence; inc. 1759. Among its manufactures are jewelry, textiles, and fabricated metals. Johnston is the home of several insurance companies. (1998). The hiring of individuals trained in health education for jobs that require expertise in primarily the health education related Public Health Core Competencies could potentially greatly reduce the need for some types of on-the-job on-the-job
Acquired or learned while working at a job: on-the-job training.
Adj. 1. on-the-job training for new public health employees. Being aware of these health education related Public Health Core Competencies could also inform future hiring in public health and improve the "fit" of the employee to the job. Additionally, the hiring of health educators to meet specific health education related Public Health Core Competencies job demands could potentially free other public health employees (e.g., public health nurses) to perform more clinical tasks for which they were more likely trained and for which the demand is very high.
A second implication revolves around in-service and pre-service trainings. If many of the existing "front line" public health personnel possess less aptitude in the health education related Public Health Core Competencies, the question needs to be asked, "Should these individuals receive specific training in the health education related Public Health Core Competencies, or should their jobs be redefined so that they are not responsible for these competencies and rather health educators should be hired to fill this need?" If the decision is to train more fully on the health education related Public Health Core Competencies, then perhaps the health education profession should be tapped to provide such trainings. It would behoove be·hoove
v. be·hooved, be·hoov·ing, be·hooves
To be necessary or proper for: It behooves you at least to try.
To be necessary or proper. the health education profession to work diligently dil·i·gent
Marked by persevering, painstaking effort. See Synonyms at busy.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin d to inform and market to the leadership in public health, about the training of health educators and how this training prepares health educators for strong and contributing roles within public health. This in turn may increase the demand for health educators in the public health sector.
From a pre-service perspective, three avenues could be pursued. First, pre-service programs in health education should make students aware of the degree to which they are being prepared for jobs in public health (in addition to other settings). Health education degree programs could also be modified slightly in order to address the remainder or the majority of the remaining Public Health Core Competencies thus better preparing their students for careers in public health. This possibility should be critically assessed within the profession because there is a strong argument to be made that health education programs do not prepare public health specialists but rather health education specialists. Additionally, students with degrees in health education could be encouraged to market themselves with proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.
Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence in the core public health competencies, no doubt a selling point selling point
An aspect of a product or service that is stressed in advertising or marketing.
Noun 1. selling point - a characteristic of something that is up for sale that makes it attractive to potential customers that few students coming out of other preparation programs could claim. Secondarily, pre-service programs in public health should review their current curricula and map them against the Public Health Core Competencies in order to determine where the "gaps" lie. Currently many public health degree programs are undergoing this process.
The knowledge that 23 competencies (roughly 30%) overlap between basic public health and health education competencies, and that three-quarters Noun 1. three-quarters - three of four equal parts; "three-fourths of a pound"
common fraction, simple fraction - the quotient of two integers
three-quarters npl → of those 23 competencies relate to design, implementation, and evaluation does provide talking points to "link the skills and competencies our health education graduates bring to the table ..." (O'Rouke & Eddy, p. 300). O'Rourke and Eddy also suggest that a key first step to stimulating and legitimizing the demand for professionally trained health educators "would be to match the Responsibilities and Competencies of health educators to core job functions of these voluntary organizations" (p. 300). By matching sub-competencies in health education to basic public health competencies this study achieved a first step to this end.
Last, the need for scientific inquiry to identify the needs from the purchaser's perspective was identified by O'Rouke and Eddy (2004). The present study reinforces that recommendation, with specific emphasis on those responsible for hiring personnel in state and local public health departments. What competencies are in demand? And ultimately, how can health educators fill that gap?
Responding to the notion that all public health professionals, including health educators, should possess the public health core competencies as suggested by the Council on Linkages (2005) leaves many further questions to be answered. For example, should curriculum for health educators be inspected to ensure that there are educational and training opportunities to address the more general public health core competencies? Not all health departments recognize health education or health promotion as a separate division in their organizational structure This article has no lead section.
To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, one should be written. . Does this suggest that the public health system truly does not recognize health education as a bona-fide profession? Even if health education is truly embraced and integrated into the organizational structure of public health organizations, do health educators want to belong? Do health educators believe that they are or should be public health professionals as represented by those who possess the skills to carry out the Public Health Core Competencies?
Borg, W. R., & Gall, M. (1963). Educational research: An introduction. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : David McKay Mc·Kay , Claude 1890-1948.
Jamaican-born American writer who figured prominently in the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s. His works include collections of poetry, such as Constab Ballads (1912), and novels, including Home to Harlem (1928). .
Council on Linkages. (n.d.). Background and Prologue pro·logue also pro·log
1. An introduction or preface, especially a poem recited to introduce a play.
2. An introduction or introductory chapter, as to a novel.
3. An introductory act, event, or period. . Retrieved June 7, 2005, from http://trainingfinder.org/competencies/background.htm
Institute of Medicine. (2003). Who will keep the public healthy? Washington DC: The National Academies Press.
Lichtveld, M. Y., Cioffi, J. P., Baker Jr, E. L., Bailey, S. B. C., Gebbie, K., Henderson, J. V., et al. (2001). Partnership for front-line success: A call for a national action agenda on workforce development. Journal of Public Health Management Practice, 7, 1-7.
Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic nat·u·ral·is·tic
1. Imitating or producing the effect or appearance of nature.
2. Of or in accordance with the doctrines of naturalism. inquiry. London: Sage.
Montes, H. J., & Johnston, L. L. (1998). Eliminating health disparities
Health disparities (also called health inequalities in some countries) refer to gaps in the quality of health and health care across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. for vulnerable populations through health education interventions within health service programs. Journal of Health Education, 29 (Suppl.), 5-9. National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. (1996). A competency-based framework for professional development of certified See certification. health education specialist. New York.
O'Rourke, T., & Eddy, J. (2004). Supply side health education-an Rx for failure; demand side health education-an Rx for success. American Journal of Health Education, 35, 298-301.
Perez, M. A., Pinzon- Perez, H., & Sowby, S. (2002). The role of health educators in dealing with biological threats in the United States. American Journal of Health Education, 33, 216-223.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research Qualitative research
Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections. (2nd ed.). Thousands Oaks: Sage.
Worthen, B. R., Sanders San´ders
n. 1. An old name of sandalwood, now applied only to the red sandalwood. See under Sandalwood. , J. R., & Fitzpatrick, J. L. (1997). Program evaluation Program evaluation is a formalized approach to studying and assessing projects, policies and program and determining if they 'work'. Program evaluation is used in government and the private sector and it's taught in numerous universities. alternative pproaches and practical guidelines. New York: Longman
Wright, K., Rowitz, L., Merkle, A., Reid, W. M., Robinson, G. Herzog, B., et al. (2000). Competency development in public health leadership. American Journal of Public Health The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) is a peer reviewed monthly journal of the American Public Health Association (APHA). The Journal also regularly publishes authoritative editorials and commentaries and serves as a forum for the analysis of health policy. , 90, 1202-1207.
Responsibility VIII--Apply Appropriate Research Principles and Methods in Health Education Competency B: Use appropriate qualitative and quantitative research Quantitative research
Use of advanced econometric and mathematical valuation models to identify the firms with the best possible prospectives. Antithesis of qualitative research. methods.
Responsibility X--Advancing the Profession of Health Education Competency A: Provide a critical analysis of current and future needs in health education.
R. Todd Todd , Sir Alexander Robertus 1907-1997.
British chemist. He won a 1957 Nobel Prize for his study of nucleic acids and nucleotide structures. Bartee, PhD is an Associate Professor of Kinesiology kinesiology
Study of the mechanics and anatomy of human movement and their roles in promoting health and reducing disease. Kinesiology has direct applications to fitness and health, including developing exercise programs for people with and without disabilities, preserving and Health at the University of Wyoming UW is a national research university prominent in the fields of environment and natural resource research, specializing in agriculture, energy, geology, and water resource related fields. . Sara E. Olsen, PhD is affiliated with Student Health Services health services Managed care The benefits covered under a health contract at the University of Wyoming. Scott D. Winnail, PhD is affiliated with the Department of Kinesiology and Health at the University of Wyoming. Address all correspondence to R. Todd Bartee, Dept. 3196, 1000 E. University Avenue, Laramie, WY 82071; PHONE: 307.766.4191; FAX: 307.766.4098; E-MAIL e-mail: see electronic mail.
in full electronic mail
Messages and other data exchanged between individuals using computers in a network. : firstname.lastname@example.org.
Table 1--Health Education Related Public Health Core Competencies Health Education Sub-Competency Public Health Core Competency Health Education Responsibility I-Assessing Individual/Community Needs for Health Education * Employ or develop appropriate data * Collecting and summarizing gathering instruments and interpreting information relevant to an issue * Analyze needs assessment data * Apply survey techniques to acquire health data * Determine the extent of available * Identify community assets health education services and available resources * Investigating physical, social, * Defining, assessing and emotional and intellectual factors understanding the health influencing health behavior status, populations, determinants of health and illness, factors contributing to health promotion and disease prevention, factors influencing the use of health services * Selecting and defining variables relevant to define public health problems * Select valid sources of information * Identify relevant and about health needs and interests appropriate data and information sources Health Education Responsibility II--Planning Effective Health Education Programs * Plan a sequence of learning * Developing a plan to opportunities building upon and implement the policy, including reinforcing mastery of goals, outcomes, and process preceding objectives objectives and implementation steps * Select strategies best suited to implementation of educational objectives in a given setting * Match proposed learning activities with those implicit in the in the stated objectives * Develop a framework of broadly stated, operational objectives relevant to a proposed health education program * Determine the range of health information requisite to a given program of instruction * Incorporate feasible ideas and * Soliciting input from recommendations into the individuals and organizations planning process * Seek ideas and options of those who will be affected or be affected by the program * Communicating needs for the program * Advocating for public health to those who will be involved programs and resources Health Education Responsibility III--Implementing Health Education Programs * Appraise applicability to resources * Identifying, interpreting and and materials relative to given implementing public educational objectives health laws, * regulations and policies related to specific programs Health Education Sub-Competency Public Health Core Competency * Assess the relevance of existing program objectives to current needs * Develop subordinate measurable * Developing a plan to objectives as needed for instruction implement the policy, including goals, outcomes, and process objectives and implementation steps * Select methods that best facilitate practice of program objectives * Apply individual or group process methods as appropriate to given learning situations * Compare actual program activities * Developing mechanisms to with the stated objectives monitor and evaluate programs for their effectiveness and quality * Evaluating the integrity and comparability of data and identifying gaps in data * Monitoring program performance Health Education Responsibility IV--Evaluating Effectiveness of Health Education Programs * Select appropriate methods for * Developing mechanisms to evaluating program effectiveness monitor and evaluate programs for their effectiveness and quality * Evaluating the integrity and comparability of data and identifying gaps in data * Monitoring program performance * Translate evaluation results into * Effectively presenting terms easily understood by others accurate demographics, statistical programmatic and scientific information for professional and lay audiences * Communicating effectively in both writing and orally (unless handicap precludes one of these forms of communication) * Making relevant inferences from data Health Education Responsibility V--Coordinating Provision of Health Education Services * Stimulate development of * Facilitates collaboration cooperation among personnel with internal and external responsible for community health groups to ensure parti- education programs cipation of key stakeholders * Identify gaps and overlaps in the * Developing mechanisms to provision of collaborative health monitor and evaluate programs services for their effectiveness and quality * Evaluating the integrity and comparability of data and identifying gaps in the data * Monitoring program performance * Promote cooperation and feedback * Apply basic human relation among personnel related to the skills to the management of program organizations, motivation of personnel, and resolutions of conflict * Apply various methods of conflict * Utilizing leadership, team resolution as needed building, negotiation, and conflict resolution skills to build community assets and available resources * Suggest approaches for integrating * Identifying, interpreting and health education within existing implementing public health health programs laws, regulations and policies related to specific programs Health Education Responsibility VI--Acting as a Resources Person in Health Education * Access principal on-line and other * Understanding data collection database health information resources process, information technology applications, transmission capability and computer system storage and retrieval capacities * Match information need with the appropriate retrieval system * Formulate a wide variety of * Developing and adapting alternative health education methods approaches that take into account the cultural differences Health Education Responsibility VII--Communicating Health Education Needs, Concerns, &Resources * Act as a liaison between consumer * Establishing and maintaining groups and individuals and health linkages with key stakeholders care provider organizations * Utilize a wide range of techniques * Using the media, advance for communicating health networks technologies, and community to communicate information health and health education information * Demonstrate proficiency in * Communicating effectively in communicating health information both writing and orally (unless and health education needs handicap precludes one of these forms of communication) * Making relevant inferences from data