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Comparative study of promotional strategies adopted by public and private sector banks in India.

Introduction

In financial services The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
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, people are primarily bothered about security of their funds and default risks. After the year 1969, the deposits of banks increased more than 80 times as a result of the nationalisation of banks. Paul Cox, (2007) revealed a fact that financial service providers are not perceived highly trusted, so that they might have difficulty in selling risk-based products. The effort to promote banking business is quite distinguished affair. At present, it has become very tricky due to the changing trends of industry, increasing competition and efficiency of regulatory environment, and the financial system. The complexity in the banking services is also an issue of vital importance. This is the time when banks are offering new and innovative services, frequently in the market. The content of promotional tools should help the customer in making most valuable decision. This can be firmly said that well-designed promotional strategies are very important to promote banking services effectively. In marketing any product or service, customer satisfaction has been given the prime importance. The most frustrating frus·trate  
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
1.
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart:
 aspect of bank marketing are lack of management support, lack of inter-departmental cooperation, crisis management, government intrusion and advertising & media problems (Berry & Lindgreen, 1980). Sarin sarin (zärēn`), volatile liquid used as a nerve gas. It boils at 147°C; but evaporates quickly at room temperature; its vapor is colorless and odorless.  & Anil (2007) recommended that manpower in service organisations must work with the focus of satisfying the customer. Banking should bring out the areas requiring improvement and which further throw light on the measures to improve the quality of services. Promotional packages are very important for financial service industry (Ananda Ananda

(flourished 6th century BC, India) First cousin and disciple of the Buddha. A monk who served as the Buddha's personal attendant, he became known as the “beloved disciple.” It was Ananda who persuaded the Buddha to allow women to become nuns.
 & Murugaiah, 2003). Thus the orientation of banks should be with a much wider focus in relation to consumer and market needs, and the consequent con·se·quent  
adj.
1.
a. Following as a natural effect, result, or conclusion: tried to prevent an oil spill and the consequent damage to wildlife.

b.
 marketing strategies. The challenges put forth by the changing environment have to be effectively tackled to identify the consumer needs and providing valuable services through product innovation (Nair Raman, 2006). In banking the temporal and spatial dimensions are perceived as more important than traditional dimensions based on outcome and process elements (Kristina Heinonen, 2006). Tokunbo Simbowale (2005) examined the usage of marketing concepts & techniques and recommended that a well-structured marketing department in banks is essential for profitability & effectiveness. A study by Krishna, Suryanarayana & Srikant (2005) recommended that promotional strategies should be designed as per the nature of the services to be promoted. The advertisers should seek a narrative approach to communicate the service experience rather than a logical, argumentative Controversial; subject to argument.

Pleading in which a point relied upon is not set out, but merely implied, is often labeled argumentative. Pleading that contains arguments that should be saved for trial, in addition to allegations establishing a Cause of Action or
 approach. Narrative approach involves storytelling Storytelling
Aesop

semi-legendary fabulist of ancient Greece. [Gk. Lit.: Harvey, 10]

Münchäusen

Baron traveler grossly embellishes his experiences. [Ger. Lit.
 methodology using sequence of events (Sehgal Roli, 2004). Location convenience, speed of service, competence and friendliness of bank personnel are also the most important points with maximum value in banking services (Laroche, & Manning, 1986). Meidan (1976) revealed that about 90% of the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  banked at the branch nearest to their home place and place of work. Convenience, in terms of location, was also found to be the single most important factor for selecting a branch. It has been generalized gen·er·al·ized
adj.
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.

2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.

3.
 in the studies that services marketing Services marketing is marketing based on relationship and value. It may be used to market a service or a product.

Marketing a service-base business is different from marketing a product-base business.
 advertisement is more challenging than the advertising of tangible products (Ray and Bose, 2006). Winning new customers costs 10 times more than simply holding onto existing ones. The case should be taken in the marketing of financial services very seriously (Farrokhtakin, Stavash, 2000). While formulating marketing strategy, a bank should focus attention on (i) consumer sovereignty Consumer sovereignty is a term which is used in economics to refer to the rule or sovereignty of purchasers in markets as to production of goods. The term can be used as either a norm (as to what consumers should be permitted) or a description (as to what consumers are permitted). , (ii) attitude, (iii) responsiveness and personal skills of bank staff, (iv) revitalizing re·vi·tal·ize  
tr.v. re·vi·tal·ized, re·vi·tal·iz·ing, re·vi·tal·iz·es
To impart new life or vigor to: plans to revitalize inner-city neighborhoods; tried to revitalize a flagging economy.
 the marketing department, (v) top management support to the marketing department, (vi) participation of marketing personnel in key bank decisions (Kumar Ashok, 1991). With the same perspective, the prime objectives of the study are:

(i) To know about the various promotional tools of Private and Public sectors banks in India List of Banks in India, other than co-operative banks: Public sector banks
SBI group:

State Bank of India, with its seven associate banks command the largest banking resources in India.
 

(ii) To make a comparative analysis of customers' perception for promotional strategies of private and public sector banks in India

(iii) To find out the key promotional tools for banking services on the basis of customers' responses

Research Methodology

The present study is descriptive in nature, which is based on empirical evidences in the form of primary data. The data collection has been done from 300 customers presently availing banking services. The respondents were approached with systematic random sampling where every 3rd visitor was approached when he/she was coming out of the bank after availing the service. The response rate was found to be 65%. The branches of the banks have been selected out of the representative districts of the states near to Delhi and NCR (NCR Corporation, Dayton, OH, www.ncr.com) A technology company specializing in financial terminal transactions, retail systems and data warehousing. Until the late 1990s, NCR was heavily invested in the hardware side of the industry, known worldwide as a major manufacturer of computers  (National Capital Region) on judgment bases for making the samples true representatives. The study includes the customers of 10 leading banks out of which 5 are from public sector (SBI SBI Special Background Investigation
SBI Subsidiary Body for Implementation
SBI State Bank of India
SBI Secure Border Initiative
SBI Small Business Institute
SBI Stockholm Brain Institute
SBI Serious Bacterial Infection
SBI Society of Breast Imaging
 and Associates, PNB PNB Produit National Brut (French)
PNB Punjab National Bank (India)
PNB Philippine National Bank
PNB Producto Nacional Bruto (Spanish: Gross National Product) 
, CBI CBI
abbr.
cumulative book index


CBI Confederation of British Industry

CBI n abbr (= Confederation of British Industry) → C.E.O.E.
, OBC and Bank of Baroda Bank of Baroda (BSE: 532134) is a bank in India established on July 20, 1908 by Maharaja of Baroda Sir Sayajirao Gaekwad III, in the princely state of Baroda, in Gujarat. The bank, along with 13 other major commercial banks of India, was nationalisd on 19th July, 1969, by the ) and 5 from private sector (ICICI ICICI Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India , HDFC HDFC Housing Development Finance Corporation (India)
HDFC Housing Development Fund Corporations (New York City limited-equity, low income, housing cooperatives)
HDFC Huntington's Disease Family Center
, AXIS, IDBI IDBI Industrial Development Bank of India
IDBI I Don't Believe It
, Kotak Mahindra Bank This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. ). A structured questionnaire has been used for collection of data comprising open and close-ended questions. Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc  has been used as a scaling technique in the questionnaire. Structured interviews have been taken of 2-2 employees of the above stated banks for getting the initial information about the promotional strategies adopted by leading private and public sector banks in India.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

The responses have been captured in a scale of 5 to 1 from strongly agreed to strongly disagree. Similarly in other questions '5' is for very effective and '1' is for not at all Effective. Table 1 show that the promotional strategies of private and public sector banks are almost similar. Both types of banks take the help of almost all type of media to promote their services. The first objective of the study deals with the analysis of the promotional strategies adopted by both. The analysis is done on the basis of review of existing literature and with personal contact and informal interview with the personnel of the private and public sector banks. The major difference in the promotional strategies adopted by banks is in the two techniques of the promotion and they are "Personal Selling" and "Direct Marketing". The difference is that public sector banks do not adopt the strategies of promotion as personal selling and direct marketing; on the other hand the same are adopted by private sector banks. The reasons for this are high reliability and less profit orientation of public sector banks. Public sector banks do not go for innovative strategies of promotion, however they go for interactive marketing through internet but that is not promoted so much like private sector banks. This has been demonstrated in Table 2 that the respondents in the present study are mixed and are seem representative, they include--farmers (19%), shopkeepers, students (31%), highly (23%) as well as low educated (25%) persons. Table 3 states that the maximum respondents (48.33%) were availing the services of Saving Accounts, which is followed by current account service holders (28.33), only few are availing the service of fixed deposits (11%) and Loans (7%). The loan takers also include the students in the form of education loans.

Most of the respondents answered that they were influenced by Friends and Relatives (42%) for choosing the services from a particular bank. This is the power of "word of mouth". This shows that the impact of opinion leadership and reference group is very much in banking services however advertising (21%) also affects the decision of selecting a particular bank (Table 4). As per the responses given in Table 5, the difference between public and private sector banks is known to the maximum number of people (85%). Table 6 gives a clear idea about the question related to the perception of customers about private and public sector banks the results are not so surprising. People think that the advertisements and promotional efforts of private sector banks are more effective than public sector banks with a weighted mean score 3.51 for 5. The respondents strongly agreed that Private Sector Banks do more advertisement than Public Sector Banks (3.81). Further, one more aspect, that is very important in the case of services and especially in financial services i.e. truthfulness, and completeness in advertising. The respondents look agree with the statement that the information provided by Public Sector Banks is more reliable than private sector banks because that is truer and complete (3.62).

This has been narrated in Table 7 that private sector banks are slightly better in catching the awareness of people than Public Sector Banks in mass media advertising. 69% respondents accepted that they have exposure of advertising on television and 61% of advertising in newspapers in case of private sector banks. However in the case of public sector banks it is 66% and 52% respectively. Table 8 gives descriptive idea about the exposure of various promotions. In outdoor advertising and online marketing, private sectors banks are again more successful to spread awareness than public sector banks, but the total awareness level has stayed low. In public sector banks 21% of the respondents were accepted that they have an exposure of outdoor advertising while the respondents for it in case of private sector banks were 28%. As online marketing is not so much adopted by public sector banks only 7% customers have the exposure of the same, while for private sectors banks the exposure of respondents is 17%. Telecalling and personal selling did not show high exposure. Almost 26% people are exposed to telecalling. Another important aspect has been discussed in Table 9. When customers were asked about the most effective tool for promotion of banking services, very meaningful results have came. The most effective tools in respondents' opinion is advertising on television with weighted mean value 3.84 and advertising in newspapers was at second place (3.59). This is followed by personal selling (3.43) and advertising in journals and magazines (3.26). Advertising on Television has been given the first rank and Publicity (2.25) is given the last. However there is no so significant variability in the factors if we move from one. The variability as per standard deviation is 0.5274.

Conclusion

Promotion has different aspects for different industries, products and services. Its final goal is to communicate positive word of mouth among existing and potential customers about the corporate, product and service. In banking the customers must be ensured that services provided by a particular bank have been designed to give them maximum value of their money. In brief, it can be said that in India wherever the dilemma of private and public sector comes always two things are considered. Public sector is more reliable but not so good in the quality and innovativeness. Private sector is not considered so reliable, there may be hidden charges in the services and false and misleading information in the advertising but they are better in the service quality. Private sector banks must be more true and reliable first. They have to win the hearts of the customers, after that they will be able to win minds as well. In traditional tools of promotion both sectors' banks are almost same. Private Sector banks are adopting more push strategies to attract and catch the customers. This creates the difference between promotional strategies adopted by Public and Private Sector Banks.

Scope for Future Research

The study is related to the districts of Haryana Haryana, a state of India, has twenty administrative districts.

A district of Haryana state is an administrative geographical unit, headed by a Deputy Commissioner or District Magistrate, an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service.
, which are near to Delhi and NCR. The future researches can be conducted by taking other areas as population. The same can be tested in National Capital Reason. A comparative analysis of Semi-Urban areas and NCR can be done of promotional strategies. The future researches may include public, private, foreign banks exclusively on the same topic. As information technology is now entering into villages and semi urban areas also, the scholars may concentrate on carrying out research on direct marketing and Internet marketing See Internet advertising.  tools as well as Internet advertising Delivering ads to Internet users via Web sites, e-mail, ad-supported software and Internet-enabled cellphones. Also called an "ad network," Internet advertising organizations act as a middleman between the advertiser and the Web sites and software publishers that display the ads.  of banking services. Further the various components of promotional mix There are four main aspects of the Promotional Mix. These consist of:

Advertising- Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.
 can be studied exclusively.

References

Ananda S. and Murugaiah V. (2005), "New Marketing Dimension for Financial Services Industries." Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol. 35, pp. 34-38.

Berry L L, Kehoe, W J, Lindgreen J H (1980), "How Bank Marketers View their Jobs", The Bankers' Magazine (USA), Vol. 163, pp. 35-40

Kristina, Heinonen (2006), "A Conceptual Framework For the concept in aesthetics and art criticism, see .

A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to a system analysis project.
 of Online Banking Services", Journal of Financial Services Marketing; Vol. 12, pp. 39-52.

Kumar, Ashok (1991), "Marketing Strategies in the Banking Sector", IBA Bulletin, Vol. 6, pp. 13-14.

Laroche M, Rosenblatt, J A and Manning T (1986), "Services Used and Factors Considered Important in Selecting a Bank: An Investigation Across Diverse Demographic Segments", International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 4 (1), pp. 35-55.

Meidan A (1976), "Branch Manager's Attitude on Bank Objectives and Operations", Proceedings of the European Academy of Advanced Research in Marketing Conference, France, pp. 215-228.

Nair V Raman (2006) "Marketing of Financial Services by Commercial Banks in Kerla". The Icfaian Journal of Management Research, Vol. 5, pp. 66-78

Paul Cox (2007), "Should a financial service provider care about trust: Study of retail saving and investment allocations" Journal of Financial Services Marketing; Vol. 12, pp. 75-87.

Ray Subhasis, Suchetana Bose (2006), Strategizing Advertisements in Services Sector; Marketing Mastermind. Vol. 3, pp. 23-29.

Sarin Anil (2007), "Contemporary Issues in Services Marketing." Indian Journal of Marketing. Vol. 37, pp. 40-44.

S L Gupta * and Arun Mittal **

Birla Institute of Technology
This article is about the institution commonly abbreviated as BIT, located in Ranchi, India. For the institution commonly abbreviated BITS in Pilani, see Birla Institute of Technology and Science.
, Sector-1, Noida-201301, U.P., India

* E-mail: slgupta_1965@yahoo.co.in, ** E-mail: arunmittal1985@gmail.com
Table 1: Promotional Strategies by Public and
Private Sector Banks

                        Public Sector   Private Sector
Promotional Tool            Bank             Bank

Advertising on               Yes             Yes
Television

Advertising in               Yes             Yes
Newspapers

Personal Selling/            No              Yes
Personal Contact

In Journals and              Yes             Yes
Magazines

Tele Calling by Sales        No              Yes
Persons

Outdoor Advertising          Yes             Yes
Hoardings etc

Schemes/Gifts/Prizes         No              Yes
for Customers

Pubic Relations/             Yes             Yes
Events/Programmes

Online Marketing/        Yes But Few         Yes
E-Mail

Pamphlets/Propaganda         No              Yes

Letter/Mail/ with            No              Yes
Relevant Material

Publishing News in       Yes But Few         Yes
Newspapers

Source: Interview of Bank Employees

Table 2: Demographic Factors of Respondents

Variables       Respondents (No.)   Respondents (%)

Age

Below 20               21                  7

20-30                  126                42

30-45                  63                 21

Above 45               90                 30

Gender

Males                  213                71

Females                87                 29

Income                                     0

Below 10000            81                 27
PM

10000-15000            97                32.33

15000-20000            69                 23

Above 20000            53                17.67

Education

Below Metric           77                25.67

Higher                 58                19.33
Secondary

Graduation             95                31.67

Post                   70                23.33
Graduation

Occupation

Farmers                56                18.67

Shopkeepers            95                31.33

Salaried               81                 27

Professionals          26                8.66

Students and           42                 14
Others

Source: Primary Data

Table 3: Types of Services availed by the
Customers.

Types of Services     No. of      Percentage
Availed             Respondents

Saving Account          145         48.33

Current Account/        85          28.33
Overdrafts

Fixed Deposits          33            11

Loans                   21            7

Others                  16           5.34

Total                   300          100

Source: Primary Data

Table 4: Influencers for the Purchase Decision
of Services

Influencer              No. of      Percentage
                      Respondents

Advertisement             65          21.67
Through Salesperson       34          11.33
By Friend/Relative        127         42.33
Others                    74          24.67
Total                     300          100

Source: Primary Data

Table 5: Awareness about the Difference between
Public and Private Sector Banks.

Responses     No. of      % Age
            Respondents

   Yes          255        85
   No           45         15
  Total         300        100

Source: Primary Data

Table 6: Comparative Analyses of Public and Private Sector Banks on
the Basis of Volumes of Advertising, Truthfulness in Advertising, and
Effectiveness of Advertising.

Statements                                        Weighted     SD
                                                 Mean Score
                                                 (out of 5)

Private Banks do More Advertisement                 3.81      1.15
Private Banks Ads are More Effective                3.51      1.18
Public Sector Banks Ad's Information More True      3.62      0.97

Source: Primary Data

Table 7: Comparative look on the Exposure to Promotional Tools Public
vs. Private.

                                               Exposure
                               (Out of 255 Respondents Those who were
                             known to the difference between Public and
                                         Private Sector Bank)

                                   Public                Private

                               Total                 Total
Promotional Tools            Responses    % Age   Respondents   % Age

Advertising on TV               169       66.27       175       68.63

Advertising in Newspapers       132       51.76       156       61.17

Outdoor Advertising              53       20.78        71       27.84
Hoardings etc

Online Marketing                 18        7.00        43       16.86

Source: Primary Data

Table 8: Exposure towards Personal Selling and Telecalling (Private
Sector Banks)

                                    Private Sector Banks

Promotional Tools    Exposure   No Exposure   Total   % Age Exposed

Tele Calling            77          223        300        25.67
Personal Selling        88          212        300        29.33
Total (Out of 600)     165          435        600        27.5

Source: Primary Data

Table 9: The Most Effective Promotional Tools for Banking Services

Ranks   Name of the Promotional Tool         Weighted Mean Score
                                                 (Out of 5)

  1     Advertising on Television                   3.84
  2     Advertising in Newspapers                   3.59
  3     Personal Selling/Personal Contact           3.43
  4     In Journals and Magazines                   3.26
  5     Tele Calling by Sales Persons               2.89
  6     Outdoor Advertising Hoardings etc           2.85
  7     Schemes/Gifts/Prizes for Customers          2.85
  8     Pubic Relations/Events/Programmes           2.66
  9     Online Marketing                            2.59
 10     Pamphlets/Propaganda                        2.32
 11     Letter/Mail with Relevant Material          2.29
 12     Publicity                                   2.25
        Standard deviation                         .5274
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Author:Gupta, S.L.; Mittal, Arun
Publication:Asia-Pacific Business Review
Date:Jul 1, 2008
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