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Coming soon: 15-minute, $100 human genome sequencing.

Byline: ANI

Washington, July 28 (ANI): Human genome The human genome is the genome of Homo sapiens, which is composed of 24 distinct pairs of chromosomes (22 autosomal + X + Y) with a total of approximately 3 billion DNA base pairs containing an estimated 20,000–25,000 genes.  sequencing is expected to become as cheap as 100 dollars per case, and that too at speeds 20,000 times faster than second-generation sequencers currently on the market, with a new device being developed to watch DNA DNA: see nucleic acid.
DNA
 or deoxyribonucleic acid

One of two types of nucleic acid (the other is RNA); a complex organic compound found in all living cells and many viruses. It is the chemical substance of genes.
 being copied in real time.

Stephen Turner, the Chief Technology Officer at Pacific Biosciences, has revealed Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT SMRT Smart
SMRT Singapore Mass Rapid Transit
SMRT Silencing Mediator for Retinoid and Thyroid Hormone Receptors
SMRT Section for Magnetic Resonance Technologists
SMRT Sampling Modeling and Research Technology
SMRT Single Message-Unit Rate Timing
SMRT Signal Message Rate Timing
) sequencing will be released commercially in 2010.

A decade ago, it took Celera Genomics and the Human Genome Project years to sequence complete human genomes.

In 2008, James Watson's entire genetic code was read by a new generation of technology in months.

With SMRT sequencing, Pacific Biosciences experts expect to accomplish the same feat in minutes.

The method used in the Human Genome Project taps into the cell's natural machinery for replicating DNA.

The enzyme DNA polymerase is DNA polymerase I is an enzyme that mediates the process of DNA replication in prokaryotes. It is 928 residues long, and an example of a processive enzyme - an enzyme which catalyzes a series of polymerisations.  used to copy strands of DNA, creating billions of fragments of varying length. Each fragment ends with a tiny fluorescent molecule that identifies only the last nucleotide in the chain, and by lining these fragments up according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 length, their glowing tips can be read off like letters on a page.

Instead of inspecting DNA copies after polymerase has done its work, SMRT sequencing watches the enzyme in real time as it races along and copies an individual strand stuck to the bottom of a tiny well.

Every nucleotide used to make the copy is attached to its own fluorescent molecule that lights up when the nucleotide is incorporated, and this light is spotted by a detector that identifies the colour and the nucleotide - A, C, G, or T.

The researchers behind this technology hope that repeating this process simultaneously in many wells may help bring about a substantial boost in sequencing speed.

"When we reach a million separate molecules that we're able to sequence at once ... we'll be able to sequence the entire human genome in less than 15 minutes," said Turner.

The device also has the potential to reduce the number of errors made in DNA sequencing DNA sequencing

The determination of the sequence of nucleotides in a sample of DNA.
. Given that the errors made by SMRT sequencing are random, that is not systematically occurring at the same spot, they are more likely to disappear as the procedure is repeated.

A presentation on "Single Molecule Real-Time DNA Sequencers" was made at the 2009 Industrial Physics Forum, a component of the 51st Annual Meeting of American Association of Physicists in Medicine The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a scientific, educational, and professional organization of medical physicists. Headquarters are located at the American Center for Physics in College Park, Maryland. , on Monday. (ANI)

Copyright 2009 Asian News International The Asian News International (ANI) agency provides multimedia news to China and 50 bureaus in India. It covers virtually all of South Asia since its foundation and presently claims, on its official website, to be the leading South Asia-wide news agency.  (ANI) - All Rights Reserved.

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Publication:Asian News International
Date:Jul 28, 2009
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