Combined effects of light condition (constant illumination or darkness) and diatom density on postlarval survival and growth of the abalone Haliotis rufescens.
ABSTRACT Abalone abalone (ăbəlō`nē), popular name in the United States for a univalve gastropod mollusk of the genus Haliotis, members of which are also called ear shells, or sea ears, as their shape resembles the human ear. (Haliotis spp.) postlarvae are cultured in systems that provide natural or artificial light to promote the growth of benthic ben·thos
1. The collection of organisms living on or in sea or lake bottoms.
2. The bottom of a sea or lake.
[Greek. diatoms diatoms
a series of unicellular algae, microscopic in size, with cell walls containing silica. Members of the family Diatomaceae. Their remains accumulate as geological deposits and are mined. See diatomaceous earth. that are grazed graze 1
v. grazed, graz·ing, graz·es
1. To feed on growing grasses and herbage.
a. To eat a variety of appetizers as a full meal. by postlarvae. Larger abalones (>2 cm) grow better in dark conditions and the possibility that this is true for postlarvae is explored in this contribution. Two independent experiments with Haliotis rufescens postlarvae fed the diatom diatom (dī`ətŏm', -tōm'), unicellular organism of the kingdom Protista, characterized by a silica shell of often intricate and beautiful sculpturing. Most diatoms exist singly, although some join to form colonies. Navicula incerta were conducted in 10-mL vessels with daily water changes. Two factors were tested following split-plot experimental designs: six diatom densities (from 500-10,000 cells/[mm.sup.2]) and two light conditions (constant light at 19-33 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s and darkness). Experimental units in darkness Adv. 1. in darkness - without light; "the river was sliding darkly under the mist"
darkly were kept inside black plastic bags but subjected to ~30 min of ambient light every day for maintenance. Food (N. incerta) was supplied as required to maintain diatom densities. The first experiment started with 14-day-old postlarvae and was conducted for 20 days: the second trial started with 2-day old postlarvae and was performed for 32 days. In general, postlarval growth increased as diatom density increased but stabilized at high densities (ca. >2,000 cell/[mm.sup.2]) and was significantly higher in darkness in both trials. In Experiment l, average growth rate in darkness was 2.4 times higher than in light conditions (34.7 and 14.4 [micro]m/d, respectively). In Experiment 2, average growth in darkness was 3.0 times higher than under constant illumination (14.4 and 4.8 [micro]m/d, respectively). These results are discussed in terms of postlarval behavior and possible changes in the nutritional quality of diatom films. The potential implications for abalone culture are also addressed.
KEY WORDS: abalone postlarvae, survival, growth, darkness, diatom density
The red abalone The red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is a large brick colored mollusk that feeds on kelp and other algae along the coast of Oregon to Baja California. Being the largest, and most common abalone in the state it is the only species of abalone still commonly harvested in (Haliotis rufescens) is the largest abalone species in the world, reaching up to 28 cm in shell length (Hahn 1989, Leighton 2000). It represents 95% of the abalone culture in California (USA) (Leighton 2000) and is also the most important species cultured in Baja California Baja California, state, Mexico
Baja California (Span.: bä`hä kälēfōr`nyä), state (1990 pop. 1,660,855), 27,628 sq mi (71,576 sq km), NW Mexico, on the Baja California peninsula. Mexicali is the capital. , Mexico (McBride 1998). Abalone culture is a high-risk activity and mortalities can reach up to 99% after 3 y (Hone hone,
v to sharpen. et al. 1997). In the postlarval stage, which begins after settlement and metamorphosis metamorphosis (mĕt'əmôr`fəsĭs) [Gr.,=transformation], in zoology, term used to describe a form of development from egg to adult in which there is a series of distinct stages. , the highest mortality is usually reported (80% to 95%) (Searcy-Bernal 1996, Hone et al. 1997).
In abalone postlarvae, growth is influenced by several factors including type of food (Kawamura et al. 1998a, Roberts et al. 1999, Daume et al. 2000), quantity of food (Searcy-Bernal et al. 2001), starvation period (Roberts et al. 2001, Takami et al. 2000), temperature (Leighton 1974), and light intensity (Searcy-Bernal et al. 2003). For example, postlarvae of the blue abalone Haliotis fulgens grow better in low irradiances (6 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s) than in higher light intensities (24-75 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s), probably because of differences in ecologic conditions in the biofilms developed over culture surfaces (Searcy-Bernal et al. 2003). In the abalone farms of California and Baja California, postlarvae are usually maintained at irradiances from 3 to 200 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s under natural photoperiods or continuous artificial light (Searcy-Bernal et al. 2003). Although the effect of photoperiod photoperiod /pho·to·pe·ri·od/ (fo´to-per?e-od) the period of time per day that an organism is exposed to daylight (or to artificial light).photoperiod´ic
n. on postlarval growth is unknown, diatoms need light for their growth, which is important to maintain a good density of cells to feed the postlarvae.
Juvenile and adult abalones have a circadian rhythm circadian rhythm: see rhythm, biological.
Inherent cycle of approximately 24 hours in length that appears to control or initiate various biological processes, including sleep, wakefulness, and digestive and hormonal activity. ; they are more active and feed at night (Hahn 1989, Leighton 2000). Some studies have shown increased growth rates Growth Rates
The compounded annualized rate of growth of a company's revenues, earnings, dividends, or other figures.
Remember, historically high growth rates don't always mean a high rate of growth looking into the future. when these gastropods are cultured in darkness (Ebert & Houk 1984, Godoy-Corrales 1989). Research addressing this issue for postlarvae is lacking, although a preliminary study provided some evidence that postlarvae of H. fulgens increase their grazing grazing,
n See irregular feeding.
1. actions of herbivorous animals eating growing pasture or cereal crop.
2. area of pasture or cereal crop to be used as standing feed. See also pasture. rates at dusk (Velez-Espino 1999).
Recent studies have shown that the quantity of food available for postlarvae is an important factor determining their growth. Grazing and growth rates of H. fulgens postlarvae increase as the density of the diatom Navicula incerta increases from 500 to 4,000 cells/[mm.sup.2] (Searcy-Bernal et al. 2001) but studies for other species are lacking.
The objective of this work is to evaluate the combined effect of continuous light or darkness conditions and different densities of the diatom N. incerta on the survival and growth of red abalone (H. rufescens) postlarvae.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Abalone larvae Larvae, in Roman religion
Larvae: see lemures. were provided by the commercial farm Abulones Cultivados (Erendira, B.C., Mexico) on March and May 2002, transported to the Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas (IIO IIO Immigration Information Officers (US Department of Homeland Security)
IIO Initial Investigating Officer
IIO Interallied Insurance Organization
IIO Inverse Interest Only
IIO Inertial Instrument/Instrumentation Organization/Operation ) laboratory and used in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Competent larvae were induced to settle by adding 1.5 [micro]M of gamma-aminobutyric acid gamma-aminobutyric acid /gam·ma-ami·no·bu·tyr·ic ac·id/ (gam?ah-ah-me?no-bu-tir´ik) ?.
n. Abbr. (GABA GABA ?.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
A neurotransmitter that slows down the activity of nerve cells in the brain. ) (Searcy-Bernal & Anguiano-Beltran 1998).
Monocultures of N. incerta, a benthic diatom widely used to feed abalone postlarvae, were provided by the IIO Microalgae Laboratory. Diatoms were inoculated in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 150 mL of f/2 medium (Guillard 1975) and cultured under constant temperature (17 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C) and illumination (37 [micro]E/ [m.sup.2]/s, provided by fluorescent day-light lamps). After 3-4 days of culture, the flasks were immersed im·merse
tr.v. im·mersed, im·mers·ing, im·mers·es
1. To cover completely in a liquid; submerge.
2. To baptize by submerging in water.
3. in an ultrasound bath (Fisher Scientific Fisher Scientific, formally Fisher Scientific International, Inc. and colloquially Fisher was a biotechnology company that provided products and services to the global scientific research and United States clinical laboratory markets. FS6) for 3 min to detach de·tach
1. To separate or unfasten; disconnect.
2. To remove from association or union with something. the diatoms, which were counted using a hematocytometer to estimate cellular density and to calculate diatom densities to be used in the experiments.
Settlement was carried out in plastic containers (57 x 37 x 13 cm) containing 5 L of filtered (1 [micro]m) and UV-irradiated seawater seawater
Water that makes up the oceans and seas. Seawater is a complex mixture of 96.5% water, 2.5% salts, and small amounts of other substances. Much of the world's magnesium is recovered from seawater, as are large quantities of bromine. . After metamorphosis, postlarvae were fed with N. incerta (250 cells/[mm.sup.2]) and cultured in these containers for 14 days. Seawater was changed every 2 days and diatoms were added every week.
The experiment was conducted in six-well tissue culture plates (Falcon 3046, 9.45 [cm.sup.2] bottom area) with 10 mL of 1 [micro]m-filtered UV-irradiated seawater per well. Water changes were performed daily.
Two light conditions (light and dark) and six diatom densities were tested following a split-plot experimental design (Steel at al. 1997). Three culture plates (whole units) were placed inside thick black polyethylene bags to obtain dark conditions, and three plates were in continuous light of between 24 and 33 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s (fluorescent day-light lamps). Six densities of N. incerta (250, 500, 750, 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 cells/mm2) were randomly inoculated in the wells (subunits) of each plate. After 1 day, ten 14-day-old postlarvae (480 [micro]m average shell length) were placed in each well. Water changes were performed daily. The culture plates in the dark treatment were exposed daily to light for -30min during water changes.
After a week in these food densities all wells were cleaned of diatoms and feces feces
or excrement or stools
Solid bodily waste discharged from the colon through the anus during defecation. Normal feces are 75% water. The rest is about 30% dead bacteria, 30% indigestible food matter, 10–20% cholesterol and other fats, with a brush and rinsed two or three times with seawater. Then, the wells were reinoculated with higher densities of N. incerta (500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 8,000, and 10,000 cells/ [mm.sup.2]). These final diatom densities were not applied during the first days of the experiment, because previous experience had shown deleterious deleterious adj. harmful. effects of high densities on early postlarvae. Every 4 days, the wells were cleaned as described earlier and were reinoculated with these final diatom densities of N. incerta.
The same experimental design and vessels were used, but some different procedures were followed. Competent larvae (13-15) were placed and settled with GABA in the wells of culture plates. Irradiance ir·ra·di·ant
Sending forth radiant light.
[Latin irradi of the culture plates under continuous light was between 19 and 21 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s. Sea water quality (1 [micro]m-filtered, UV-irradiated) was further improved by sterilization sterilization
Any surgical procedure intended to end fertility permanently (see contraception). Such operations remove or interrupt the anatomical pathways through which the cells involved in fertilization travel (see reproductive system). (in an autoclave autoclave
Vessel, usually of steel, able to withstand high temperatures and pressures. The chemical industry uses various types of autoclaves in manufacturing dyes and in other chemical reactions requiring high pressures. ). Two days after metamorphosis induction postlarvae were fed with 6 densities of N. incerta (250, 500, 750, 1000, 2000, and 3000 cells/[mm.sup.2]). Every 4 days, the wells were cleaned and rinsed as described in Experiment 1 and reinoculated with these initial diatom densities. After 16 days (when postlarvae were 18-days old), reinoculation densities were increased to 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 8,000, and 10,000 cells/[mm.sup.2]. These differences between experiments are summarized in Table 1.
Both experiments were conducted at 17[degrees]C [+ or -] 1[degrees]C. Survival was determined by counting live postlarvae in each well. To determine shell length and growth rates, all surviving postlarvae were video-recorded with a high-resolution camera (Sony SSC-C374) in an inverted microscope An inverted microscope is a microscope with its light source and condenser on the top above the stage pointing down, and the objectives and turret are below the stage pointing up. (Meiji Techno). Images were digitalized in a computer and measurements of shell length were performed with the program Scion sci·on
1. A descendant or heir.
2. also ci·on A detached shoot or twig containing buds from a woody plant, used in grafting. Image (4.0.2). Survival and shell lengths were evaluated at days 9 and 20 in Experiment 1, and at days 10, 18, and 32 in Experiment 2 (in this trial day 0 corresponded to the day of the first diatom addition, i.e., 2 days after metamorphosis induction).
Statistical analysis was performed using the program JMP JMP Jump
JMP Java Memory Profiler
JMP Joint Manpower Program
JMP Joint Management Plan
JMP Joint Marketing Program
JMP JCL Manipulation Program
JMP Joint Mission Planning (US DoD)
JMP Joint Military Program (version 3.2.6, SAS Institute SAS Institute Inc., headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, USA, has been a major producer of software since it was founded in 1976 by Anthony Barr, James Goodnight, John Sall and Jane Helwig. Inc.). Split-Plot analyses of variance (ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there ) (Steel et al. 1997) were used to evaluate the effect of diatom densities, light condition and their interaction on postlarval survival, shell length, and growth rates. When significant interactions were found, separate ANOVAs and multiple comparisons (LSD LSD or lysergic acid diethylamide (lī'sûr`jĭk, dī'ĕth`ələmĭd, dī'ĕthəlăm`ĭd), alkaloid synthesized from lysergic acid, which is found in the fungus ergot ( tests) were performed to evaluate the effect of diatom density within each light condition. Percent survival data were transformed before analysis (arcsine square root). A value of [alpha] = 0.05 was chosen as the significance level.
In Experiment 1, survival was high (>80%) in all treatments during the experimental period of 20 days (Fig. 1) and there were no significant over-all effects of diatom density or light condition, although in the first 9 days a significant interaction was found (Table 2) reflecting a different effect of one factor in levels of the other. Separate ANOVA tests within each light condition showed a significant effect of diatom density only in the dark (F = 3.71, P = 0.029) where a significantly lower survival in 2,000 cells/ [mm.sup.2] was detected (LSD tests, Fig. 1).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
In Experiment 2, survival after the 32-day experimental period was below 70% (Fig. 2). Treatment effects were not significant during the first 10 days; however, after 18 days a significant interaction was detected (Table 3). Survival in the dark was lowest (45%) at the lowest diatom density (500 cells/[mm.sup.2]), increased as density increased up to 2,000 cells/[mm.sup.2] and remained more or less constant at higher densities (ca. 75%). In the light treatment survival was higher at intermediate diatom densities up to 8,000 cells/ [mm.sup.2] (ca. 60%) but decreased drastically to 24% at the highest density (10,000 cells/[mm.sup.2]) (Fig. 2). This survival was significantly lower than in the dark (76%) at the same diatom density (F = 23.27, P = 0.008). Similar survival patterns were observed at the final evaluation (32 days) (Fig. 2) when significant diatom and interaction effects were detected (Table 3). This interaction implied a significant effect of diatom density only in the dark (F = 3.34, P = 0.040), with the lowest survival (6%) at the lowest diatom density and more or less constant survival (ca. 60%) at densities above 2,000 cells/[mm.sup.2] (LSD tests). In this experiment survival was higher in dark conditions for most diatom densities. At the highest density (10,000 cells/[mm.sup.2]), final survival averages were 66% and 13% for the dark and light treatments, respectively, and this difference was significant (F = 24.99, P = 0.007).
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Shell Length and Growth Rates
In both experiments, initial postlarval shell lengths were not significantly different among treatments. However, postlarval lengths and growth rates were significantly higher in darkness conditions at the end of the experimental periods.
In Experiment 1, final average shell lengths between 1,250 and 1,290 [micro]m were obtained at the four higher diatom densities under darkness, corresponding to growth rates of 37-40 [micro]m/d. In the light treatment the maximum length attained was 792 [micro]m at 4,000 cells/[mm.sup.2] (15 [micro]m/d) (Fig. 3, Fig. 4). This effect of light condition was already significant since the first evaluation (0-9 days, postlarval ages: 14-23 days) (Table 2). Diatom density did not have a significant impact on postlarval growth during the first 9 days but significant treatment and interaction effects were detected thereafter (Fig. 4, Table 2). At the end of the 20-day experimental period, diatom effects were significant only in the dark (F = 23.60, P < 0.001), showing an asymptotic behavior of growth after 2,000 cells/[mm.sup.2], whereas the slow growth (12-16 [micro]m/d) in the light treatment was unaffected by diatom density (F = 2.14, P = 0.130) (Fig. 4).
[FIGURES 3-4 OMITTED]
In Experiment 2, the effect of light condition on postlarval growth was significant at the first evaluation and thereafter (Fig. 5, Table 3). A maximum final length of 1,084 [micro]m (corresponding to a growth rate of 24 [micro]m/d) was obtained in darkness at the highest diatom density (10,000 cells/[mm.sup.2]) and shell length decreased as diatom density decreased. In the light treatment a maximum final length of 546 [micro]m was observed at 8,000 cells/[mm.sup.2] (7 [micro]m/d) (Fig. 5, Fig. 6). Diatom density and interaction effects on growth rate were also significant from the first evaluation onwards (Table 3). At the end of the 32-day experimental period diatom effects were significant in both light conditions (F = 11.96, P < 0.001 and F = 6.16, P = 0.005 for darkness and light
Darkness and Light is a fantasy novel by Paul B. Thompson and Tonya R. , respectively), following a similar pattern than in Experiment 1 with a marked suppression of growth below 2,000 cells/[mm.sup.2] in the dark and little effect of diatom density in the light treatment (Fig. 6).
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
Effects of Light or Dark Condition
Although a significant effect of light condition on postlarval survival of H. rufescens was not detected, the survival pattern in Experiment 2 (Fig. 2) suggests adverse effects of light at high diatom densities. Survival also decreased slightly at the highest diatom density in light conditions in Experiment 1 (Fig. 1) but this effect was not as sharp as in Experiment 2 probably because post-larvae were older and presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. more resistant to environmental stress. A similar pattern was observed in an experiment with H. fulgens where postlarval survival after 1 mo was 90% at 6 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s and only 3% at 47 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s) (Searcy-Bernal et al. 2003). This might be related to oxygen supersaturation supersaturation,
n the addition to or presence of an ingredient in a solution in greater quantity than the solvent can permanently take up. conditions in the boundary layer boundary layer
In fluid mechanics, a thin layer of flowing gas or liquid in contact with a surface (e.g., of an airplane wing or the inside of a pipe). The fluid in the boundary layer is subjected to shear forces. (postlarval microhabitat microhabitat
the normal environment, the natural home, of a microorganism. ) at high diatom densities when light is available for photosynthesis.
Oxygen conditions in the boundary layers over diatom films can change dramatically according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. light conditions. Searcy-Bernal (1996) detected 140% and 50% oxygen saturation oxygen saturation sO2 The O2 concentration of blood expressed as a ratio of its total O2-carrying capacity; the OS is a measure of the utilization of O2 transport capacity; sO2 over Nitzschia sp. films at 59 and 4 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s, respectively, and Roberts et al. (2000) report oxygen saturation values of 400% and 60% over Achnanthes longipes films under light and dark conditions. Although preliminary evidence suggests the abalone postlarvae can tolerate high oxygen concentrations (Loipersberger 1996), the concentrations reached at the highest diatom density in Experiment 2 under light conditions, might have been above the tolerance limits of early H. rufescens postlarvae.
On the other hand, the high survival and growth of postlarvae at high diatom densities under darkness, suggest that they can tolerate very low oxygen concentration (expected under such conditions because of oxygen consumption by diatoms) without adverse effects.
The effect of light conditions on postlarval growth was dramatic in both experiments. In Experiment l, the average growth rate (over all diatom densities) in darkness was 2.4 higher than in light conditions (34.7 and 14.4 [micro]m/d, respectively). In Experiment 2, average growth in darkness was 3.0 times higher than under constant illumination (14.4 and 4.8 [micro]m/d, respectively). Searcy-Bernal et al. (2003) also report a positive effect of low irradiances, because postlarval growth of H. fulgens postlarvae was higher at 6 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s than at 47 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s (37 and 21 [micro]m/d, respectively). This might be explained by differences in postlarval feeding behavior and/or ecological conditions of biofilms.
Adults and juvenile abalones have nocturnal nocturnal /noc·tur·nal/ (nok-tur´n'l) pertaining to, occurring at, or active at night.
1. Of, relating to, or occurring in the night.
2. feeding habits. Commonly during daylight hours abalones remain relatively quiet and tend to aggregate in darkened dark·en
v. dark·ened, dark·en·ing, dark·ens
a. To make dark or darker.
b. To give a darker hue to.
2. To fill with sadness; make gloomy.
3. locations. Grazing activity begins about half hour before sunset and continues throughout the night to satiation sa·ti·a·tion
The state produced by having had a specific need, such as hunger or thirst, fulfilled.
sa (Leighton 2000). Several studies have shown an increase in feeding and growth rates when abalones are cultured in darkness (Ebert & Houk 1984, Godoy-Corrales 1989, Kim et al. 1997).
This pattern has not been documented for postlarvae, which are generally assumed to feed all day because they do not seem to have the same negative phototactic behavior as juveniles and adults. However, this may not be true and nocturnal feeding habits might be established during the postlarval stage. Velez-Espino (1999) evaluated grazing rates of H. fulgens postlarvae during a 24-h cycle and found increased feeding about an hour before sunset in 15- and 30-day-old postlarvae, which is consistent with the feeding behavior of larger abalones. In the experiments reported here, a higher fecal fecal /fe·cal/ (fe´k'l) pertaining to or of the nature of feces.
Relating to or composed of feces.
pertaining to or of the nature of feces. production was qualitatively observed in the darkness treatments during the cleaning procedures, which is consistent with the hypothesis of increased feeding under dark conditions, which would in turn increase postlarval growth.
Light conditions might have an impact on ecologic conditions or nutritional value of the biofilm Biofilm
An adhesive substance, the glycocalyx, and the bacterial community which it envelops at the interface of a liquid and a surface. When a liquid is in contact with an inert surface, any bacteria within the liquid are attracted to the surface and adhere affecting postlarval growth. An important nutritional source for abalone postlarvae is provided by the mucus mucus /mu·cus/ (mu´kus) the free slime of the mucous membranes, composed of secretion of the glands, various salts, desquamated cells, and leukocytes.
n. produced by diatoms and bacteria in the biofilm (Kawamura & Takami 1995, Kawamura et al. 1998a). This mucus is composed of extracellular polymeric substances Extracellular polymeric substances are high-molecular weight compounds secreted by microorganisms into their environment. These are mostly composed of polysaccharides and can either remain attached to the cell's outer surface, or be secreted into its growth medium. (EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) A PostScript file format used to transfer a graphic image between applications and platforms. EPS files contain PostScript code as well as an optional preview image in TIFF, WMF, PICT or EPSI, the latter being an ASCII-only format. ) (Decho 1990), which are produced at a higher rate in darkness than under light conditions by the benthic diatom Navicula perminuta (Smith & Underwood 2000). This suggests that an increased nutritional value of diatom films under darkness might help to explain the higher growth rates of abalone postlarvae. On the other hand, ecologic conditions in the boundary layer in the light treatment might have limited postlarval growth (Searcy-Bernal 1996).
Effects of Diatom Density
Diatoms should be available in enough quantities to produce good growth of abalone postlarvae, but very ,high diatom densities may have a negative impact on postlarval growth because of extreme oxygen concentrations and/or other ecologically adverse conditions (Ebert & Houk 1984, Searcy-Bernal 1996). Therefore, higher survival would be expected at intermediate diatom densities as observed in Experiment 2 under illumination (Fig. 2). However, high diatom densities under darkness did not have a negative impact on postlarval survival as discussed earlier (Fig. 2). High sur viral (>60%) has been reported for postlarvae of H. discus discus /dis·cus/ (dis´kus) pl. dis´ci [L.] disk.
n. pl. dis·ci
A flat circular surface; a disk.
pl. disci [L.]
1. hannai and H. iris fed different diatom species at densities between 1,000 and 4,000 cells/[mm.sup.2] (Kawamura & Takami 1995, Kawamura et al. 1998a).
Although the effect of diatom density on initial postlarval growth was not significant in Experiment 1 (Fig. 4, Table 2) where the initial postlarval age was 14 days; a significant effect was found in Experiment 2 (Fig. 6, Table 3), where the initial postlarval age was 2 days. Growth of these newly settled postlarvae increased most markedly as diatom density increased up to 1,000 cells/[mm.sup.2], and this effect was stronger under darkness. Probably this reflects the benefit of increased diatom mucus and associated bacteria in the biofilms as diatom density increases, since early postlarval growth does not depend on the direct digestion of diatom cells (Kawamura et al. 1998b).
The growth of older postlarvae responded to higher diatom densities following similar patterns in both trials. The second growth period evaluated in Experiment 1 (Fig. 4) started with 23-day-old postlarvae and is comparable to the third evaluation period Evaluation period
The time interval over which funds assess a money manager's performance. (Fig. 6) in Experiment 2 that started with 20-day-old postlarvae. In both cases growth rates in darkness increased sharply as diatom density increased up to 2,000 cells/[mm.sup.2] and leveled off at higher densities. This suggests a possible optimum diatom density to feed H. rufescens postlarvae of these ages under darkness.
Under continuous illumination very little effect of diatom density on postlarval growth was observed in both experiments. This contrasts with the results of Searcy-Bernal et al. (2001) who showed that 15- and 30-day-old postlarvae of H. fulgens kept at between 17[degrees]C to 19[degrees]C and -50 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s, increase their growth as N. incerta density increases up to 2,000 cells/[mm.sup.2]. This difference might be due to several factors including experimental conditions, postlarval, or interspecific in·ter·spe·cif·ic
Arising or occurring between species.
interspecific also interspecies
Arising or occurring between species.
Adj. 1. differences.
Survival and postlarval growth in Experiment 2 were lower than in Experiment 1, probably because of differences between larval larval
1. pertaining to larvae.
see cutaneous and visceral larva migrans. batches or experimental conditions. Variability in abalone growth is common even within the same batch (Hahn 1989) and differences in postlarval growth of H. rufescens between batches similar to those observed here have been reported in other studies (Martinez-Ponce & Searcy-Bernal 1998). On the other hand Experiment 1 started with older postlarvae cultured under optimal conditions before the trial was conducted.
The main conclusion of this work is that the growth of abalone postlarvae might be dramatically improved if they are cultured in darkness. Large-scale trials under hatchery hatchery
a commercial establishment dedicated to the hatching of bird eggs to provide day old chicks and poults to the poultry industry.
the contents of unfertilized eggs. Used in petfood manufacture. conditions are required to determine if this result can be extrapolated to production. The potential implications of these findings to postlarval culture would depend on a reliable source of cultured diatoms to reinoculate tanks as required, which is not currently a technical problem (Roberts et al. 2000).
TABLE 1. Differences between experiments. Both were conducted at 17 [+ or -] 1[degrees]C in sterile six-well tissue culture plates (10-15 postlarvae per well). Seawater was changed daily and reinoculations of diatoms at the experimental densities were performed every 4 days. Procedure Experiment 1 (March 2002) Settlement (GABA, 1.5 [micro]M) In 51 containers Seawater quality 1 [micro]m-filtered, UV-irradiated Irradiance at continuous light treatment 24-33 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s Initial age of postlarvae (after metamorphosis induction) 14 d Low range of diatom densities (250-3,000 cells/[mm.sup.2]) At postlarval ages: 14-21 d High range of diatom densities (500-10,000 cells/[mm.sup.2]) At postlarval ages: 21-34 d Procedure Experiment 2(May 2002) Settlement (GABA, 1.5 [micro]M) In wells Seawater quality 1 [micro]m-filtered, UV-irradiated, sterilized Irradiance at continuous light treatment 19-21 [micro]E/[m.sup.2]/s Initial age of postlarvae (after metamorphosis induction) 2 d Low range of diatom densities (250-3,000 cells/[mm.sup.2]) At postlarval ages: 2-18 d High range of diatom densities (500-10,000 cells/[mm.sup.2]) At postlarval ages: 18-34 d TABLE 2. Results of split-plot ANOVAS for survival and growth rate of H. rufescens postlarvae in Experiment 1. Light Condition (df = 1, 4) Days in Postlarval Treatment Age (d) F P Survival 9 23 0.025 0.382 20 34 3.361 0.141 Growth rate 0-9 14-23 614.57 2 x [10.sup.-5] 9-20 23-34 131.03 3 x [10.sup.-4] 0-20 14-34 278.08 8 x [10.sup.-5] Diatom Density (df = 5, 20) Days in Treatment F P Survival 9 1.272 0.314 20 0.960 0.465 Growth rate 0-9 0.82 0.547 9-20 51.38 9 x [10.sup.-11] 0-20 20.78 3 x [10.sup.-7] Interaction (df = 5, 20) Days in Treatment F P Survival 9 4.307 0.008 20 1.039 0.422 Growth rate 0-9 2.03 0.118 9-20 46.71 2 x [10.sup.-10] 0-20 17.23 1 x [10.sup.-6] TABLE 3. Results of split-plot ANOVAS for survival and growth rate of H. rufescens postlarvae in Experiment 2. Light Condition (df = 1, 4) Days in Postlarval Treatment Age (d) F P Survival 10 12 0.900 0.396 18 20 3.029 0.157 32 34 3.833 0.122 Growth rate 0-10 2-12 25.37 0.007 10-18 12-20 26.46 0.007 18-32 20-34 29.24 0.006 0-32 2-34 91.66 6 x [10.sup.-4] Diatom Density (df = 5, 20) Days in Treatment F P Survival 10 2.552 0.061 18 1.957 0.129 Growth rate 0-10 5.97 0.001 10-18 21.39 2 x [10.sup.-7] 18-32 7.34 4 x [10.sup.-4] 0-32 11.79 2 x [10.sup.-5] Interaction (df = 5, 20) Days in Treatment F P Survival 10 1.401 0.266 18 2.568 0.060 32 4.55 0.006 Growth rate 0-10 4.10 0.01 10-18 8.80 1 x [10.sup.-4] 18-32 2.61 0.056 0-32 4.53 0.006
The authors thank the commercial farm Abulones Cultivados (Erendira, B.C., Mexico) for the donation of abalone larvae, Enrique Valenzuela (I.I.O.) for providing the monocultures of N. incerta, Casandra Anguiano-Beltran for her technical support, Carmen Carmen
throws over lover for another. [Fr. Lit.: Carmen; Fr. Opera: Bizet, Carmen, Westerman, 189–190]
See : Faithlessness
the cards repeatedly spell her death. [Fr. Paniagua-Chavez, and two anonymous reviewers for their critical comments on the manuscript. This study was partially funded by the University of Baja California (grants 4040 and 4403) and the Mexican Government (CONACYT CONACYT Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (National Board of Science and Technology; Mexico, Bolivia, Paraguay) grant 37461-B and SNI (1) (Subscriber Network Interface) The point of interface between the customer's equipment (CPE) and a communications service from a common carrier.
(2) (SNA Network I grant 5532). This paper is part of the doctoral dissertation of E. Gorrostieta-Hurtado supported by a CONACyT scholarship.
Daume, S., A. Krsinich, S. Farrell & M. Gervis. 2000. Settlement, early growth and survival of Haliotis rubra in response to different algal algal
pertaining to or caused by algae.
is very rare but systemic and udder infections are recorded. See protothecosis.
the algae Prototheca trispora and P. species. J. Applied Phycol. 12:479-488.
Decho, A. 1990. Microbial microbial
pertaining to or emanating from a microbe.
the breakdown of organic material, especially feedstuffs, by microbial organisms. exopolymer secretions in ocean environments: their role(s) in food webs and marine processes. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 28:73-153.
Ebert, E. & J. Houk. 1984. Elements and innovations in the cultivation of red abalone Haliotis rufescens. Aquaculture aquaculture, the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production. 39:375-392.
Godoy-Corrales, J. 1989. Efecto del fotoperiodo sobre el desarrollo gonadal gonadal
pertaining to or arising from a gonad. See also testicular, ovarian.
cords formed by epithelial cells which migrate from the mesonephric tubules in the embryo to the gonadal ridge and establish the indifferent y crecimiento del abulon rojo Haliotis rufescens. Licenciatura thesis. Facultad de Ciencias Marinas: Universidad Autonoma de Baja California. 87 pp.
Guillard, R. L. 1975. Culture of phytoplankton phytoplankton
Flora of freely floating, often minute organisms that drift with water currents. Like land vegetation, phytoplankton uses carbon dioxide, releases oxygen, and converts minerals to a form animals can use. for feeding marine invertebrates. In: M. L. Smith & M. H. Chanley, editors. Culture of marine invertebrates animals. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Plenum Press. pp. 29-60.
Hahn, K. O. 1989. Handbook of culture of abalone and other marine gastropods. Boca Raton Boca Raton (bō`kə rətōn`), city (1990 pop. 61,492), Palm Beach co., SE Fla., on the Atlantic; inc. 1925. Boca Raton is a popular resort and retirement community that experienced significant industrial development in the 1970s and 80s. Florida: CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Checking) An error checking technique used to ensure the accuracy of transmitting digital data. The transmitted messages are divided into predetermined lengths which, used as dividends, are divided by a fixed divisor. Press. 348 pp.
Hone, P., S. Madigan & A. Fleming. 1997. Abalone hatchery manual for Australia. Williamstown, Victoria Williamstown () is one of the oldest suburbs of Melbourne, Victoria. Its Local Government Area is the City of Hobsons Bay. History of Williamstown
In November 1835 Captain Robson, master of barque Norval : South Australian Research and Development Institute. 34 pp.
Kawamura, T. & H. Takami. 1995. Analysis of feeding and growth rate of newly metamorphosed abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed on four species of benthic diatom. Fisheries fisheries. From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long Sci. 61:357-358.
Kawamura, T., R. Roberts & M. Nicholson. 1998a. Factors affecting the food value of diatom strains for post-larval abalone Haliotis iris. Aquaculture 160:81-88.
Kawamura, T., R. Roberts & H. Takami. 1998b. A review of feeding and growth of postlarval abalone. J. Shellfish shellfish, popular name for certain edible mollusks (see Mollusca), e.g., oysters, clams, and scallops, and for certain edible crustaceans, e.g., crabs, lobsters, and shrimps. All are aquatic invertebrates with shells; they are not fish. Res. 17:615-625.
Kim, B. L., J. W. Kim, S. H. Won, C. H. Wi & H. Y. Park. 1997. Effects of complete dark conditions on the growth or four species of juvenile abalones. Bull. Nat. Fish. Res. Dev. Institute 53:103-110.
Leighton, L. D. 1974. The influence of temperature on larval and juvenile growth in three species of southern California Southern California, also colloquially known as SoCal, is the southern portion of the U.S. state of California. Centered on the cities of Los Angeles and San Diego, Southern California is home to nearly 24 million people and is the nation's second most populated region, abalones. Fish. Bull. 72:1137-1145.
Leighton, L. D. 2000. The biology and culture of the California abalones. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania “Pittsburgh” redirects here. For the region, see Pittsburgh Metropolitan Area.
Pittsburgh (pronounced IPA: /ˈpɪtsbɚg/) is the second largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. : Dorrance Publishing Co., Inc. 216 pp.
Loipersberger, M. 1996. The effect of enhanced oxygen levels on abalone survival and feeding behavior. Presentation at the 3rd Annual Abalone Aquaculture Workshop. August 1996. Port Lincoln, Australia.
Martinez-Ponce, D. & R. Searcy-Bernal. 1998. Grazing rates of red Abalone (Haliotis rufescens) postlarvae feeding on the benthic diatom Navicula incerta. J. Shellfish Res. 17:627-630.
McBride, S. C. 1998. Current status of abalone aquaculture in the Californias. J. Shellfish Res. 17:593-600.
Roberts, R., T. Kawamura & C. M. Nicholson. 1999. Growth and survival of postlarval abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in relation to development and diatom diet. J. Shellfish Res. 18:243-250.
Roberts, R., T. Kawamura & H. Takami. 2000. Diatoms for culture: a workshop for abalone farmers. Cawthron Report No. 547:28.
Roberts, R., C. Lapworth & R. Barker. 2001. Effect of starvation on the growth and survival of post-larval abalone (Haliotis iris). Aquaculture 200:323-338.
Searcy-Bernal, R. 1996. Boundary layers and abalone postlarval culture: preliminary studies. Aquaculture 140:129-137.
Searcy-Bernal, R. & C. Anguiano-Beltran. 1998. Optimizing the concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) for inducing larval metamorphosis in red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Mollusca: Gastropoda). J. World Aquaculture Soc. 29:463-470.
Searcy-Bernal, R., A. Velez-Espino & C. Anguiano-Beltran. 2001. Effect of biofilm density on grazing and growth rates of Haliotis fulgens postlarvae. J. Shellfish Res. 20:587-591.
Searcy-Bernal, R., C. Anguiano-Beltran & A. Esparza-Hernandez. 2003. The effect of irradiance on the survival and growth of abalone postlarvae Haliotis fulgens fed Navicula incerta. Aquaculture 228:237-248.
Smith, D. & G. J. Underwood. 2000. The production of extracellular extracellular /ex·tra·cel·lu·lar/ (-sel´u-lar) outside a cell or cells.
Located or occurring outside a cell or cells. carbohydrates by estuarine es·tu·a·rine
1. Of, relating to, or found in an estuary.
2. Geology Formed or deposited in an estuary.
Adj. 1. estuarine - of or relating to or found in estuaries
estuarial benthic diatoms: the effects of growth phase and light and dark treatment. J. Phycol. 36:321-333.
Steel, R. G., J. H. Torrie & P. A. Dickey. 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach. New York: McGraw-Hill. 666 pp.
Takami, H., T. Kawamura & Y. Yamashita. 2000. Starvation tolerance of newly metamorphosed post-larval abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Fisheries Sci. 66:1180-1182.
Velez-Espino, A. 1999. Determinacion de tasas de pastoreo y de crecimiento de postlarvas de abulon azul, Haliotis fulgens, en distintas densidades de la diatomea bentonica Navicula incerta. MSc thesis. Facultad de Ciencias Marinas: Universidad Autonoma de Baja California. 79 pp.
ERENDIRA GORROSTIETA-HURTADO (1) AND RICARDO SEARCY-BERNAL (2) *
(1) Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B. C. Mexico, 22800; (2) Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apartado Postal 453. Ensenada, B. C. Mexico, 22860
* Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com