Combat identification training: Recognition of Combat Vehicles program.
As of 31 January 2006 in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom
OIF Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (French: International Organization of Francophonie)
OIF Office for Intellectual Freedom (American Library Association) ), the US Army has had 27 fratricides--friendly fire on friendly forces. Twenty-six of those were from direct fire and one from indirect fire (although not artillery indirect fire). Two of those incidents were ground-to-air engagements, and one was an air-to-ground strike--all others were surface-to-surface engagements. Fourteen incidents occurred during daylight hours and 13 at night. These fratricide frat·ri·cide
1. The killing of one's brother or sister.
2. One who has killed one's brother or sister.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin incidents resulted in 11 US Soldiers killed and 10 other military fatalities. (Countermeasure, Vol 27, March 2006, published by the Army Combat Readiness Center at Fort Rucker, Alabama).
As these statistics verify, combat identification is still an unresolved problem on the modern battlefield, even during stability and support operations Stability and support operations involve military forces providing safety and support to friendly noncombatants while suppressing and threatening forces.
SASO operations can occur in everything from natural disaster areas (earthquakes, storms and flooding) to insurgencies .
Combat identification has many considerations--situational awareness and target identification within specified rules of engagement (ROE) are the cornerstones. Individual and collective training are key to enabling Soldiers and leaders to identify friendly and enemy vehicles in multiple situations.
To prevent or reduce the potential for fratricide and simultaneously increase combat effectiveness, the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC TRADOC Training & Doctrine Command (US Army) ) is implementing a five-tiered training model for combat identification. (See the figure.)
This model provides "trigger pullers" graduated and increasingly robust training to meet combat identification challenges. Regardless of all our advanced technology or the ability of the command and control architecture to provide near perfect situational awareness, once the vehicle commander or individual shooter confirms the target is hostile, the final decision to engage a target by direct fire is the shooter's--the gunner with his finger on the trigger.
Recognition of Combat Vehicles (ROC-V ROC-V Recognition of Combat Vehicles ) Program. The training software of choice is the ROC-V and training aids, devices, simulators and simulations (TADSS TADSS Training Aids, Devices, Simulators and Simulations
TADSS Tactical Automatic Digital Switching System ) with embedded imagery from the ROC-V program. ROC-V is thermal-sight training that runs on any computer with the Windows operating system.
With ROC-V, Soldiers learn to identify the thermal signatures of combat vehicles by using an interactive curriculum that teaches the unique patterns and shapes of vehicle "hot spots" and overall vehicle shapes. ROC-V also gives Soldiers practical experience in using their individual weapon thermal-sensor image controls. Using virtual sight controls, Soldiers learn to adjust their thermal optics to find targets and reveal thermal identification cues.
ROC-V includes training and testing to support the US Army Soldier's Manual Common Task (SMCT SMCT Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks
SMCT Smart Multicircuit Terminal ) Skill Level I, Visual Vehicle Identification.
The training program includes paper trainer versions for reference without a computer. The instructor control module permits individual and collective training, testing and score tracking. ROC-V is the only training aid available for current joint combat identification marking system (JCIMS JCIMS Joint Combat ID Marking System ) devices.
ROC-V is the standard for ground combat vehicle identification training in the Army and Marine Corps. Users can download ROC-V from the website at https://rocv.army.mil.
The Army Training Support Center (ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) An international digital television (DTV) standard adopted by the U.S., Canada, South Korea, Taiwan and Argentina. ) at Fort Eustis, Virginia, is distributing compact discs of ROC-V through the Joint Visual Information Activity, Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania (http://dodimagery.afis.osd.mil). These CDs provide the ROC-V training program to Soldiers who cannot access the website.
Future ROC-V Training. Representatives from the four armed services are helping to produce the next generation of ROC-V to meet joint mission area applications. The ROC-V team already has produced a look-down aspect angle version for air-to-ground mission areas, such as fixed-wing close air support (CAS), attack and reconnaissance rotary-wing platforms, and AC-130 gunships. USMC light attack helicopter squadrons currently use this version. This same product improvement has a potential value for tactical unmanned aerial vehicle A powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload. (TUAV TUAV Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle ) sensor analysts.
In the future, ROC-V imagery may be embedded in combat vehicle tactical trainers and other TADSS. Efforts also include developing a web-based course that conforms with the shared courseware object reference model (SCORM SCORM Shareable Content Object Reference Model (web-based e-learning standard)
SCORM Shared Courseware Object Reference Model
SCORM Shareable Courseware Object Reference Model ) that individual services can host.
Leaders must ensure they have a plan to reduce the risk of fratricide. Along with improving situational awareness during operations, the key is tough, realistic combat vehicle identification training before operations. ROC-V meets that training need. The bottom line--ROC-V training saves lives.
MAJ(R) William M. Rierson, FA
Lead Analyst, Ground Combat Division of the Joint Fires Integration and Interoperability Team (JFIIT JFIIT Joint Fires Integration and Interoperability Team ) Eglin AFB AFB
AFB Acid-fast bacillus, also 1. Aflatoxin B 2. Aorto-femoral bypass , FL
COL(R) David A. Ahrens, FA
Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Training, TRADOC, Fort Monroe, VA
Tier Level Type Training 1. Individual Combat Vehicle Identification with ROC-V 2. Individual & Team AGTS, BATS, UCOFT &, CCTT 3. Team & Unit Gunnery, Ranges & NGATS 4. Unit & Collective Force-on-Force Training Exercises with JCIM at Home Station and the CTCs 5. Collective & Joint Virtual Mission Rehearsals, Combined Arms Rehearsals & Rock Drills Legend: AGTS = Advanced Gunner Training Simulator BATS = Bradley Advanced Training System CCTT = Close Combat Tactical Trainer CTC = Combat Training Center JCIMS = Joint Combat Identification Marking System NGATS = New Generation Army Targetry System ROC-V = Recognition of Combat Vehicles UCOFT = Unit Conduct of Fire Trainers Combat Vehicle Identification Tiered Training Model