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College students sexuality education, sexual behaviors and sexual behavioral intent.



Abstract: Louisiana Louisiana (ləwē'zēăn`ə, lē'–), state in the S central United States. It is bounded by Mississippi, with the Mississippi R.  has higher than the national pregnancy and STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) Long distance dialing outside of the U.S. that does not require operator intervention. STD prefix codes are required and billing is based on call units, which are a fixed amount of money in the currency of that country.  rates among unmarried individuals aged 15 to 24 years. The purpose of this study was to assess the sexual behaviors sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life.  and protective sexual behavior intentions of college students attending four state universities and to assess differences on race, gender, year in school and previous sexuality education. Of 1,168 participants, 666(57%) indicated having had sexual intercourse sexual intercourse
 or coitus or copulation

Act in which the male reproductive organ enters the female reproductive tract (see reproductive system).
. About 13% never received sexuality education. Less than 50% rated it good. More White than African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race.  students reported engaging in sexual behaviors. Previous sexuality education was statistically significantly related to selected protective sexual behavior intentions.

**********

The health impact of pre-college and college students sexual behaviors is a primary concern of health educators and health care providers (Gilbert & Alexander, 1998; Turner, Korpita, Mohn, & Hill, 1993). Young people are at higher risk of acquiring STDs than older adults for many reasons. Many have multiple sexual partners, engage in unsafe or unprotected sexual intercourse, and may select partners who have an STD (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center.  [CDC See Control Data, century date change and Back Orifice.

CDC - Control Data Corporation
], 2002a).

Data from the Youth Risk Behavioral behavioral

pertaining to behavior.


behavioral disorders
see vice.

behavioral seizure
see psychomotor seizure.
 Survey (YRBS YRBS Youth Risk Behavior Survey ) indicate that nationwide, half (45.6%) of all pre-college age students have engaged in sexual intercourse during their lifetime, and 6.6% of students have engaged in sexual intercourse before age 13 years (CDC, 2002b). During the college years, the Years, The

the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]

See : Time
 rate of students engaging in intercourse INTERCOURSE. Communication; commerce; connexion by reciprocal dealings between persons or nations, as by interchange of commodities, treaties, contracts, or letters.  increases even more. According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 data from the 1995 College Health Risk Behavioral Survey (CHRBS) (CDC, 1997), nationwide, 86.1% of college students had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime, and more than one third (34.5%) have had sexual intercourse with six or more partners.

Predictors of college students' risky sexual behaviors are varied: number of partners in last six months, religious values, condom 1. condom - The protective plastic bag that accompanies 3.5-inch microfloppy diskettes. Rarely, also used of (paper) disk envelopes. Unlike the write protect tab, the condom (when left on) not only impedes the practice of SEX but has also been shown to have a high failure  attitudes, age at first sex and binging on alcohol (Langer, Warheit, & McDonald, 2001). Alcohol use, furthermore, was most often linked to unsafe sexual practices of pre-college and college age students (Dunn, Bartee, & Perko, 2003; Poulson, Eppler, Satterwhite, Wuensch, & Bass, 1998; Temple & Leigh, 1992).

Unprotected sexual practices place individuals at risk for STDs. Every year, about three million teens get an STD (CDC, 2002a). Approximately 15% of sexually active teenage women are infected in·fect  
tr.v. in·fect·ed, in·fect·ing, in·fects
1. To contaminate with a pathogenic microorganism or agent.

2. To communicate a pathogen or disease to.

3. To invade and produce infection in.
 with the human papilloma virus human papilloma virus
n. Abbr. HPV
A DNA virus of the genus Papillomavirus, certain types of which cause cutaneous and genital warts in humans, including condyloma acuminatum.
 (HPV HPV human papillomavirus.

HPV
abbr.
human papilloma virus


Human papilloma virus (HPV) 
), many with the type of HPV that is linked to cervical cancer Cervical Cancer Definition

Cervical cancer is a disease in which the cells of the cervix become abnormal and start to grow uncontrollably, forming tumors.
. Sexual behaviors of college students living in southern states Southern States
U.S.

Confederacy

government of 11 Southern states that left the Union in 1860. [Am. Hist.: EB, III: 73]

Dixie

popular name for Southern states in U.S. and for song. [Am. Hist.
 are especially problematic because the South has consistently higher STD rates than the national average (CDC, 2002a). Most alarming is that, of the cumulative MDS MDS,
n See temporomandibular pain-dysfunction syndrome.

MDS 1 Maternal deprivation syndrome, see there 2 Myelodysplastic syndrome, see there
 cases in Louisiana, 16% are 13 to 24 years old, and 68% are individuals aged 25 to 44 (Louisiana Office of Public Health [LOPH], 2001a). Given the number of years between HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States.  infection and AIDS, these young people would have been in their teens or early twenties at time of infection. Other Louisiana STD rates are also high: gonorrhea gonorrhea (gŏnərē`ə), common infectious disease caused by a bacterium (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), involving chiefly the mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract.  cases (13,265) are 3rd highest in the nation (34% of cases are ages 20-24) while Chlamydia chlamydia (kləmĭd`ēə), genus of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. Psittacosis, or parrot fever, caused by the species Chlamydia psittaci,  is 5th in the nation (42% among 15-19 year-olds and 36% among 20-24 year-olds) (LOPH, 2001b).

Unplanned pregnancies are also a problem. Each year in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , 800,000 to 900,000 adolescents 19 years of age or younger become pregnant (CDC, 2000). Even though the U.S. teen pregnancy rate has declined, Louisiana's rank is currently at 19 (National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2000a). The Louisiana pregnancy rate per 1,000 girls ages 15 to 19 is 97 per 1,000 women (national is 83.6); and in 18 to 19 year olds, it is 148 per 1,000 (national is 116.9) (Alan Guttmacher Alan Frank Guttmacher (1898-1974) was an American physician.

He served as president of Planned Parenthood and vice-president of the American Eugenics Society, founded the Association for the Study of Abortion in 1964, was a member of the Association for Voluntary
 Institute, 2004; National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2000b).

The risk factors for acquiring STDs or unplanned pregnancies are behavioral choices. Such choices include condom use, birth control use, and number of sexual partners. Youth need comprehensive sexuality education programs to acquire sexual knowledge and skills needed to resist early onset of sexual activity and to help them make wise decisions related to their sexual behaviors (Kirby, 1997, 2000; Kirby, Short, Collins, Rugg, Kolbe, Howard, M., et al., 1994). Prior to attending college, many young adults may have had very little sexuality education because not all states require sexuality education. In Louisiana, sexuality education is recommended but not mandated. In most schools, it may not begin until seventh grade, a time at which many youth are already engaging in sexual behaviors. It is likely, therefore, that many Louisiana students have not had quality sexuality education before attending college.

The purposes of the present study were to assess the sexual behaviors and protective sexual behavior intentions of Louisiana CODE, OF LOUISIANA. In 1822, Peter Derbigny, Edward Livingston, and Moreau Lislet, were selected by the legislature to revise and amend the civil code, and to add to it such laws still in force as were not included therein.  college students and to assess relationship to race, gender, year in college, previous sexuality education, and perceptions of quality of sexuality education.

METHODS

PARTICIPANTS

College students (n = 1,168) attending four universities in southern Louisiana participated in the study through the completion of a survey instrument. A systematic sampling process was utilized to obtain a sample representative of each university and inter-university population. To assure obtaining a similar sample representative of each university, course selection was from Psychology; Biology, English, Kinesiology/Physical Education, and Health Education classes.

PROCEDURES

The Institutional Review Board at all four universities approved the study. Letters to faculty requesting permission to survey their classes were sent by email along with file attachments See e-mail attachment.  of the instrument and cover letter. At the time of survey administration, data collectors explained the purpose of the study. Students were informed of their rights according to human subjects review, were given information about the types of questions to be asked, were not coerced to complete the questionnaire, and were assured of full anonymity. All individuals who participated in data collection were trained in the instrument administration protocol. Data collection was completed by the researchers and paid student assistants.

INSTRUMENTATION instrumentation, in music: see orchestra and orchestration.
instrumentation

In technology, the development and use of precise measuring, analysis, and control equipment.


The instrument included items eliciting basic demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. , sexual behaviors, protective sexual behavioral intentions, and quantity and quality of previous sexuality education. The Stages of Acquisition (SAC Sac: see Sac and Fox.

SAC - 1. An early system on the Datatron 200 series.

[Listed in CACM 2(5):16 (May 1959)].
) Model has been found to be effective in predicting alcohol, tobacco and other drug use (Kelley, Denny & Young, 1999; Werch & Anzalone, 1995; Werch, Meers, & Farrell, 1993). For that reason, items assessing protective sexual behavioral intentions were designed similar to the alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use items utilized in previous surveys. The SAC was adapted from the Stages of Change, a component of the Transtheoretical Model The transtheoretical model of change in health psychology explains or predicts a person's success or failure in achieving a proposed behavior change, such as developing different habits. It attempts to answer why the change "stuck" or alternatively why the change was not made.  (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982; Prochaska, Norcross, & DiClemente, 1994).

Eight items focused on intentions to engage in sexual behaviors and protective sexual behaviors: (1) being in a relationship, (2) engaging in sexual activities with a partner, (3) talking with the dating partner about the importance of avoiding HIV or other STD, (4) limiting sex to only kissing or touching to prevent HIV or AIDS (5) refusing to have sexual intercourse to prevent HIV or other STDs, (6) refusing to have sex without a condom, (7) getting tested for HIV if one does not think he/she is infected, and (8) getting tested for HIV if one does think he/she is infected. Participants responded to these items on a five point response scale that ranged from "definitely" intending to engage in the behavior to "definitely not" intending to engage in the behavior.

Sexual behavior items focused on petting/making out, sexual intercourse, and oral sex. Students responded to these items using a set of responses indicating never engaging in the behavior, engaging in the behavior only occasionally, or regular engagement.

Items addressing sexuality education required students to indicate each grade level in which it was received (grade school, middle or junior high, high school, college). This was followed by a list of 15 sexuality education topics (e.g., abstinence abstinence: see fasting; temperance movements. , condom use, HIV/ AIDs). Participants identified those topics they had ever received and rated the quality of instruction of each on a 6-point scale anchored by "extremely poor" to "extremely good." A mean value of these items was calculated for each participant, representing the overall perceived quality of sex education received. Reliability analysis of this scale yielded a coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.

2.
 of internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores.  (Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments. ) of r = .94 and a Guttman Split-half coefficient of r = .90.

To ascertain readability read·a·ble  
adj.
1. Easily read; legible: a readable typeface.

2. Pleasurable or interesting to read: a readable story.
 of the instrument, it was first piloted to approximately 100 undergraduate students taking general education classes. To provide evidence of content validity content validity,
n the degree to which an experiment or measurement actually reflects the variable it has been designed to measure.
 of the instrument, it was sent to four external sexuality education teachers or professors for review and comments. After both of these processes, revisions were made to the instrument. The behavior and behavioral intent questions used in this survey have been found to produce robust and replicable categorical That which is unqualified or unconditional.

A categorical imperative is a rule, command, or moral obligation that is absolutely and universally binding.

Categorical is also used to describe programs limited to or designed for certain classes of people.
 classification.

LIMITATIONS

A limitation of the study was that sampling was based on a systematic selection of intact classes rather than a random selection of students. The researchers did, however, attempt to obtain a sample of students representative of each university in terms of gender, race, year in school and a wide variety of majors.

RESULTS

DEMOGRAPHICS

A total of 1168 students completed usable USable is a special idea contest to transfer US American ideas into practice in Germany. USable is initiated by the German Körber-Stiftung (foundation Körber). It is doted with 150,000 Euro and awarded every two years.  surveys. Demographic characteristics of the sample are presented in Table 1. A majority of respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  were less than 23 years of age; females outnumbered Outnumbered is a British sitcom that aired on BBC One in 2007.[1] It stars Hugh Dennis and Claire Skinner as a mother and father who are outnumbered by their three children.  males 65% to 36%; and the sample was primarily White (75%) and African American (18%). These distributions generally reflect the student populations of the universities from which participants were drawn. The college classification of the sample was well distributed among the four undergraduate levels, with somewhat more freshmen and seniors. Reflective Refers to light hitting an opaque surface such as a printed page or mirror and bouncing back. See reflective media and reflective LCD.  of the most populated pop·u·late  
tr.v. pop·u·lat·ed, pop·u·lat·ing, pop·u·lates
1. To supply with inhabitants, as by colonization; people.

2.
 areas of the state, more students indicated being from the southeastern and southwestern sections of the state than central and northern areas.

SEXUALITY EDUCATION

One-hundred fifty-three (13.1%) of the participants indicated never receiving sexuality education in school, 172 (14.7%) indicated having received sexuality education in primary school grades, 579 (49.6%) in middle and junior high school, 708 (60.6%) at the high school level, and 617 (52.8) during college. These responses were used to develop categories inclusive of inclusive of
prep.
Taking into consideration or account; including.
 all educational levels in which each participant received sexuality education. As shown in Table 2, less than 40% of students indicated having received sexuality education in college plus at least one lower educational level, yet over 20% had received either no sexuality education or only during K-8 grades.

QUALITY OF SEXUALITY EDUCATION

Figure 1 depicts the percent of respondents who rated the quality of education on one or more of 15 topics as either "good" or "extremely good." The highest rated topics included STDs, STD protection, HIV/ MDS, and sexual anatomy/physiology, with over 50% indicating the quality of the education received on these topics was good or extremely good. By comparison, less than 30% indicated receiving high quality education on condom use, abortion, and homosexuality homosexuality, a term created by 19th cent. theorists to describe a sexual and emotional interest in members of one's own sex. Today a person is often said to have a homosexual or a heterosexual orientation, a description intended to defuse some of the long-standing .

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Respondents' quality ratings for all categories were averaged to create an "overall quality" of sexuality education score. A total of 181 participants' (18%) overall quality ratings ranged between 5.0 and 6.0 (good to extremely good), 377 (38%) had overall quality ratings ranging between 4.0 and 4.9 (average to good), 299 (30%) between 3.0 and 3.9 (poor to average), and 136 (14%) had overall quality ratings of 2.0 or lower (poor).

SEXUAL BEHAVIORS

Participants' sexual behaviors, specifically the frequency of their engagement in petting or "making out," having sexual intercourse, and oral sex are depicted de·pict  
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.

2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent.
 in Table 3. Over half of the participants who responded indicated regularly petting/making out (64%) and having sexual intercourse (56%), while 46% reported regularly engaging in oral sex.

Frequencies of sexual behavior categories (never, occasionally, and regularly) were compared using Chi Square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies.
 analyses across four grouping variables: race, gender (African American vs. White respondents), year in school, and previous sexuality education. The traditional value of.05 was used as the criterion for statistical significance. As shown in Table 3, White students reported engaging in all three behaviors more often than did African American students, and Chi Square analyses indicated these differences were statistically significant. Two sexual behaviors varied by gender, with more females reporting regular sexual intercourse and oral sex than males. Sexual activity also differed according to year in school, with both intercourse and oral sex increasing from freshman to senior levels. Reported frequencies of engaging in these behaviors were not statistically significantly different between students who reported they received and those who reported they did not receive sexuality education.

INTENT TO ENGAGE IN PROTECTIVE SEXUAL BEHAVIORS

Responses to items included in the "intent to engage in sexual behaviors" section were coded dichotomously di·chot·o·mous  
adj.
1. Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.

2. Characterized by dichotomy.



di·chot
. Those indicating "probably" or "definitely" intending to engage in a behavior were coded as a positive response. The majority of respondents indicated anticipating dating or being in a relationship in the next six months (80.9%) and having sex with this person (64.7%). Relatively fewer reported intent to take precautions precautions Infectious disease The constellation of activities intended to minimize exposure to an infectious agent; precautions imply that the isolation of an infected Pt is optional, but not mandatory.  to prevent HIV or STDs, such as discussing it with a sexual partner (41%), limiting sexual activity (25%), avoiding intercourse (25%), or refusing to have sex without a condom (52%). When asked about getting tested for HIV, only 25% indicated plans to get tested if they did not believe they were infected, while over 85% indicated they would be tested if they did believe they were infected (see Table 4).

As shown in Table 4, frequencies of positive responses to protective sexual behaviors were analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

3.
 using Chi Square analyses relative to year in school, gender, race, and having or not having received sexuality education. The alpha level of .05 was used as the criterion for statistical significance. Statistically significant gender differences were observed. More females than males reported intent to talk with a sexual partner about avoiding HIV or STDs, intent to limit sexual activity to avoid HIV or STDs, and intent to avoid intercourse without a condom.

Statistically significant differences between African American and White students were observed in responses to two items. More African American than White students indicated plans to discuss HIV or STDs with sexual partners; however, White students were more likely to get tested for HIV given the belief that they were infected. Analysis of responses to the other items did not indicate significant differences, but the trend for African American students to indicate greater intent to engage in protective actions was present (e.g., 28% of African American students indicated refusing to have sex to avoid HIV or STDS, compared to 24% of White students).

More freshman and sophomores than juniors and seniors responded positively to intent to engage in protective behaviors. It could be that juniors and seniors were in committed relationships A committed relationship is an interpersonal relationship based upon a mutually agreed upon commitment to one another involving exclusivity, honesty, or some other agreed upon behavior.  and not as concerned about acquiring an STD. Siegel, Klein Klein , Melanie 1882-1960.

Austrian-born British psychoanalyst who first introduced play therapy and was the first to use psychoanalysis to treat young children.
, and Roghmann (1999) found that seniors reported an increased level of oral contraceptive oral contraceptive
n.
A pill, typically containing estrogen or progesterone, that prevents conception or pregnancy. Also called birth control pill.
 use among partners, indicating a concern to prevent pregnancy rather than prevention of an STD.

An examination of participants' responses clearly indicated that those who received sexuality education were more likely to engage in protective action. Moreover, when groups were compared using Chi Square analyses, participants who had received sexuality education were found to be significantly more likely than those who had not received sexuality education to refuse intercourse if their partner did not use a condom.

The researchers were also interested in examining the extent to which variances in students' perceptions of the perceived quality of sexuality education received were associated with intent to engage in protective behaviors. Participants were categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
 in two groups: intending or not intending to engage in each protective behavior. Independent t-tests were then conducted comparing the two groups' ratings of the overall quality of sex education. Individuals who indicated intending to engage in protective sexual behaviors reported higher perceived quality of sexuality education (see Table 5). Statistically significant differences (p < .05) were found for talking to Noun 1. talking to - a lengthy rebuke; "a good lecture was my father's idea of discipline"; "the teacher gave him a talking to"
lecture, speech

rebuke, reprehension, reprimand, reproof, reproval - an act or expression of criticism and censure; "he had to
 a partner about avoiding HIV or STDs, refusing to have intercourse Verb 1. have intercourse - have sexual intercourse with; "This student sleeps with everyone in her dorm"; "Adam knew Eve"; "Were you ever intimate with this man?"  to avoid HIV or STDs, and getting tested for HIV if one thinks he/she might be infected. For each of these three variables, the effect size indicating the magnitude of the difference between groups was nearly one fourth of a standard deviation In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.

(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers.
 unit.

DISCUSSION

This study was conducted in order to examine Louisiana college Louisiana College is a private institution of higher education located in Pineville, Louisiana affiliated with the Louisiana Baptist Convention, serving a student body of approximately 1,000 students. The college operates on a semester system, with two shorter summer terms.  students' sexual behaviors and their intentions to use protective sexual behaviors. The findings indicate that gender and race are significantly related factors. In addition, the findings support the importance of sexuality education in impacting sexuality health-based decisions.

Of this sample of Louisiana college students, most indicated receiving school-based sexuality education at some level, with only 13% having never received any. Students' ratings of the quality of sexuality education they received, however, were generally low, with less than 50% rating it good or extremely good on most topics. One topic rated as lower quality included condom use even though consistent and accurate condom use is protective of most STDs and 98% effective for preventing pregnancy (SIECUS SIECUS Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States , 2002). Pre- and college students who are engaging in sexual intercourse need condom and other contraceptive contraceptive /con·tra·cep·tive/ (-sep´tiv)
1. diminishing the likelihood of or preventing conception.

2. an agent that so acts.
 information as a part of quality sexuality education.

Fifty-six percent of college students participating in this study reported regularly having sexual intercourse. These data indicate more frequent sexual activity as compared to the results of a study assessing the sexual practices of college students on a commuter campus wherein where·in  
adv.
In what way; how: Wherein have we sinned?

conj.
1. In which location; where: the country wherein those people live.

2.
 40% of 1,919 students reported having sex at least once per week (Prince & Bernard Ber·nard , Claude 1813-1878.

French physiologist noted for his study of the digestive and nervous systems.
, 1998). The current findings, however, are lower than the findings of the 1995 CHRBS in which 86% of college students reported ever having had sexual intercourse (CDC, 1997).

The frequency of sexual behaviors was higher among White students and females. This finding differs from the results of the 1995 CHBRS indicating that African American students were at greater risk of engaging in sexual intercourse than White students regardless of gender (CDC, 1997). It is possible that the social norms in Louisiana create different sexual activity patterns when compared nationally, or that the results are impacted by other characteristics of the student populations at the universities studied (all affordable public four-year institutions). This is the first relatively large-scale study of sexual behaviors among college students in Louisiana, and examining factors that may help to explain differences in sexual behaviors of Louisiana college students compared to those in other states or nationally may be a fruitful fruit·ful  
adj.
1.
a. Producing fruit.

b. Conducive to productivity; causing to bear in abundance: fruitful soil.

2.
 avenue of further study. It was also somewhat surprising to find that frequency of sexual behaviors did not vary significantly between students who did versus those who did not receive previous school-based sexuality education.

Of concern is that over 60% of the participants in the current study indicated intending to have sex in the next few months, but only 41% planned to discuss STDs with partners. More African American (54.8%) than White students (36.7%) and more females (45.7%) than males (34.2%) reported intentions to talk with partners about avoiding HIV or other STDs. The gender difference is consistent with Prince and Barnard's (1998) results; significantly more women than men reported they would communicate with sexual partners about HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  concerns.

In this study, 51.8% intended to refuse to have sex without a condom, again with more females (55.9%) than males (44.7%) reporting probably or definitely intending to do so. This finding differs from the CHBRS (1995) data wherein male students (32.4%) were significantly more likely than female students (25.1%) to report consistent condom use. The racial values in the present study paralleled the CHRBS results, with more African American students (57.9%) intending to use a condom than White (50.2%) students. An encouraging finding in the present study was that 85% of all participants planned to get tested for HIV if they held a belief in possible infection while only twenty-five percent would not.

It was heartening heart·en  
tr.v. heart·ened, heart·en·ing, heart·ens
To give strength, courage, or hope to; encourage. See Synonyms at encourage.

Adj. 1.
 to find that there was a pattern of greater intent among students who had received sexuality education to engage in protective sexual behaviors such as talking with a partner about avoiding HIV/AIDS, refusing sex without a condom, and getting tested for HIV. However, a statistically significant difference was only found for refusing to have sex without a condom. When the relationship between perceived quality of sexuality education and intent to engage in protective behaviors was examined, a clear pattern of results was found. Students who planned to engage in protective behaviors rated the quality of sexuality education higher than those who did not plan to engage in the protective behaviors.

Rather than encouraging sexual experimentation or increased sexual activity, studies commissioned by several organizations (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, and the World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS) demonstrate that sexuality education has been shown to: (a) increase sexuality related knowledge, (b) aid youth in more responsible sexual decision making, (c) promote abstinence, and (d) delay the age at which first sexual intercourse occurs (Gordon, 1992; Kirby, 1997, 2000; SIECUS, 1999).

IMPLICATIONS

Lack of sexual knowledge contributes to risky sexual behaviors and subsequently to racial and ethnic disparities in STD and pregnancy rates. This study affirms that students attending colleges in Louisiana are engaging in sexual behaviors and report intent to engage in future sexual behaviors that place them at risk for unplanned pregnancy and STDs. There is clearly a need for quality college sexuality education programs focusing on protective sexual behaviors and protective sexual communication. Part of that education should include encouraging female students to obtain regular gynecological gynecological /gy·ne·co·log·i·cal/ (-kah-loj´i-k'l) gynecologic.  care and screening for infections in both males and females (Gilbert & Alexander, 1998). Therefore, from the time of student orientation throughout their years in college, comprehensive sexuality programming should become a coordinated effort of health centers, counseling centers, various academic departments and community health agencies. Sexual health messages can be conveyed using campus wide posters, brochures, media, presentations, and through academic courses (Ratliff-Crain, Donald & Dalton Dalton, city (1990 pop. 21,761), seat of Whitfield co., extreme NW Ga., in the Appalachian valley; inc. 1847. It is a highly industrialized city in a farm area. , 1999). In order to ultimately improve the sexual health of college students, the authors of the current study firmly believe that colleges do have a responsibility to provide ways in which college students can increase their sexuality knowledge, sexuality related communication skills and sexual health.

CHES AREA

Responsibility I--Assessing Individual and Community Needs for Health Education

Competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
     2.
 A. Obtain health-related data about social and cultural environments, growth and development factors, needs and interests.

Competency B. Distinguish between behaviors that foster and those that hinder hin·der 1  
v. hin·dered, hin·der·ing, hin·ders

v.tr.
1. To be or get in the way of.

2. To obstruct or delay the progress of.

v.intr.
 well-being.

Responsibility IV--Evaluating Effectiveness of Health Education Programs

Competency A Develop plans to assess achievement of program objectives.

Competency B. Carry out evaluation plans

Competency C. Interpret results of program evaluation Program evaluation is a formalized approach to studying and assessing projects, policies and program and determining if they 'work'. Program evaluation is used in government and the private sector and it's taught in numerous universities.

Competency D. Infer implications from findings for future program planning.

Responsibility VI--Acting as a resource person in health education.

Competency A. Utilize computerized computerized

adapted for analysis, storage and retrieval on a computer.


computerized axial tomography
see computed tomography.
 health information retrieval information retrieval

Recovery of information, especially in a database stored in a computer. Two main approaches are matching words in the query against the database index (keyword searching) and traversing the database using hypertext or hypermedia links.
 systems effectively.

Competency C. Interpret and respond to requests for health information

Responsibility VII--Communicating Health and Health Education Needs, Concerns, and Resources

Competency A. Interpret concepts, purposes and theories of health education.

Competency D. Foster communication between health care providers and consumers.

REFERENCES

Alan Guttmacher Institute (2004). News Release: U.S. Teenage Pregnancy teenage pregnancy Adolescent pregnancy, teen pregnancy Social medicine Pregnancy by a ♀, age 13 to 19; TP is usually understood to occur in a ♀ who has not completed her core education–secondary school, has few or no marketable skills, is  Rate Drops For 10th Straight Year. Retrieved from http://www.agi-usa.org/media/nr/2004/02/19/index.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002a). Trends in sexual risk behaviors among high school students--United States, 1991-2001. MMWR MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Epidemiology A news bulletin published by the CDC, which provides epidemiologic data–eg, statistics on the incidence of AIDS, rabies, rubella, STDs and other communicable diseases, causes of mortality–eg, , 51(38), 856-859.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002b). Youth risk behavioral survey. MMWR, 51(SS-4), 1314.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1997). National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. MMWR, 46(SS-6), 1-54.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000). National and State-Specific pregnancy Rates among Adolescents-United States, 1995-1997. MMWR, 49(27), 605-611.

Dunn, M., Bartee, R., & Perko, M. (2003). Self-reported alcohol use and sexual behaviors of adolescents. Psychological Reports, 92, 339-348.

Gilbert, L., & Alexander L. (1998). A profile of sexual health behaviors among college women. Psychological Reports, 82, 107-166.

Gordon, S. (1992). Values-based sexuality education: Confronting extremists to get the message across. SIECUS Report, 20(6), 1-4.

Kelley, M., Denny G., & Young, M. (1999). Modified stages of acquisition of gateway drug use: A primary prevention application of the stages of change model. Journal of Drug Education, 29(3), 189-203.

Kirby, D. (1997). No easy answers: Research findings on programs to reduce teen pregnancy. Washington DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

Kirby, D. (2000). Effective practices: Effective curricula and their common characteristics. ReCAPP, [Online]. Retrieved from http://www.etr.org/recapp/programs/index.htm

Kirby, D., Short, L., Collins, J, Rugg, D., Kolbe, L., Howard, M., et al. (1994). School-based programs to reduce sexual risk behaviors: a review of effectiveness. Public Health Reports, 109(3):339-60.

Langer, L., Warheit, G., & McDonald, L. (2001). Correlates and predictors of risky sexual practices among a multi-racial/ethnic sample of university students. Social Behavior In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social.  and Personality, 29, 133-144.

Louisiana Office of Public Health (2001a). Louisiana HIV/AIDS Annual Report 2001. Retrieved from http:/ /www.dhh.state.la.us/OPH/hivstd/Default.htm.

Louisiana Office of Public Health (2001b). Louisiana Health Report Card. Morbidity morbidity /mor·bid·i·ty/ (mor-bid´it-e)
1. a diseased condition or state.

2. the incidence or prevalence of a disease or of all diseases in a population.


mor·bid·i·ty
n.
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National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (2000a). Fact and Stats. United States pregnancy rates for teen, 15-19. Retrieved from http://www.teenpregnancy.org/fedprate.htm

National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (2000b). Teen Pregnancy in Louisiana. Retrieved from http:/ /www.teenpregnancy.org/usa/la.htm

Prince, A. & Bernard, A. (1998). Sexual behaviors and safer sex practices of college students on a commuter campus. Journal of American College American College is the name of:
  • American College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
  • The American College in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India
  • The American College of the Immaculate Conception, Leuven (also known as Louvain), Belgium
 Health, 47, 11-21.

Poulson, R., Eppler, M., Satterwhite, T., Wuensch, K. & Bass, L. (1998). Alcohol consumption, strength of religious beliefs, and risky sexual behavior in college students. Journal of American College Health, 46, 227-231.

Prochaska, J., & DiClemente, C. (1982). Transtheoretical therapy toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy psychotherapy, treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods. : Theory, Research and Practice, 19(3), 276-287.

Prochaska, J., Norcross, J., & DiClemente, C. (1994). Changing for good. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: William Morrow

For other people named William Morrow, see William Morrow (disambiguation).
William Morrow (d. 1931) was an American publisher. He married novelist Honore Morrow in 1923. He founded William Morrow and Company in 1926 and led it until his death.
.

Ratliff-Crain, J., Donald, K. & Dalton, J. (1999). Knowledge, beliefs, peer norms, and past behaviors as correlates of risky sexual behaviors among college students. Personality and Health, 14, 625-641.

Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States SIECUS, the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States is a United States organization dedicated to sexuality education, sexual health, and sexual rights.  (1999). Issues and answers fact sheet on sexuality education. SIECUS Report, 27(6), 29-33.

Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (November, 2002). The truth about condoms fact sheet. Retrieved from http://www.siecus.org/pubs/fact/FS_truth condoms_02.pdf

Siegel, D., Klein, D., & Roghmann, K. (1999). Sexual behavior, contraception contraception: see birth control.
contraception

Birth control by prevention of conception or impregnation. The most common method is sterilization. The most effective temporary methods are nearly 99% effective if used consistently and correctly.
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adj.
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.

n.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager.
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Temple, M. & Leigh, B. (1992). Alcohol consumption and unsafe sexual behavior in discrete events. The Journal of Sex Research, 29, 207-219.

Turner, J., Korpita, E., Mohn, L., & Hill, W. (1993). Reduction of sexual risk behaviors among college students following a comprehensive health intervention health intervention Health care An activity undertaken to prevent, improve, or stabilize a medical condition . Journal of American College Health, 41, 187-193.

Werch, C. & Anzalone, D. (1995). Stage theory and research on tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use. Journal of Drug Education, 25(2), 81-98.

Werch, C., Meets, B., & Farrell, J. (1990). Determining drug use among employees in higher education higher education

Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art.
: Implications for prevention. DOE FIPSE FIPSE Fund for the Improvement of Post-Secondary Education ; Washington, DC.

Werch, C., Young, M, Clark, M, Hooks, S. & Moore, A. (1991). Experimentation and intentions to use drugs among 4th and 5th graders: Relationship to beliefs, peer use, self-esteem, and decision making. In R. H. Feldman & J. Humphrey (Eds.), Advances in health education: Current research (pp. 257-268). New York: AMS AMS - Andrew Message System  Press.

Werch C., Meets B., & Farrell J. (1993). Stages of drug use acquisition among college students: Implications for the prevention of drug abuse. Journal of Drug Education, 23, 375-726.

Linda Synovitz, RN, PhD, FASHA, CHES is an Associate Professor and Graduate Coordinator, Edwards Herbert, PhD is an Associate Professor and Department Head of the Department of Kinesiology kinesiology

Study of the mechanics and anatomy of human movement and their roles in promoting health and reducing disease. Kinesiology has direct applications to fitness and health, including developing exercise programs for people with and without disabilities, preserving
 and Health Studies at Southeastern Louisiana University Southeastern Louisiana University is a state-funded public university that is located in the city of Hammond, Louisiana. It was originally founded in 1925 by Linus A. Sims, the principal of Hammond High School, as Hammond Junior College, located in a wing of the high school . Gerald Carlson, PhD is the Dean of Education at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette The University of Louisiana at Lafayette, or UL Lafayette,[1] is a coeducational public research university located in Lafayette, Louisiana, in the heart of Acadiana. . R. Mark Kelley Mark Kelley is a Canadian journalist. He currently serves as a correspondent and substitute anchor for The National, and was formerly a host of . A graduate of Concordia University in Montreal, the fluently bilingual Kelley began reporting from within Quebec in the 1980's , PhD is an Associate Professor in Health Promotion at Oklahoma State University Oklahoma State University, at Stillwater; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1890, opened 1891 as Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, renamed 1957.  in Tulsa. Address all correspondence to Linda Synovitz, RN, PhD, FASHA, CHES, Associate Professor, Department of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Southeastern Louisiana University, SLU SLU Saint Louis University
SLU Southeastern Louisiana University (Hammond, LA, USA)
SLU St Lawrence University
SLU Suomen Liikunta Ja Urheilu (Finnish Sports Federation)
SLU Starting Lineup
 10845, Hammond, LA 70402; PHONE: 985-549-3867; Fax: 985-549-5119; E-MA/L: lsynovitz@selu.edu.
Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of the Sample

Demographic Variable                       n     %

Age                    18                 133   11.4
                       19                 214   18.3
                       20-23              343   29.4
                       24-28              105    9.0
                       29+                 58    5.0
                       No response        315   27.0

Gender                 Female             744   63.7
                       Male               415   35.5
                       No response          9    0.8

Race/Ethnicity         African American   214   18.3
                       Asian               20    1.7
                       Hispanic            28    2.4
                       Native American      6    0.5
                       White              876   75.0
                       Other               20    1.7
                       No response          4    0.3

College                Freshman           346   29.6
Classification         Sophomore          287   24.6
                       Junior             213   18.2
                       Senior             319   27.3
                       No response          3    0.3

Region of State        North               31    2.6
                       Central             70    6.0
                       Southwest          294   25.2
                       Southeast          401   34.3
                       No response        372   31.8

Table 2. Levels of Sexuality Education

Level(s) of education where formal
  sexuality education was received            n     %

0 No sexuality education                     153   13.1
1 K-8 grades only                             95    8.1
2 High school only                            85    7.3
3 K-8 grades plus high school only           207   17.7
4 College only                               152   13.0
5 K-8 grades or high school plus college     217   18.6
6 K-8 grades plus high school plus college   247   21.1

Table 3. Frequency of Engagement in Sexual Behaviors and Relationship
to Year in School, Race, Gender, and Presence/Absence of Sexuality
Education

Sexual Behavior             Total       Have not
                          Responses

Petting or "making out"

Total responses              1152     100    (8.7%)

Freshmen                      341      36   (10.6%)
Sophomores                    283      25    (8.8%)
Juniors                       212      17    (8.0%)
Seniors                       313      20    (6.4%)
African American *            214      28   (13.1%)
White *                       863      62    (7.2%)
Female                        735      62    (8.4%)
Male                          408      36    (8.8%)
Had sex education             988      75    (7.6%)
Had no sex education          152      21   (13.8%)

Sexual intercourse

Total responses              1157     195   (16.9%)
Freshmen *                    343      91   (26.5%)
Sophomores *                  283      44   (15.5%)
Juniors *                     213      28   (13.1%)
Seniors *                     315      31    (9.8%)
African American *            214      33   (15.4%)
White *                       867     146   (16.8%)
Female *                      737     132   (17.9%)
Male *                        411      61   (14.8%)
Had sex education             993     162   (16.3%)
Had no sex education          152      27   (17.8%)

Oral sex

Total responses              1154     271   (23.5%)

Freshmen *                    344     106   (30.8%)
Sophomores *                  282      67   (23.8%)
Juniors *                     212      45   (21.2%)
Seniors *                     313      52   (16.6%)
African American *            213      92   (43.2%)
White *                       865     160   (18.5%)
Female *                      735     188   (25.6%)
Male *                        410      81   (19.8%)
Had sex education             991     226   (22.8%)
Had no sex education          152      39   (25.7%)

Sexual Behavior           Occasionally    Regularly

Petting or "making out"

Total responses           315   (27.3%)   737   (64.0%)

Freshmen                  101   (29.6%)   204   (59.8%)
Sophomores                 77   (27.2%)   181   (64.0%)
Juniors                    59   (27.8%)   136   (64.2%)
Seniors                    78   (24.9%)   215   (68.7%)
African American *         69   (32.2%)   117   (54.7%)
White *                   217   (25.1%)   584   (67.7%)
Female                    194   (26.4%)   479   (65.2%)
Male                      117   (28.7%)   255   (62.5%)
Had sex education         278   (28.1%)   635   (64.3%)
Had no sex education       31   (20.4%)   100   (65.8%)

Sexual intercourse

Total responses           309   (26.7%)   653   (56.4%)
Freshmen *                 96   (28.0%)   156   (45.5%)
Sophomores *               81   (28.6%)   158   (55.8%)
Juniors *                  60   (28.2%)   125   (58.7%)
Seniors *                  72   (22.9%)   212   (67.3%)
African American *         74   (34.6%)   107   (50.0%)
White *                   203   (23.4%)   518   (59.7%)
Female *                  167   (22.7%)   438   (59.4%)
Male *                    137   (33.3%)   213   (51.8%)
Had sex education         263   (26.5%)   568   (57.2%)
Had no sex education       43   (28.3%)    82   (53.9%)

Oral sex

Total responses           353   (30.6%)   530   (45.9%)

Freshmen *                106   (30.8%)   132   (38.4%)
Sophomores *               82   (29.1%)   133   (47.2%)
Juniors *                  72   (34.0%)    95   (44.8%)
Seniors *                  93   (29.7%)   168   (53.7%)
African American *         74   (34.7%)    47   (22.1%)
White *                   249   (28.8%)   456   (52.7%)
Female *                  195   (26.5%)   352   (47.9%)
Male *                    154   (37.6%)   175   (42.7%)
Had sex education         309   (31.2%)   456   (46.0%)
Had no sex education       40   (26.3%)    73   (48.0%)

* Chi Square comparisons indicated significant differences (p<.05).

Table 4. Intent to Engage in Protective Sexual Behaviors and
Relationship to Year in School, Race, Gender and Previous
Sexuality Education.

Protective Sexual Behavior        Number of    Positive
                                  responses    responses

                                               n       %

Will talk with partner about
    avoiding HIV or STDs
  Total responses                    1074     445   (41.4%)
  Freshmen                            324     120   (37.0%)
  Sophomores                          264     114   (43.2%)
  Juniors                             194      90   (46.4%)
  Seniors                             289     119   (41.2%)
  African American *                  197     108   (54.8%)
  White *                             811     298   (36.7%)
  Female *                            678     310   (45.7%)
  Male *                              389     133   (34.2%)
  Had sexuality education             936     394   (42.1%)
  Had no sexuality education          133      49   (36.8%)
Will limit sexual activity to
    avoid HIV or STDs
  Total responses                     874     221   (25.3%)
  Freshmen                            253      66   (26.1%)
  Sophomores                          224      65   (29.0%)
  Juniors                             160      39   (24.4%)
  Seniors                             235      51   (21.7%)
  African American                    163      45   (27.6%)
  White                               656     161   (24.5%)
  Female *                            519     147   (28.3%)
  Male *                              346      74   (21.4%)
  Had sexuality education             768     192   (25.0%)
  Had no sexuality education          100      28   (28.0%)
Will refuse to have intercourse
    to avoid HIV or STDs
  Total responses                     861     211   (24.5%)
  Freshmen *                          248      68   (27.4%)
  Sophomores *                        221      63   (28.5%)
  Juniors *                           155      36   (23.2%)
  Seniors *                           236      43   (18.2%)
  African American                    157      46   (29.3%)
  White                               651     154   (23.7%)
  Female *                            524     157   (30.0%)
  Male *                              330      54   (16.4%)
  Had sexuality education             748     186   (24.9%)
  Had no sexuality education          108      25   (23.1%)
Will refuse to have intercourse
    if partner will not use a
    condom
  Total responses                     872     452   (51.8%)
  Freshmen                            250     140   (56.1%)
  Sophomores                          224     119   (53.1%)
  Juniors                             166      82   (49.4%)
  Seniors                             231     111   (48.1%)
  African American                    159      92   (57.9%)
  White                               661     332   (50.2%)
  Female *                            546     305   (55.9%)
  Male *                              318     142   (44.7%)
  Had sexuality education *           759     404   (53.2%)
  Had no sexuality education *        107      43   (40.2%)
Will get tested for HIV if I DO
    NOT think I am infected
  Total responses                     937     234   (25.0%)
  Freshmen                            276      60   (21.7%)
  Sophomores                          239      62   (25.9%)
  Juniors                             162      46   (28.4%)
  Seniors                             258      64   (24.8%)
  African American *                  174      69   (39.7%)
  White *                             699     139   (19.9%)
  Female                              576     136   (23.6%)
  Male                                353      94   (26.6%)
  Had sexuality education             810     210   (25.9%)
  Had no sexuality education          118      22   (18.6%)
Will get tested for HIV if I DO
    think I might be infected
  Total responses                     907     773   (85.2%)
  Freshmen                            267     227   (85.0%)
  Sophomores                          233     192   (82.4%)
  Juniors                             164     146   (89.0%)
  Seniors                             242     207   (85.5%)
  African American *                  173     138   (79.8%)
  White *                             669     578   (86.4%)
  Female *                            552     490   (88.8%)
  Male *                              347     276   (79.5%)
  Had sexuality education             793     678   (85.5%)
  Had no sexuality education          105      88   (83.8%)

Note: Positive responses include those indicating
"probably" or "definitely" engaging in behavior.

* indicates comparison groups significantly different (p<.05).

Table 5. Comparisons of perceived quality of sexuality education
among respondents who did and did not plan to engage in protective
behaviors

Sexual behavior                  Definitely or   Definitely
                                 probably will   will not,
                                 engage in       probably will
                                 behavior        not, or
                                                 unsure

                                 Mean (SD)       Mean (SD)       Effect
                                 overall         overall          Size
                                 perceived       perceived
                                 quality of      quality of
                                 sexuality       sexuality
                                 education       education

Will talk with partner about     4.18   (1.04)   3.92   (0.95)    0.27
  about avoiding HIV or STDs *
Will limit sexual activity to    4.11   (0.92)   3.96   (1.00)    0.15
  avoid HIV or STDs
Will refuse to have              4.16   (0.93)   3.92   (0.98)    0.24
  intercourse to avoid HIV
  or STDs *
Will refuse to have              4.04   (0.99)   3.99   (0.96)    0.05
  intercourse if partner will
  not use a condom
Will get tested for HIV          4.09   (0.95)   4.00   (0.99)    0.09
  if I don't think I am
  infected
Will get tested for HIV          4.05   (0.99)   3.80   (0.97)    0.25
  if I think I might be
  infected *

* indicates significant difference (p<.05)
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No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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Author:Kelley, R. Mark
Publication:American Journal of Health Studies
Article Type:Survey
Geographic Code:1U7LA
Date:Jan 1, 2005
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