Coal for fuel in textile industry.Backgrounds
A number of textile factories in the country have used coal as an alternative source of energy to oil fuel. Coal is used to heat the boiler boiler, device for generating steam. It consists of two principal parts: the furnace, which provides heat, usually by burning a fuel, and the boiler proper, a device in which the heat changes water into steam. in the process of dyeing Dyeing
The application of color-producing agents to material, usually fibrous or film, in order to impart a degree of color permanence demanded by the projected end use. cloth and as an energy source to generate power needed by textile factories.
As an alternative source of energy coal has a higher economic value as it could replace the expensive oil fuels (BBM BBM Brokeback Mountain (book/movie)
BBM Bureau of Broadcast Measurement
BBM Bachelor of Business Management
BBM Break Before Make
BBM Bread Board Model
BBM Bulk Business Mail
BBM Bahn Brenner Motorsport ). The country has large coal reserves estimated at 57.85 billion tons billion tons including 20.53 billion tons of indicated reserves, 12.47 billion tons of measured reserves and 6.98 billion tons of reserves ready for exploitation.
There are however, problems still to be faced in using coal by textile industry such as difficulty in supply to textile factories and dangerous and toxic waste toxic waste is waste material, often in chemical form, that can cause death or injury to living creatures. It usually is the product of industry or commerce, but comes also from residential use, agriculture, the military, medical facilities, radioactive sources, and of coal categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat as B3 waste.
Coal potential in Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago.
Coal reserves have been found mainly in Sumatra Sumatra (smä`trə), island (1990 pop. 36,471,731), c.183,000 sq mi (473,970 sq km), Indonesia, in the Indian Ocean along the equator, S and W of the Malay Peninsula (from which it , Kalimantan Kalimantan: see Borneo. , Sulawesi Sulawesi (s'läwā`sē), formerly Celebes (sĕl`əbēz), island (1990 pop. 12,511,163), c. and Papua Papua, province, Indonesia
Papua (păp`ə, –y . The largest reserves found so far are in South Sumatra South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of Lampung to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi to the north. , East Kalimantan East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. Kaltim) is Indonesian province on the east of Borneo island. The resource-rich province has two major cities, Samarinda (the capital and a center for timber product) and Balikpapan (a petroleum center with oil and South Kalimantan South Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Selatan often abbreviated to Kalsel) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. .
South Sumatra has the largest coal reserve in the country although East Kalimantan still has the largest measured reserve. South Sumatra has only 1,970.75 million tons of coal in measured reserve but its indicated reserve is the largest at 19,946.48 million tons.
East Kalimantan leads in measured reserve of 6,385.13 million tons, but its indicated reserve is only 325.21 million tons. East Kalimantan, therefore, is the largest coal producer in the country at present but later South Sumatra will likely take place.
Indonesia's Coal Production
The country's coal production has increased from year to year boosted by growing demand on the domestic market and in international market. In 2004 the production was recorded at 129.16 million tons, up to 149.67 million tons in 2005.
Textile industry one of the main users of coal in Indonesia
Coal fired power plants (PLTUs) are still the largest consumer of coal in the country. In 2005, coal consumption for PLTUs totaled 22.15 million tons. The second largest consumers is cement cement, binding material used in construction and engineering, often called hydraulic cement, typically made by heating a mixture of limestone and clay until it almost fuses and then grinding it to a fine powder. industry with consumption totaling 4.84 million tons in 2005, followed by paper industry with consumption of 3.79 million tons in the same year.
Textile industry is the fourth largest user with consumption of 1.31 million tons in 2005. West Java's textile industry was the largest user with consumption of 851,040 tons, followed by Banten's textile industry 317,550 tons and Central Java's textile industry 139,020 tons.
Bandung Bandung or Bandoeng (both: bän`dng), city (1990 pop. 2,058,122), capital of Java Barat prov., W Java, Indonesia, near the Tangkuban Prahu volcano. largest textile production center
Around 40% or 1,070 units of the country's medium and large textile factories are located in West Java mainly in Bandung, Garut Garut is the capital of Garut Regency, West Java province, Indonesia. References
Bandung is the largest textile production center in West Java with 300 companies located in the regency of Bandung, the city of Bandung and Cimahi. In the regency of Bandung textile factories are concentrated in the eastern area along the Cileunyi-Cicalengka highway, central area at Mohammad Toha-Dayeuh Kolot --Majalaya highway and western area at Nanjung and Padalarang.
In the city of Cimahi, textile factories are concentrated in Leumigajah, and in the city of Bandung textile factories are found in various locations. Most large textile factories in Bandung use diesel oil or residue residue n. in a will, the assets of the estate of a person who has died with a will (died testate) which are left after all specific gifts have been made. Typical language: "I leave the rest, residue and remainder [or just residue] of my estate to my grandchildren. to fuel boilers in the production process. Few have used coal.
Currently, there are 69 textile companies using coal such as PT Kahatex, PT Panasia Filamen Inti, PT Ayoe Taihotex, PT Bintang Agung, PT Central Georgete Nusantara, PT Dewa Suteratex and PT Trisulatex.
Difficulty in coal supply to Bandung
Coal requirement has increased in Bandung. Coal is needed to heat textile factory boilers. Coal for textile factories in Bandung is distributed via Cirebon. Coal is sent from Kalimantan and part of which is piled in storage place around the Cirebon port and at the Losari highway with a capacity of 3,000 5,000 tons.
Textile companies buy coal from sales agents in Cirebon. Most of the coal is supplied by PT Arutmin, PT Adaro and village cooperative units in South Kalimantan with calorific value calorific value
The calories or thermal units contained in one unit of a substance and released when the substance is burned. of 5,400--6,600 kcal/kg.
The problem in starting using coal is availability of supply because of difficulty in distribution. As the number of users is still limited distribution could not be efficient. In addition, unloading Unloading
Selling securities or commodities whose prices are dropping to minimize loss. is often delayed in the busy port of Cirebon. Traffic jams in the highway from Cirebon to Bandung is also another problem in distribution. In addition few companies using coal have storage facility to keep large stock of coal.
* Using coal to replace BBM for textile industry is commercially feasible as coal fuel is cheaper.
* Coal supply will be better guaranteed in the future as the country has large reserves of coal.
* Coal waste, which is categorized as dangerous and toxic (B3) needs special handling.
* Coal waste could be used a feedstock feed·stock
Raw material required for an industrial process.
Noun 1. feedstock - the raw material that is required for some industrial process
raw material, staple - material suitable for manufacture or use or finishing for cement industry, therefore, the waste could be made useful in cooperation with cement producers.
* Growing demand for coal from textile industry will require development of infrastructure both in the coal producing areas and in the receiving areas to cope with problem in distribution.
Table--1 Locations of coal reserves in Indonesia (million tons) Reserves Provinces Measured Indicated Estimated Java Banten 0.00 0.00 13.75 Central Java 0.00 0.00 0.82 East Java 0.00 0.00 0.08 Sumatra Aceh 90.40 13.40 346.35 North 19.97 0.00 7.00 Sumatra Riau 336.62 0.00 1,720.60 West 181.24 42.72 475.94 Sumatra Bengkulu 62.18 7.95 113.09 Jambi 94.22 36.32 1,462.03 South 1,970.75 19,946.48 323.17 Sumatra Lampung 0.00 0.00 106.95 Kalimantan West 1.48 1.32 482.60 Kalimantan Central 194.02 5.08 1,200.11 Kalimantan South 3,109.21 155.08 5,410.27 Kalimantan East 6,385.13 325.21 12,401.12 Kalimantan Other areas South 21.20 0.00 110.81 Sulawesi Central 0.00 0.00 1.98 Sulawesi Papua 0.00 0.00 138.30 Total 12,466.42 20,533.56 24,314.96 Reserves Total Proven Provinces Hypothetical reserve reserve Java Banten 0.00 13.75 0.00 Central Java 0.00 0.82 0.00 East Java 0.00 0.08 0.00 Sumatra Aceh 0.00 450.15 0.00 North 0.00 26.97 0.00 Sumatra Riau 0.00 2.,057.22 15.15 West 19.19 719.09 36.07 Sumatra Bengkulu 15.15 198.37 21.12 Jambi 0.00 1,592.57 9.00 South 0.00 22,240.40 2,653.98 Sumatra Lampung 0.00 106.95 0.00 Kalimantan West 42.12 527.52 0.00 Kalimantan Central 0.00 1,399.21 48.59 Kalimantan South 0.00 8,674.56 1,787.32 Kalimantan East 456.34 19,567.79 2,410.33 Kalimantan Other areas South 0.00 132.01 0.06 Sulawesi Central 0.00 1.98 0.00 Sulawesi Papua 0.00 138.30 0.00 Total 532.80 57.847.74 6,981.32 Source: Directorate of Geology and Mineral Resources (DGSM) Table--2 Indonesia's production of coal, 2004-2006 Production Growth Year (million tons) (%) 2004 129.16 - 2005 149.67 15.8 2006 165.40 10.5 Source: DGSM Table--3 Consumption of coal by industries, 2005 Volume User Industries (Tons) Briquette 26,282 Tire rubber 17,280 Paper 3,793,728 Chemical (Banten) 302,950 Cooking oil 13,420 Food processing 12,700 Textile (Banten) 317,550 Textile (Central Java) 139,020 Textile (West Java) 851,040 Metallurgy 84,083 PLTU 22,154,270 Cement 4,837,134 Packaging 875 Metal casting 9,720 Other 3,650 Total 32,563,699 Source: DGSM Table--4 TPT companies using coal for fuel No. Names of company Textile business Location 1 PT Pollux Indonesia Textiles Garment, Weaving Bekasi Industriy 2 PT Kanisatex Weaving Citeureup 3 PT Roda Vivatex Tbk Weaving Citeureup 4 PT Tokai Texprint Indonesia Textile and Products Cikarang 5 PT Saehan Textiles Weaving Serang 6 PT Azalea Textile Weaving Cikampek 7 PT Bhineka Karya Manunggal Weaving Karawang 8 PT Indonesia Taroko Textile Weaving Purwakarta Corp. 9 CV Badjatex Weaving Bandung 10 Indonesia Synthetic Textiole Weaving Tangerang Mills. 11 PT Dhanar mas Concern Weaving Bandung 12 PT Ramatex Weaving Bandung 13 PT Arsostex Weaving Bandung 14 PT Adetex Textile and Products Bandung 15 PT Bandung Sakura Textile Weaving Bandung Mill 16 PT Fuji Palapa Textil Weaving Bandung 17 PT Central Georgette Weaving Bandung Nusantara 18 PT Trisula Textile Garment, fabric Bandung Industries 19 PT Tirtha Ria Weaving Bandung 20 CV Wiska Weaving Bandung 21 PT Kahatex Weaving Bandung 22 PT Naintex Fiber, Weaving Bandung 23 PT Bintang Agung Weaving Bandung 24 PT Aletatex Textile and Products Bandung 25 PT Aswindo Weaving Bandung 26 PT Ayoe Taihotex Textile and Products Bandung 27 PT Bandung Synthetic Sorong Weaving Bandung Mills 28 PT Beteen Tekstil Nusantara Weaving Bandung 29 PT Bina Usaha Cipta Prima Weaving Bandung 30 PT Bintang Cipta Perkasa Textile and Products Bandung 31 PT Bintang Mitra Textindo Textile and Products Bandung 32 PT Daliatex Weaving Bandung 33 PT Delimatex Weaving Bandung 34 PT Dewa Sutratex Weaving Bandung 35 PT Famatex Weaving Bandung 36 PT Firman Jaya Dua Saudara Weaving Bandung 37 PT Brandtex Weaving Bandung 38 PT Hakatex Weaving Bandung 39 PT Hegar Mulia Lestari Weaving Bandung 40 PT Hegar Mulia Weaving Bandung 41 PT Hegar Manah Lestari Weaving Bandung 42 PT Himalaya Tunas Textindo Weaving Bandung 43 PT Leuwijaya Utama Textile Weaving Bandung 44 PT Panasia Filamen Inti Weaving Bandung 45 PT Panca Mitra Sandang Indah Textile and Products Majalaya 46 PT Pola Manunggal Sejati Weaving Cimahi 47 PT Sandang Sari Textile and Products Bandung 48 PT Sipatex Weaving Majalaya 49 PT Bistex Weaving Cimahi 50 PT Kencana Hegar Weaving Cimahi 51 PT Bratatex Weaving Cimahi 52 PT Gucci Ratu Textile Textile and Products Cimahi Industry 53 PT Sapta Jaya Textile and Products Cimahi 54 PT Sinar Continental Woven fabric Cimahi 55 PT Sinar Makin Mulia Textile and Products Cimahi 56 PT Tunggal Inti Kahuripan Textile and Products Cimahi 57 PT Sari Yunika Jaya Textile and Products Cimahi 58 PT Tridharma mega mitra Weaving Cimahi 59 PT Indo Putra Utama Textile Textile and Products Cimahi 60 PT Matahari Santosa Jaya Textile and Products Cimahi 61 PT How Are You Textile and Products Cimahi 62 PT Long Sun Indonesia Textile and Products Cimahi 63 PT Kamaga Kurnia Textile and Products Cimahi 64 PT Indo Bharat Rayon Fiber Purwakarta 65 PT South Pacific Viscouse Fiber Purwakarta 66 PT Tifico Fiber Tangerang 67 PT Indonesia Toray Synthetic Fiber Tangerang 68 PT Pan Asia Fiber Bandung 69 PT Indorama Synthetic Fiber Fiber, spinning, Purwakarta weaving Source: Industry Ministry