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Coal for fuel in textile industry.

Backgrounds

A number of textile factories in the country have used coal as an alternative source of energy to oil fuel. Coal is used to heat the boiler in the process of dyeing cloth and as an energy source to generate power needed by textile factories.

As an alternative source of energy coal has a higher economic value as it could replace the expensive oil fuels (BBM). The country has large coal reserves estimated at 57.85 billion tons billion tons including 20.53 billion tons of indicated reserves, 12.47 billion tons of measured reserves and 6.98 billion tons of reserves ready for exploitation.

There are however, problems still to be faced in using coal by textile industry such as difficulty in supply to textile factories and dangerous and toxic waste of coal categorized as B3 waste.

Coal potential in Indonesia

Coal reserves have been found mainly in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Papua. The largest reserves found so far are in South Sumatra, East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan.

South Sumatra has the largest coal reserve in the country although East Kalimantan still has the largest measured reserve. South Sumatra has only 1,970.75 million tons of coal in measured reserve but its indicated reserve is the largest at 19,946.48 million tons.

East Kalimantan leads in measured reserve of 6,385.13 million tons, but its indicated reserve is only 325.21 million tons. East Kalimantan, therefore, is the largest coal producer in the country at present but later South Sumatra will likely take place.

Indonesia's Coal Production

The country's coal production has increased from year to year boosted by growing demand on the domestic market and in international market. In 2004 the production was recorded at 129.16 million tons, up to 149.67 million tons in 2005.

Textile industry one of the main users of coal in Indonesia

Coal fired power plants (PLTUs) are still the largest consumer of coal in the country. In 2005, coal consumption for PLTUs totaled 22.15 million tons. The second largest consumers is cement industry with consumption totaling 4.84 million tons in 2005, followed by paper industry with consumption of 3.79 million tons in the same year.

Textile industry is the fourth largest user with consumption of 1.31 million tons in 2005. West Java's textile industry was the largest user with consumption of 851,040 tons, followed by Banten's textile industry 317,550 tons and Central Java's textile industry 139,020 tons.

Bandung largest textile production center

Around 40% or 1,070 units of the country's medium and large textile factories are located in West Java mainly in Bandung, Garut, Tasikmalaya, Bekasi and Sukabumi.

Bandung is the largest textile production center in West Java with 300 companies located in the regency of Bandung, the city of Bandung and Cimahi. In the regency of Bandung textile factories are concentrated in the eastern area along the Cileunyi-Cicalengka highway, central area at Mohammad Toha-Dayeuh Kolot --Majalaya highway and western area at Nanjung and Padalarang.

In the city of Cimahi, textile factories are concentrated in Leumigajah, and in the city of Bandung textile factories are found in various locations. Most large textile factories in Bandung use diesel oil or residue to fuel boilers in the production process. Few have used coal.

Currently, there are 69 textile companies using coal such as PT Kahatex, PT Panasia Filamen Inti, PT Ayoe Taihotex, PT Bintang Agung, PT Central Georgete Nusantara, PT Dewa Suteratex and PT Trisulatex.

Difficulty in coal supply to Bandung

Coal requirement has increased in Bandung. Coal is needed to heat textile factory boilers. Coal for textile factories in Bandung is distributed via Cirebon. Coal is sent from Kalimantan and part of which is piled in storage place around the Cirebon port and at the Losari highway with a capacity of 3,000 5,000 tons.

Textile companies buy coal from sales agents in Cirebon. Most of the coal is supplied by PT Arutmin, PT Adaro and village cooperative units in South Kalimantan with calorific value of 5,400--6,600 kcal/kg.

The problem in starting using coal is availability of supply because of difficulty in distribution. As the number of users is still limited distribution could not be efficient. In addition, unloading is often delayed in the busy port of Cirebon. Traffic jams in the highway from Cirebon to Bandung is also another problem in distribution. In addition few companies using coal have storage facility to keep large stock of coal.

Conclusion

* Using coal to replace BBM for textile industry is commercially feasible as coal fuel is cheaper.

* Coal supply will be better guaranteed in the future as the country has large reserves of coal.

* Coal waste, which is categorized as dangerous and toxic (B3) needs special handling.

* Coal waste could be used a feedstock for cement industry, therefore, the waste could be made useful in cooperation with cement producers.

* Growing demand for coal from textile industry will require development of infrastructure both in the coal producing areas and in the receiving areas to cope with problem in distribution.
Table--1
Locations of coal reserves in Indonesia

(million tons)

 Reserves

Provinces Measured Indicated Estimated

Java
Banten 0.00 0.00 13.75
Central Java 0.00 0.00 0.82
East Java 0.00 0.00 0.08
Sumatra
Aceh 90.40 13.40 346.35
North 19.97 0.00 7.00
Sumatra
Riau 336.62 0.00 1,720.60
West 181.24 42.72 475.94
Sumatra
Bengkulu 62.18 7.95 113.09
Jambi 94.22 36.32 1,462.03
South 1,970.75 19,946.48 323.17
Sumatra
Lampung 0.00 0.00 106.95
Kalimantan
West 1.48 1.32 482.60
Kalimantan
Central 194.02 5.08 1,200.11
Kalimantan
South 3,109.21 155.08 5,410.27
Kalimantan
East 6,385.13 325.21 12,401.12
Kalimantan
Other areas
South 21.20 0.00 110.81
Sulawesi
Central 0.00 0.00 1.98
Sulawesi
Papua 0.00 0.00 138.30
Total 12,466.42 20,533.56 24,314.96

 Reserves

 Total Proven
Provinces Hypothetical reserve reserve

Java
Banten 0.00 13.75 0.00
Central Java 0.00 0.82 0.00
East Java 0.00 0.08 0.00
Sumatra
Aceh 0.00 450.15 0.00
North 0.00 26.97 0.00
Sumatra
Riau 0.00 2.,057.22 15.15
West 19.19 719.09 36.07
Sumatra
Bengkulu 15.15 198.37 21.12
Jambi 0.00 1,592.57 9.00
South 0.00 22,240.40 2,653.98
Sumatra
Lampung 0.00 106.95 0.00
Kalimantan
West 42.12 527.52 0.00
Kalimantan
Central 0.00 1,399.21 48.59
Kalimantan
South 0.00 8,674.56 1,787.32
Kalimantan
East 456.34 19,567.79 2,410.33
Kalimantan
Other areas
South 0.00 132.01 0.06
Sulawesi
Central 0.00 1.98 0.00
Sulawesi
Papua 0.00 138.30 0.00
Total 532.80 57.847.74 6,981.32

Source: Directorate of Geology and Mineral Resources (DGSM)

Table--2
Indonesia's production of coal, 2004-2006

 Production Growth
Year (million tons) (%)

2004 129.16 -
2005 149.67 15.8
2006 165.40 10.5

Source: DGSM

Table--3
Consumption of coal
by industries, 2005

 Volume
User Industries (Tons)

Briquette 26,282
Tire rubber 17,280
Paper 3,793,728
Chemical (Banten) 302,950
Cooking oil 13,420
Food processing 12,700
Textile (Banten) 317,550
Textile (Central Java) 139,020
Textile (West Java) 851,040
Metallurgy 84,083
PLTU 22,154,270
Cement 4,837,134
Packaging 875
Metal casting 9,720
Other 3,650
Total 32,563,699

Source: DGSM

Table--4
TPT companies using coal for fuel

No. Names of company Textile business Location

1 PT Pollux Indonesia Textiles Garment, Weaving Bekasi
 Industriy
2 PT Kanisatex Weaving Citeureup
3 PT Roda Vivatex Tbk Weaving Citeureup
4 PT Tokai Texprint Indonesia Textile and Products Cikarang
5 PT Saehan Textiles Weaving Serang
6 PT Azalea Textile Weaving Cikampek
7 PT Bhineka Karya Manunggal Weaving Karawang
8 PT Indonesia Taroko Textile Weaving Purwakarta
 Corp.
9 CV Badjatex Weaving Bandung
10 Indonesia Synthetic Textiole Weaving Tangerang
 Mills.
11 PT Dhanar mas Concern Weaving Bandung
12 PT Ramatex Weaving Bandung
13 PT Arsostex Weaving Bandung
14 PT Adetex Textile and Products Bandung
15 PT Bandung Sakura Textile Weaving Bandung
 Mill
16 PT Fuji Palapa Textil Weaving Bandung
17 PT Central Georgette Weaving Bandung
 Nusantara
18 PT Trisula Textile Garment, fabric Bandung
 Industries
19 PT Tirtha Ria Weaving Bandung
20 CV Wiska Weaving Bandung
21 PT Kahatex Weaving Bandung
22 PT Naintex Fiber, Weaving Bandung
23 PT Bintang Agung Weaving Bandung
24 PT Aletatex Textile and Products Bandung
25 PT Aswindo Weaving Bandung
26 PT Ayoe Taihotex Textile and Products Bandung
27 PT Bandung Synthetic Sorong Weaving Bandung
 Mills
28 PT Beteen Tekstil Nusantara Weaving Bandung
29 PT Bina Usaha Cipta Prima Weaving Bandung
30 PT Bintang Cipta Perkasa Textile and Products Bandung
31 PT Bintang Mitra Textindo Textile and Products Bandung
32 PT Daliatex Weaving Bandung
33 PT Delimatex Weaving Bandung
34 PT Dewa Sutratex Weaving Bandung
35 PT Famatex Weaving Bandung
36 PT Firman Jaya Dua Saudara Weaving Bandung
37 PT Brandtex Weaving Bandung
38 PT Hakatex Weaving Bandung
39 PT Hegar Mulia Lestari Weaving Bandung
40 PT Hegar Mulia Weaving Bandung
41 PT Hegar Manah Lestari Weaving Bandung
42 PT Himalaya Tunas Textindo Weaving Bandung
43 PT Leuwijaya Utama Textile Weaving Bandung
44 PT Panasia Filamen Inti Weaving Bandung
45 PT Panca Mitra Sandang Indah Textile and Products Majalaya
46 PT Pola Manunggal Sejati Weaving Cimahi
47 PT Sandang Sari Textile and Products Bandung
48 PT Sipatex Weaving Majalaya
49 PT Bistex Weaving Cimahi
50 PT Kencana Hegar Weaving Cimahi
51 PT Bratatex Weaving Cimahi
52 PT Gucci Ratu Textile Textile and Products Cimahi
 Industry
53 PT Sapta Jaya Textile and Products Cimahi
54 PT Sinar Continental Woven fabric Cimahi
55 PT Sinar Makin Mulia Textile and Products Cimahi
56 PT Tunggal Inti Kahuripan Textile and Products Cimahi
57 PT Sari Yunika Jaya Textile and Products Cimahi
58 PT Tridharma mega mitra Weaving Cimahi
59 PT Indo Putra Utama Textile Textile and Products Cimahi
60 PT Matahari Santosa Jaya Textile and Products Cimahi
61 PT How Are You Textile and Products Cimahi
62 PT Long Sun Indonesia Textile and Products Cimahi
63 PT Kamaga Kurnia Textile and Products Cimahi
64 PT Indo Bharat Rayon Fiber Purwakarta
65 PT South Pacific Viscouse Fiber Purwakarta
66 PT Tifico Fiber Tangerang
67 PT Indonesia Toray Synthetic Fiber Tangerang
68 PT Pan Asia Fiber Bandung
69 PT Indorama Synthetic Fiber Fiber, spinning, Purwakarta
 weaving

Source: Industry Ministry
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Title Annotation:Industry
Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Aug 1, 2007
Words:1800
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