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Coal for fuel in textile industry.



Backgrounds

A number of textile factories in the country have used coal as an alternative source of energy to oil fuel. Coal is used to heat the boiler boiler, device for generating steam. It consists of two principal parts: the furnace, which provides heat, usually by burning a fuel, and the boiler proper, a device in which the heat changes water into steam.  in the process of dyeing Dyeing

The application of color-producing agents to material, usually fibrous or film, in order to impart a degree of color permanence demanded by the projected end use.
 cloth and as an energy source to generate power needed by textile factories.

As an alternative source of energy coal has a higher economic value as it could replace the expensive oil fuels (BBM BBM Brokeback Mountain (book/movie)
BBM Bureau of Broadcast Measurement
BBM Bachelor of Business Management
BBM Break Before Make
BBM Bread Board Model
BBM Bulk Business Mail
BBM Bahn Brenner Motorsport
). The country has large coal reserves estimated at 57.85 billion tons billion tons including 20.53 billion tons of indicated reserves, 12.47 billion tons of measured reserves and 6.98 billion tons of reserves ready for exploitation.

There are however, problems still to be faced in using coal by textile industry such as difficulty in supply to textile factories and dangerous and toxic waste toxic waste is waste material, often in chemical form, that can cause death or injury to living creatures. It usually is the product of industry or commerce, but comes also from residential use, agriculture, the military, medical facilities, radioactive sources, and  of coal categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
 as B3 waste.

Coal potential in Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago.  

Coal reserves have been found mainly in Sumatra Sumatra (smä`trə), island (1990 pop. 36,471,731), c.183,000 sq mi (473,970 sq km), Indonesia, in the Indian Ocean along the equator, S and W of the Malay Peninsula (from which it , Kalimantan Kalimantan: see Borneo. , Sulawesi Sulawesi (s'läwā`sē), formerly Celebes (sĕl`əbēz), island (1990 pop. 12,511,163), c.  and Papua Papua, province, Indonesia
Papua (păp`ə, –y
. The largest reserves found so far are in South Sumatra South Sumatra or Sumatera Selatan is a province of Indonesia. It is on the island of Sumatra, and borders the provinces of Lampung to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi to the north. , East Kalimantan East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. Kaltim) is Indonesian province on the east of Borneo island. The resource-rich province has two major cities, Samarinda (the capital and a center for timber product) and Balikpapan (a petroleum center with oil  and South Kalimantan South Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Selatan often abbreviated to Kalsel) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. .

South Sumatra has the largest coal reserve in the country although East Kalimantan still has the largest measured reserve. South Sumatra has only 1,970.75 million tons of coal in measured reserve but its indicated reserve is the largest at 19,946.48 million tons.

East Kalimantan leads in measured reserve of 6,385.13 million tons, but its indicated reserve is only 325.21 million tons. East Kalimantan, therefore, is the largest coal producer in the country at present but later South Sumatra will likely take place.

Indonesia's Coal Production

The country's coal production has increased from year to year boosted by growing demand on the domestic market and in international market. In 2004 the production was recorded at 129.16 million tons, up to 149.67 million tons in 2005.

Textile industry one of the main users of coal in Indonesia

Coal fired power plants (PLTUs) are still the largest consumer of coal in the country. In 2005, coal consumption for PLTUs totaled 22.15 million tons. The second largest consumers is cement cement, binding material used in construction and engineering, often called hydraulic cement, typically made by heating a mixture of limestone and clay until it almost fuses and then grinding it to a fine powder.  industry with consumption totaling 4.84 million tons in 2005, followed by paper industry with consumption of 3.79 million tons in the same year.

Textile industry is the fourth largest user with consumption of 1.31 million tons in 2005. West Java's textile industry was the largest user with consumption of 851,040 tons, followed by Banten's textile industry 317,550 tons and Central Java's textile industry 139,020 tons.

Bandung Bandung or Bandoeng (both: bän`dng), city (1990 pop. 2,058,122), capital of Java Barat prov., W Java, Indonesia, near the Tangkuban Prahu volcano.  largest textile production center

Around 40% or 1,070 units of the country's medium and large textile factories are located in West Java mainly in Bandung, Garut Garut is the capital of Garut Regency, West Java province, Indonesia. References
  • Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia (7th edition). Melbourne: Lonely Planet, page 166. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.
, Tasikmalaya, Bekasi and Sukabumi.

Bandung is the largest textile production center in West Java with 300 companies located in the regency of Bandung, the city of Bandung and Cimahi. In the regency of Bandung textile factories are concentrated in the eastern area along the Cileunyi-Cicalengka highway, central area at Mohammad Toha-Dayeuh Kolot --Majalaya highway and western area at Nanjung and Padalarang.

In the city of Cimahi, textile factories are concentrated in Leumigajah, and in the city of Bandung textile factories are found in various locations. Most large textile factories in Bandung use diesel oil or residue residue n. in a will, the assets of the estate of a person who has died with a will (died testate) which are left after all specific gifts have been made. Typical language: "I leave the rest, residue and remainder [or just residue] of my estate to my grandchildren.  to fuel boilers in the production process. Few have used coal.

Currently, there are 69 textile companies using coal such as PT Kahatex, PT Panasia Filamen Inti, PT Ayoe Taihotex, PT Bintang Agung, PT Central Georgete Nusantara, PT Dewa Suteratex and PT Trisulatex.

Difficulty in coal supply to Bandung

Coal requirement has increased in Bandung. Coal is needed to heat textile factory boilers. Coal for textile factories in Bandung is distributed via Cirebon. Coal is sent from Kalimantan and part of which is piled in storage place around the Cirebon port and at the Losari highway with a capacity of 3,000 5,000 tons.

Textile companies buy coal from sales agents in Cirebon. Most of the coal is supplied by PT Arutmin, PT Adaro and village cooperative units in South Kalimantan with calorific value calorific value
n.
The calories or thermal units contained in one unit of a substance and released when the substance is burned.
 of 5,400--6,600 kcal/kg.

The problem in starting using coal is availability of supply because of difficulty in distribution. As the number of users is still limited distribution could not be efficient. In addition, unloading Unloading

Selling securities or commodities whose prices are dropping to minimize loss.
 is often delayed in the busy port of Cirebon. Traffic jams in the highway from Cirebon to Bandung is also another problem in distribution. In addition few companies using coal have storage facility to keep large stock of coal.

Conclusion

* Using coal to replace BBM for textile industry is commercially feasible as coal fuel is cheaper.

* Coal supply will be better guaranteed in the future as the country has large reserves of coal.

* Coal waste, which is categorized as dangerous and toxic (B3) needs special handling.

* Coal waste could be used a feedstock feed·stock  
n.
Raw material required for an industrial process.

Noun 1. feedstock - the raw material that is required for some industrial process
raw material, staple - material suitable for manufacture or use or finishing
 for cement industry, therefore, the waste could be made useful in cooperation with cement producers.

* Growing demand for coal from textile industry will require development of infrastructure both in the coal producing areas and in the receiving areas to cope with problem in distribution.
Table--1
Locations of coal reserves in Indonesia

(million tons)

                            Reserves

Provinces      Measured    Indicated   Estimated

Java
Banten              0.00        0.00       13.75
Central Java        0.00        0.00        0.82
East Java           0.00        0.00        0.08
Sumatra
Aceh               90.40       13.40      346.35
North              19.97        0.00        7.00
Sumatra
Riau              336.62        0.00    1,720.60
West              181.24       42.72      475.94
Sumatra
Bengkulu           62.18        7.95      113.09
Jambi              94.22       36.32    1,462.03
South           1,970.75   19,946.48      323.17
Sumatra
Lampung             0.00        0.00      106.95
Kalimantan
West                1.48        1.32      482.60
Kalimantan
Central           194.02        5.08    1,200.11
Kalimantan
South           3,109.21      155.08    5,410.27
Kalimantan
East            6,385.13      325.21   12,401.12
Kalimantan
Other areas
South              21.20        0.00      110.81
Sulawesi
Central             0.00        0.00        1.98
Sulawesi
Papua               0.00        0.00      138.30
Total          12,466.42   20,533.56   24,314.96

                        Reserves

                                 Total       Proven
Provinces      Hypothetical    reserve      reserve

Java
Banten                 0.00       13.75        0.00
Central Java           0.00        0.82        0.00
East Java              0.00        0.08        0.00
Sumatra
Aceh                   0.00      450.15        0.00
North                  0.00       26.97        0.00
Sumatra
Riau                   0.00   2.,057.22       15.15
West                  19.19      719.09       36.07
Sumatra
Bengkulu              15.15      198.37       21.12
Jambi                  0.00    1,592.57        9.00
South                  0.00   22,240.40    2,653.98
Sumatra
Lampung                0.00      106.95        0.00
Kalimantan
West                  42.12      527.52        0.00
Kalimantan
Central                0.00    1,399.21       48.59
Kalimantan
South                  0.00    8,674.56    1,787.32
Kalimantan
East                 456.34   19,567.79    2,410.33
Kalimantan
Other areas
South                  0.00      132.01        0.06
Sulawesi
Central                0.00        1.98        0.00
Sulawesi
Papua                  0.00      138.30        0.00
Total                532.80   57.847.74    6,981.32

Source: Directorate of Geology  and  Mineral Resources (DGSM)

Table--2
Indonesia's production of coal, 2004-2006

          Production    Growth
Year   (million tons)      (%)

2004           129.16        -
2005           149.67     15.8
2006           165.40     10.5

Source: DGSM

Table--3
Consumption of coal
by industries, 2005

                             Volume
User Industries              (Tons)

Briquette                    26,282
Tire rubber                  17,280
Paper                     3,793,728
Chemical (Banten)           302,950
Cooking oil                  13,420
Food processing              12,700
Textile (Banten)            317,550
Textile (Central Java)      139,020
Textile (West Java)         851,040
Metallurgy                   84,083
PLTU                     22,154,270
Cement                    4,837,134
Packaging                       875
Metal casting                 9,720
Other                         3,650
Total                    32,563,699

Source: DGSM

Table--4
TPT companies using coal for fuel

No.   Names of company               Textile business       Location

1     PT Pollux Indonesia Textiles   Garment, Weaving       Bekasi
        Industriy
2     PT Kanisatex                   Weaving                Citeureup
3     PT Roda Vivatex Tbk            Weaving                Citeureup
4     PT Tokai Texprint Indonesia    Textile and Products   Cikarang
5     PT Saehan Textiles             Weaving                Serang
6     PT Azalea Textile              Weaving                Cikampek
7     PT Bhineka Karya Manunggal     Weaving                Karawang
8     PT Indonesia Taroko Textile    Weaving                Purwakarta
        Corp.
9     CV Badjatex                    Weaving                Bandung
10    Indonesia Synthetic Textiole   Weaving                Tangerang
        Mills.
11    PT Dhanar mas Concern          Weaving                Bandung
12    PT Ramatex                     Weaving                Bandung
13    PT Arsostex                    Weaving                Bandung
14    PT Adetex                      Textile and Products   Bandung
15    PT Bandung Sakura Textile      Weaving                Bandung
        Mill
16    PT Fuji Palapa Textil          Weaving                Bandung
17    PT Central Georgette           Weaving                Bandung
        Nusantara
18    PT Trisula Textile             Garment, fabric        Bandung
        Industries
19    PT Tirtha Ria                  Weaving                Bandung
20    CV Wiska                       Weaving                Bandung
21    PT Kahatex                     Weaving                Bandung
22    PT Naintex                     Fiber, Weaving         Bandung
23    PT Bintang Agung               Weaving                Bandung
24    PT Aletatex                    Textile and Products   Bandung
25    PT Aswindo                     Weaving                Bandung
26    PT Ayoe Taihotex               Textile and Products   Bandung
27    PT Bandung Synthetic Sorong    Weaving                Bandung
      Mills
28    PT Beteen Tekstil Nusantara    Weaving                Bandung
29    PT Bina Usaha Cipta Prima      Weaving                Bandung
30    PT Bintang Cipta Perkasa       Textile and Products   Bandung
31    PT Bintang Mitra Textindo      Textile and Products   Bandung
32    PT Daliatex                    Weaving                Bandung
33    PT Delimatex                   Weaving                Bandung
34    PT Dewa Sutratex               Weaving                Bandung
35    PT Famatex                     Weaving                Bandung
36    PT Firman Jaya Dua Saudara     Weaving                Bandung
37    PT Brandtex                    Weaving                Bandung
38    PT Hakatex                     Weaving                Bandung
39    PT Hegar Mulia Lestari         Weaving                Bandung
40    PT Hegar Mulia                 Weaving                Bandung
41    PT Hegar Manah Lestari         Weaving                Bandung
42    PT Himalaya Tunas Textindo     Weaving                Bandung
43    PT Leuwijaya Utama Textile     Weaving                Bandung
44    PT Panasia Filamen Inti        Weaving                Bandung
45    PT Panca Mitra Sandang Indah   Textile and Products   Majalaya
46    PT Pola Manunggal Sejati       Weaving                Cimahi
47    PT Sandang Sari                Textile and Products   Bandung
48    PT Sipatex                     Weaving                Majalaya
49    PT Bistex                      Weaving                Cimahi
50    PT Kencana Hegar               Weaving                Cimahi
51    PT Bratatex                    Weaving                Cimahi
52    PT Gucci Ratu Textile          Textile and Products   Cimahi
        Industry
53    PT Sapta Jaya                  Textile and Products   Cimahi
54    PT Sinar Continental           Woven fabric           Cimahi
55    PT Sinar Makin Mulia           Textile and Products   Cimahi
56    PT Tunggal Inti Kahuripan      Textile and Products   Cimahi
57    PT Sari Yunika Jaya            Textile and Products   Cimahi
58    PT Tridharma mega mitra        Weaving                Cimahi
59    PT Indo Putra Utama Textile    Textile and Products   Cimahi
60    PT Matahari Santosa Jaya       Textile and Products   Cimahi
61    PT How Are You                 Textile and Products   Cimahi
62    PT Long Sun Indonesia          Textile and Products   Cimahi
63    PT Kamaga Kurnia               Textile and Products   Cimahi
64    PT Indo Bharat Rayon           Fiber                  Purwakarta
65    PT South Pacific Viscouse      Fiber                  Purwakarta
66    PT Tifico                      Fiber                  Tangerang
67    PT Indonesia Toray Synthetic   Fiber                  Tangerang
68    PT Pan Asia                    Fiber                  Bandung
69    PT Indorama Synthetic Fiber    Fiber, spinning,       Purwakarta
                                     weaving

Source: Industry Ministry
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Title Annotation:Industry
Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Aug 1, 2007
Words:1800
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