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Checklist of the Crayfish and Freshwater Shrimp (Decapoda) of Indiana.

ABSTRACT. Crayfish crayfish or crawfish, freshwater crustacean smaller than but structurally very similar to its marine relative the lobster, and found in ponds and streams in most parts of the world except Africa. Crayfish grow some 3 to 4 in. (7.6–10.  and freshwater shrimp are members of the order Decapoda. All crayfish in Indiana are members of the family Cambaridae, while the freshwater shrimp belong to Palaemonidae. Two genera of freshwater shrimps, each represented by a single species, occur in Indiana. Palaemonetes kadiakensis and Macrobrachium ohione are lowland forms. Macrobrachium ohione occurs in the Ohio River Ohio River

Major river, eastern central U.S. Formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, it flows northwest out of Pennsylvania, and west and southwest to form the state boundaries of Ohio–West Virginia, Ohio-Kentucky, Indiana-Kentucky, and
 drainage, while P. kadiakensis occurs statewide in wetlands and lowland areas including inland lakes. Currently, 21 crayfish taxa taxa: see taxon. , including an undescribed form of Cambarus diogenes The Devil Crayfish or C. diogenes is a crayfish thats grows to be 4.6in (11.5cm) without the claws. It tends to live in wetlands and moist woodlands. It is most active in the summer and spring where they can be found near streams and floodplains near there mud chimney, where they , are found in Indiana. Another two species are considered hypothetical in occurrence. Conservation status is recommended for the Ohio shrimp Macrobrachium ohione, Indiana crayfish Orconectes indianensis, and both forms of the cave crayfish Orconectes inermis inermis and O. i. testii.

Keywords: Cambaridae, Palaemonidae, conservation, ecology

The crayfish and freshwater shrimp belonging to the order Decapoda are among the largest of Indiana's aquatic invertebrates. Crayfish possess five pair of periopods, the first is modified into a large chela che·la  
n. pl. che·lae
A pincerlike claw of a crustacean or arachnid, such as a lobster, crab, or scorpion.



[New Latin ch
 and dactyl dactyl /dac·tyl/ (dak´til) a digit.

dac·tyl
n.
A finger or toe; digit.



dactyl

a digit.
 (Pennak 1978; Hobbs 1989). The North American North American

named after North America.


North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.

North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus.
 crayfish belong to two families, Astacidae and Cambaridae with all members east of the Mississippi River Mississippi River

River, central U.S. It rises at Lake Itasca in Minnesota and flows south, meeting its major tributaries, the Missouri and the Ohio rivers, about halfway along its journey to the Gulf of Mexico.
 belong to the family Cambaridae (Hobbs 1974a). The freshwater shrimps are represented by two genera in a single family, Palaemonidae.

The species of Cambaridae in North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere.  represent a large family of over 300 described and numerous undescribed species in two subfamilies (Hobbs 1989). The family also occurs in Japan, Korea, and the Amur basin of eastern Asia (Hobbs 1974). The Cambarellinae include only the genus Cambarellus, while the Cambarinae include ten genera (Hobbs 1974, 1977; Hobbs & Carlson 1983). The Palaemonidae is represented in North America by 68 described species in 16 genera (Williams et al. 1989). The family is worldwide in distribution.

The purpose of this paper is to list the species of crayfish and freshwater shrimp known to occur in Indiana and describe the range, relative abundance, and recommended conservation status.

METHODS

Distribution and range.--This present survey of Indiana freshwater shrimp and crayfish is based on collections between 1990 and 2000. Collections were made at over 3000 localities statewide, made in every county of the state, but most heavily concentrated in southern Indiana Southern Indiana, in the United States, is notable because it is culturally distinct from the rest of the state. The area's geography has led to a blend of Northern and Southern culture that is not found in the rest of Indiana. , where the greatest diversity of species occurs.

The current list of species is intended to provide a record of the extant and those extirpated from the fauna of Indiana over the last two centuries (Table 1). This list includes new information and taxonomic changes. This effort is the first step of the Indiana Biological Survey to compile a listing of all known species of biota biota /bi·o·ta/ (bi-o´tah) all the living organisms of a particular area; the combined flora and fauna of a region.

bi·o·ta
n.
The flora and fauna of a region.
 in Indiana. The taxonomic and nomenclature sources include Hobbs (1989), Williams et al. (1989), Page (1985), Jezerinac et al. (1995) and Pflieger (1996). Many crayfish species do not possess common names, Species without accepted common names following Williams et al. (1989) are highlighted in brackets to signify those proposed in this study. These names were based on those from adjacent state lists in Missouri (Pflieger 1996) and Ohio (Thoma & Jezerinac 2000a). Subgenera are indicated for all crayfish species. Crandall & Fitzpatrick (1996) and Fetzner (1993) have completed recent molecular studies on the phylogeny of Orconectes subgenera, which suggests that these relationships may be doubtful. Use of the Orconectes phylogeny relationships presented in this paper follows Fitzpatrick (1987).

The following codes were established to facilitate documentation of species in the State (Table 1). The general range in Indiana is indicated as statewide (I), north (N), south (S), west (W), east (E), and various combinations of these regions. Relative abundance refers to the general population levels of the species within the State. These are based on the abundance and number of localities where the species has been found. Depending on local and seasonal conditions, population levels will vary. Relative abundance is listed as four categories: abundant (A) designations are species that are easily found at a site in a particular region, common (C) are species that are regularly found at a site (generally greater than 25 individuals) in an area but perhaps not at all locations, occasional (O) designations are for species that are found at either fewer than five locations or represent less than five specimens at a site, and rare (R) designations are for species that occur at less than five locations or are repr esented by a single individual at a site. Extirpated species (Ex) are listed along with the estimated date of disappearance. The State of Indiana does not have a formal conservation listing for crayfish or freshwater shrimp. The recommended conservation status has no formal or legal impetus; instead it refers to information based on our data. Federally endangered species endangered species, any plant or animal species whose ability to survive and reproduce has been jeopardized by human activities. In 1999 the U.S. government, in accordance with the U.S.  are denoted as federally endangered (FE), federally threatened (FT), and federal candidates for Federal listing as FC; however, the candidate listing has no formal status. State endangered species will be represented by three codes: endangered (StE), threatened (StT), and special concern in need of further study (SC). An additional designation, exotic (X) is included for accidentally or deliberately released species.

Historical collections of Indiana crayfish and freshwater shrimps curated at the Ohio State University Ohio State University, main campus at Columbus; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1870, opened 1873 as Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, renamed 1878. There are also campuses at Lima, Mansfield, Marion, and Newark.  Museum (OSM OSM Oregon Steel Mills, Inc.
OSM Openstreetmap (free editable online world map)
OSM Office of Surface Mining (US government)
OSM Orchestre Symphonique de Montréal
), Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS INHS Illinois Natural History Survey ), National Museum of Natural History For the museum in Manhattan, see .

This article is about the museum in Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see National Museum of Natural History (disambiguation).

The National Museum of Natural History
 (NMNH NMNH National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; also New Delhi, India; also seen as NMNHI) ), and University of Michigan (body, education) University of Michigan - A large cosmopolitan university in the Midwest USA. Over 50000 students are enrolled at the University of Michigan's three campuses. The students come from 50 states and over 100 foreign countries.  Museum of Zoology zoology, branch of biology concerned with the study of animal life. From earliest times animals have been vitally important to man; cave art demonstrates the practical and mystical significance animals held for prehistoric man.  (UMMZ UMMZ University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan) ) were compiled. Historical and recent records were compiled to formulate the current distribution of Indiana crayfish.

Collection methodology.--Open water crayfish and freshwater shrimp were sampled by seining, dipnetting, or electrofishing Electrofishing uses electricity to stun fish before they are caught. Two electrodes are used. The boat is the cathode, and the anode is at the front. The stunned fish swim toward the anode, where they are caught alive using a dip net.[1] References

1.
 all representative habitats at a locality. Electro-fishing included the use of a pulsed DC Pulsed DC, or PDC, is the form of wave produced from a half-wave rectifier or a full-wave rectifier. PDC has characteristics of both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) waveforms.  1850-watt T & J generator capable of 300 V output and usually 6-8 amps. All specimens observed were captured and a portion was retained for later identification in the laboratory. Sites were sampled so that a minimum distance of 15 times the stream width was sampled. Each surveyed site consisted of a minimum distance of 50 m and a maximum distance of 500 m in streams and rivers. Lake and great river habitats were surveyed for 500 m of littoral littoral /lit·to·ral/ (lit´ah-r'l) pertaining to the shore of a large body of water.

littoral

pertaining to the shore.
 shoreline habitat. All available habitats were sampled at each location including riffle, run, pool, various instream cover types (e.g., woody debris, slab bedrock crevices, boulders, aquatic macrophytes), and beneath undercut banks. All specimens were placed into a live well and retained until the end of the collection zone.

Burrowing species of crayfish were more difficult to obtain. Two collection procedures were attempted. For prairie crayfish that remained in burrows, a modified toilet plunger was used to force the crayfish from the burrow. An aliquot aliquot (al-ee-kwoh) adj. a definite fractional share, usually applied when dividing and distributing a dead person's estate or trust assets. (See: share)  of water was poured into the burrow until full, then suction was established at the entrance so that a good seal was established. Plunging the burrow caused the exit holes to become noticeable, and after several attempts the exits were examined to determine if crayfish were present. Attempts to excavate the burrow by digging was foolishly attempted next; however, if this failed the identity of the crayfish was based on the external morphology of the burrow. Large multiple chambered chimney-type burrows was assumed to be Cambarus diogenes, while piled burrows were assumed to be Procambarus gracilis. Single chambered chimney-type burrows were considered Fallicambarus fodiens. More than likely I underestimated the distribution of prairie species since many of our collections were n ot completed during times when they would have been more vulnerable to our collection methods (December-May).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Crayfish systematics systematics: see classification. .--The cambarid crayfish differ from the Astacidae of western North America and Europe by the presence of hooks on the ischia Ischia (ēs`kyä), volcanic island (1991 pop. 16,013), 18 sq mi (47 sq km), Campania, S Italy, in the Tyrrhenian Sea between the Gulf of Gaeta and the Bay of Naples.  of the second through fourth pereiopods and dimorphic dimorphic

see dimorphic fungus.
 cycling in males (Hobbs 1974). Astacids do not exhibit cyclic dimorphism dimorphism /di·mor·phism/ (di-mor´fizm) the quality of existing in two distinct forms.dimor´phicdimor´phous

sexual dimorphism 
1. physical or behavioral differences associated with sex.
 nor ischial ischial /is·chi·al/ (is´ke-il) ischiatic; pertaining to the ischium.

ischiadic, ischial

ischiatic.
 hooks. Camband crayfish have a variety of ornate terminal elements on the gonopod, while astacid crayfish have simple cylindrical distal elements. The cambarid females have an annulus annulus /an·nu·lus/ (an´u-lus) pl. an´nuli   [L.] anulus.

an·nu·lus or an·u·lus
n. pl. an·nu·lus·es or an·nu·li
A circular or ring-shaped structure.
 ventralis that is lacking in astacid females. During the reproductive season, males develop one or more terminal elements on the gonopods (first pleopods) that are corneous corneous /cor·ne·ous/ (kor´ne-us)
1. horny.

2. keratinous.


cor·ne·ous
adj.
Made of horn or a hornlike substance; horny.
. These males are referred to as form I.

Historical studies of Indiana crayfish and freshwater shrimp.--Most historical information published on Indiana crayfish and freshwater shrimp can be found in Cope (1872), Packard (1873), Bundy (1877), Hay (1891, 1893, 1896), Williamson (1907), Evermann & Clark (1920), Eberly (1955), Hobbs (1989), Page (1994), and Page & Mottesi (1995). Cope (1872) published on the cave fauna of Wyandotte Cave Wyandotte Cave, one of the largest natural caverns in the United States, S Ind., W of New Albany; discovered in 1798. There are 23 mi (37 km) of passages and several large and beautiful chambers on five levels. Saltpeter was mined there until the middle of the 19th cent. , while Packard (1873) published on cave crayfish throughout the State. Bundy (1877) was the first to publish on crayfish distributions outside of caves in Indiana, focusing on species in northern Indiana Northern Indiana is the region of Indiana including 26 counties bordering parts of Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio. The area is generally sub-classified into other regions. The northwest is economically and culturally intertwined with Chicago, and is considered part of the Chicago . Hay (1891) published on the crustaceans of Indiana, including information on freshwater shrimp, and followed with a paper on the observations of blind cave crayfish including the description of Cambarus inermis testii (Hay 1896). Hay (1896) first published an annotated species list that included information on the taxonomy of crayfish species occurring in Indiana. Williamson (1907) published information on the crayfish of Wells County Wells County is the name of several counties in the United States:
  • Wells County, Indiana
  • Wells County, North Dakota
 and described a new species (Cambarus ortmanni). Evermann & Clark (1920) listed the species occurring in Lake Maxinkuckee Lake Maxinkuckee, covering 1,864 acres (8 km), is the second largest natural lake in the U.S. state of Indiana . It is located near the town of Culver, Indiana, in southwestern Marshall County. . Eberly (1955) summarized distributions of five species and included new distribution records. Page (1994) conducted a study to determine the conservation status of Orconectes indianensis that included a listing of the species of crayfish found in Indiana (Page & Mottesi 1995); and he indicated that 17 species and an additional undescribed species are known to occur in Indiana.

Life history and distribution information for Indiana crayfish include C. diogenes (Grow 1981), C. fodiens (Bovbjerg 1952), C. tenebrosus (Prins 1968), O. immunis (Tack 1941), O. propinquus (Van Deventer 1937; Bovbjerg 1952), O. rusticus (Langlois 1935; Busch 1940; Prins 1968), O. sloani (Rhoades 1962; Jezerinac 1986; St. John 1988) and O. virilis (Bovbjerg 1953, 1970; Hazlett et al. 1974; Threinen 1958; Caldwell & Bovbjerg 1969; Momot 1967, 1978; Aiken 1969; Weagle & Ozburn 1972; Momot & Gowing 1977).

Life history strategies of Indiana crayfish.--The life history strategies occurring among Indiana crayfish include cave-dwelling, non-burrowing and burrowing species. Cave-dwelling species are adapted for spending their entire existence in caves. Non-burrowing crayfish carry out their entire life history in surface waters. Burrowing species spend variable amounts of time in surface waters and periodically leave their burrows to mate (Simon et al. 2000). Adults of these species remain above ground only during periods of late winter to spring flooding (January--May). Sexually mature P. gracilis leave their burrows on warm rainy nights but are otherwise seldom found out of their burrows. Adult C. diogenes leave their burrows on the edge of stream banks more often than the other burrowing species and may forage as well as mate. Roaming occurs most frequently during the mating season mating season népoca de celo

mating season nsaison f des amours

mating season mating n
 and when females are carrying eggs or young.

Distribution and conservation status.--The State of Indiana possesses 21 crayfish taxa representing 19 species and possibily another two undescribed species (R. Thoma, pers. commun.). Page & Mottesi (1995) indicated that 18 crayfish species occurred in Indiana; however, their list did not include the recently-elevated O. juvenilis nor Cambarus robustus. Hobbs (1989) tentatively listed O. putnami from Indiana. Page & Mottesi (1995) found O. putnami to be widespread in southeastern portions of the State as did I. Taylor (1997) synonymized C. laevis, C. ornatus, and C. tenebrosus cast of the Mississippi River as C. tenebrosus based on meristic me·ris·tic  
adj. Biology
1. Having or composed of segments; segmented.

2. Relating to a change in the number or placement of body parts or segments: meristic variation.
 and morphometric characters. This present paper still maintains the separate listing of the species for Indiana while further work is being conducted to support this revision.

An additional two species are considered hypothetical for their occurrence in the State. The possibility that C. thomai exists in southeastern Indiana is based on the species distribution in southwestern Ohio (Jezerinac 1993; Thoma & Jezerinac 2000b). Finally, O. stannardi occurs as an endemic of the Little Wabash River Little Wabash River

A river, about 322 km (200 mi) long, of eastern Illinois flowing southeast to the Wabash River.

Noun 1. Little Wabash River - a river in eastern Illinois that flows southeastward to the Wabash River
 in Illinois. The possibility of the species occurring in direct tributaries to the Wabash River Wabash River

River, flowing westward across Indiana, U.S. After crossing Indiana, the Wabash forms the 200-mi (320-km) southern section of the Indiana-Illinois boundary below Terre Haute, Ind.
 near the Little Wabash River needs further survey.

The rusty crayfish The rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus), is a large, aggressive species of freshwater crayfish which is native to the U.S. states of Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee.  O. rusticus and red swamp crayfish The swamp crayfish, Tenuibranchiurus glypticus, is a tiny freshwater crayfish that occurs in freshwater waterways in Queensland, and is the smallest known species of crayfish.  Procambarus clarki have been found in the Lake Michigan drainage (Simon, unpubi. data). The rusty crayfish is a native species of southeastern Indiana that has been widely distributed Adj. 1. widely distributed - growing or occurring in many parts of the world; "a cosmopolitan herb"; "cosmopolitan in distribution"
cosmopolitan

bionomics, environmental science, ecology - the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms
 through bait bucket release by anglers. The species is native to the Whitewater River drainage and should be considered non-indigenous outside of that watershed. The red swamp crayfish was collected during 2000 from Lake Michigan. Page & Mottesi (1995) indicated that this species was among the rarest crayfish of Indiana. The red coloration col·or·a·tion  
n.
1. Arrangement of colors.

2. The sum of the beliefs or principles of a person, group, or institution.
 of the species and the recent marketing of them as freshwater lobster in the aquarium trade perhaps have aided in the spread of the species into the West Branch of the Grand Calumet Calumet, region, United States
Calumet (kăl`ymĕt'), industrialized region of NW Ind. and NE Ill., along the south shore of Lake Michigan.
 River.

Although the State of Indiana does not recognize any conservation status for crustaceans, I recommend that three rare species be designated as either State Endangered or State Special Concern. Page (1994) surveyed for the Indiana crayfish O. indianensis (Hay), a Federal candidate species, over the historic range of the species in Illinois and Indiana. The species was collected from the Patoka River and at additional locations in several watersheds in southwestern Indiana. The watersheds where this species occurs are prone to severe land use disturbance from oil and gas explorations, acid mine drainage Acid mine drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD), refers to the outflow of acidic water from (usually) abandoned metal mines or coal mines. However, other areas where the earth has been disturbed (e.g.  and coal mining. The species has been severely reduced in its former range in Illinois, but Page did not recommend the species for listing since it occurred at many of the historic sites where it had been collected in Indiana. Due to the species primary distribution in areas severely impaired by anthropogenic an·thro·po·gen·ic  
adj.
1. Of or relating to anthropogenesis.

2. Caused by humans: anthropogenic degradation of the environment.
 disturbance in the Patoka and Pigeon River drainage and southwestern Indiana, it is recommended that the species be considered "State Special Concern" until it can be determined whether the species range is being threatened.

Orconectes inermis inermis and O. inermis testii are cave-dwelling crayfish found in southern Indiana. The two taxa are rare with O. inermis testii being restricted to Monroe County, while O. inermis inermis being broader ranging. The two taxa are seldom considered abundant. It is recommend that both forms be considered "State Endangered" because of the fragile nature of karst Karst (kärst), Ital. Carso, Slovenian Kras, limestone plateau, W Slovenia, N of Istria and extending c.50 mi (80 km) SE from the lower Isonzo (Soča) valley between the Bay of Trieste and the Julian Alps.  ecosystems.

The Ohio shrimp (M. ohione) has been severely reduced over the species' former range. The species, reaching 100 mm carapace carapace (kâr`əpās), shield, or shell covering, found over all or part of the anterior dorsal portion of an animal. In lobsters, shrimps, crayfish, and crabs, the carapace is the part of the exoskeleton that covers the head and thorax  length (CL), once occurred throughout the Ohio River and lowland tributaries. During our study we did not collect a single specimen and consider the species so rare as to warrant "State Endangered" status. It may already be extirpated from Indiana's portion of the Ohio River. However, Hobbs & Massmann (1952) suggested that the species occurs in deeper waters, which requires trapping to collect. The species rarity may only be a reflection of the collection methods attempted or could be extirpated as a result of the navigation lock and dam system on the Ohio River prevented migration.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I appreciate the assistance of numerous colleagues that assisted in the field collection of specimens especially Brant brant or brant goose, common name for a species of wild sea goose. The American brant, Branta bernicla, breeds in the Arctic and winters along the Atlantic coast.  Fisher, Steve Wente, Andy Ellis, Doug Campbell, Erich Emery and Greg Nottingham. Additional specimens were donated by Tony Branam, Ronda Dufour and Steve Newhouse. Conversations with Larry Page and Chris Taylor (Illinois Natural History Survey), Roger Thoma (Ohio State University), and Horton Hobbs, III (Wittenberg College) greatly helped nurture and stimulate my interest in crustaceans. Roger Thoma, Ohio State University, reviewed a draft of this manuscript. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Contaminants supported this study through grant number 31440-1261-3N29.

LITERATURE CITED

Aiken, D.E. 1969. Ovarian maturation and egg laying in the crayfish Orconectes virilis: Influence of temperature and photoperiod photoperiod /pho·to·pe·ri·od/ (fo´to-per?e-od) the period of time per day that an organism is exposed to daylight (or to artificial light).photoperiod´ic

pho·to·pe·ri·od
n.
. Canadian Journal of Zoology The Journal of Zoology (not to be confused with a different journal called Zoology) is a scientific journal concerning zoology, the study of animals. It was founded in 1830 by the Zoological Society of London. External links
  • http://www.cambridge.
 47:931-935.

Bovbjerg, R.V. 1952. Comparative ecology and physiology of the crayfish Orconectes propinquus and Cambarus fodiens. Physiological Zoology 25:34-56.

Bovbjerg, R.V. 1953. Dominance order in the crayfish Orconectes viri.lis (Hagen). Physiological Zoology 26:173-178.

Bovbjerg, R.V. 1970. Ecological isolation and competitive exclusion in two crayfish (Orconectes virilis and Orconectes immunis). Ecology 51:225-236.

Bundy, W.F. 1877. On the Cambari of northern Indiana. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural History of Philadelphia 29:171-174.

Busch, K.H.D. 194O. Embryology embryology

Study of the formation and development of an embryo and fetus. Before widespread use of the microscope and the advent of cellular biology in the 19th century, embryology was based on descriptive and comparative studies.
 of the crayfish, Cambarus rusticus Girard. Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus.

Caldwell, M.J. & R.V. Bovbjerg. 1969. Natural history of the two crayfish of northwestern Iowa, Orconectes virilis and O. immunis. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 76:463-472.

Cope, E.D. 1872. Report on the Wyandotte Cave and Its Fauna. Third and Fourth Annual Report Geological Survey of Indiana. Pp. 157-182.

Crandall, K.A. & J.F. Fitzpatrick, Jr. 1996. Crayfish molecular systematics: Using a combination of procedures to estimate phylogeny. Systematic Biology 45:129-142.

Eberly, W.R. 1955. Summary of the distribution of Indiana crayfishes, including new state and county records. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 64:281-283.

Evermann, B.W. & H.W. Clark. 1920. Lake Maxinkuckee, a physical and biological survey. Indiana Department of Conservation Publication 7. 620 pp.

Fetzner, J.W., Jr. 1993. Biochemical systematics and evolution of the crayfish genus Orconectes (Decapoda: Cambaridae). Journal of Crustacean Biology The Journal of Crustacean Biology is the world's leading carcinology journal, with an impact factor of 0.823 in 2005 [1]. It is produced by The Crustacean Society and, since 2005, the editor has been Fred Schram [2]. References

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Fitzpatrick, J.F., Jr. 1987. The subgenera of the crawfish crawfish: see crayfish.  genus Orconectes (Decapoda: Cambaridae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 100:44-74.

Grow, L. 1981, Burrowing behavior in the crayfish, Cambarus diogenes diogenes Girard. Animal Behavior 29:351-356.

Hay, W.P. 1891. The Crustacea of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 1891:147-150.

Hay, W.P. 1893. Observations on the blind crayfishes of Indiana, with a description of a new subspecies subspecies, also called race, a genetically distinct geographical subunit of a species. See also classification. ; Cambarus pellucidus testii. Proceedings of the United States Natural History Museum, Vol. XVI:283-286.

Hay, W.P. 1896. The Crawfishes of the State of Indiana. Pp. 476-506, In 20th Annual Report of the Department of Geology and Natural Resources of Indiana.

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Hobbs, H.H., Jr. & P.H. Carlson. 1983. Distocambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae) elevated to generic rank, with an account of D. crockeri, new species, from South Carolina South Carolina, state of the SE United States. It is bordered by North Carolina (N), the Atlantic Ocean (SE), and Georgia (SW). Facts and Figures


Area, 31,055 sq mi (80,432 sq km). Pop. (2000) 4,012,012, a 15.
. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 96:420-428.

Hobbs, H.H., Jr. & W.H. Massmann. 1952. The river shrimp, Macrobrachium ohione (Smith), in Virginia. The Virginia Journal of Science 3:206-207.

Jezerinac, R.F. 1986. Endangered and threatened crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) of Ohio. The Ohio Journal of Science 86:177-180.

Jezerinac, R.F. 1993. A new subgenus subgenus /sub·ge·nus/ (sub´je-nus) a taxonomic category between a genus and a species.

sub·ge·nus
n. pl. sub·gen·e·ra
A taxonomic category ranking between a genus and a species.
 and species of crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) of the genus Cambarus, with an amended description of the subgenus Lacunicambarus. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 106:532-544.

Jezerinac, R.F., G.W. Stocker & D.C. Tarter. 1995. The Cray fishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) of West Virginia. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey 10.

Langlois, T.H. 1935. Notes on the habits of the crayfish, Cambarus rusticus Girard, in fish ponds in Ohio. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 65:189-192.

Momot, W.T. 1967. Population dynamics and productivity of the crayfish, Orconectes virilis, in a marl Marl, city, Germany
Marl (märl), city (1994 pop. 92,590), North Rhine–Westphalia, W Germany. It is an industrial and mining (coal, lead, and zinc) center, and also supports a number of chemical factories.
 lake. American Midland Naturalist 78:55-81.

Momot, W.T. 1978. Annual production and production/biomass ratios of the crayfish, Orconectes virilis, in two northern Ontario lakes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107: 776-784.

Momot, W.T. & H. Gowing. 1977. Production and population dynamics of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in three Michigan lakes. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34:2041-2055.

Packard, A.S. 1873. On the cave fauna of Indiana. Fifth Annual Report Peabody Academy of Science, Salem. Pp. 93-97.

Page, L.M. 1985. The Crayfishes and Shrimps (Decapoda) of Illinois. Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey 33:335-448.

Page, L.M. 1994. The distribution and status of the Indiana crayfish, Orconectes indianensis. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign. Technical Report 1994(2).

Page, L.M. & G.B. Mottesi. 1995. The distribution and status of the Indiana crayfish, Orconectes indianensis, with comments on the crayfishes of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 104:103-111.

Pennak, R.W. 1978. Fresh-water Invertebrates Of The United States. 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
.

Pflieger, W.L. 1996. The Crayfishes Of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City.

Prins, R. 1968. Comparative ecology of the crayfishes Orconectes rusticus and Cambarus tenebrosus in Doe Run, Meade County, Kentucky Meade County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. As of 2000, the population was 26,349. Its county seat is Brandenburg6. History
The county is named for James Meade, honored after the Battle of River Raisin. Geography
According to the U.
. International Revue Gesamten Hydrobiologie 53:667-714.

Rhoades, R. 1962. The evolution of crayfishes of the genus Orconectes section limosus (Crustacea: Decapoda). The Ohio Journal of Science 62:65-96.

Simon, T.P. , R. Jankowski & C. Morris. 2000. Modification of an index of biotic biotic /bi·ot·ic/ (bi-ot´ik)
1. pertaining to life or living matter.

2. pertaining to the biota.


bi·ot·ic
adj.
1. Relating to life or living organisms.
 integrity for assessing vernal vernal /ver·nal/ (ver´n'l) pertaining to or occurring in the spring.  ponds and small palustrine wetlands using fish, crayfish, and amphibian amphibian, in zoology
amphibian, in zoology, cold-blooded vertebrate animal of the class Amphibia. There are three living orders of amphibians: the frogs and toads (order Anura, or Salientia), the salamanders and newts (order Urodela, or Caudata), and the
 assemblages along southern Lake Michigan. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 3:407-418.

St. John, F.L. 1988. Distribution and status of Orconectes (Rhoadesius) sloanii (Bundy) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae). The Ohio Journal of Science 88:202-204.

Tack, P.I. 1941. The life history of the crayfish Cambarus immunis Hagen. American Midland Naturalist 25:420-446.

Taylor, C.A. 1997. Taxonomic status of members of the subgenus Erebicambarus, genus Cambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae), east of the Mississippi River. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17:352-360.

Thoma, R.F. & R.F. Jezerinac. 2000a. Ohio Crayfish and Shrimp Atlas. Ohio Biological Survey Miscellaneous Contribution 7. 28 pp.

Thoma, R.F. & R.F. Jezerinac. 2000b. The taxonomic status and zoogeography zoogeography

defining the location and numbers of animal populations, and their variability with time.
 of Cambarus bartonii carinirostris Hay, 1914 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 112:97-105.

Threinen, C.W. 1958. A summary of observations on the commercial harvest of crayfish in northwestern Wisconsin with notes on the life history of Orconectes virilis. Fish Management Division of the Wisconsin Conservation Department Miscellaneous Report 21:1-14.

Van Deventer, W.C. 1937. Studies on the biology of the crayfish Cambarus propinquus (Girard). Illinois Biological Monographs 15:1-67.

Weagle, K.V. & G.W. Ozburn. 1972. Observations on aspects of the life history of the crayfish, Orconectes virilis (Hagen), in northwestern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 50:366-370.

Williams, A.B., L.G. Abele, D.L. Felder, H.H. Hobbs, Jr., R.B. Manning, P.A. McLaughlin & I.P. Farfante. 1989. Common And Scientific Names Of Aquatic Invertebrates From The United States And Canada: Decapod decapod (dĕk`əpŏd') (Gr.,=10 feet), name for invertebrate animals of the crustacean order Decapoda (phylum Arthropoda) including the crabs, the lobsters and crayfish, and the true shrimps, all having five pairs of legs.  Crustaceans. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Williamson, E.B. 1907. Notes on the crayfish of Wells County, Indiana Wells County is a county located in the U.S. state of Indiana. As of 2000, the population was 27,600. The county seat is Bluffton6. Geography
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 959 km² (370 mi²).
, with the description of a new species. Pp. 749-763, in Annual Report Department of Geology and Natural Resources of Indiana.
Table 1

Checklist of the crayfish and freshwater shrimp (Decapoda) of Indiana
following Hobbs (1974) including distribution, relative abundance, and
recommended conservation status. Common names follow Williams et al.
(1988), with the exception of names in brackets, which are suggested
additions based on Pflieger (1996) and Thoma & Jerezinac (2000a).
Subgenera of Orconectes follow Fitzpatrick (1987). Statewide (I), north
(N), south (S), west (W), east (E), and various combinations of these
regions. Relative abundance: R = rare; C = common; O = occasional.
Conservation status; StE = state endan-gered; FC = candidate for federal
listing; SC = candidate for special concern; NI (*) = nonindigenous, and
introduction has occurred in a portion of the species range in Indiana.


                                                  Relative
             Taxa                         Range   abundance

Order Decapoda
Family Palaemonidae (freshwater shrimp)
 Macrobrachium ohione (Smith), Ohio       S           R
  shrimp
 Palaemonetes kadiakensis Rathbun,        I           C
  Mississippi grass shrimp
Family Cambaridae (crayfish)
 Genus Procambarus
  Subgenus Girardiella
   P. gracilis (Bundy), prairie crayfish  W           O
  Subgenus Ortmannicus
   P. acutus (Girard), White River        I           O
    crayfish
  Subgenus Scapulicambarus
   P. clarkii (Girard), red swamp         NW, SW      R
    crayfish
 Genus Orconectes
  Subgenus Crockerinus
   O. propinquus (Girard), northern       I           C
    clearwater crayfish
  Subgenus Faxonius
   O. indianensis (Hay), [Indiana         SW          R
    crayfish]
  Subgenus Gremicambarus
   O. immunis (Hagen) [papershell         I           C
    crayfish]
   O. virilis (Hagen), northern crayfish  I           C
  Subgenus Orconectes
   O. inermis inermis Cope [Indiana cave  S           R
    crayfish]
   O. inermis testii Cope [Hoosier cave   S           R
    crayfish]
  Subgenus Procericambarus
   O. putnami (Faxon) [Putnam's           SE          O
    crayfish]
   O. juvenilis (Faxon) [miniature        SE          R
    crayfish]
   O. rusticus (Girard), rusty crayfish   I           C
  Subgenus Rhoadesius
   O. sloanii (Bundy) [Sloan's crayfish]  SE          R
 Genus Fallicambarus
  Subgenus Creaserinus
   F. fodiens (Cottle) [digger crayfish]  I           O
 Genus Cambarus
  Subgenus Cambarus
   C. bartoni cavatus (Fabricius) [Ohio   SE          R
    crawfish]
   C. ortmanni Williamson [Ortmann's      N           R
    mudbug]
  Subgenus Erebicambarus
   C. laevis Faxon [karst crayfish]       S           C
   C. tenebrosus Hay [cavespring          S           C
    crayfish]
  Subgenus Lacunicambarus
   C. diogenes Girard, devil crayfish     I           R
  Subgenus Tubericambarus
   C. cf diogenes new species [Painted    S           R
    hand mudbug]
  Subgenus Puncticambarus
   C. robustus Girard [bigwater           NE          O
    crayfish]
Hypothetical in occurrence in Indiana
  Subgenus Tubericambarus
   Cambarus thomai (Jezerinac) [little    SE
    brown mudbug]
  Subgenus Crockerinus
   O. stannardi Page [Little Wabash       SW
    River crayfish]

                                          Recommended
                                          conservation
             Taxa                            status

Order Decapoda
Family Palaemonidae (freshwater shrimp)
 Macrobrachium ohione (Smith), Ohio           StE
  shrimp
 Palaemonetes kadiakensis Rathbun,
  Mississippi grass shrimp
Family Cambaridae (crayfish)
 Genus Procambarus
  Subgenus Girardiella
   P. gracilis (Bundy), prairie crayfish
  Subgenus Ortmannicus
   P. acutus (Girard), White River
    crayfish
  Subgenus Scapulicambarus
   P. clarkii (Girard), red swamp             NI (*)
    crayfish
 Genus Orconectes
  Subgenus Crockerinus
   O. propinquus (Girard), northern
    clearwater crayfish
  Subgenus Faxonius
   O. indianensis (Hay), [Indiana            FC, SC
    crayfish]
  Subgenus Gremicambarus
   O. immunis (Hagen) [papershell
    crayfish]
   O. virilis (Hagen), northern crayfish
  Subgenus Orconectes
   O. inermis inermis Cope [Indiana cave      StE
    crayfish]
   O. inermis testii Cope [Hoosier cave       StE
    crayfish]
  Subgenus Procericambarus
   O. putnami (Faxon) [Putnam's
    crayfish]
   O. juvenilis (Faxon) [miniature
    crayfish]
   O. rusticus (Girard), rusty crayfish        NI (*)
  Subgenus Rhoadesius
   O. sloanii (Bundy) [Sloan's crayfish]
 Genus Fallicambarus
  Subgenus Creaserinus
   F. fodiens (Cottle) [digger crayfish]
 Genus Cambarus
  Subgenus Cambarus
   C. bartoni cavatus (Fabricius) [Ohio
    crawfish]
   C. ortmanni Williamson [Ortmann's
    mudbug]
  Subgenus Erebicambarus
   C. laevis Faxon [karst crayfish]
   C. tenebrosus Hay [cavespring
    crayfish]
  Subgenus Lacunicambarus
   C. diogenes Girard, devil crayfish
  Subgenus Tubericambarus
   C. cf diogenes new species [Painted
    hand mudbug]
  Subgenus Puncticambarus
   C. robustus Girard [bigwater
    crayfish]
Hypothetical in occurrence in Indiana
  Subgenus Tubericambarus
   Cambarus thomai (Jezerinac) [little
    brown mudbug]
  Subgenus Crockerinus
   O. stannardi Page [Little Wabash
    River crayfish]
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