Chapter 5: delivery of clean drinking water.SITUATION ANALYSIS/NEEDS ASSESSMENT
Less than 40 percent of people in Rwanda have access to safe drinking water drinking water
supply of water available to animals for drinking supplied via nipples, in troughs, dams, ponds and larger natural water sources; an insufficient supply leads to dehydration; it can be the source of infection, e.g. leptospirosis, salmonellosis, or of poisoning, e.g. (figure 5.1). Poor access to drinking water is a problem not only in rural areas but also in urban towns and cities. The total capacity production of water supply in Kigali, for instance, is about 30,000 cubic meters a day--half of what is needed.
[FIGURE 5.1 OMITTED]
Drinking water in rural areas is delivered via natural springs, water supply networks, and boreholes. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. data from 2004, of 23,000 natural springs, about 19,000 were equipped with simple infrastructures maintained by low-skilled workers. These springs served 1.9 million people. Water supply networks, mostly gravity fed and simple to maintain, with very low running costs running costs npl [of business] → gastos mpl corrientes [of car] → gastos mpl de mantenimiento
running costs npl [of business , served another 2 million people through public taps and 17,000 through private connections. Boreholes and shallow wells made subterranean water available to 18,500 people. These figures overstate the actual number of people served, however, because about 30 percent of the water supply infrastructure is dysfunctional, requiring major repairs or rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. . The population actually connected to water networks is about 2.7 million.
The water supply in Rwanda is based mainly on surface water exploitation; underground water reservoirs remain largely untapped. Lack of engineering and technical capacity is the chief reason why drilling and exploitation of underground water have not happened so far.
The aim for 2020 is to serve 11.6 million people, including 9 million through public taps fed by networks. Achieving this goal would require rehabilitating existing networks, springs, and boreholes and expanding networks. This rehabilitation and expansion work would require a major boost in the technical and managerial capacity of the water supply agencies and workers.
The sanitation sanitation: see plumbing; sanitary science. goals to be achieved by 2020 are even more ambitious. The PHAST PHAST Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation
PHAST Prototype Hard and Soft Tooling (rapid prototyping)
PHAST Practical Home Automation Systems Technology (AMX) (Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transfer) program is led by Compagnons Fontainiers du Rwanda (COFORWA COFORWA Compagnons Fontainiers Rwandais (French) ), a local nongovernmental organization nongovernmental organization (NGO)
Organization that is not part of any government. A key distinction is between not-for-profit groups and for-profit corporations; the vast majority of NGOs are not-for-profit. (NGO NGO
Noun 1. NGO - an organization that is not part of the local or state or federal government
nongovernmental organization ) involved in water management and training. The program has two components: a "soft" one, focusing on education on good hygiene, and a "hard" one, aimed at building three ecologic sanitation (ECOSAN) latrines per sector, for a total of 1,248 units. Hygiene education will focus on making the population aware of hygiene issues through a participatory approach that emphasizes, for example, appropriate methods of hand washing This article or section contains .
The purpose of Wikipedia is to present facts, not to teach subject matter. and water and sanitation hygiene. The program requires that clean water be available. The sanitation program is thus closely linked to the water coverage program.
This chapter assesses the needs of and proposes an action plan for capacity building for delivery of clean drinking water. Its recommendations must be viewed in the context of the ongoing decentralization de·cen·tral·ize
v. de·cen·tral·ized, de·cen·tral·iz·ing, de·cen·tral·iz·es
1. To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities. of the water and sanitation sector. The new law transfers management of the rural water supply to the districts. The law aims to have users pay for water, with districts outsourcing infrastructure management to the private sector. A water agency is to be created to support and supervise the 30 districts in their new task of general coordination of the management of the water and sanitation infrastructures of Rwanda's 416 sectors and 2,650 cells.
Capacity building is required at the following levels:
* workers and technicians charged with equipping springs and plumbers for maintaining pipes, valves, and taps;
* low-level managers working as fee collectors, bookkeepers, and network managers (most of these networks are small and simple; some are managed by private sector entrepreneurs, others by user associations under district supervision);
* higher-level managers working in district-level water agencies;
* national-level officers in charge of coordination and support to the districts on such issues as quality control surveys and supply of equipment.
* engineers and specialists working in central and district water agencies; and
* staff of central agencies responsible for managing water supply and regulating water quality (the national water agency, the Rwanda Bureau of Standards Bureau of Standards
since 1988 U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce responsible for the standardization of weights and measures, timekeeping, and navigation. ).
Technicians, plumbers, spring workers, and tap keepers are trained at vocational training schools. Lower-level managers attend secondary schools. District- and national-level managers, engineers, and technicians attend colleges and universities.
Meeting the Millennium Development Goals “MDG” redirects here. For other uses, see MDG (disambiguation).
The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. and the national objectives for 2020 requires major improvements in human resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees. , not only for surveying and building the new networks but most of all for managing and maintaining the installations. In the framework of the proposed program, needs will be identified for the coming five years, including training of trainers and educators required to cover the growing staff needs through 2020. Capacity building will also require significant institutional strengthening (table 5.1).
TRAINING LOCAL WATER TECHNICIANS
The new decentralization law entrusts the maintenance and management of the networks to the private sector, using legal tender procedures. However, private contractors are likely to be interested only in larger schemes with treatment and pumping stations, which can generate an appreciable ap·pre·cia·ble
Possible to estimate, measure, or perceive: appreciable changes in temperature. See Synonyms at perceptible. cash flow. Smaller and simpler networks, especially in more remote areas, will probably have to be managed by users associations on a cost-recovery basis. The average size of a network is estimated at 10 kilometers, with 10 taps and about 5,000 consumers. Association or water network managers will require training in association management to avoid the failures experienced in the past with the associative as·so·ci·a·tive
1. Of, characterized by, resulting from, or causing association.
2. Mathematics Independent of the grouping of elements. approach.
For water supply via springs, workers are needed to install, operate, and maintain the required equipment. Plumbers are needed to maintain networks, and tap keepers are needed to take care of the public taps and collect fees. Local managers are needed to supervise these workers and take charge of overall management of the infrastructure. A significant number of mechanics, treatment specialists, and other kinds of specialists will be needed (table 5.2).
Training of workers who operate spring infrastructures currently takes place at COFORWA. Established in the 1980s, this organization is based in Gitarama and technically and financially supported by a Belgian NGO under Belgian cooperation funding. Training, given to 20-30 people at a time, lasts 10 days and is given in Kinyarwanda and French; trainees receive textbooks and instruction materials. The cost of this training, which is both theoretical and practical, is about $200 per person. There is no follow-up of trainees, because of lack of means (vehicles, trainers, money) and because the clients did not request follow-up (COFORWA works on a contractual basis).
An important problem for COFORWA is that most of the trainers, particularly those for spring equipment, are senior; recruitment of young people is needed. With current facilities, COFORWA can train 70-80 trainees a month; if training could be organized at different sites, capacity could be raised to 100 trainees, which would roughly cover Rwanda's needs for the next 20 years. COFARWA would greatly benefit from new training tools, lab material, and an update of its curriculum.
Several other NGOs are potentially able to train plumbers, spring workers, accountants, managers, tap keepers, and similar workers. All of them need additional financial support and training facilities to carry out more training in rural communities, however. They also need support for preparing improved curricula, to be provided through technical assistance (see below).
TRAINING DISTRICT- AND NATIONAL-LEVEL MANAGERS
The decentralization law plans for supervision of water and sanitation at the district level by the person in charge of infrastructure. Field visits revealed that these managers often have expertise in roads or power; they are often not qualified in water supply and have even less expertise in sanitation. Managers are not aware of the number of networks or equipped springs in their districts; relevant maps or survey data are not available. Managers also lack knowledge of water quality and ways to assess it.
Management of water and sanitation in a district of about 300,000 people is a full-time job. The training needs for water and sanitation officers are thus huge. It will be necessary to upgrade knowledge of water and sanitation at the 30 district offices in charge of infrastructure, in close collaboration with the newly formed water agency. Capacity-building needs for sanitation, notably the large-scale diffusion of PHAST, include training of one trainer and three supervisors for each of the 416 sectors.
The needs for capacity building for supervision at the national level are also great. As the water agency does not yet exist, capacity will have to be built from scratch. The Rwanda Utility Regulation Agency lacks expertise in water and sanitation expertise.
No institution has the capacity to train the officers that will be in charge of the water and sanitation sector at the district and national levels. Technical assistance is proposed to specify the training needs for each district, taking account of the background of the available staff and the specific conditions of the water supply (geographic constrains, existing infrastructure and projects, scale of the networks, and so forth). Full technical assistance should be provided for the first two years before being gradually reduced. Providers of this assistance should supervise the basic training carried out by NGOs and the setting up of various activities at the national supervision level.
None of Rwanda's institutions of higher learning has a coherent curriculum in water and sanitation. Training capacity must be strengthened at three institutions of higher learning: the Kigali Institute of Science and Technology The Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST) in Kigali, Rwanda is the first technology-focused institution of higher education to be created by the Rwanda government.
It was established in November, 1997. (KIST), Rwanda's only engineering school; the National University of Rwanda (NUR n. 1. A hard knot in wood; also, a hard knob of wood used by boys in playing hockey.
I think I'm as hard as a nur, and as tough as whitleather.
- W. Howitt. ); and the Institut des Sciences Agronomiques et Environnementales (ISAE ISAE Istituto Di Studi E Analisi Economica (Italian: Institute for Economic Studies and Analyses)
ISAE Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace
ISAE International Society for Applied Ethology ).
Building Capacity at KIST
KIST should be able to cover part of the training needs identified at the district level. It has a training program for civil engineers, but the program does not cover water management and water supply. The existing curriculum in civil engineering should therefore be reinforced with lessons on water management for rural water supply. KIST could also organize special training sessions for district officers in charge of water and sanitation. KIST could train 20-30 people in a six-month course provided outside the civil engineering curriculum.
In addition to adding water management courses to the civil engineering curriculum, KIST could also help fill expertise gaps in hydrogeology hy·dro·ge·ol·o·gy
The branch of geology that deals with the occurrence, distribution, and effect of ground water.
hy . A hydrogeology curriculum should be developed in close consultation with the needs of the water supply agencies, such as Electrogaz. Regional universities in Kenya and South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. with programs in hydrogeology could act as partners in developing this module at KIST. The need to exploit underground water resources is too great for KIST to ignore.
KIST should also develop stronger links with the vocational training schools in charge of training in plumbing and water management, especially through in-service training arrangements for its staff and trainers. To strengthen the hands-on skills of staff and students, KIST could design a joint training program with Electrogaz leading to a certificate. Electrogaz has expressed interest in partnering with KIST to develop this joint training program.
Building Capacity at NUR
Rwanda urgently needs to build national capacity in water management for agriculture and natural resources management, in order both to develop agricultural land to improve food security and reduce poverty and to safeguard wetlands. Rwanda currently has very few trained people in the relevant fields, handicapping achievement of the targets of Vision 2020. This capacity should be achieved through both undergraduate and graduate training.
NUR should be responsible for capacity building in agricultural water resources development and management as well as irrigation irrigation, in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice. and drainage, including measures to control erosion, flooding in the rainy season, and the drying up of springs and rivers in the dry season. NUR intends to set up a master's degree program in water management, irrigation, and drainage. It already has staff and facilities, but both need to be upgraded or expanded. New curricula have to be prepared and new teaching staff recruited. After a set-up phase of three years, the course could produce 20 graduates a year.
Building Capacity at ISAE
ISAE has an undergraduate training program in agriculture. Currently, the rector's office is elaborating a proposal for a two-year rural engineering course with tracks in soil engineering and water engineering. Once the program is running, it should produce 20 graduates per year.
Rural engineers work at the farm level to support farmers in improving production and natural resource management. They require skills in such fields as agronomy agronomy (əgrŏn`əmē), branch of agriculture dealing with various physical and biological factors—including soil management, tillage, crop rotation, breeding, weed control, and climate—related to crop production. , livestock, land use, soil protection, water supply, and water management. To provide students with the training they need, ISAE needs to upgrade its training facilities, including its engineering workshop and laboratory for hydraulic and soil mechanics soil mechanics
Study of soils and their utilization, especially in planning foundations for structures and highways. How the soil of a given site will support the weight of structures or respond to movement in the course of construction depends on a number of properties (e.g. ; improve its campus infrastructure, including student housing; and recruit new teaching staff for courses in water management.
Table 5.1: Recommended Capacity-Building Activities in the Water and Sanitation Sector Type of support/institution Activity providing assistance Human resources Train basic workers (spring Compagnons Fontainiers du Rwanda, workers, tap keepers, plumbers, and so forth) vocational training centers Train managers of the water Vocational training centers supply networks and sectors Train district officers in Technical assistance, trainers, charge of water and sanitation high school teachers Train and upgrade officers in Technical assistance, trainers, charge of water and high sanitation school teachers Train water management experts KIST, NUR and hydrogeology experts Provide training in sanitation COFORWA (train trainers for PHAST program, train contractors for latrines, and so forth) Institutional strengthening Financial and technical support Improve efficiency of vocational for training centers (Compagnons Fontainiers du Rwanda curriculum development, staff and training, other groups) and qualification standardization Create new department for water Financial and technical support, resource international management in the faculty of and regional partnerships agronomy at NUR Establish a diploma in rural Financial and technical support, engineering (soil conservation and water regional partnerships engineering) at ISAE Reinforce civil engineering Financial and technical support, curriculum in KIST with international water and sanitation modules; and regional partnerships develop hydrogeology curriculum in KIST Provide technical assistance to Financial and technical support the Ministry of Science, Technology and Scientific Research for supervision Source: Lothe et al. 2007. Table 5.2: Projected Number of Workers Needed to Handle Basic Water Supply and Management Tasks Existing Type (estimated) 2008-11 2012-20 After 2020 Spring workers 400 1,000 1,000 120 Plumbers 200 1,200 1,200 260 Tap keepers 500 10,000 7,500 1,000 Pump keepers 100 170 230 50 Managers 50 800 800 100 Mechanics 20 40 40 10 Source: Lothe et al. 2007.