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Chapter 4: development and diffusion of appropriate technologies.



SITUATION ANALYSIS/NEEDS ASSESSMENT

This chapter summarizes the World Bank study on capacity building for the development, dissemination dissemination Medtalk The spread of a pernicious process–eg, CA, acute infection Oncology Metastasis, see there , and application of appropriate technology for poverty reduction in Rwanda. It gives special attention to two public institutions, the Centre for Innovation and Technology Transfer (CITT CITT Canadian International Trade Tribunal
CITT Citizens’ Independent Transportation Trust
CITT Canadian Institute for Theatre Technology (Canadian equivalent of USITT)
CITT Canadian Institute of Traffic and Transportation
) and the Institute for Scientific Research and Technology (IRST IRST Istituto per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica (Centre for Scientific and Technological Research, Istituto Trentino di Cultura, Trento, Italia)
IRST infrared search and track (US DoD) 
), both of which play central roles in the development and transfer of appropriate technologies in Rwanda.

The term appropriate technologies refers to technologies that are of particular interest for poverty reduction. They can include technologies that create income or improve the quality of life, especially for people in rural areas, where the vast majority of the poor live in Rwanda. The terms of reference Terms of reference allude to a mutual agreement under which a command, element, or unit exercises authority or undertakes specific missions or tasks relative to another command, element, or unit. Also called TORs.  for this project specifically cite technologies for rural energy; sanitation sanitation: see plumbing; sanitary science.  and waste management; water supply, rainwater harvesting Rainwater harvesting is the collection and storage of rain from roofs or from a surface catchment for future use. The water is generally stored in rainwater tanks or directed into mechanisms which recharge groundwater. , and storage; and agro-processing. The study team also considered low-cost building technologies, agricultural equipment, and rural transport.

Appropriate technologies--some of which are already in place in Rwanda (table 4.1)--should be affordable and financially attractive to rural clients, through individual ownership or some form of cooperative management. Such technologies are best manufactured locally; if this is not feasible because of lack of production facilities, skills, or raw material, local people should at least be able to carry out essential maintenance and repair services. For a technology to be appropriate, it should not only be affordable and financially attractive for end users; its production and marketing should also be financially attractive for local manufactures and distributors.

Various organizations, including CITT, have carried out general needs assessments for rural technologies. The conclusions of these assessments have been of limited value, however, because they reflect the specific expertise and interests of the organizations conducting the studies. Moreover, there are limitations to needs assessments, especially when the target group is unaware of the existence of solutions to specific problems and expected benefits and costs are not yet known. Only when people are fully aware of technologies and their economic or social advantages will they be able to rank them relative to other needs and wishes.

The most effective way to test a market for a technology is to offer a range of options based on agreed priorities and to monitor the response of producers, distributors, and users. (The assessment needs to recognize that uptake uptake /up·take/ (up´tak) absorption and incorporation of a substance by living tissue.

up·take
n.
 of some products is facilitated by government subsidies.)

For public programs to promote the development, production, and marketing of new technologies, priority has to be given to those that are expected to be the most relevant for economic and social development. Attention should be given to technologies that can make a significant contribution to poverty reduction, gender equality, and alleviation of environmental distress.

The private sector has a crucial role to play in developing sustainable technological solutions. Enterprises are most familiar with the potential market and the needs and purchasing capacity of potential customers.

Unfortunately, the private sector in Rwanda is still weak, particularly in rural areas, where it consists mostly of microenterprises lacking technical skills, business skills, and access to inputs and capital. In Kigali there are some medium-size enterprises that are capable of manufacturing a range of goods. Some larger workshops have adapted and manufactured coffee-processing equipment, cassava-grating machinery, and milling equipment. Some smaller workshops are producing and marketing treadle pumps for irrigation irrigation, in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice.  and hand shellers for maize maize: see corn. . However, many products imported from neighboring neigh·bor  
n.
1. One who lives near or next to another.

2. A person, place, or thing adjacent to or located near another.

3. A fellow human.

4. Used as a form of familiar address.

v.
 countries and from India or China are less expensive than those produced locally because of the high prices of raw materials, the low level of productivity, and the small scale of production. Local workshops compete with imported products only for products that have to be adapted to local requirements. Many workshops therefore concentrate on niche markets for specialized products or repair services, for which demand is immediate and profit margins much higher.

The private sector in urban areas, notably Kigali, is supported through various programs that provide assistance to companies that want to acquire new technologies. Little support is provided for the development and diffusion diffusion, in chemistry, the spontaneous migration of substances from regions where their concentration is high to regions where their concentration is low. Diffusion is important in many life processes.  of appropriate technologies in rural areas. A major obstacle to such dissemination is the lack of a government extension service.

Several organizations have a presence in the districts. They include the following:

* Business Development Centers, established by the Rwandan Private Sector Federation (RPSF RPSF Radioisotope Power Systems Facility ), are operating in four districts, to be expanded to eight by the end of 2007. These centers help local businesses prepare business plans and offer other business development services. They do not focus on technology issues.

* The Belgium Survival Fund is planning to establish six Community Innovation Centers by 2008, which will be owned by local communities, to display agricultural and rural technologies. Once this pilot phase is completed, it plans to develop these centers in each of Rwanda's 416 sectors.

* The Ministry of Science, Technology and Scientific Research plans to establish District Innovation Centers to make optimal use of local resources. No indication is given of when this program is going to start; the issue will be addressed by the National Commission on Science Technology and Innovation that is to be established within the coming years.

* CITT has established two satellite centers in rural areas to facilitate the diffusion of appropriate technologies.

In addition, most national, provincial, and district agencies have programs in rural areas, some of them related to promoting technology. For instance, the Ministry of Agriculture has introduced rice threshers and winnowers through various cooperatives, using imported models. CITT and private workshops have contributed to the program; some of the machines are now manufactured locally. Biogas bi·o·gas  
n.
A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide produced by bacterial degradation of organic matter and used as a fuel.


biogas
Noun

gaseous fuel produced by the fermentation of organic waste
 systems for households are tested and will be promoted under a pilot Ministry of Infrastructure program. Low-cost building technologies and fuel-efficient stoves for rural areas have been promoted by the Rwandan Defense Forces. The Ecole Technique Officielle Gitarama has built a few biogas systems for schools. CITT has constructed many large digesters for waste management at prisons and schools. These efforts are rather piecemeal piecemeal

patchy, e.g. necrosis of the liver in which groups of hepatocytes are separated by small groups of inflammatory cells and fine, fibrous septa following extension of the inflammatory process beyond the limiting plate.
, however, with none yet having achieved the stage at which large-scale dissemination takes place through commercially successful, and therefore sustainable, production and marketing.

In general, the private sector lacks capacity for new product development. It has limited access to information (although small and medium-size enterprises [SMEs] are now accessing the Internet); it uses relatively simple equipment and a very limited range of raw materials (including scrap metal). SMEs lack the financial resources to accept the risk of developing new technologies or adapt existing products. There is therefore a role for the public sector to support technology innovation and transfer processes.

Capacity in manufacturing simple food-processing equipment hardly exists in Rwanda because it requires the use of stainless steel stainless steel: see steel.
stainless steel

Any of a family of alloy steels usually containing 10–30% chromium. The presence of chromium, together with low carbon content, gives remarkable resistance to corrosion and heat.
 to maintain hygienic hy·gien·ic
adj.
1. Of or relating to hygiene.

2. Tending to promote or preserve health.

3. Sanitary.
 standards. The necessary raw materials are very difficult to find even in Kigali, and the prices for stainless steel sheets are many times those for comparable mild steel sheets. Special welding welding, process for joining separate pieces of metal in a continuous metallic bond. Cold-pressure welding is accomplished by the application of high pressure at room temperature; forge welding (forging) is done by means of hammering, with the addition of heat.  equipment and skills are also required. Only two workshops, one run by the Catholic Mission (Don Bosco) and one run by CITT, have access to the materials and skills to manufacture stainless steel products. This is a serious constraint for the promotion of local food-processing.

AGENCIES AND INSTITUTIONS RESPONSIBLE FOR PROMOTING APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY

CITT was created by the Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST) in 2002, with a mandate to research, develop, and transfer appropriate technologies to rural and periurban areas. It has been supported by multiyear projects funded by Department for International Development (DFID DFID Department For International Development (UK) ) (from 2003 to mid-2006) and the Dutch Nuffic-NPT program (from 2005 to the end of 2008). CELT Celt (kĕlt, sĕlt) or Kelt (kĕlt).

1 One who speaks a Celtic language or who derives ancestry from an area where a Celtic language was spoken; i.e.
 has a well-equipped metal workshop that can produce prototypes of new equipment. It also produces prototypes and simple machinery on demand. It has been very successful in installing biogas in prisons and implementing public programs to popularize pop·u·lar·ize  
tr.v. pop·u·lar·ized, pop·u·lar·iz·ing, pop·u·lar·iz·es
1. To make popular: A famous dancer popularized the new hairstyle.

2.
 fuel-efficient cook stoves. In other areas, efforts have failed to go beyond copying of prototypes of existing technologies. Dissemination to end-users and engagement of the private sector to produce and market these technologies has barely been attempted.

CITT has to seek funds from the Government of Rwanda, international donors, or other organizations for its technology development efforts. Over the past few years, its work has focused largely on implementing contracts for proven technologies, notably biogas, funded by the Government of Rwanda. Partly as a result of the success of its biogas contracts, CITT has shifted its focus from creating new technologies toward implementing proven technologies, with most of its skilled engineers involved in project implementation. This has reduced staff time for the development of new technologies and dissemination to the private sector. The lack of attention to technology development and transfer was exacerbated in 2006, when, as a result of across-the-board salary cuts at KIST (to bring salaries in line with other institutions of higher learning), many employees left CITT for better-paying jobs elsewhere, resulting in nearly 20 vacancies at the time of this study.

In technology transfer, CITT's role has been limited to training groups of artisans in the products CUT has developed, notably wood-saving cook stoves. No examples were found of SMEs having successfully taken up production and marketing of CITT-promoted technologies. A key problem appears to lie in the reluctance of CITT management and staff to contact and cooperate with the private sector in developing and transferring technology. A different approach and attitudes will be required within CITT and other relevant government organizations to engage and cooperate with the formal and informal workshops that provide products and services to Rwandan customers.

The DFID Rural Travel and Transport Program (RTTP RTTP Rural Travel and Transport Program
RTTP Real-Time Transport Protocol
RTTP Return To The Pit (radio show)
RTTP Real-Time Transaction Processing
RTTP Rotunda Technician Tool Program (automotive) 
) project included a competitive research fund of 500,000 [pounds sterling], intended to support NGOs, community-based organizations, and research and private organizations in developing and transferring rural technologies. CITT was charged with managing the fund.

The fund did not live up to expectations, for a number of reasons. First, CITT was both manager of the fund and provider of research and development (R&D) services, leading to confusion and conflict of interests. Second, the expected national contribution of 50 percent to the fund could not be realized during the project period. Third, the need for specific technical assistance and dedicated staff resources was underestimated, and no clear implementation strategy was developed in RTTP's inception stage. The fund supported only three proposals before RTTP ended in June 2006.

The Nuffic-NPT technical assistance team prepared a number of strategic documents promoting ideas for improving the effectiveness of CITT in technology development. Themes addressed included priority-setting for technologies for CITT to work on; a more participatory approach to technology development and strategies for technology transfer; and ideas for improving management, by using a project approach and adopting an appropriate management information system. The Nuffic-NPT team also suggested restructuring CITT by separating the metal workshop and commercial contracting for technology implementation from the core business of technology development and transfer and put forth ideas for facilitating income generation, staff retention, and greater financial transparency and accountability, in combination with increased autonomy for CITT so that it can increase its responsiveness to paying clients. None of these suggestions and proposals has yet been implemented to any significant extent, partly because of the preoccupation of CITT management and staff with contracted projects for technology implementation. There appears to be a need for further discussion and decision making on the part of KIST, CITT, and other relevant stakeholders Stakeholders

All parties that have an interest, financial or otherwise, in a firm-stockholders, creditors, bondholders, employees, customers, management, the community, and the government.
.

In 2005 CITT, set up, with support from the Nuffic-NPT project, two satellite centers. The goal of these centers is to disseminate dis·sem·i·nate  
v. dis·sem·i·nat·ed, dis·sem·i·nat·ing, dis·sem·i·nates

v.tr.
1. To scatter widely, as in sowing seed.

2.
 CITT technology in rural areas and to develop projects promoting the use of appropriate technologies--CITT or other--for local development. By 2010, the satellite centers will have to generate most of their own income; KIST-CITT will retain a controlling interest controlling interest

The ownership of a quantity of outstanding corporate stock sufficient to control the actions of the firm. Controlling interest often involves ownership of significantly less than 51% of a firm's outstanding stock because many owners fail
 by continuing to finance 30 percent of satellite center salaries and operational costs. Expansion of the satellite center concept to other provinces is planned if the experience is evaluated as positive and funding becomes available.

The Institute for Scientific Research and Technology (IRST) is an autonomous institute directly under the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Scientific Research. Its Centre for Applied Science Research (ARSC ARSC Arctic Region Supercomputing Center
ARSC Association for Recorded Sound Collections
ARSC Accounting and Review Services Committee
ARSC Aircraft Repair and Supply Center (USCG)
ARSC Arizona Remote Sensing Center
) has 15 professionals, who work on appropriate technologies such as biogas, solar energy, peat pyrolysis py·rol·y·sis
n.
Decomposition or transformation of a chemical compound caused by heat.


pyrolysis (pīrol´isis),
n
, and use of rice husks as fuel. The research budget for ARSC for 2007 is Rwandan francs (RF) 59 million, fully financed by the Government of Rwanda. Most of ARSC's research work is done under controlled conditions on campus, with little or no attention paid to transfer and dissemination. As a consequence, there is little evidence that the results of the research are taken up by other organizations or companies.

ARSC has plans to work on locally made fertilizers, low-cost building materials Building materials used in the construction industry to create .

These categories of materials and products are used by and construction project managers to specify the materials and methods used for .
, solar drying, micro hydropower hy·dro·pow·er  
n.
Hydroelectric power.
, software applications, wastewater management, utilization of rice husks, and the use of seeds of the moringa tree for oil extraction, water purification It has been suggested that , , and be merged into this article or section. , and human consumption and animal feed. Most of the research work seems to be driven by ideas from researchers, to be implemented in isolation, and to lack clear linkage to existing problems. IRST needs a system to evaluate proposals and ongoing research work against a clear set of priorities that should be linked to national policy guidelines.

Other institutions crucial for developing and transferring technologies are vocational training schools. Vocational training is Rwanda is not delivering the right quality and quantity of graduates with the hands-on experience needed to support industry and services. As a result, many companies have to import the required skills from neighboring countries. This is not an option for small enterprises in rural areas, which therefore lack personnel with the technical and managerial skills required to uptake new technologies.

Vocational schools can be an important source of the skilled labor needed to develop and diffuse diffuse /dif·fuse/
1. (di-fus´) not definitely limited or localized.

2. (di-fuz´) to pass through or to spread widely through a tissue or substance.


dif·fuse
adj.
 appropriate technologies. Rwanda has a serious shortage of practical skills required to develop, manufacture, and maintain technologies, including the relatively simple products that are the focus of this report. The small number of vocational schools includes nine ecoles techniques officielles (ETOs), which provide training up to A1 level. Almost all of Rwanda's technical schools are poorly staffed and equipped, because of lack of funding and the shortage of qualified teachers. Technical training is four times more expensive than general secondary school training, because of higher student-teacher ratios (officially 60 for general secondary school and 30 for ETOs) and the cost of providing practical training. The Government of Rwanda seems unable to fully fund the ETOs, which have to raise some funding from other sources to pay for materials and other operating costs operating costs nplgastos mpl operacionales . The practical training aspects suffer most from a lack of funding.

ETOs and other vocational schools could play a greater role in assisting local communities and individuals identify appropriate technology needs and possible solutions, especially when cooperating with the private sector and relevant government and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). In principle, they could provide technical expertise, use their facilities for testing and demonstrating technologies, and help local businesses start manufacturing relevant products. However, because of serious shortages of qualified instructors and financial resources, these schools have not yet provided much support in appropriate technology development and transfer.

FACTORS HAMPERING THE DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY

Several factors hamper the development and transfer of appropriate technologies, particularly in government organizations such as CITT and IRST:

* Too much attention is paid to the technical/engineering aspects of technology development and to development at the institution. Insufficient or no attention is given to testing and adapting technologies in the field with end-users, in close cooperation with the private sector actors expected to be the ultimate producers and distributors.

* Most technologists and engineers lack market knowledge and have little idea of the costs and benefits of technologies for users, manufacturers, or distributors.

* Engineers and managers involved in technology projects have the unrealistic expectation that once a prototype has been developed, extension services and the private sector will adopt the technology almost automatically.

* Engineers focus on the construction of prototypes; in many cases it is better and quicker to adapt imported products to local conditions, working with local manufacturers.

A consequence of these perceptions, especially the perception that the institute's work is done when a prototype has been produced, is that the time and resources required for developing and especially transferring new technologies are seriously underestimated. Planners should be aware that identifying, adapting, and testing new technologies are time-consuming and that there is no guarantee of success; many ideas will ultimately fail, or there will be long delays caused by trial and error. They should also recognize that clients in rural areas and local producers have limited purchasing power Purchasing Power

1. The value of a currency expressed in terms of the amount of goods or services that one unit of money can buy. Purchasing power is important because, all else being equal, inflation decreases the amount of goods or services you'd be able to purchase.

2.
, are risk averse Risk Averse

Describes an investor who, when faced with two investments with a similar expected return (but different risks), will prefer the one with the lower risk.

Notes:
A risk averse person dislikes risk.
, and have limited access to credit. Successful transfer to the private sector requires major efforts in awareness-raising for the product as well as technical and business support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services  for the SMEs involved.

RECOMMENDED STRATEGIES

The recommended strategy brings together the knowledge and capacity of key stakeholders in the early stages of the process, in order to increase chances of success in development and diffusion of new technologies. Crucial elements of the approach include the following:

* Change the attitude of technologists from knowing what is good for beneficiaries toward listening to clients--end-users and private enterprise--in order to work out different options with them.

* Engage key stakeholders as early as possible in the development and adaptation of new technologies. Technology developers should involve the private sector, which is ultimately responsible for large-scale production and marketing, from the early stages of the process, in order to obtain their perceptions of the problems and to draw on their technical expertise, experience, and knowledge of the market.

* "Mine" available knowledge and adapt existing products in the region or beyond, taking account of lessons learned in comparable situations in order to avoid the costly tendency of reinventing the wheel Reinventing the wheel is a phrase that means a generally accepted technique or solution is ignored in favor of a locally invented solution. To "reinvent the wheel" is to duplicate a basic method that has long since been accepted and even taken for granted.  and repeating mistakes.

Market forces alone are often not sufficient for the successful introduction of appropriate technologies because private actors lack resources and are unable or unwilling to take risks. Therefore the Government has a role to play in promoting and supporting technology innovation processes, especially those considered crucial for economic or social development. Overall, the Government should provide an enabling environment that encourages innovation and provides financial support where necessary. The mission suggests that the Government of Rwanda consider establishing a technology diffusion fund to provide assistance to individuals and institutions engaged in client-oriented technology development and diffusion; building capacity in public institutions such as CITT and IRST/ARSC that have a mandate in appropriate technology; and supporting training institutions in their efforts to increase capacity in teaching appropriate technologies.

The following strategic options could increase capacity for the development and transfer of appropriate technologies:

* Adopt and promote an innovation process to identify, develop, and diffuse technologies.

* Strengthen the supply of appropriate technology by providing financial support to initiatives for development of new technologies in priority areas.

* Strengthen demand for appropriate technology by raising awareness and improving access to credit for clients and intermediaries.

* Increase the capacity of key public institutions that have a mandate for appropriate technology innovation and diffusion, notably CITT and IRST.

* Improve the capacity of learning institutions providing vocational training, which is crucial for appropriate technology development, manufacture, and maintenance.

* Build innovation capacity at institutions of higher learning and vocational training institutions. This is a long-term task. Strategies for building this innovation culture are suggested below.

* Build a system of incentives that induces different actors involved in different stages of technology development and distribution to work together. This system would bring together public technology agencies, private sector technology providers, and the nongovernmental sector. A proposal for a technology diffusion fund aimed at this goal is sketched below.

BUILDING CAPACITY AT CITT

The capacity-building program at CITT should commence with the recruitment and training of seven to nine new staff from a mix of disciplines, including engineering, agriculture, marketing, and social sciences. Staff and management should be trained in acquiring and implementing financing for technology development and transfer from sources other than the core KIST budget. Such capacity building is needed both for selected CITT staff and for the staff of the satellite centers.

All staff should partake in short-term training courses that will expose them to value-chain development, participatory needs assessments, gender issues, cost-benefit analysis, "mining" of technologies through the use of the Internet and networking with appropriate technology organizations, communication and awareness-raising, technology transfer, public-private partnerships, and marketing. Not all staff have to go through all courses; the selection of participating staff should be made based on position, capacities, and interests. CITT should also invite other interested parties, notably people from NGOs and the private sector, to take part in these courses, to ensure that CITT staff do not develop their capacity in isolation but are continuously challenged by other professionals with different backgrounds and motivations. Bringing in people from outside the institution would also help build partnerships for technology innovation projects. It therefore represents a good investment in networking and cooperation as well as capacity building.

Funds could be reserved for field activities aimed at producing an overview/database of existing technologies and actors in Rwanda, as well as for updating the inventory of technology needs, in line with both end-users' priorities and national development needs. Two new satellite centers could be established in the southern and western provinces. Funds would be required to attract and train staff, provide office and transport facilities, and allocate a small operating budget Noun 1. operating budget - a budget for current expenses as distinct from financial transactions or permanent improvements
budget items, operating cost, operating expense, overhead - the expense of maintaining property (e.g.
 for the start-up period. Financial support would be gradually reduced over a three-to-five-year period, as the satellite centers become largely self-financing.

Jointly with staff from IRST and other relevant institutions, CITT staff could also participate in study tours to appropriate technology centers in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, as well as, if justified, Ghana, Nigeria, and South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. . These trips would focus on lessons learned from specific technologies, including not only their development but especially their transfer and larger-scale dissemination to the private sector. Staff participating in the study tours would assess the possibility for replication in Rwanda. These exchange visits should lead to professional contacts and collaborative work in the future.

Capacity building is also required to produce a database of lessons learned with specific technologies in Rwanda and technology options and lessons learned elsewhere, in settings comparable to Rwanda. Skills would be developed in defining priority areas for technology development and transfer, in line with the needs of the population and local, regional, and national policies.

Special attention in capacity building would be given to renewable energy Renewable energy utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. Renewable energy technologies range from solar power, wind power, and hydroelectricity to biomass and biofuels for transportation. , notably for promoting micro- and pico-hydropower. A number of small (100-400 kW capacity) hydropower plants are currently being developed; more may follow. At numerous sites in Rwanda with lower hydrogenerating potential, pico-hydropower (5-10 kW) could be installed, for use by individual households and small enterprises. It is therefore suggested that CITT determine the requirements for graduates specializing in micro- and pico-hydropower, including both technical requirements (civil engineering for dams and head works, mechanical and electrical engineering for turbines and generators) and management, economic, and marketing requirements.

The Nuffic-NPT project has ample budget for training CITT staff for the remainder of 2007 and 2008, with a possible extension into 2009. The bottleneck in capacity building so far has been lack of time of staff, because of the priority given to carrying out commercial contracts for implementing already developed technologies, such as biogas.

BUILDING CAPACITY AT IRST

Though technology transfer is part of IRST's mandate, the institute has focused almost exclusively on research. (1) IRST should revise its strategic plan to arrive at a consensus on what its research priorities are and how it can integrate the transfer of knowledge and technologies into its core business. IRST research managers then need to work out new targets with IRST research centers. Some of these activities will still be carried out with core funding from the Government; others could be supported by organizations that have a direct interest in the application of science and technology for wealth creation or the improvement of social conditions.

The focus of the Applied Sciences Research Centre (ASRC ASRC Arctic Slope Regional Corporation
ASRC Asynchronous Sample Rate Converter
ASRC Advanced Simulated Radar Client
ASRC American Studies Research Centre
ASRC Alabama Society for Respiratory Care
ASRC Arkansas Society for Respiratory Care
) is to promote the practical application of knowledge produced by IRST. To do so, ASRC works closely with potential users of the results of IRST and other research and engages in collaborative projects with other stakeholders. ASRC has some interesting proposals on peat processing and rice-husk bracketing, for example; it should look for private sector partners to develop these ideas into viable options for commercial exploitation. It also has expert knowledge on the use of moringa for oil production, food security, and drinking water drinking water

supply of water available to animals for drinking supplied via nipples, in troughs, dams, ponds and larger natural water sources; an insufficient supply leads to dehydration; it can be the source of infection, e.g. leptospirosis, salmonellosis, or of poisoning, e.g.
 applications.

IRST staff, especially ASRC staff, need capacity building in technology transfer, communication, and partnering with the private sector, NGOs, community-based organizations, and other end-users. Selected staff require capacity building in project acquisition and management, to enable them to attract new sources of funding. They need guidance in proposal preparation and writing, identification of funding options, and monitoring of activities and outputs to keep clients adequately informed of results. Mastering these skills is very important, because future funding for IRST activities is expected to come directly from projects commissioned by specific ministries rather than from core funding by the Ministry of Science, Technology, and Scientific Research as it does today.

BUILDING CAPACITY AT VOCATIONAL TRAINING CENTERS

Production and dissemination of appropriate technologies requires adequately trained craftspeople crafts·people  
pl.n.
People who practice a craft; artisans.
 and artisans, such as metal-workers and manufacturers of spare parts Spare parts, also referred to as Service Parts is a term used to indicate extra parts available and in proximity to the mechanical item, such as a automobile, boat, engine, for which they might be used.

Spare parts are also called “spares.
. Rwanda's vocational schools are falling short in turning out graduates with the required practical skills. (2)

The new technical training institute Ecole Technique Oficielle (ETO ETO
abbr.
European theater of operations
) Tumba is developing a special course on alternative energy. This course deals with solar, micro-hydropower, wind power, and biogas for rural households. It does not cover appropriate technologies in other fields, such as water harvesting, agricultural mechanization mechanization

Use of machines, either wholly or in part, to replace human or animal labour. Unlike automation, which may not depend at all on a human operator, mechanization requires human participation to provide information or instruction.
, postharvest technology, and food-processing. It is therefore suggested that Tumba and other ETOs cooperate with the main Rwandan provider of tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-stage, third level education, or higher education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium.  in agriculture, the Institut Superieure d'Agriculture et d'Elevation (ISAE ISAE Istituto Di Studi E Analisi Economica (Italian: Institute for Economic Studies and Analyses)
ISAE Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace
ISAE International Society for Applied Ethology
), in designing and setting up courses in appropriate agricultural technologies. Courses could be developed in agricultural equipment and food-processing, including milk processing, as well as in irrigation/water harvesting, rural transport, and possibly low-cost building methods. The cost of developing new courses is estimated at $25,000 per course, which includes the cost of hiring national and international experts to pull the required materials together. The curriculum outline could be used by various institutes for courses on appropriate technology. Significant teacher training, including practical training, would be required for ETO staff to implement the courses successfully.

Most learning institutions in Rwanda lack proper practical training facilities. Investments are needed in this crucial area to ensure that students acquire the necessary practical skills. Laboratory services could be made available to clients willing to pay for them. However, before the Government makes large investments in specialized laboratory specialized laboratory A type of reference lab dedicated to a particular type of 'esoteric' testing–eg, allergy, coagulation, drugs–especially drugs of abuse, endocrinology, genetics, paternity, virology, etc. Cf Reference laboratory.  equipment, an inventory should be made of the specialized equipment already available at the country's different institutions. This information could be made available in an up-to-date database and placed on the Internet, to be combined with instructions for clients interested in using specific services. In this way, a task division among relevant organizations and laboratories could be achieved. For vocational training in more advanced areas, possibilities for cooperation within the East African Adj. 1. East African - of or relating to or located in East Africa  region could also be explored.

ESTABLISHING A TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FUND

A technology development fund (TDF (language) TDF - An intermediate language, a close relative of ANDF. A TDF program is an ASCII stream describing an abstract syntax tree.

TDF became part of TenDRA in abut 2001.
) based on a competitive selection process could finance joint initiatives of public and private sector organizations and individuals for the development and diffusion of appropriate technologies. Resources would also be available to public institutions, such as CITT and IRST. The idea is to induce public agencies to focus on diffusion, not just development, and to work with SMEs and civil society, not just in isolated labs and workshops. The project has six outputs:

* an institutional framework;

* operational procedures The detailed methods by which headquarters and units carry out their operational tasks.  and a manual for management, including guidelines for proposals, financing, reporting, monitoring, and impact assessments;

* a professional and adequately trained and equipped management team;

* disbursement DISBURSEMENT. Literally, to take money out of a purse. Figuratively, to pay out money; to expend money; and sometimes it signifies to advance money.
     2.
 of funds to approved projects working on innovation and diffusion of appropriate technologies;

* a credit guarantee mechanism supporting banks and multilateral financial institutions to develop credit lines for new technologies; and

* independent project evaluation and impact assessments to support decision making on the future of the TDF.

The institutional embedding 1. (mathematics) embedding - One instance of some mathematical object contained with in another instance, e.g. a group which is a subgroup.
2. (theory) embedding - (domain theory) A complete partial order F in [X -> Y] is an embedding if
 of the TDF has to be determined before further steps can be taken to set it up and commence implementation. This debate needs to be held at the required ministerial and political levels. Ideally, funding and implementation functions should be structurally separated to avoid conflicts of interest.

One option would be to locate the TDF within the Ministry of Science, Technology and Scientific Research. The ministry currently has very limited direct implementation capacity because of its lack of staff. However, within its policy framework are provisions for the creation of a National Research Council and the establishment of a National Research Fund. It is expected to take two to three years to secure the necessary cabinet and parliamentary approval before the council and fund will be operational. The TDF could be started much earlier and used to build up useful experience with competitive funding mechanisms. Subsequently, the TFD TFD Thin Film Diode
TFD The Flying Dutchman
TFD The Forests Dialogue
TFD TheFreeDictionary.com (reference website)
TFD Task Force Dagger (gaming)
TFD Toothpaste for Dinner
 could merge into the planned National Research Fund. Even if the TDF is located within the ministry, however, actual management of the fund should be subcontracted sub·con·tract  
n.
A contract that assigns some of the obligations of a prior contract to another party.

intr. & tr.v. sub·con·tract·ed, sub·con·tract·ing, sub·con·tracts
 to an independent institution with the required capacity and interest, such as a professional consultancy bureau or the RPSF.

Another option is to allow the RPSF to operate the TDF directly. RPSF represents all areas of the Rwandan private sector through its specialized chambers. On behalf of the World Bank and other development partners, the RPSF is already managing the business plan competition, which supports young entrepreneurs developing business plans by providing start-up grants and technical assistance. RPSF therefore has experience in managing competitive funding mechanisms. It is also being considered by DFID's Research into Use program as a possible implementing agency for a competitive fund to support the transfer of technologies for natural resources management.

The TDF is expected to fund small innovative projects to develop and diffuse technologies for rural and periurban areas in areas such as rural energy, water and sanitation, agricultural equipment, rural transport, small equipment for food-processing, and low-cost housing. Projects will closely involve partners in the field, such as local authorities, SMEs, distributors, and NGOs. They should contribute to poverty reduction through wealth creation, job creation, or both. A significant percentage of projects should focus on the needs of women. It is expected that the average costs of a project would be $25,000 (excluding contributions made by partners) and that 50 projects would be implemented over a three-year period, bringing the total sum to be disbursed to $1.25 million. Large projects could be implemented in phases over several years.

The TDF should be client oriented, with a professional and lean management structure that is responsive to the needs of all stakeholders and the power and ability to make implementation decisions without drawnout decision-making processes. With the assistance of external experts, management would prepare implementation guidelines, contract formats, and disbursement and replenishment replenishment

the addition of an appropriate quantity of properly prepared solution containing the correct concentration of chemicals to the developer solutions used in radiography.
 procedures and create awareness and interest among potential partners. It would also provide coaching on problem identification and preparation of project proposals and be responsible for progress monitoring and reporting on field activities carried out under contracts. The costs for managing the TDF, including technical assistance to build the necessary management capacity, are estimated at $900,000 for three years. With a credit fund of $350,000 and 5 percent contingencies, the total budget for the proposed TDF is about $2.2 million.

NOTES

(1.) In 2006, IRST started a program for building substations in different areas of the country, starting with six locations in 2007.

(2.) The forthcoming World Bank-supported mission on technical and vocational education and training (TVET TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training ) is expected to produce insights on existing capacity and possible courses of action. Capacity building for TVET--of teaching staff as well as students--is therefore not addressed in this report.
Table 4.1: Status of Appropriate Technologies in Rwanda

Type of technology                  Status

Rural energy
 Biogas for institutions            Ongoing and spreading
 Biogas for households              Pilot program of 163 units,
                                       started in 2007
 Micro-hydropower                   Six installations in preparation,
                                       more possible in future
 Biofuel                            No national program or policy
 Wind                               No national program or policy
 Peat                               Large stocks but limited
                                       exploitation
 Efficient stoves for urban areas   National program ongoing
 Efficient stoves for rural areas   Some programs ongoing
 Rice/coffee husks for briquette    Limited programs
   production
 Photovoltaic systems               Technology available but market
                                       slow
 Solar water heating                Technology available but market
                                       slow
Water and sanitation
 Roof water harvesting              Scale limited
 Boreholes                          Few and expensive
 Hand pumps                         Imported from region or India
 VIP and Ecosan latrines            Technology available but uptake
                                       limited
Agricultural technologies and
   transport
 Irrigation through treadle and     Uptake limited
   motorized
   pumps
 Drip irrigation                    Starting
 Animal traction for tillage and    Promoted in certain areas
   transport
 Small tractors for rice puddling   Few units imported
   and
   transport
 Rice threshing/winnowing           Few machines available or locally
                                       produced
 Rice hulling                       Opportunities for small-scale
                                       processing
 Maize milling                      Machines imported and locally made
 Oil presses for sunflower, soya,   Starting
   essential oils
 Livestock spraying                 Locally made machines available
Low-cost building
 Rice/coffee husks and peat for     Some use
   briquette
   burning
 Hand-operated brick press          Locally made and imported machines
   machines                         available
 Engine-operated brick press        Imported machines available
   machines

Source: Hendriksen et al. 2007.
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Title Annotation:Building Science, Technology, and Innovation Capacity in Rwanda: DEVELOPING PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS TO PRACTICAL PROBLEMS
Publication:Building Science, Technology and Innovation Capacity in Rwanda
Date:Jan 1, 2008
Words:5541
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