Censorship by Queensland public librarians: philosophy and practice.Public librarians have long held to the social justice philosophy of free access to information for all people. The issue of censorship censorship, official prohibition or restriction of any type of expression believed to threaten the political, social, or moral order. It may be imposed by governmental authority, local or national, by a religious body, or occasionally by a powerful private group. relates to the professional principles oft oft
Often. Often used in combination: his oft-expressed philosophy; oft-repeated tales.
[Middle English, from Old English; see upo in Indo-European roots. he Australian Library and Information Association The Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) is a professional organisation for the Australian library and information services sector. Based in Canberra, its membership is open to individuals and organisations, the only membership requirement is an interest in the and to the role public librarians play in nurturing social capital in communities. This paper considers the philosophy of free access to information in the context of contemporary item selection and classification processes within public libraries. A survey of Queensland public librarians identified attitudes towards, the public right to information, and determined the degree to which censorship is practised practised
expert or skilled because of long experience in a skill or field: the doctor answered with a practised smoothness
Adj. 1. or prevented in public libraries. The findings support those of international research that anticensorship attitudes are not always indicative of censorship behaviours, and that some librarians employ self censorship of materials to avoid censorship challenges. Edited version of a paper presented at the 2004 Alia biennial biennial, plant requiring two years to complete its life cycle, as distinguished from an annual or a perennial. In the first year a biennial usually produces a rosette of leaves (e.g., the cabbage) and a fleshy root, which acts as a food reserve over the winter. conference Gold Coast Queensland under the title 'Zero censorship! Who are we kidding? An exploratory analysis of the opinions and experiences of Queensland based public librarians with regard to the censorship of materials in public library collections'
In September 1964 the then Library Association of Australia published its Statement of principles on freedom to read. The catalyst for the development and endorsement of such a policy was the presidential address to the Association by W G K Duncan in 1961. He asserted
... a librarian is not only entitled, but is duty bound, to disagree both from the government of the day and from a majority in the community whenever this disagreement flows from his vocation ... to promote and foster the free flow of information and ideas throughout his community (1)
In 2001, the Australian Library and Information Association (Alia) released its Statement on freedom to read as one of its three seminal seminal /sem·i·nal/ (sem´i-n'l) pertaining to semen or to a seed.
Of, relating to, containing, or conveying semen or seed. statements. (2) The most recent incarnation incarnation, the assumption of human form by a god, an idea common in religion. In early times the idea was expressed in the belief that certain living men, often kings or priests, were divine incarnations. of this philosophy, the Statement on free access to information, was also adopted in 2001. The pursuit of this philosophy within public libraries requires an inclusive and dedicated approach by all library professionals, particularly with regard to controversial or nonmainstream materials.
Little research has been conducted, however, on the attitudes and practices of Australian public librarians towards the inclusion of such materials in their collections. This lack of research was addressed by a survey of the attitudes and behaviours of Queensland public librarians about censorship of library collections. Internet censorship Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. The legal issues are similar to offline censorship.
One difference is that national borders are more permeable online: residents of a country that bans certain in libraries was not researched, due to its unique issues.
Free access to information
The issue of free access to information has been known under a variety of terms throughout the history of libraries. 'Intellectual freedom' and 'freedom to read' occur frequently in the literature. In this paper they are used interchangeably INTERCHANGEABLY. Formerly when deeds of land were made, where there Were covenants to be performed on both sides, it was usual to make two deeds exactly similar to each other, and to exchange them; in the attesting clause, the words, In witness whereof the parties have hereunto with the more recent term 'free access to information'. The following indicates the definition used.
The Alia Statement on free access to information (3) is based on the principle that
Freedom can be protected in a democratic society only if its citizens have unrestricted access to information and ideas.
The statement explicitly outlines seven responsibilities of libraries
1 Asserting the equal and equitable rights of citizens to information regardless of age, race, gender, religion, disability, cultural identity, language, socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. , lifestyle choice, political allegiance allegiance, in political terms, the tie that binds an individual to another individual or institution. The term usually refers to a person's legal obligation of obedience to a government in return for the protection of that government, although it may have reference or social viewpoint
2 Adopting an inclusive approach in developing and implementing policies regarding access to information and ideas that are relevant to the library and information service concerned, irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.
preposition despite the controversial nature of the information or ideas
3 Ensuring that their clients have access to information from a variety of sources and agencies to meet their needs and that a citizen's information needs are met independently of location and an ability to pay
4 Catering for interest in contemporary issues without promoting or suppressing particular beliefs and ideas
5 Protecting the confidential relationships that exist between the library and information service and its clients
6 Resisting attempts by individuals or groups within their communities to restrict access to information and ideas while at the same time recognising that powers of censorship are legally vested in state and federal governments
7 Observing laws and regulations governing access to information and ideas but working towards the amendment of those laws and regulations which inhibit inhibit /in·hib·it/ (in-hib´it) to retard, arrest, or restrain.
1. To hold back; restrain.
2. library and information services See Information Systems. in meeting the obligations and responsibilities outlined in this statement.
This paper focuses on those aspects which deal with the provision of information on a variety of topics from diverse information sources and perspectives, regardless of the controversial nature of such information; and with resisting attempts from individuals or agencies, including governments, to restrict intellectual freedom. The aspects of free access to information which deal specifically with the nature of the library/user relationship (points 1 and 5 above) are thus not covered not covered Health care adjective Referring to a procedure, test or other health service to which a policy holder or insurance beneficiary is not entitled under the terms of the policy or payment system–eg, Medicare. Cf Covered. .
Consideration of the principle of free access to information necessarily involves a discussion of the inverse (mathematics) inverse - Given a function, f : D -> C, a function g : C -> D is called a left inverse for f if for all d in D, g (f d) = d and a right inverse if, for all c in C, f (g c) = c and an inverse if both conditions hold. , information suppression, also described as censorship. Whilst definitions of these terms are many within the library literature, throughout this paper these terms will be used interchangeably, to indicate any act which intentionally in·ten·tion·al
1. Done deliberately; intended: an intentional slight. See Synonyms at voluntary.
2. Having to do with intention. reduces free access to information.
Controversial topics are defined as subject matter which is likely to initiate impassioned debate within the Australian community. Examples could include homosexuality, fundamentalist religion, extreme political views, pornography and racism. Nonmainstream topics are defined as subject matter which differs from the opinions presented to the broad Australian community by the mass media. Opinion is defined as a thought or belief about something or someone. (4) Affect (verb) is defined as 'to cause a behavioural change'.
The library literature contains a wide variety of contexts and approaches to the issue of free access to information in public libraries. This review of that literature specifically addresses threats to the free accessibility of controversial materials. Two potential threats are discussed
* the impact of the opinions of public librarians
* the impact of specific library processes with regard to controversial materials
The impact of the opinions of librarians
The distinction between selection and censorship was famously fa·mous·ly
1. In a way or to an extent that is well known: "his famously neurotic mannerisms [are] lampooned in the novels of Evelyn Waugh" described by Asheim as 'the selector (programming) selector - 1. In Smalltalk or Objective C, the syntax of a message which selects a particular method in the target object.
2. An operation that returns the state of an object but does not alter that state. primarily seeks reasons to include an item, whilst the censor censor (sĕn`sər), title of two magistrates of ancient Rome (from c.443 B.C. to the time of Domitian). They took the census (by which they assessed taxation, voting, and military service) and supervised public behavior. primarily seeks reasons not to include an item'. (5) A key finding of Fiske's seminal work A seminal work is a work from which other works grow. The term usually refers to an intellectual or artistic achievement whose ideas and techniques have been adopted or responded to in later works by other people, either in the same field or in the general culture. , Book selection and censorship, was that the Californian librarians interviewed were in fact the individuals most likely to censor their collections. (6) Much of this censorship pertained to controversial materials, with two thirds of her respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. admitting to censoring censoring
in epidemiology, a loss of information from a study, whether by subjects dropping out of the study or because of infrequent measurement. materials due to controversy, and one fifth habitually HABITUALLY. Customarily, by habit. or frequent use or practice, or so frequently, as to show a design of repeating the same act. 2 N. S. 622: 1 Mart. Lo. R. 149.
2. avoiding the purchase of items they believed to be potentially controversial. (7)
It is likely that some librarians suppress To stop something or someone; to prevent, prohibit, or subdue.
To suppress evidence is to keep it from being admitted at trial by showing either that it was illegally obtained or that it is irrelevant. controversial materials without considering their actions to be censorship. Subjective measures such as 'literary quality' can easily be employed to justify exclusion of materials, as can claims such as 'lack of funds' or 'no demand'. Evans notes that these may be true, or they may be ways of rationalising the exclusion of materials which may prove troublesome. (8) Fiske's research found that of the librarians who expressed strong freedom to read convictions, 40 per cent took controversiality into account during book selection, but sought other reasons, such as a lack of literary quality, to justify their decision to avoid controversial items. (9)
From the literature, there are three main reasons for librarians to view materials as controversial
* the content of the material may conflict with the librarian's personal values
* it may violate perceived community standards Community standards are local norms bounding acceptable conduct. Sometimes these standards can itemized in a list that states the community's values and sets guidelines for participation in the community.
* it may be controversial as a result of the sociopolitical so·ci·o·po·li·ti·cal
Involving both social and political factors.
of or involving political and social factors environment of the time
Conflicts with personal values
Malley notes that the conflict between personal convictions and professional practice is the most important factor in the issue of censorship by librarians. (10) It is clear from the Alia Statement on free access to information that the role of the librarian is to take an inclusive, anticensorship approach to their professional tasks. This is likely to create situations where a librarian's professional role is in conflict with personal values. Schweinsburg notes, however, that individuals must be conscious of their personal values and prejudices in order to minimise their influence on professional roles. (11) Curry's research into the experiences of public library directors in the UK and Canada revealed that just over 50 per cent of respondents had taken professional action contrary to their personal moral beliefs. (12) However not all library professionals are this committed to intellectual freedom, or this conscious of their prejudices. Research in the US by Robotham and Shields revealed situations in which personal beliefs were allowed to influence professional behaviours. For example, one librarian refused a user's request for material on homosexuality homosexuality, a term created by 19th cent. theorists to describe a sexual and emotional interest in members of one's own sex. Today a person is often said to have a homosexual or a heterosexual orientation, a description intended to defuse some of the long-standing . She did not wish to be responsible for the person becoming homosexual. (13)
Research by Fiske (14) and Busha (15) identified that librarians frequently censored cen·sor
1. A person authorized to examine books, films, or other material and to remove or suppress what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable.
2. materials in order to avoid complaints from external parties, such as community pressure groups. Evans notes that even librarians who are consciously committed to the principles of intellectual freedom may, in fact, censor subconsciously sub·con·scious
Not wholly conscious; partially or imperfectly conscious: subconscious perceptions.
The part of the mind below the level of conscious perception. Often used with the. or even consciously when potential personal threats are perceived, such as conflict in the workplace or community. (16) The community standards rationale is one commonly advocated by conservative pressure groups. Lee suggests that the aim of community standards appears to be to reduce the library collection exclusively to items which could not possibly offend anyone. (17) Readers may be familiar with high profile cases of such pressure on public libraries in the US. However this issue is also known in Australia. Groups such as the Christian Democratic Party This is a list of Christian Democratic parties, i.e. political parties that are part of the Christian Democratic movement and advocate policies based on the principles of Christian Democracy. have publicly stated a desire to censor library collections. (18)
Curry's 1990/91 research revealed that 67 per cent of UK and 37 per cent of Canadian library directors agreed that community standards should be upheld by librarians. (19) Interestingly, 1974 research in Ontario by Claire England indicated only 13 per cent of respondents then agreed with that statement. (20) This could indicate that, as with other aspects of the censorship debate, the influence of community standards will be different at different points in history. However, Robotham and Shields note that 'in any community, there are many publics', and stress that public library collections must aim to satisfy the needs and wants of the various minorities. (21) This highlights the fundamental problem with the community standards approach. It rarely incorporates the standards of all the communities within society. This has led Parkinson to describe the community standards justification for censorship as 'dangerous'. (22)
The social and political environments in which libraries operate create another set of pressures which threaten free access to information. Wiegand's study of library acquisitions records in five small US communities during world war one revealed that once the US entered the war in April 1917, a pronounced bias entered the acquisitions process, eliminating all materials expressing pacifist or proGerman perspectives on the war. (23) The Cold War had a similar influence. Mediavilla (24) describes the extreme fear levels generated within the US public library community of the 1940s and 1950s by first the Tenney and then the McCarthy Committee into unAmerican activities. Although conducted in 1959, five years after Senator McCarthy had been generally discredited dis·cred·it
tr.v. dis·cred·it·ed, dis·cred·it·ing, dis·cred·its
1. To damage in reputation; disgrace.
2. To cause to be doubted or distrusted.
3. To refuse to believe.
n. , interviews for Fiske's research into book selection and censorship were permeated by 'an atmosphere of caution' (25) and participants stated they were still fearful of including materials on communism in their collections. (26) West reported in 1983 that the incidence of censorship in the US increased by 400 per cent during the first term of conservative Republican Reagan's period in the White House. (27)
We may well be on the brink of another period of such cautiousness and the 'chilling' of freedoms. It has become a truism that for people of the West, the world is a very different place after the World Trade Center attacks of 11 September 2001. Pike pike, in zoology
pike, common name for the family Esocidae, freshwater game and food fishes of Europe, Asia, and North America. The pike, the muskellunge, and the pickerel form a small but well-known group of long, thin fishes with spineless dorsal fins, (28) considers the resultant This article is about the resultant of polynomials. For the result of adding two or more vectors, see Parallelogram rule. For the technique in organ building, see Resultant (organ).
In mathematics, the resultant of two monic polynomials change in US government and public attitudes towards national security and civil liberties mimics similar changes during the two world wars and the Cold War. Dawson has raised concerns that this change in the sociopolitical environment may have negative effects on many aspects of library work, including the support of intellectual freedom and the unbiased acquisition and cataloguing of library materials. (29) Doyle notes that the war on terrorism Terrorist acts and the threat of Terrorism have occupied the various law enforcement agencies in the U.S. government for many years. The Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, as amended by the usa patriot act has already led to calls in the US for tighter controls on intellectual expression and information exchange (30) and cites specific examples, such as the US government ordering the destruction of all copies of the US Geological Survey The term geological survey can be used to describe both the conduct of a survey for geological purposes and an institution holding geological information.
A geological survey held by 335 academic libraries. (31)
In addition to this, the White House is occupied again by a very conservative Republican administration which initiated the USAPATRIOT USAPATRIOT Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (US legislation) Act 2001 (an acronym acronym: see abbreviation.
A word typically made up of the first letters of two or more words; for example, BASIC stands for "Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept intercept
in mathematical terms the points at which a curve cuts the two axes of a graph. and Obstruct ob·struct
To block or close a body passage so as to hinder or interrupt a flow.
ob·structive adj. Terrorism) within weeks of 11 September 2001. Many writers have raised concerns about the impact of this Act on library processes. (32,33,34) For example, it allows the Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), division of the U.S. Dept. of Justice charged with investigating all violations of federal laws except those assigned to some other federal agency. (FBI) to obtain previously confidential library user records for surveillance purposes. The results of an anonymous survey of librarians by Sanders San´ders
n. 1. An old name of sandalwood, now applied only to the red sandalwood. See under Sandalwood. led him to state that '[m]any libraries and booksellers now fear that patrons have begun to self censor their library use ... due to fears of government surveillance'. (35) Closer to home, at the time of writing, the Australian parliament is considering the Anti-terrorism Bill 2004, which includes a provision to make it unlawful for people to profit financially from books or memoirs mem·oir
1. An account of the personal experiences of an author.
2. An autobiography. Often used in the plural.
3. A biography or biographical sketch.
4. written about their experiences of training with terrorist organisations. (36) Concerns have already been raised by civil libertarians civil libertarian
One who is actively concerned with the protection of the fundamental rights guaranteed to the individual by law: "Civil libertarians tend to assume such tests must be an illegal invasion of privacy" , legal experts and the families of terrorism victims that such legislation may well be the thin edge of the wedge of the threat to intellectual freedoms in Australia. (37)
The impact of library processes
Fiske identified two stages within library processing at which free access to controversial materials for public library patrons may be threatened--selection, and circulation. (38)
Selection processes: review journals
Lee (39) notes that in the US many, if not most, librarians rely on industry review journals to identify new books for acquisition, a trend which is likely to be true in Australia also. It is important, therefore, to consider the degree of inclusiveness and independence of these publications. Lee has raised concerns that review journals may well be biased towards those publishers that contribute most significantly to the advertising income of the journal. If this is so, works of a radical or alternative nature, such as publications of the radical left, or zines, published by individuals or small companies without large promotion budgets, are likely to be overlooked by such review journals. (40, 41)
Selection processes: acquisitions outsourcing (1) Contracting with outside consultants, software houses or service bureaus to perform systems analysis, programming and datacenter operations. Contrast with insourcing. See netsourcing, ASP, SSP and facilities management.
Another relatively recent acquisitions trend among larger Australian public libraries is outsourcing to vendors. Whilst varying degrees of acquisitions outsourcing are possible, the most extreme employ vendors to undertake material selection. In such an arrangement a vendor retains preference lists or profiles (for example, of preferred subjects, genres or authors) for each of its client libraries. Based on the preferences indicated by the library, the vendor selects specific library materials. Outsourcing is generally justified as a means of cost cutting in the fiscally constrained con·strain
tr.v. con·strained, con·strain·ing, con·strains
1. To compel by physical, moral, or circumstantial force; oblige: felt constrained to object. See Synonyms at force.
2. public library environment. However a number of writers have raised concerns about the impact outsourcing may have on library collections. Litwin believes 'we've outsourced materials selection and other functions to corporations who don't know Don't know (DK, DKed)
"Don't know the trade." A Street expression used whenever one party lacks knowledge of a trade or receives conflicting instructions from the other party. our patrons'. (42) This is supported by Hadley's belief that vendor selection of materials has changed the collection in her library. (43) Wallace notes that outsourcing is seen in a positive light by those for whom circulation is a measure of library success, but points out that there is more to a public library than circulation statistics. (44) This can be seen clearly in the Alia Statement on free access to information, which charges public libraries with 'ensuring that their clients have access to information from a variety of sources and agencies to meet their needs ...'
Selection processes: alternative literature Robotham and Shields stress the value of small press materials in providing a variety of viewpoints, topics and literary styles within the public library collection. (45) Cassell, quoted in Wallace, (46) questions whether outsourcing can ensure such a broad range of information sources, or whether library collections will be diminished by a lack of small press materials, which are not as easily acquired as those produced by large publishers. Willett (47) notes that, at best, vendors are slow to pick up small press titles, and alternative press titles are unlikely to be selected at all. Duncan Turner of James Askew a·skew
adv. & adj.
To one side; awry: rugs lying askew.
[Probably a-2 + skew. & Son, a major British library British Library, national library of Great Britain, located in London. Long a part of the British Museum, the library collection originated in 1753 when the government purchased the Harleian Library, the library of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, and groups of manuscripts. supplier, is quoted as saying the exclusion of alternative literature from its catalogue represents only 'a few titles by obscure experimental publishers'. (48) If this comment is at all representative of vendor opinions, the implication is that libraries are unlikely to receive alternative literature from their standard acquisitions vendor. Lee makes the important point that 'for a vendor, owned and controlled by a larger corporation, the ideals of librarianship are irrelevant'. (49) Vendors are not librarians, and are not required to uphold up·hold
tr.v. up·held , up·hold·ing, up·holds
1. To hold aloft; raise: upheld the banner proudly.
2. To prevent from falling or sinking; support.
3. the ethics ethics, in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed for themselves or as the body of obligations and duties that a and professional standards of librarians.
Selection processes: interlibrary in·ter·li·brar·y
Existing or occurring between or involving two or more libraries: an interlibrary loan; an interlibrary network. loan
Respondents to Woods and Perry-Holmes' 1982 survey of US public libraries frequently cited that the availability of items on interlibrary loan (ILL) was a valid reason not to order a controversial item. (50) There are several problems with this approach. First, the very nature of controversial items may be such that individuals experience discomfort or embarrassment in approaching the librarian to request such an item. To combat this, anonymous alternatives to identifying and ordering ILL materials would be essential, such as an internet based system.
A related issue is that the ILL approach precludes library users from identifying materials simply by browsing See browse. the library shelves. This is of particular concern in the case of alternative materials, where the subject matter may be so new or unusual that only by browsing would users become aware of it at all. If the item is not available inhouse, such browsing is not possible.
Circulation processes: physical access
Preventing physical access to controversial items has been identified by a number of researchers as a common method of censoring library materials. Examples of such activities include placing potentially controversial materials on closed reserve or in the library manager's office or, in cases where a complaint has been made against the item, reclassifying it to a different area of the library, relocating it to another library branch, or removing the item permanently.
Circulation processes: labelling
Labelling refers to the practice of attaching a warning or rating label to an item. Labelling is considered to create bias as the librarian is effectively trying to make up the reader's mind about the work before they even open it. Ninety per cent of Canadian and 70 per cent of UK library directors in Curry's research disagreed with labelling of library materials, (51) figures which replicate rep·li·cate
1. To duplicate, copy, reproduce, or repeat.
2. To reproduce or make an exact copy or copies of genetic material, a cell, or an organism.
A repetition of an experiment or a procedure. earlier findings by Busha (52) and England. (53) In Australia labelling is required by law on certain items by the federal Classification (Publications, Films and Computer Games) Act 1995. Other forms of labelling are carried out in Australian libraries. Such labelling may include spine labels to indicate what genre a fiction item belongs to, or a warning label indicating that some of the contents may offend.
Research into censorship in public library collections in Australia is almost nonexistent non·ex·is·tence
1. The condition of not existing.
2. Something that does not exist.
non , although such research has been conducted at various levels and with varying foci in other Western countries. Many small research projects have been conducted in Canada, the UK and the US, and there are three major projects which dominate the literature.
The first major research into censorship in public library collections in the West was conducted by Fiske between 1956 and 1958, with the cooperation of the California Library Association and the (US) School Library Association. Fiske coordinated 204 face to face interviews with school librarians and public library administrators throughout California, focusing on three key areas: book selection policies and procedures Policies and Procedures are a set of documents that describe an organization's policies for operation and the procedures necessary to fulfill the policies. They are often initiated because of some external requirement, such as environmental compliance or other governmental , handling of objections to library materials and attitudes of librarians.
In 1970 Charles Busha distributed a questionnaire to 900 public librarians in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin, as part of his PhD studies. The response to the questionnaire was very impressive. Busha's questionnaire focused on librarian attitudes towards authoritarianism authoritarianism
Principle of unqualified submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action. As a political system, authoritarianism is antidemocratic in that political power is concentrated in a leader or small elite not constitutionally , censorship and intellectual freedom. However few questions related to actual practices.
During 1990 and 1991, Canadian Ann Curry Ann Curry (born November 19 1956) is an American journalist and television personality who has served as news anchor on NBC's Today since May 1997 and host of Dateline NBC since May 2005. conducted face to face interviews with 60 public library directors, 30 from Canada and 30 from the UK (excluding Northern Ireland Northern Ireland: see Ireland, Northern.
Part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland occupying the northeastern portion of the island of Ireland. Area: 5,461 sq mi (14,144 sq km). Population (2001): 1,685,267. ). All were from public library systems serving populations of 150,000 or more. The interviews focused on attitudes and experiences of library directors about selection processes, attitudes towards the inclusion of specific types of controversial materials, their experiences of external challenges to selection processes, and conflicts between their personal beliefs and their professional responsibilities.
The present survey (see appendix) was developed with reference to all of the above studies. Whilst the large sample sizes of the three studies outlined above enabled a number of demographic trends to be identified, a similar demographic analysis Demographic analysis uses administrative records to develop an independent estimate of the population . Demographic analysis estimates are often considered a reliable standard for judging the accuracy of the census information gathered at any time. is not possible in the present study due to the low response rate to the survey. However two key issues which arose from the previous studies will be assessed by the current data
* stated anticensorship attitudes are not always indicative of censorship behaviours
* censorship challenges are avoided by some librarians by employing self censorship of controversial materials during the acquisition and circulation processes
A written questionnaire was selected as the data collection instrument. A frequently cited weakness of the survey method of data collection is the typically low response rate. (54) However the relatively high response rates achieved by previous researchers, 56 per cent to 69 per cent by American and Canadian researchers, suggested that the topic is of particular interest to the profession, and that this interest may improve the response rate. To further enhance the response rate, reminder letters were sent to participants, and a deadline for responses was set.
Another issue associated with surveys is that their voluntary nature may lead to response bias, as nonrespondents may differ in characteristics from respondents. For example, it is possible that only individuals with strong views on the subject will respond. A further weakness of the survey technique is that it lacks the depth of data which can be collected by interviews or focus groups. However the time and financial constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.
["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)]. of the project favoured the use of the survey method over these other, more resource intensive, methods.
The questionnaire was based on the findings of the literature review and earlier censorship research. A key factor in the design of the questionnaire was the desire to not only identify stated attitudes towards the topic but also to attempt to determine actual professional behaviours, as the two do not always relate strongly. This was achieved by the inclusion of questions regarding actual professional experiences of the respondents, and also through the use of hypothetical questions A mixture of assumed or established facts and circumstances, developed in the form of a coherent and specific situation, which is presented to an expert witness at a trial to elicit his or her opinion. regarding material selection. Demographic data were also collected to enable an analysis of individual propensities toward censorship behaviours.
The timing of the research, conducted less than two and a half years after the attack on the World Trade Center and the Tampa refugee crisis, and in the long shadow of the second Iraq war Iraq War: see under Persian Gulf Wars.
or Second Persian Gulf War
Brief conflict in 2003 between Iraq and a combined force of troops largely from the U.S. and Great Britain; and a subsequent U.S. , significantly influenced the question content of the survey. The tense sociopolitical climate created in Australia by these events brought the issues of asylum seekers asylum seeker asylum n → demandeur/euse d'asile , racial intolerance intolerance /in·tol·er·ance/ (in-tol´er-ans) inability to withstand or consume; inability to absorb or metabolize nutrients.
congenital lysine intolerance , terrorism and religious fundamentalism fundamentalism.
1 In Protestantism, religious movement that arose among conservative members of various Protestant denominations early in the 20th cent. to the fore In advance; to the front; to a prominent position; in plain sight; in readiness for use.
In existence; alive; not worn out, lost, or spent, as money, etc.
- W. Collins.
See also: Fore Fore in the media. For this reason the two hypothetical questions in the survey included several references to materials of a religious, violent and racist nature. Due to concerns about the length of the questionnaire, these items were included at the expense of references to materials of a pornographic por·nog·ra·phy
1. Sexually explicit pictures, writing, or other material whose primary purpose is to cause sexual arousal.
2. The presentation or production of this material.
3. or sexist sex·ism
1. Discrimination based on gender, especially discrimination against women.
2. Attitudes, conditions, or behaviors that promote stereotyping of social roles based on gender. nature, as the former materials were more likely to be more contentious in the current political climate.
Discomfort amongst librarians with the words 'censor' and 'censorship' was identified in Fiske's research and also more recently in Australian research conducted by Giese. (55) The most common responses received by this researcher when discussing the project with other library students and even nonlibrary associates was disbelief Disbelief
See also Skepticism.
Trojan who mistrusted Trojan Horse; cautioned against bringing it into the city. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 50]
no one gave credence to her accurate prophecies of doom. [Gk. Myth. that true responses would be given if censorship was used in the collection instrument. All such words were therefore omitted from the questionnaire, cover letters and all subsequent correspondence with participants. Similarly, value laden words were eliminated from the instrument to avoid bias. For example, one question described a book as 'a novel which depicts Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. The term includes both the Torres Strait Islanders and the Aboriginal People, who together make up about 2.5% of Australia's population. in a stereotypical way'. The word stereotypical was used rather than negative or racist to avoid implying a value judgement Noun 1. value judgement - an assessment that reveals more about the values of the person making the assessment than about the reality of what is assessed
value judgment in the question.
A common recommendation when surveying on sensitive topics is to present the most personal questions towards the end of the questionnaire. Thus questions relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc the personal circumstances of the respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. were placed at the end of the questionnaire, and were prefaced with an explanation of why they were being asked, and a reassurance REASSURANCE. When an insurer is desirous of lessening his liability, he may procure some other insurer to insure him from loss, for the insurance he has made this is called reassurance. of the anonymous nature of the survey. Finally, attention was paid to the layout of the questionnaire, in both its web and printed forms, to ensure a professional appearance. The questionnaire was piloted with a selection of LIS LIS - Langage Implementation Systeme.
A predecessor of Ada developed by Ichbiah in 1973. It was influenced by Pascal's data structures and Sue's control structures. A type declaration can have a low-level implementation specification. students from the Queensland University of Technology.
Distribution of the questionnaire
The questionnaire was converted to a web form using Test Pilot software. A web form was selected as the initial survey distribution method, for several reasons. First, the web form would allow respondents to complete and submit the survey from their computer desktop with no additional resources required (pens, envelopes, postal service postal service, arrangements made by a government for the transmission of letters, packages, and periodicals, and for related services. Early courier systems for government use were organized in the Persian Empire under Cyrus, in the Roman Empire, and in medieval etc), as well as ensuring complete confidentiality and anonymity.
The use of a web form also enabled direct, digital transfer of the data from the collection instrument to the statistical software, minimising data entry time. Finally, distribution of the web form URL URL
in full Uniform Resource Locator
Address of a resource on the Internet. The resource can be any type of file stored on a server, such as a Web page, a text file, a graphics file, or an application program. was by email, minimising the cost and time expenses accumulated ac·cu·mu·late
v. ac·cu·mu·lat·ed, ac·cu·mu·lat·ing, ac·cu·mu·lates
To gather or pile up; amass. See Synonyms at gather.
To mount up; increase. by other distribution methods.
To accommodate the resource and time constraints In law, time constraints are placed on certain actions and filings in the interest of speedy justice, and additionally to prevent the evasion of the ends of justice by waiting until a matter is moot. of the project, participation was limited to Queensland public librarians. One hundred and fifty one were selected at random from the published list of Queensland public libraries, available at http://www.slq.qld.gov.au/pub/directory/. Factors such as job title, library size and level or type of professional training were not considered in the sample selection process. It is not considered that the reliance on email as an initial contact mechanism introduced any significant bias in the sample selection process, as the number of individuals on the Queensland public libraries list without direct email contact is minimal.
The collected quantitative data were analysed using a combination of SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. statistical software and Excel spreadsheets. Given the low response rate to the survey, and therefore the small sample size, the statistical methods used consist primarily of frequency counts and cross tabulations A cross tabulation (often abbreviated as cross tab) displays the joint distribution of two or more variables. They are usually presented as a contingency table in a matrix format. .
The response rate was 17.4%, compared with rates of 56% to 76% achieved in similar surveys conducted in the US and Canada by Busha (56) and Schrader. (57,58) The discrepancy DISCREPANCY. A difference between one thing and another, between one writing and another; a variance. (q.v.)
2. Discrepancies are material and immaterial. between the response rate and those achieved by similar overseas surveys may reflect cultural differences, although it is difficult to determine the true reasons for survey nonresponse.
It is possible that the email distribution may have been an obstacle to attaining a better response rate. Given the high volume of unsolicited un·so·lic·it·ed
Not looked for or requested; unsought: an unsolicited manuscript; unsolicited opinions.
Adjective email received by the average email user each day, it is possible that the introductory and follow up emails were simply disregarded dis·re·gard
tr.v. dis·re·gard·ed, dis·re·gard·ing, dis·re·gards
1. To pay no attention or heed to; ignore.
2. To treat without proper respect or attentiveness.
n. by some potential participants. Some participants may also have been irretrievably ir·re·triev·a·ble
Difficult or impossible to retrieve or recover: Once the ring fell down the drain, it was irretrievable.
ir deterred by the technical problems associated with the web form. Possible reasons not relating to the collection instrument itself include
* the subject matter was one about which individuals in the sample pool did not have strong opinions, had not really thought about, or considered a nonissue non·is·sue
A matter of so little import that it ought not to become a focus of controversy and comment: She felt that the matter of her attire should have been a nonissue.
* industry research was not considered a high priority by individuals in the sample pool, and thus time was not found for participation
* the subject matter was considered unimportant un·im·por·tant
Not important; petty.
unim·portance n. or uninteresting (jargon) uninteresting - 1. Said of a problem that, although nontrivial, can be solved simply by throwing sufficient resources at it.
2. Also said of problems for which a solution would neither advance the state of the art nor be fun to design and code.
* the subject matter was considered too controversial or challenging
The main outcome of the low response rate is that it is not possible to draw statistically reliable findings from the data. Demographic censorship trends identified by previous researchers cannot be tested.
Characteristics of the sample
Sixteen responses were received via the web form, and 9 via the reply paid postal system postal system
System that allows persons to send letters, parcels, or packages to addressees in the same country or abroad. Postal systems are usually government-run and paid for by a combination of user charges and government subsidies. . The overall response rate was 17.4%, with all of the responses usable USable is a special idea contest to transfer US American ideas into practice in Germany. USable is initiated by the German Körber-Stiftung (foundation Körber). It is doted with 150,000 Euro and awarded every two years. .
Most participants were between 25 and 54 years of age, with 2 (8%) aged over 54. The bulk of the responses was distributed fairly evenly across the 25-34, 35-44 and 45-54 age groups. There was a significant female bias, with only 3 (12%) male participants. Only 4 (16%) participants had no formal library training, with the majority (64%) possessing either a bachelor or postgraduate postgraduate
after first degree graduation, the registerable degree in veterinary science.
may be a research degree, e.g. PhD, or a course-work masterate with a vocational bias, or any combination of these. degree in library science. The recency of completion of this education was fairly evenly distributed, ranging from one year prior to the survey to more than 20 years. Most participants had a high level of library experience, with all but one participant possessing more than 5 years of work experience in the library sector. The level of participation in continuing professional development CPD is the means by which members of professional associations maintain, improve and broaden their knowledge and skills and develop the personal qualities required in their professional lives. activities was quite good, with 44% spending 1 to 5 days per year and 32% spending 6 to 10 days per year on this pursuit. 20% reported spending more than 10 days per year on continuing professional development. 52% of all respondents were members of Alia. The most common population size served by respondents' libraries was 100,000 to 500,000 (44%). The remainder were spread fairly evenly across the < 5,000, 5,000-10,000, 10,000-30,000 and > 500,000 population groupings.
The impact of the opinions of librarians
Awareness of the Alia Statement on free access to information was quite common, with 40% of respondents claiming to be familiar with it, and a further 36% stating they were 'somewhat' familiar with it. These figures are particularly good considering only 52% of the total respondents are Alia members. When asked to relate what the principle of free access to information means, 48% of respondents identified content balance and diversity of viewpoints and information sources issues specifically, in addition to other aspects such as equitable physical access. However 26% had a very narrow view of the principle, stating that it relates solely to providing services at little or no financial cost, and failing to mention the other aspects of the principle, such as those relating to diversity of information sources and content. A greater sample size would be required to determine if these figures are indicative of general awareness of the principle within the public library sector as a whole. If the current figures are supported by further research, such a finding should be of concern to the profession, and awareness raising within it would be worthwhile to ensure public librarians fully comprehend this core librarianship principle.
Previous research has revealed that librarians commonly prevent censorship challenges by avoiding the inclusion of controversial materials in their collections. That is, they employ self censorship of items they consider likely to generate controversy. Encouraging findings therefore were that all respondents agreed with the following statements
* public libraries should cater for public interest in contemporary issues without promoting or suppressing particular beliefs and ideas
* public libraries should provide their clients with access to information from a variety of sources and agencies
However, given the finding by Fiske that stated anticensorship attitudes are not always indicative of censorship behaviours, this issue was explored to a greater extent by asking participants to contemplate a hypothetical Hypothetical is an adjective, meaning of or pertaining to a hypothesis. See:
The results are presented in table 1, and were also used to determine a rating of censorship tendencies for each participant, to enable comparisons between individuals. Points were awarded as follows: 'Purchase (no censorship)': 1 point; 'Purchase and label': 2 points; 'Purchase and place on closed access': 4 points; 'Not purchase': 8 points. An average score was then calculated for each participant. The higher an individual's average score, the more likely they are to employ censorship behaviours. The results were that only 32% of participants achieved a rating of 'low censorship tendencies' (an average score of less than 2). Only 3 items from the list escaped the ultimate form of censorship--refusal to purchase. The stated reasons for these decisions were as varied as the items in the list, and are discussed below.
The issue of accuracy
The least selected items, both rejected by 68% of respondents, contained instructions for conducting illegal activities (bomb and drug making). Comments indicated that the illegality of the subject matter was the reason for rejection of these items, with several stating that they believed providing these items would violate government regulations. Individuals who said they would purchase the items explained that their decision was based on the proviso A condition, stipulation, or limitation inserted in a document.
A condition or a provision in a deed, lease, mortgage, or contract, the performance or non-performance of which affects the validity of the instrument. It generally begins with the word provided. that the items had passed Australian censorship laws.
The creationist text, known to contain deliberate inaccuracies, was rejected by 44% of respondents, with several comments expressing the belief that it was irresponsible ir·re·spon·si·ble
1. Marked by a lack of responsibility: irresponsible accusations.
2. Lacking a sense of responsibility; unreliable or untrustworthy.
3. to knowingly present incorrect information. However the application of this criterion was inconsistent, with the definition of accuracy appearing to be somewhat more subjective than it at first seems. The text expressing Holocaust Holocaust (hŏl`əkôst', hō`lə–), name given to the period of persecution and extermination of European Jews by Nazi Germany. revisionist re·vi·sion·ism
1. Advocacy of the revision of an accepted, usually long-standing view, theory, or doctrine, especially a revision of historical events and movements.
2. theories, viewed by most historians as grossly inaccurate, was rejected by only 24% of respondents, as was the text offering methods to 'cure' homosexuality, although the concept is now widely rejected by the psychology and psychiatric psy·chi·at·ric
Of or relating to psychiatry.
psychiatric adjective Pertaining to psychiatry, mental disorders professions. Possibly the overriding (programming) overriding - Redefining in a child class a method or function member defined in a parent class.
Not to be confused with "overloading". principle here was the avoidance of political correctness politically correct
adj. Abbr. PC
1. Of, relating to, or supporting broad social, political, and educational change, especially to redress historical injustices in matters such as race, class, gender, and sexual orientation. , or the rejection of what could be viewed as pandering to Jewish and gay/lesbian community pressures. Further research would be required to ascertain the truth in this matter, and certainly further exploration into the issue of accuracy as it relates to selection processes would be of interest.
The issue of balance
Many comments were offered about collection development in general. A quarter of respondents discussed the need to provide a balance of views, many commenting that they would try to include items covering all perspectives of controversial topics. One respondent noted 'every library should have something that offends someone! and have the alternate point of view as well'.
However for some of the respondents who espoused the need for balance, the definition and application of the word was inconsistent. For example, one respondent felt that to ensure collections are balanced and fair, libraries should avoid highly political items altogether, although the same person had previously agreed that public libraries should cater for interest in contemporary issues. Surely highly political items are by their very nature of such interest to the public, and to fulfil ful·fill also ful·fil
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.
2. this requirement whilst achieving balance, both sides of the political debate should be offered, as opposed to neither of them.
Another respondent noted that they may reverse their decision not to include the magazine on witchcraft witchcraft, a form of sorcery, or the magical manipulation of nature for self-aggrandizement, or for the benefit or harm of a client. This manipulation often involves the use of spirit-helpers, or familiars. if the magazine presented a 'balance of views on the topic'. For this person, presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. balance must be sought not across the collection, but within each item. However, they did decide to purchase the autobiography autobiography: see biography.
Biography of oneself narrated by oneself. Little autobiographical literature exists from antiquity and the Middle Ages; with a handful of exceptions, the form begins to appear only in the 15th century. of an al-Qaeda member which, being an autobiography and therefore written from a lone individual's perspective, could reasonably be assumed not to present a balance of views on the topic of al-Qaeda or Islamic militancy mil·i·tant
1. Fighting or warring.
2. Having a combative character; aggressive, especially in the service of a cause: a militant political activist.
Yet another comment referred to the importance of providing a wide selection of resources to the public, but went on to say that they would be discrete about purchasing controversial items. This meant only purchasing one or two copies of each and 'if they go missing/lost early on in the piece I would not replace [them]'. Failing to replace controversial items lost shortly after their purchase surely has the same outcome as not buying them in the first place.
Conflicts with personal values
Only 28% of participants stated that they had, at some point in their career, found their personal beliefs to be at odds with their professional role with regard to the handling of controversial materials, while 24% were conscious of having rejected a particular item to avoid generating controversy within their community. However the data in table 1 show that of the selection list provided, 83% of respondents rejected at least one item. Even when the rejection of items on the apparently objective grounds of illegality or inaccuracy in·ac·cu·ra·cy
n. pl. in·ac·cu·ra·cies
1. The quality or condition of being inaccurate.
2. An instance of being inaccurate; an error. are removed from the calculation, we are still left with a significant 62.5% of respondents rejecting at least one, and more frequently several, of the remaining items on offer.
The criteria of literary quality and relevance to the local community were offered by 20% of respondents, but these criteria are very subjective and could easily be used to justify the exercise of personal prejudices. No respondents admitted their rejection of items was due to personal prejudice. However the comments reported in the preceding paragraphs highlight the unconsciousness with which it is possible to censor information. The respondents quoted, genuinely do not believe they are censoring their collections. Yet by the responsibilities outlined in the Alia Statement on free access to information, they are. Catering to public interest while avoiding highly political items, requiring some items to have internal content balance but not others, claiming to provide a wide range of resources while failing to replace when lost the only items on a particular topic--these all represent forms of censorship, although those responsible may couch A couch, loveseat, sofa, settee, lounge, davenport or chesterfield are items of furniture for the comfortable seating of more than one person. Compare the joiner's settle, with its separate seat cushions. them in terms such as 'literary quality' and 'relevance' which they deem acceptable to the wider library community.
With regard to the issue of community standards, identified in the literature as a potential vehicle for censorship of library collections, 56% of respondents agreed that 'local community values should be taken into account when selecting materials for public libraries'. However it is possible that the wording of this statement was not clear enough to provide a reliable indication of the community standards debate among librarians. It is possible that the statement was interpreted as referring to the situation where additional special resources should be included in a collection to cater for local community needs, for example including Italian language Italian language, member of the Romance group of the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Romance languages). The official language of Italy and San Marino, and one of the official languages of Switzerland, Italian is spoken by about 58 materials in an area with a high Italian population, as opposed to the exclusion of controversial materials to cater to the prejudices of a portion of local community members. However data gathered from other questions in the survey did shed some light on the issue of community standards.
Encouraging was the finding that 96% of participants agreed with 'public libraries should resist attempts by individuals or groups to restrict access to information and ideas, whilst observing the legal requirements of government'. This was also reflected in the responses to questions relating to participants' experiences of external censorship attempts. Approximately half (52%) felt they had been pressured in the last five years to include specific items, with the main pressure coming from religious, particularly Christian, groups. Some pressure was reported also from self published authors. Several respondents made reference to specific purchase requests received frequently from individual members of the public, although it was clear from the comments that these were not considered to be a form of pressure, but were instead welcomed as a valid contribution to collection development. Comments indicated that the requests for inclusion of specific items in the collection are considered within the context of the library's collection development policy, with such requests accommodated where they are relevant to the collection development aims of the library.
When asked specifically, 96% of respondents agreed that public libraries should resist attempts by individuals or groups to restrict access to information and ideas. This common belief was reflected in the handling of public requests for censorship of collection items. Over half (56%) of respondents felt they had been pressured in the past five years to withdraw or label specific items. A wide variety of reasons was offered, such as complaints about erotic erotic /erot·ic/ (e-rot´ik)
1. charged with sexual feeling.
2. pertaining to sexual desire.
1. Of or concerning sexual love and desire. content, nonChristian religious texts or racially offensive materials. The comments indicated that the majority of such requests are rejected, and this is explained to complainants with reference to the collection development policy. Where complaints were acted on (reported by four respondents), labelling or relocation RELOCATION, Scotch law, contracts. To let again to renew a lease, is called a relocation.
2. When a tenant holds over after the expiration of his lease, with the consent of his landlord, this will amount to a relocation. of the item was a more common response than complete withdrawal.
The importance of a formal collection development policy was apparent from these responses. Participants clearly recognise this, with 88% agreeing that 'all public libraries should have a formal collection development policy', and 80% agreeing that professional associations should provide guidance to libraries in collection development. Such a policy provides a framework for collection development activities and, if followed, provides an effective way of explaining and justifying the collection in the face of challenges.
Questions in the survey emphasized sociopolitical factors which were topical topical /top·i·cal/ (top´i-k'l) pertaining to a particular area, as a topical antiinfective applied to a certain area of the skin and affecting only the area to which it is applied.
adj. within the Australian community at the time. For example, at least 8 of the 17 items listed in the hypothetical questions could be seen to relate directly to issues of racial violence, religious intolerance Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by one's own religious beliefs or intolerance against another's religious beliefs or practices. It manifests both at a cultural level, but may also be a formal part of the dogma of particular religious groups. , political resistance and the Iraq war. These items were on average selected for purchase without restriction by 82% of respondents, indicating little negative influence of these sociopolitical issues at this point in time on library practices. Also encouraging was the finding that 92% agree that public librarians should be active in challenging attempts by government to pass laws Pass laws in South Africa were designed to segregate the population and were one of the dominant features of the country's apartheid system. Introduced in South Africa in 1923, they were designed to regulate movement of black Africans into urban areas. which restrict access to information and ideas. The sample size precludes extrapolation (mathematics, algorithm) extrapolation - A mathematical procedure which estimates values of a function for certain desired inputs given values for known inputs.
If the desired input is outside the range of the known values this is called extrapolation, if it is inside then of this finding to the wider public librarian population. However, should further research replicate this finding, it would seem the public library sector in Australia is in a good position to combat any attempts by the government to further restrict information access, as has occurred in the US in recent times, and as is suggested by the Australian government's Anti-terrorism Bill 2004.
The impact of library processes: selection
Selection tools and alternative literature
80% of respondents had performed acquisitions functions at some point in their career. These respondents were asked to identify the main selection tools they utilised (table 2). Not surprisingly, library vendor catalogues were used by 92% of respondents, indicating the influence of vendor catalogues on acquisitions processes.
As outlined earlier, the library literature raises concerns about the visibility of alternative and small press materials in vendor selection processes and industry review journals. It is perhaps a positive sign, then, that only 9.5% of respondents admitted to using vendor resources (catalogues and samples) and industry journals alone, with most utilising a wider variety of selection tools. This largely reflects the universally held belief by respondents that public libraries should provide information from a variety of sources.
The least utilised selection resource was zinc publishers and authors, although these were still used by 40% of respondents. The unique characteristics of zincs, such as their irregular production, small print runs and lack of promotion, make them difficult for librarians to identify. However these characteristics also make them extremely unlikely candidates for inclusion in any traditional selection tool. It is therefore likely that zincs are still under represented in Queensland public library collections.
The issue of outsourcing library acquisitions processes generated a great deal of comment, with 52% being concerned that it would alter the content balance of library collections. The main concerns were
* collections would cease to reflect local needs
* collection development would be directed toward the lowest common denominator low·est common denominator
1. See least common denominator.
a. The most basic, least sophisticated level of taste, sensibility, or opinion among a group of people.
b. , limiting the depth and range of the collection, and emphasizing mainstream publishers
* loss of acquisitions skills by librarians, which were seen as core skills
One respondent explained 'outsourcing is a philosophy and procedure that emphasizes financial considerations (over ethical and other niceties ni·ce·ty
n. pl. ni·ce·ties
1. The quality of showing or requiring careful, precise treatment: the nicety of a diplomatic exchange.
2. )', echoing concerns by Wallace identified in the literature review.
On the other side of the debate, 20% of respondents believed vendors could be trusted to select appropriately, provided they were given clear guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. . Only four respondents indicated that their library services outsource acquisitions processes, with one of these retaining the material selection itself inhouse, relying on vendors only for processing of items and for selected standing orders. Three of these services conduct regular collection reviews to monitor the effectiveness of selection procedures. These findings reveal a healthy concern with regard to the impact of acquisitions outsourcing on public library collections.
The impact of library processes: circulation
In contrast to the other attitudinal questions relating to censorship activities, in which respondents overwhelmingly indicated their disapproval of censorship, only 64% stated their disapproval of labelling of items. The results of the hypothetical question (table 1) indicate that the preferred method of postselection censorship of items is labelling, with 40% of respondents deciding to label at least one of the items offered. Restriction of physical access was very rare, with only four items being treated in this manner by the respondents. This matches the feedback obtained about the handling of public complaints, where withdrawal of the item was very rare, relocation occasional, and labelling conducted slightly more often. It seems that labelling is considered something of a necessary evil, allowing a contentious item to remain within the collection, whilst reducing community tensions.
Further research needs to be conducted, on a larger scale, to validate To prove something to be sound or logical. Also to certify conformance to a standard. Contrast with "verify," which means to prove something to be correct.
For example, data entry validity checking determines whether the data make sense (numbers fall within a range, numeric data the findings of this study. However the present data does support the findings of previous research that anticensorship attitudes are not always indicative of censorship behaviours and that some librarians employ self censorship of controversial materials to avoid censorship challenges. The responses reflect clear contradictions between stated beliefs and professional behaviours about censorship.
It also appears that a greater understanding within the Australian public library sector of the practical implications of the principle of free access to information is required. Library staff need to be better informed about the responsibilities associated with the principle, and of the ways in which every day librarian behaviours and decisions impact on its expression. What is beyond doubt is that, as human beings, all librarians possess biases on some topics. The importance for the profession is educating its members to understand that these biases have no place in the library, and assisting librarians to conduct impartial Favoring neither; disinterested; treating all alike; unbiased; equitable, fair, and just. collection development.
Librarians must ask themselves
* what are my own biases? Do they impact on my work?
* what is my reasoning for including and excluding items in the collection?
* do I understand the complexities of the community in which my library functions?
* am I ensuring a balance of views on contentious issues within the collection?
* am I selecting from a variety of sources, including alternative and independent publishers?
* do I know the independent and alternative publishers within my community?
* is my cataloguing accurate, with a level of specificity relevant to my library?
* do I have a collection development and acquisitions policy, which provides sound governance for my practices?
To prevent the influence of personal prejudices within the library, librarians must understand three things
* first, that free access to information is the cornerstone cornerstone
Ceremonial building block, dated or otherwise inscribed, usually placed in an outer wall of a building to commemorate its dedication. Often the stone is hollowed out to contain newspapers, photographs, or other documents reflecting current customs, with a view to not only of the public library, but of a democratic society.
* secondly, they must be familiar with their own biases.
* thirdly, the mechanisms of censorship, and be trained in their avoidance
Professional associations, such as Alia, have a role to play in assisting librarians to obtain understandings and skills in this area, for example by facilitating reflection on personal attitudes towards controversial issues and providing education in objective decision making processes for collection development.
In the present global climate of political tension and terrorism, civil liberties are being eroded e·rode
v. e·rod·ed, e·rod·ing, e·rodes
1. To wear (something) away by or as if by abrasion: Waves eroded the shore.
2. To eat into; corrode. in some western countries. Where these liberties involve uncensored access to information, they impact directly on the role of the public librarian. Encouragingly, issues of self censorship aside, the librarians surveyed presented a robust picture with resistance to external attempts to suppress information. It is to be hoped that this small sample is indicative of the broader picture and that, should the Australian national government follow the lead of others, public librarians will uphold the principles of their profession.
Section A: This section asks you about your experiences as a library professional.
Please note that it is possible that not all of the questions in this section will apply to your experiences. The form will indicate which ones you should leave blank.
1. Have you ever found your personal beliefs to be at odds with your professional role with regard to the handling of controversial materials? Yes/No
If yes, how did you deal with the situation?
2. Other than classification ratings which are required by government legislation, have you ever labelled materials within your collection? Yes/No
If yes, can you please list some of the items which you have labelled, and the reason for the label:
3. Are you currently or have you ever been in the position to make acquisitions decisions within a public library? Yes/No
If you answered 'No', please move on to question 6.
4. How do/did you select your materials? [Please circle all that are relevant]
a. Library vendor catalogues (eg. James Bennett
James Bennett or Jim Bennett may refer to:
b. Industry review journals (eg. Books In Print)
c. Internet reviews
d. Review journals for independent publications (eg. Alternative Press Review)
e. Direct contact with independent publishers
f. Direct contact with 'zine publishers or authors
g. Direct contact with independent bookstores
h. Other (please specify):
5. Have you ever not purchased a particular item to avoid generating controversy within your community? Yes/No
If yes, please provide an example.
6. Outsourcing of acquisitions is the procedure of employing an organization external to the library to purchase collection materials on behalf of the library.
Are you concerned that outsourcing of acquisitions to private vendors may affect the content balance of public library collections? Yes/No
Do you have any comments regarding this?
7. Are acquisitions in your current library outsourced? Yes/No/Don't know
If you answered 'No' or 'Don't know', please move on to question 9.
8. Are there specific strategies in place in your library service to ensure your collection remains balanced during the outsourcing of acquisitions? Yes (Please describe these strategies below)/No
9. Have you been pressured in the past 5 years by any groups or individuals to acquire specific material for the library? Yes/No
If yes, please relate the nature and outcome of the most recent incidents.
10. Have you been pressured in the past 5 years by any groups or individuals to withdraw or label specific material in the library? Yes/No
If yes, please relate the nature and outcome of the most recent incidents.
Section B: This section of the survey asks your opinions on a range of matters
1. Please indicate your agreement with the following statements by selecting one of the responses available:
a. Library funding bodies A funding body is an organisation that provides funds in the form of research grants or scholarships. Research Councils
Research Councils are funding bodies that are government-funded agencies engaged in the support of research in different disciplines and (eg. local council, government) should have a say in public library acquisitions. Strongly Disagree/Disagree/Agree/Strongly Agree/Don't know
b. Local community values should be taken into account when selecting materials for public libraries. Strongly Disagree/Disagree/Agree/Strongly Agree/Don't know
c. Library materials which may offend should be labelled with a warning. Strongly Disagree/Disagree/Agree/Strongly Agree/Don't know
d. It is appropriate for professional associations (eg. ALIA) to provide guidance in collection development. Strongly Disagree/Disagree/Agree/Strongly Agree/Don't know
e. All public libraries should have a formal collection development policy. Strongly Disagree/Disagree/Agree/Strongly Agree/Don't know
f. Public libraries should provide their clients with access to information from a variety of sources and agencies. Strongly Disagree/Disagree/Agree/Strongly Agree/Don't know
g. Public libraries should cater for public interest in contemporary issues without promoting or suppressing particular beliefs and ideas. Strongly Disagree/Disagree/Agree/Strongly Agree/Don't know
h. Public libraries should resist attempts by individuals or groups to restrict access to information and ideas, whilst observing the legal requirements of government. Strongly Disagree/Disagree/Agree/Strongly Agree/Don't know
i. Public librarians should be active in challenging attempts by government to pass laws which restrict access to information and ideas. Strongly Disagree/Disagree/Agree/Strongly Agree/Don't know
2. Are you familiar with the content of the 2001 Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) Statement on Free Access to Information? Yes/Somewhat/No
3. What does the principle of free access to information mean to you as it relates to public libraries?
Section C: This section of the survey poses two hypothetical situations for you to consider
1. Please consider the following hypothetical situation, and provide responses for each item:
You are in charge of acquisitions in a new public library in the community in which you currently work. You have no budgetary or space limitations at all. Please indicate how you would handle each of the following items by circling the number which relates to one of the following responses:
1 = I would purchase the item
2 = I would purchase the item, and would label the item so customers were forewarned of the content
3 = I would purchase the item, and would place it on closed access
4 = I would not purchase the item
A novel which depicts Indigenous Australian in a stereotypical way 1 2 3 4 A novel which contains graphic descriptions of violence against specific ethnic groups 1 2 3 4 A video on the history of the Ku Klux Klan, produced and sold by the Ku Klux Klan 1 2 3 4 A book by David Irving which is critical of the generally accepted information about the Jewish Holocaust 1 2 3 4 A creationist text which is known to contain inaccurate scientific quotes to support its argument 1 2 3 4 The autobiography of a member of the al-Qaeda militant Islamic fundamentalist group 1 2 3 4 A non-fiction book which is critical of Islamic fundamentalism 1 2 3 4 A non-fiction book which is critical of the Catholic Church 1 2 3 4 A magazine, aimed at teenagers, about the practice of witchcraft (Wicca) 1 2 3 4 A book which provides assistance to homosexual people in 'coming out' 1 2 3 4 A guide to gay parenting 1 2 3 4 A book which provides advice on how to cure people of homosexual tendencies 1 2 3 4 An independently published 'zine which is strongly critical of current government policies 1 2 3 4 A book aimed at the non-academic market, by a respected Australian academic, which questions official justification for the Iraq War 1 2 3 4 A video that provides instruction on the production and use of narcotics 1 2 3 4 A book which provides instruction on the production and use of bombs 1 2 3 4 A 'how-to' book on political resistance 1 2 3 4
2. Would you like to provide any additional comments regarding the answers you have given to the question above?
3. Please consider the following hypothetical situation, and answer the associated question:
You are in charge of acquisitions in a new public library in the community in which you currently work. You are required to purchase exactly ten (10) items from those listed below. Please indicate which ten (10) items you would purchase by circling the letter (a, b, etc) corresponding to the item.
a A novel which depicts Indigenous Australians in a negative way
b A novel which contains graphic descriptions of violence against specific ethnic groups
c A video on the history of the Ku Klux Klan Ku Klux Klan (k' klŭks klăn), designation mainly given to two distinct secret societies that played a part in American history, although other less important groups have also used , produced and sold by the Ku Klux Klan
d A book by David Irving For other persons of the same name, see David Irving (footballer) and David Irving (politician).
David John Cawdell Irving (born March 24, 1938) is an English writer specializing in the military history of World War II. which is critical of the generally accepted information about the Jewish Holocaust
e A creationist text which is known to contain inaccurate scientific quotes to support its argument
f The autobiography of a member of the al-Qaeda militant Islamic fundamentalist fundamentalist
An investor who selects securities to buy and sell on the basis of fundamental analysis. Compare technician. group
g A non-fiction book which is critical of Islamic fundamentalism Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating literalistic interpretations of the texts of Islam and of Sharia law. Definitions of the term vary.
h A non-fiction book which is critical of the Catholic Church
i A magazine, aimed at teenagers, about the practice of witchcraft (Wicca)
j A book which provides assistance to homosexual people in 'coming out'
k A guide to gay parenting.
l A book which provides advice on how to cure people of homosexual tendencies
m An independently published 'zinc which is strongly critical of current government policies
n A book aimed at the non-academic market, by a respected Australian academic, which questions the official justification for the Iraq War
o A video that provides instruction on the production and use of narcotics narcotics n. 1) techinically, drugs which dull the senses. 2) a popular generic term for drugs which cannot be legally possessed, sold, or transported except for medicinal uses for which a physician or dentist's prescription is required.
p A book which provides instruction on the production and use of bombs
q A 'how-to' book on political resistance
4. Would you like to provide any additional comments regarding the answers you have given to the question above?
5. Do you have any other comments regarding the topics covered in the survey?
Section D: Demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data.
Please note the questions in this section are vital for analysis purposes, but cannot be used in any way to identify specific individuals or services.
1. Please indicate your age: <25 25-34 35-44 45-54 >54
2. Gender: Male/Female
3. Please indicate the highest level of formal library training you have attained:
a. No formal training
b. TAFE TAFE (in Australia) Technical and Further Education Diploma DIPLOMA. An instrument of writing, executed by, a corporation or society, certifying that a certain person therein named is entitled to a certain distinction therein mentioned.
c. Bachelor degree
f. Other (please specify)
4. Please indicate the year in which this training was completed:
5. Please indicate approximately how long you have worked in the library sector:
a. less than 2 years
b. 2-5 years
c. 6-10 years
d. 11-15 years
e. 16-20 years
f. more than 20 years
6. In total, how much time do you usually spend in a year on Continuing Professional Development (CPD CPD citrate phosphate dextrose; see anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose solution, under solution.
Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) )? [ie. short courses, formal education, workplace training, research attending or organising conferences,, etc]
a. I don't do "I Don't Do" was the debut single by glamour model Michelle Marsh, released on 6 November 2006. The single reached 27 in the UK in its first week, selling only 9,000 copies and over 16,000 copies as of January 2007. The single spend a total of four weeks in the Top 75. any CPD
b. <1 day per year
c. 1-5 days per year
d. 6-10 days per year
e. >10 days per year
7. Are you a member of the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA)? Yes/No
8. Please indicate which of the following most closely describes the population size [not membership size] that your library collection serves. [Please note, if the entire collection is a shared or 'floating' collection across several library branches, please consider the population of the entire group of libraries involved].
a. >500,000 people
b. 100,000-500,000 people
c. 30,000-100,000 people
d. 10,000-30,000 people
e. 5,000-10,000 people
f. <5,000 people
Table 1 Intended treatment of materials by respondents (presented as percentages) * Item Purchase Purchase Purchase (no and label and place censorship) on closed access A book which provides assistance 92 4 0 to homosexual people in 'coming out' A guide to gay parenting 88 8 0 The autobiography of a member of 88 4 4 the al-Qaeda militant Islamic fundamentalist group A book aimed at the non-academic 88 4 0 market, by a respected Australian academic, which questions the official justification for the Iraq War A nonfiction book which is 84 8 critical of Islamic fundamentalism A nonfiction book which is 80 12 0 critical of the Catholic Church An independently published zine 80 8 0 which is strongly critical of current government policies A 'how to' book on political 80 4 0 resistance A magazine, aimed at teenagers, 68 16 0 about the practice of witchcraft (Wicca) A novel which depicts Indigenous 64 12 0 Australians in a stereotypical way A book which provides advice on 64 8 0 how to cure people of homosexual tendencies A book by David Irving which is 64 8 0 critical of the generally accepted information about the Jewish Holocaust A creationist text which is known 52 0 0 to contain inaccurate scientific quotes to support its argument A novel which contains graphic 48 12 4 descriptions of violence against specific ethnic groups A video on the history of the Ku 44 16 0 Klux Klan, produced and sold by the Ku Klux Klan A video that provides instruction 24 0 4 on the production and use of narcotics A book which provides instruction 20 0 4 on the production and use of bombs Item Not No purchase response A book which provides assistance 0 4 to homosexual people in 'coming out' A guide to gay parenting 0 4 The autobiography of a member of 0 4 the al-Qaeda militant Islamic fundamentalist group A book aimed at the non-academic 8 4 market, by a respected Australian academic, which questions the official justification for the Iraq War A nonfiction book which is 4 4 critical of Islamic fundamentalism A nonfiction book which is 4 4 critical of the Catholic Church An independently published zine 8 4 which is strongly critical of current government policies A 'how to' book on political 12 4 resistance A magazine, aimed at teenagers, 12 4 about the practice of witchcraft (Wicca) A novel which depicts Indigenous 16 4 Australians in a stereotypical way A book which provides advice on 24 4 how to cure people of homosexual tendencies A book by David Irving which is 24 4 critical of the generally accepted information about the Jewish Holocaust A creationist text which is known 44 4 to contain inaccurate scientific quotes to support its argument A novel which contains graphic 28 8 descriptions of violence against specific ethnic groups A video on the history of the Ku 32 8 Klux Klan, produced and sold by the Ku Klux Klan A video that provides instruction 68 4 on the production and use of narcotics A book which provides instruction 68 4 on the production and use of bombs * One participant elected not to answer this question Table 2 How do/did you select your materials? (respondents were asked to select all that were relevant) Selection Tool Percentage of respondents using the tool Library vendor catalogues eg James Bennett, Peter Pal 92% Industry review journals eg Books in print 75% Internet reviews 65% Direct contact with independent publishers 60% Review journals for independent publications eg 55% Alternative press review Direct contact with independent bookstores 55% Direct contact with zine publishers or authors 40% Other (specified) 40%
(1) Whyte J Trends abroad: Australia Library trends 19(1) 1970 p122-130 (as cited in article)
(2) Alia Policy statements incite To arouse; urge; provoke; encourage; spur on; goad; stir up; instigate; set in motion; as in to incite a riot. Also, generally, in Criminal Law to instigate, persuade, or move another to commit a crime; in this sense nearly synonymous with abet. September 2001 http://www.alia.org.au/publishing/incite/2001/09/policies.html, accessed 12 January 2004
(3) Alia Statement on free access to information 2001 http://www.alia.org.au/policies/free.access.html. accessed 16 July 2003
(4) Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). Cambridge advanced learner's dictionary The Advanced Learner's Dictionary by A.S. Hornby started life as the Idiomatic and Syntactic Dictionary, published by Kaitakusha in Japan in 1942. It then made a perilous journey in wartime conditions to Britain and came under the wing of the Oxford University Press, which 2003 http://dictionary. cambridge.org/accessed 6 November 2003
(5) Asheim L Not censorship, but selection in Mosher A mosher is a person who is crossed between goth/punk/skater they have long hair and listen to music like slipknot and metal music. Some people call them headbangers. At certain music shows they have something called a mosh pit, basically its a fight pit with loads of people bashing each other. F (ed) Freedom of book selection Chicago, American Library Association American Library Association, founded 1876, organization whose purpose is to increase the usefulness of books through the improvement and extension of library services. 1954 p96
(6) Fiske M Book selection and censorship: a study of school and public libraries in California Berkeley, California Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. Its neighbors to the south are the cities of Oakland and Emeryville. To the north is the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington. , University of California Press "UC Press" redirects here, but this is also an abbreviation for University of Chicago Press
University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. 1959
(7) ibid p64
(8) Evans G Developing library and information center collections 4th ed Englewood, Libraries Unlimited 2000 p559
(9) Fiske op cit Op Cit Opere Citato (Latin: In the Work Mentioned) p65
(10) Malley I Censorship and libraries London, Library Association 1990 p17
(11) Schweinsburg J Professional awareness of the ethics of selection Journal of information ethics Information ethics it is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues concerning informational privacy, moral agency (e.g. Fall 1995 p36
(12) Curry A The limits of tolerance: censorship and intellectual freedom in public libraries Lanham, Maryland Lanham is an unincorporated community in Prince George's County in the State of Maryland in the United States of America. Because it is not formally incorporated, it has no official boundaries, but the United States Census Bureau has defined a census-designated place consisting of , Scarecrow Scarecrow
goes to Wizard of Oz to get brains. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz]
See : Ignorance
can’t live up to his name. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz; Am. Press 1997 p237
(13) Robotham J and Shields G Freedom of access to library materials New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , Neal-Schuman 1982 p72
(14) Fiske op cit
(15) Busha C Freedom versus suppression and censorship. with a survey of the attitudes of midwestern public librarians and a bibliography bibliography. The listing of books is of ancient origin. Lists of clay tablets have been found at Nineveh and elsewhere; the library at Alexandria had subject lists of its books. of censorship Colorado, Libraries Unlimited 1972
(16) Evans op cit
(17) Lee E Libraries in the age of mediocrity me·di·oc·ri·ty
n. pl. me·di·oc·ri·ties
1. The state or quality of being mediocre.
2. Mediocre ability, achievement, or performance.
3. One that displays mediocre qualities. Jefferson, North Carolina Jefferson is a town in Ashe County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 1,422 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Ashe CountyGR6. , McFarland & Co 1998 p70
(18) Christian Democratic Party Policy summary 2003 [NSW NSW New South Wales
Noun 1. NSW - the agency that provides units to conduct unconventional and counter-guerilla warfare
Naval Special Warfare ] State election http://www.cdp.org.au/fed/2001fedpolicy.asp accessed 5 August 2003
(19) Curry op cit p64
(20) ibid p63 (Claire England as England A refers to England's developmental national teams in several sports. Players on these teams often "graduate" to slots on the appropriate senior national team. The phrase may refer to:
(21) Robotham J and Shields G op cit p29
(22) Parkinson P Greater expectations: services to lesbians and gay men New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland. libraries 45 (5) March 1987 p93
(23) Wiegand W Main Street Public Library: the availability of controversial materials in the rural heartland 1890-1956 Libraries & culture 33(1) Winter 1998 p129
(24) Mediavilla C The war on books and ideas: the California Library Association and anti-communist censorship in the 1940s and 1950s Library trends 46 (2) Fall 1997 pp331-357
(25) Fiske op cit p57
(26) ibid p61
(27) West C The secret garden of censorship: ourselves Library journal 108(15) 1983 p1651
(28) Pike G History repeated with the USA PATRIOT Act USA PATRIOT Act [Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorists], 2001, U.S. Information today 19(11) 2002 p19
(29) Dawson E Library ethics and the problem with patriotism Patriotism
See also Chauvinism, Loyalty.
comic-strip character known as the “protector of the American way.” [Comics: Horn, 155–156]
elm traditional symbol of American patriotism. in Roberto K and West J Revolting librarians redux Refers to being brought back, revived or restored. From the Latin "reducere." Jefferson, North Carolina, McFarland & Co 2003 p99
(30) Doyle T Selection versus censorship in libraries Collection management 27(1) 2002 p16
(31) ibid p 16 (quoting Kellog)
(32) Pike op cit
(33) Berry J N The stuff of patriotism Library journal 128(17) 2003 p17
(34) Kaser D Sound off for the freedom to read Information today 20(8) 2003 p16
(35) ibid (quoting Sander)
(36) Commonwealth of Australia Commonwealth of Australia: see Australia. Anti-terrorism Bill 2004 http://www.aph.gov.au/Senate/committee/legcon_ctte/ anti_terrorism04/info/bill.pdf accessed 7 May 2004
(37) Leys, N Hicks's father hits book ban The Australian 5 April 2004 p6
(38) Fiske op cit p66
(39) Lee op cit
(40) Selth J Ambition, discrimination and censorship in libraries Jefferson, North Carolina, McFarland & Co 1993
(41) Atton C Alternative literature: a practical guide for librarians Hampshire Gower 1996
(42) Litwin, Radicals defending tradition: an appeal to the baby boom generation in Roberto K and West J Revolting librarians redux Jefferson, North Carolina, McFarland & Co 2003 p88
(43) Hadley J There and back again in Roberto K and West J Revolting librarians redux Jefferson, North Carolina, McFarland & Co 2000 p72
(44) Wallace P D Outsourcing book selection in public and school libraries Collection building 16(4) 1997 p161
(45) Robotham J and Shields G op cit pp29-30
(46) Wallace op cit p162
(47) Willett C Consider the source: a case against outsourcing materials selection in academic libraries Collection building 17(2) 1998 pp91-95
(48) Atton Cop cit p100
(49) Lee op cit p32
(50) Woods L and Perry-Holmes C The flak if we had The joy of sex here Library journal 107(16) 1982 p1714
(51) Curry op cit 58
(52) Busha op cit
(53) Curry op cit p58
(54) Williamson K Research methods for students, academics and professionals: information management and systems 2nd ed Wagga Wagga Wagga Wagga (wŏg`ə wŏg`ə), city (1991 pop. 40,875), New South Wales, SE Australia, on the Murrumbidgee River. It is the center of an agricultural district with food-processing and rubber-goods plants and foundries. , Charles Sturt University Charles Sturt University (CSU) is an Australian multi-campus university in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. It has campuses at Bathurst, Albury-Wodonga, Dubbo, Orange and Wagga Wagga. 2002
(55) Giese D Censorship Link-up September 1994 pp3-6
(56) Busha op cit
(57) Schrader A Censorship iceberg iceberg, mass of ice that has become detached, or calved, from the edge of an ice sheet or glacier and is floating on the ocean. Because ice is slightly less dense than water about one ninth of the total mass of a berg projects above the water. : results of an Alberta public library survey Canadian library journal 43 April 1986 pp91-95
(58) Schrader A A study of community censorship pressures on Canadian public libraries Canadian lbrary journal 49 February 1992 pp29-38
(59) Busha op cit
Kim Moody has been working as a reference librarian at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT QUT Queensland University of Technology (Australia; now Queensland Institute of Technology)
QUT Position of Incident Is Marked (radiotelegraphy) ) in Brisbane since March 2004. She completed a graduate diploma A Graduate Diploma is generally a postgraduate qualification. Australia
Postgraduate diplomas offered in Australia are typical of those offered in England, Wales, and Ireland. in library and information studies from QUT in July of that year. Kim believes libraries should play a key role in creating a more just and equitable society by enabling free access to information. It is for this reason that the issue of censorship concerns her. Email: email@example.com